WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared thermography measurement

  1. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  2. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  3. Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared flash thermography (IRFT) is used to detect void-like flaws in a test object. The IRFT technique involves heating up the part surface using a flash of flash lamps. The post-flash evolution of the part surface temperature is sensed by an IR camera in terms of pixel intensity of image pixels. The IR technique involves recording of the IR video image data and analysis of the data using the normalized pixel intensity and temperature contrast analysis method for characterization of void-like flaws for depth and width. This work introduces a new definition of the normalized IR pixel intensity contrast and normalized surface temperature contrast. A procedure is provided to compute the pixel intensity contrast from the camera pixel intensity evolution data. The pixel intensity contrast and the corresponding surface temperature contrast differ but are related. This work provides a method to estimate the temperature evolution and the normalized temperature contrast from the measured pixel intensity evolution data and some additional measurements during data acquisition.

  4. Temperature maps measurements on 3D surfaces with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardone, Gennaro; Ianiro, Andrea [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Naples (Italy); Ioio, Gennaro dello [University of Cambridge, BP Institute for Multiphase Flow, Cambridge, England (United Kingdom); Passaro, Andrea [Alta SpA, Ospedaletto, PI (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    The use of the infrared camera as a temperature transducer in wind tunnel applications is convenient and widespread. Nevertheless, the infrared data are available in the form of 2D images while the observed surfaces are often not planar and the reconstruction of temperature maps over them is a critical task. In this work, after recalling the principles of IR thermography, a methodology to rebuild temperature maps on the surfaces of 3D object is proposed. In particular, an optical calibration is applied to the IR camera by means of a novel target plate with control points. The proposed procedure takes also into account the directional emissivity by estimating the viewing angle. All the needed steps are described and analyzed. The advantages given by the proposed method are shown with an experiment in a hypersonic wind tunnel. (orig.)

  5. Limitations Of Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, John R.

    1983-03-01

    The state of the art of quantitative infrared thermography is addressed. We are asking more and more of thermography in the field of energy conservation. An energy and dollar conscious public wants to know how much heat is being lost and how much money can be saved by retrofit. Many mission oriented approaches have been developed to address these questions. However, many fundamental questions about how thermography works and how far its capabilities can be pushed have not been addressed. In addition, the theoretical and practical limits of doing benefit cost studies with thermography have not been seriously addressed. This paper discusses the limitations of the current technology and describes many unanswered but important questions facing the future use of thermography for quantitative heat loss analysis.

  6. External radiation as element of improvement infrared thermography measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is a very versatile non destructive technique which among other uses, can be applied to the study of moisture in buildings. However, this particular application can present some problems strictly related to the characteristics of the thermocamera device. In this case the available equipment works in the IR range of 2.5 to 5.6 μm. In this part of the spectrum, there exists a small and not very intense band of emission of the water molecules (approximately centered at 2.7 μm, in such a way that detection can be difficult through thermovision. In the present paper, a complementary technique to the IR thermography being able of favouring the emission of water on the mentioned band, has been developed. It enhances the capacity of detection of the instrument. Likewise, the process which takes place in the material has been numerically modelled.

    La termografía infrarroja es una técnica no destructiva, muy versátil, que, entre otras aplicaciones, tiene la de ser capaz de suministrar información en torno a la problemática de las humedades en la edificación. Sin embargo, esta aplicación concreta puede presentar algunos problemas directamente relacionados con las propias características de la termocámara utilizada. En el caso del presente trabajo el equipo de termografía infrarroja manejado trabaja en el rango del espectro IR comprendido entre 2,5 y 5,6 μm. En esta región del espectro existe una pequeña y no muy intensa banda de emisión de las moléculas de agua (aproximadamente centrada en 2,7 μm cuya detección puede no ser fácil a través de la termovisión. En el presente trabajo se ha desarrollado una técnica complementaria a la termografía infrarroja que es capaz de favorecer la intensidad de emisión del agua en la región del espectro antes mencionada. En definitiva, dicha técnica estimula la capacidad de detección de la termocámara. Adicionalmente, el proceso hídrico que tiene lugar en el

  7. Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cage, Bob N.

    1984-01-01

    Thermography, a diagnostic tool that combines photography and infrared sensing, permits direct measurement of apparent surface temperatures. Building energy losses can be detected and correction measures planned. Criteria for the use of thermography are provided. (MLF)

  8. Infrared Thermography in Marine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pašagić, Vladimir; Mužević, Marijan; Kelenc, Dubravko

    2008-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography has become a powerful tool for basic and applied scientifi c research and for the application in various fi elds such as industry, environment, military and maritime affairs, etc. As a „predictive“ maintenance tool, IR thermography has the ability to identify problems before they occur. It is especially helpful for trouble shooting potential electrical overloads, worn or bad circuit breakers and buses. IR thermography can also be used to detect bad beari...

  9. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  10. Temperature Measurements On Semi-Permanent Mold Surfaces Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ronald G.

    1983-03-01

    Die surface temperature and internal die thermal balance are critical to the quality of semi-permanent mold die castings. Measurements of the surface temperature are currently made using either hand-held contact temperature probes or optical pyrometers. Neither measurement technique provides a thermal map of the entire die surface. This paper discusses the use of infrared thermography for die surface temperature measurement. Using infrared thermographic techniques, scans were made over the surface of an experimental 302 CID semi-permanent mold cylinder head die during several casting cycles. The results obtained were in reasonable agreement with the temperature measurements made using optical pyrometers and the contact probes. In addition, using gray-level conversion the IR technique provided a measure of the temperature gradient over the surface of the die. Such thermal mapping has not been practical using optical or contact temperature probes.

  11. Measuring Stress Distributions of Orthotropic Composite Material in Plane Stress State by the Lock-in Infrared Thermography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Dong; WANG Wei-Bo; LI Yong-Sheng; WU Dong-Liu

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of measuring stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state by the lock-in infrared thermography technique is analyzed and stress distributions of a lap joint structure made of a kind of glass reinforced plastic composite lamination plates under tensile loadings are obtained by the lock-in infrared thermography technique. Feasibility and credibility of using this technique to measure stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state are proved by comparing the results with the data given by the digital speckle correlation method.%@@ Feasibility of measuring stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state by the lock-in infrared thermography technique is analyzed and stress distributions of a lap joint structure made of a kind of glass reinforced plastic composite lamination plates under tensile loadings axe obtained by the lock-in infrared thermography technique.Feasibility and credibility of using this technique to measure stress distributions of orthotropic composite materials and structures in plane stress state axe proved by comparing the results with the data given by the digital speckle correlation method.

  12. Measurement of the in-plane thermal conductivity by steady-state infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Greppmair, Anton; Saxena, Nitin; Gerstberger, Caroline; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and quick method for the measurement of the in-plane thermal conductance of thin films via steady-state IR thermography. The films are suspended above a hole in an opaque substrate and heated by a homogeneous visible light source. The temperature distribution of the thin films is captured via infrared microscopy and fitted to the analytical expression obtained for the specific hole geometry in order to obtain the in-plane thermal conductivity. For thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate post-treated with ethylene glycol and of polyimide we find conductivities of 1.0 W/mK and 0.4 W/mK at room temperature, respectively. These results are in very good agreement with literature values, validating the method developed.

  13. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with

  14. Skin temperature measured by infrared thermography after ultrasound-guided blockade of the sciatic nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Kadic, L.; Driessen, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study, we assessed the relationship between subgluteal sciatic nerve blocking and skin temperature by infrared thermography in the lower extremity. We hypothesized that blocking the sciatic nerve will lead to an increase in temperature, and that this will correlate with ex

  15. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to myriad diseases in veterinary medicine, ranging across host species and disease etiologies. It can also be used to deter...

  16. Vibration characteristics measurement of beam-like structures using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talai, S. M.; Desai, D. A.; Heyns, P. S.

    2016-11-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) has matured and is now widely accepted as a condition monitoring tool where temperature is measured in a non-contact way. Since the late 1970s, it has been extensively used in vibrothermography (Sonic IR) non-destructive technique for the evaluation of surface cracks through the observation of thermal imaging of the vibration-induced crack heat generation. However, it has not received research attention on prediction of structural vibration behaviour, hence; the concept to date is not understood. Therefore, this paper explores its ability to fill the existing knowledge gap. To achieve this, two cantilever beam-like structures couple with a friction rod subjected to a forced excitations while infrared cameras capturing the thermal images on the friction interfaces. The analysed frictional temperature evolution using the Matlab Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and the use of the heat conduction equation in conjunction with a finite difference approach successfully identifies the structural vibration characteristics; with maximum error of 0.28% and 20.71% for frequencies and displacements, respectively. These findings are particularly useful in overcoming many limitations inherent in some of the current vibration measuring techniques applied in structural integrity management such as strain gauge failures due to fatigue.

  17. Measurement of wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water using infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae, E-mail: hdkims@khu.ac.kr [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kyung Hee University, Youngin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youngjae [Kyung Hee University, Youngin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Buongiorno, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure is measured using the DEPIcT (DEtection of Phase by Infrared Thermography) technique. DEPIcT exploits the contrast in infrared (IR) light emissions between wet and dry areas on the surface of an IR-transparent heater to visualize the instantaneous distribution of the liquid and gas phases in contact with the heater surface. In this paper time-averaged wetted area fraction data in nucleate boiling are reported as functions of heat flux (from 30% up to 100% of the Critical Heat Flux) and subcooling (ΔT{sub sub} = 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 °C). The results show that the wetted area fraction monotonically decreases with increasing heat flux and increases with increasing subcooling: both trends are expected. The range of time-averaged wetted area fractions is from 90%, at low heat flux and high subcooling, to 50% at high heat flux (right before CHF) and low subcooling. It is also shown that the dry areas are periodically rewetted by liquid sloshing on the surface at any subcooling and heat flux; however, the dry areas expand irreversibly at CHF.

  18. Transient Heat Transfer in Radiant Floors: A Comparative Analysis between the Lumped Capacitance Method and Infrared Thermography Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simplified mathematical model to describe the transient heat transfer of a radiant floor heating system. A purpose-built test room has been realized to investigate the actual thermal response of a concrete radiant floor in unsteady-state conditions. Beyond the temperature sensors needed for the standard thermal analysis of the heat transfer inside the chamber, the floor temperature was retrieved by means of an infrared thermography camera, in order to validate more precisely the proposed analytical model. The infrared thermography analysis gives interesting information on the floor temperature distribution during the transient, highlighting the pipes’ layout and, if present, inhomogeneous floor zones. The thermal images have been elaborated in order to set and tune the colour map. A portion of the image has been defined for measuring the surface floor temperatures with a previous evaluation of the parameters dealing with the thermographic technique, in order to perform the quantitative survey. The comparison results show that the calculated air and floor temperatures substantially agree with the temperatures measured by infrared thermography and thermocouples, provided that the boundary conditions obtained by the field measurements are strictly reproduced in the lumped capacitance mathematical model. The difference between the two approaches results in values lower than 4 °C during the entire monitoring period: a satisfactory outcome, considering the approximations of the analytical method. The proposed model and its infrared thermography measurements validation represent a useful tool to understand at first sight the floor radiant panels behaviour in the start-up and switch off period, at the aim of gather useful information for the difficult task of their regulation.

  19. Status and Plans for Infrared Thermography and Heat flux Measurements on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Travis; Ahn, Joon-Wook; Gan, Kaifu; McGann, Alistair; Reinke, Matthew; Maingi, Rajesh; Wirth, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Improvements and expansion of IR thermography tools on NSTX-U are being pursued to support a range of boundary physics research. Due to a carbon-lithium mixed material environment and upcoming use of high-Z materials, NSTX-U presents a challenge in determining the deposited power flux to plasma facing components (PFCs). The majority of the PFCs are graphite which has a high surface emissivity but extensive use of lithium wall conditioning creates a mixed material divertor environment. Furthermore, a row of low emissivity/highly reflective molybdenum tiles will be installed in the outboard divertor for the next run campaign. To overcome these challenges as well assess overall power balance in NSTX-U, infrared coverage of the PFCs has been increased. The lower divertor outer strike point (OSP) is observed by a 1.6 kHz IR camera equipped with dual-band optics to account for the changes in surface emissivity introduced with the addition of lithium [AG MCLean, RSI 2012]. A wide-angle view of the lower divertor and a tangential view of the HHFW antenna and limiters has been added for the commencement of plasma operations on the NSTX-U. Measurements of the lower divertor, inner strike point (ISP) as well as the upper diverter OSP will be implemented for the FY17 run campaign. The installation of the molybdenum tiles will also include calorimeters to further constrain the heat flux measurements on those tiles with plans to increase calorimeter coverage.

  20. Measurement of defect thickness of the wall thinning defect pipes by lock-in infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongsuk; Kim, Kyungsu; Jung, Hyunchul; Chang, Hosub

    2010-03-01

    Mostly piping which is using for the nuclear power plants are made up of carbon steel pipes. The wall thinning defects occurs by the effect of the flow accelerated corrosion of fluid that flows in carbon steel pipes. The defects could be found on the welding part and anywhere in the pipes. The infrared thermography technique which is one of the non-destructive testing method has used for detecting the defects of various kinds of materials over the years. There is a limitation for measuring the defect of metals that have a big coefficient of thermal diffusion. However, a technique using lock-in method gets over the difficulty. Consequently, the lock-in infrared thermography technique has been applied to the various industry fields. In this paper, the defect thickness of the straight pipe which has an artificial defect the inside of the pipes was measured by using the lock-in infrared thermography technique and the result could be utilized in detecting defects of carbon steel pipes.

  1. Application of infrared thermography in sports science

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .

  2. High-speed infrared thermography for the measurement of microscopic boiling parameters on micro- and nano-structured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungmo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonwon [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Micro- and nano-scale structures on boiling surfaces can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and critical heat flux (CHF). A few studies were conducted to explain the enhancements of HTC and CHF using the microscopic boiling parameters. Quantitative measurements of microscopic boiling parameters are needed to understand the physical mechanism of the boiling heat transfer augmentation on structured surfaces. However, there is no existing experimental techniques to conveniently measure the boiling parameters on the structured surfaces because of the small (infrared (IR) thermography to visualize liquid-vapor phase distribution during nucleate pool boiling on micro- and nano-structured surfaces. The visualization results are analyzed to obtain the microscopic boiling parameters. Finally, quantitative microscopic boiling parameters are used to interpret the enhancement of HTC and CHF. In this study, liquid-vapor phase distributions of each surface were clearly visualized by IR thermography during the nucleate boiling phenomena. From the visualization results, following microscopic boiling parameters were quantitatively measured by image processing. - Number density of dry patch, NDP IR thermography technique was demonstrated by nucleate pool boiling experiments with M- and N surfaces. The enhancement of HTC and CHF could be explained by microscopic boiling parameters.

  3. Transient Heat Transfer in Radiant Floors: A Comparative Analysis between the Lumped Capacitance Method and Infrared Thermography Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldinelli, Giorgio; Bianchi, Francesco; Rotili, Antonella; Presciutti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    .... Beyond the temperature sensors needed for the standard thermal analysis of the heat transfer inside the chamber, the floor temperature was retrieved by means of an infrared thermography camera...

  4. Infrared Thermography Quantitative Diagnosis in Vibration Mode of Rotational Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jin Ju; Choi, Nam Ryoung; Hong, Dong Pyo [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering Chonbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In the industrial field, real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection is very important. For this, the infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method is proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, thermal image and temperature data were measured by a Cedip Silver 450 M infrared camera. Based on the results, the temperature characteristics under the conditions of normal, loss lubrication, damage, dynamic loading, and damage under loading were analyzed. It was confirmed that the infrared technique is very useful for the detection of the bearing damage.

  5. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno; Luigi de Luca; Gennaro Cardone; Tommaso Astarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dy...

  6. Infrared thermography in the evaluation of meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tai-Yuan; Ho, Wei-Ting; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Lu, Chien-Yi; Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chang, Shu-Wen

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) by infrared thermography. An observational study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Participants included 89 MGD patients (30 in Grade 1, 49 in Grade 2, and 10 in Grade 3) and 65 controls. The close-eye thermographic images of the eyelid were obtained noninvasively by infrared thermography. Temperatures at 8 regions of interest (ROIs) of the eyelid margin and a reference temperature at the center of the upper eyelid were measured. The temperature ratio was defined as the temperature of ROI divided by the reference temperature. Eyelid margin temperature measured by infrared thermography increased from temporal side (ROI 1) to the nasal side (ROI 8) of the eye in both MGD patients and control groups. The temperature ratios were significantly higher in MGD participants than in controls, especially at ROI 8. The eyelid margin temperature measured by infrared thermography was higher in MGD participants. Further development of this infrared thermography system may become a rapid and non-invasive tool for MGD screening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  8. Surface temperature measurement of the plasma facing components with the multi-spectral infrared thermography diagnostics in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Gauthier, E.; Pocheau, C.; Balorin, C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Jouve, M.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Courtois, X.; Loarer, Th.; Houry, M.

    2017-03-01

    For the long-pulse high-confinement discharges in tokamaks, the equilibrium of plasma requires a contact with the first wall materials. The heat flux resulting from this interaction is of the order of 10 MW/m2 for steady state conditions and up to 20 MW/m2 for transient phases. The monitoring on surface temperatures of the plasma facing components (PFCs) is a major concern to ensure safe operation and to optimize performances of experimental operations on large fusion facilities. Furthermore, this measurement is also required to study the physics associated to the plasma material interactions and the heat flux deposition process. In tokamaks, infrared (IR) thermography systems are routinely used to monitor the surface temperature of the PFCs. This measurement requires an accurate knowledge of the surface emissivity. However, and particularly for metallic materials such as tungsten, this emissivity value can vary over a wide range with both the surface condition and the temperature itself, which makes instantaneous measurement challenging. In this context, the multi-spectral infrared method appears as a very promising alternative solution. Indeed, the system has the advantage to carry out a non-intrusive measurement on thermal radiation while evaluating surface temperature without requiring a mandatory surface emissivity measurement. In this paper, a conceptual design for the multi-spectral infrared thermography is proposed. The numerical study of the multi-channel system based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) nonlinear curve fitting is applied. The numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate the design allows for measurements over a large temperature range with a relative error of less than 10%. Furthermore, laboratory experiments have been performed from 200 °C to 740 °C to confirm the feasibility for temperature measurements on stainless steel and tungsten. In these experiments, the unfolding results from the multi-channel detection provide good

  9. Infrared Thermography for Thermo-Fluid-Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a measurement technique that enables to obtain non intrusive measurements of surface temperatures. One of the interesting features of this technique is its ability to measure a full two dimensional map of an object surface temperature and, for this reason, it has been widely used as a surface flow visualization technique. Since the temperature measurements can be extremely accurate, it is possible, by using a heat flux sensor, also to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on a surface, making the technique de facto quantitative. This book, starting from the basic theory of radiation and heat flux sensors, guides, both the experienced researcher and the young student, in the correct application of this powerful technique to study convective heat transfer problems. A significant number of examples and applications are also examined in detail, often pointing out some relevant aspects.

  10. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  11. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2002-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  12. Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Didierjean, Julien; Hérault, Emilie; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We present a thermal conductivity measurement method for laser crystals based on thermal mapping of the crystal face by an infrared camera. Those measurements are performed under end-pumping of the laser crystal and during laser operation. The calculation of the fraction of pump power converted into heat is therefore simplified, and it is possible to link easily the temperature in the crystal to the thermal conductivity. We demonstrate the efficiency of this measuremen...

  13. Infrared thermography applied to rhea (Rhea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Lopes Torquato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is an innovative tool that has been used in several studies involving animal. This tool used to study heat stress, thermoregulation, behavior, disease diagnosis, mainly in the animal production and animal welfare. Wild birds are animals that get tense with the presence of man in his environment, causing changes in its thermal physiology and behavior. In the Brazilian semiarid, high temperatures cause further stress the birds, in studies involving animal welfare and animal production is important to use procedures and tools that do not cause stress to the animal, hence the implementation of infrared thermography. The Rhea americana is a wild bird, native to Brazil, which is gaining market share because of its meat is healthy and other products that are extracted from it. Little is known about the thermal physiology and behavior of this ratita, it is essential to improve poultry facilities in order to provide a pleasant environment and increase production. Birds and other ratites as the ostrich, emu, kiwi and cassowary use some body areas to dissipate body heat, the areas are: legs, beak and neck. All these body areas used by birds to dissipate heat were found using infrared thermography. Being a ratita, Rhea Americana can use the same body regions to reduce heat stress. So, infrared thermography is critical to the thermoregulatory studies of rheas in hot environments.

  14. Emissivity measurements on historic building materials using dual-wavelength infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.

    2001-03-01

    The most reliable method to obtain correct emissivity values for the infrared thermographic systems and applications is to determine the emissivity of the targets to be tested. Although this approach is not possible during in situ applications, samples of the targets can be collected and measured, as in this work, in the laboratory. In the present work, the emissivity values of selected historic building materials were measured at a variety of temperatures, in the 3-5.4 micrometers and 8-12 micrometers regions of the infrared spectrum. Porous stones from the Mediterranean area and marbles, used as historic building materials, were investigated. The examined materials presented different emissivity values, caused by their surface state and microstructure. In addition, the effect of temperature and wavelength on the emissivity values of such historic building materials was also considered.

  15. Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didierjean, Julien; Herault, Emilie; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2008-06-09

    We present a thermal conductivity measurement method for laser crystals based on thermal mapping of the crystal face by an infrared camera. Those measurements are performed under end-pumping of the laser crystal and during laser operation. The calculation of the fraction of pump power converted into heat is therefore simplified, and it is possible to link easily the temperature in the crystal to the thermal conductivity. We demonstrate the efficiency of this measurement method with a Nd:YAG crystal, before using it to compare Nd:YVO(4) and Nd:GdVO(4) crystals.

  16. Short communication: using infrared thermography as an in situ measure of core body temperature in lot-fed Angus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Angela M.; Lees, J. C.; Sejian, V.; Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    Thirty-six Black Angus steers were used in a replicated study; three replicates of 12 steers/replicate. Steers had an initial non-fasted BW of 392.3 ± 5.1, 427.5 ± 6.3, and 392.7 ± 3.7 kg for each replicate, respectively. Steers were housed outside in individual animal pens (10 m × 3.4 m). Each replicate was conducted over a 6-day period where infrared thermography (IRT) images were collected at 3-h intervals, commencing at 0600 h on day 1 and concluding at 0600 h on day 6. Rumen temperatures (T RUM) were measured at 10-min intervals for the duration of each replicate using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) rumen bolus. These data were used to determine the relationship with surface temperature of the cattle, which was determined using IRT. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average. The relationship between T RUM and surface temperature was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. There were no linear trends between mean hourly T RUM and mean surface temperature. Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that there were weak associations (r ≤ 0.1; P < 0.003) between T RUM and body surface temperature. These data suggest that there was little relationship between the surface temperature and T RUM.

  17. Infrared thermography requirements study for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, R B; Larsen, R J; Goldberg, G G; Boyd, R J

    1977-04-01

    A description is given of a study to identify users (and their needs) of infrared (IR) instrumentation that may be applicable in the measurement of heat gains and/or losses from buildings, and to identify research, development and demonstration opportunities. The study is intended to provide the following information: (1) identify present and potential users and uses of infrared thermographic technology as related to energy conservation in buildings; (2) identify presently available IR thermographic instrumentation, techniques, and services, and determine how well it can serve the users and uses identified above; and (3) identify the technical opportunities for research, development, and demonstration on new IR thermographic technology that will better serve the users and uses identified above. The building sector requirements were analyzed, the user measurement requirements were identified, and cost guidelines for instrumentation are provided. An analysis is given of the constraints, requirements, and limitations of measurable parameters. This analysis provides the basis against which an IR instrument survey was conducted. The building sector requirements study indicates the general satisfaction of the user community with the use of IR thermography for qualitative evaluation of heat loss from buildings.

  18. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  19. Heat flux sensors for infrared thermography in convective heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-11-07

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  20. Measuring skin temperature before, during and after exercise: a comparison of thermocouples and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; de Moura, Anselmo Gomes; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas

    2014-02-01

    Measuring skin temperature (TSK) provides important information about the complex thermal control system and could be interesting when carrying out studies about thermoregulation. The most common method to record TSK involves thermocouples at specific locations; however, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has increased. The two methods use different physical processes to measure TSK, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the mean skin temperature (MTSK) measurements using thermocouples and IRT in three different situations: pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise. Analysis of the residual scores in Bland-Altman plots showed poor agreement between the MTSK obtained using thermocouples and those using IRT. The averaged error was -0.75 °C during pre-exercise, 1.22 °C during exercise and -1.16 °C during post-exercise, and the reliability between the methods was low in the pre- (ICC = 0.75 [0.12 to 0.93]), during (ICC = 0.49 [-0.80 to 0.85]) and post-exercise (ICC = 0.35 [-1.22 to 0.81] conditions. Thus, there is poor correlation between the values of MTSK measured by thermocouples and IRT pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise, and low reliability between the two forms of measurement.

  1. Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modelling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment.

  2. Infrared thermography for thermo-fluid-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astarita, Tommaso; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria [Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria Aerospaziale

    2013-07-01

    Introduction into this very accurate surface temperature measurement method Examines a significant number of examples and applications in detail Guides both, the experienced researcher and the young student Infrared thermography is a measurement technique that enables to obtain non intrusive measurements of surface temperatures. One of the interesting features of this technique is its ability to measure a full two dimensional map of an object surface temperature and, for this reason, it has been widely used as a surface flow visualization technique. Since the temperature measurements can be extremely accurate, it is possible, by using a heat flux sensor, also to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on a surface, making the technique de facto quantitative. This book, starting from the basic theory of radiation and heat flux sensors, guides, both the experienced researcher and the young student, in the correct application of this powerful technique to study convective heat transfer problems. A significant number of examples and applications are also examined in detail, often pointing out some relevant aspects.

  3. Infrared Thermography in the Architectural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography is becoming ever more popular in civil engineering/architecture mainly due to its noncontact character which includes two great advantages. On one side, it prevents the object, under inspection, from any alteration and this is worthwhile especially in the presence of precious works of art. On the other side, the personnel operate in a remote manner far away from any hazard and this complies well with safety at work regulations. What is more, it offers the possibility to quickly inspect large surfaces such as the entire facade of a building. This paper would be an overview of the use of infrared thermography in the architectural and civil engineering field. First, some basic testing procedures are described, and then some key examples are presented owing to both laboratory tests and applications in situ spanning from civil habitations to works of art and archaeological sites. PMID:24319358

  4. Infrared Thermography in the Architectural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is becoming ever more popular in civil engineering/architecture mainly due to its noncontact character which includes two great advantages. On one side, it prevents the object, under inspection, from any alteration and this is worthwhile especially in the presence of precious works of art. On the other side, the personnel operate in a remote manner far away from any hazard and this complies well with safety at work regulations. What is more, it offers the possibility to quickly inspect large surfaces such as the entire facade of a building. This paper would be an overview of the use of infrared thermography in the architectural and civil engineering field. First, some basic testing procedures are described, and then some key examples are presented owing to both laboratory tests and applications in situ spanning from civil habitations to works of art and archaeological sites.

  5. Measurement limits in flash thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Steven M.; Lhota, James R.; Ahmed, Tasdiq

    2009-05-01

    Although active thermography has traditionally been regarded as a qualitative NDT method, its potential for quantitative measurement of thermophysical properties including wall thickness, flaw size and depth, thermal diffusivity or effusivity has been the subject of numerous investigations. Enabled by improvements in IR camera technology and fast, abundant and inexpensive computing power for advanced signal processing, measurement results have been reported using a variety of excitation and signal processing schemes. Results are often presented as a correlation between thermography data and nominal properties or independent measurements by another "validated" method. However, given the diffusion mechanism that underlies thermography, and the quantization and sampling conditions implicit in using an IR camera as a temperature sensor, there are definite limits to what can be achieved in a thermography measurement. While many benefits can be achieved with improved instrumentation, efficient energy insertion or optimized signal processing, ultimately, the limits imposed by diffusion and instrumentation take precedence, and cannot be circumvented. In this paper, the effects of camera frame rate and sensitivity on measurement of the thickness of a slab are examined, using basic 1-dimensional diffusion approximations.

  6. Neonatal Infrared Thermography Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bayo Catalan, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Tesina feta en col.laboració amb RWTH Aachen The temperature changes inside incubator a ect the newborns, who are the most delicate patients. The project proposes an innovative method to monitor the skin temperature of the neonates. The temperature monitoring is carried out by a virtual sensor. This virtual sensor is based in an infrared thermal camera that is placed outside the incubator. In order to obtain the infrared radiation through the incubator Plexiglas, an infrared tr...

  7. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  8. On diagnosis measurement under dynamic loading of ball bearing using numerical thermal analysis and infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Ho Jong [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    With the modern machinery towards the direction of high-speed development, the thermal issues of mechanical transmission system and its components is increasingly important. Ball bearing is one of the main parts in rotating machinery system, and is a more easily damaged part. In this paper, bearing thermal fault detection is investigated in details Using infrared thermal imaging technology to the operation state of the ball bearing, a preliminary thermal analysis, and the use of numerical simulation technology by finite element method(FEM) under thermal conditions of the bearing temperature field analysis, initially identified through these two technical analysis, bearing a temperature distribution in the normal state and failure state. It also shows the reliability of the infrared thermal imaging technology with valuable suggestions for the future bearing fault detection.

  9. Application of Infrared Thermography in Power Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ali Sahito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity sector of Pakistan is facing daunting energy crisis. Generation deficit results in long duration of load shedding throughout the country. Old aged distribution system, lack of maintenance and equipment failure cause long unplanned outages and frequent supply interruptions. HESCO (Hyderabad Electric Supply Company is facing high technical losses, supply interruption and financial loss due to transformer damages. Infrared Thermography is non-contact, safe and fast measure for distribution system inspection. In this paper, thermographic inspection for different distribution system equipment is carried out to identify possible developed faults. It is observed that IR (Infrared thermography is effective measure for detecting developed faulty conditions at the initial stages to avoid unplanned outages

  10. The effect of instrument attachment on the surface temperature of juvenile grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) as measured by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Dominic J.; Currie, John; Sparling, Carol E.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of minimising hydrodynamic drag from biologging instruments fitted to marine mammals. However, there is a need to investigate other possible impacts of instruments on animals. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of deploying instruments on the surface temperature distribution of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus). Infrared (IR) thermography was used to record the surface temperature of two juveniles that had been fitted with heart rate recorders and mounting straps for the attachment of a time depth recorder. When animals were fully wet and inactive, the surface temperature pattern was unaffected by instruments. However, as animals dried out regions of high temperature were recorded around the edges of attachment sites compared to surrounding fur. This appeared to be due to heat leakage around the sides of instruments and mounting straps that provided an additional layer of insulation. There were no obvious changes in the surface temperature distribution around instruments associated with duration of deployment. This work shows that attachment of relatively small biologging instruments will produce localised effects on heat transfer in air but will not significantly change the total heat exchange of grey seals on land or at sea. IR thermography was also shown to be a useful method of detecting surface temperature patterns associated with epidural anaesthesia and blubber biopsy.

  11. An Excursus on Infrared Thermography Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work represents an overview of some of the applications of infrared thermography that have been carried out at the University of Naples Federico II over the years. The focus is on four topics: thermo-fluid-dynamics, materials inspection, cultural heritage and preventative maintenance. For each topic, some results are presented as thermal, and/or phase, images with the attention being essentially devoted to the capacity of these images to communicate information. For more details on test apparatuses, procedures and data analyses, the reader is referred to the previous published work, available in the literature.

  12. Methods and Systems for Measurement and Estimation of Normalized Contrast in Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and systems for converting an image contrast evolution of an object to a temperature contrast evolution and vice versa are disclosed, including methods for assessing an emissivity of the object; calculating an afterglow heat flux evolution; calculating a measurement region of interest temperature change; calculating a reference region of interest temperature change; calculating a reflection temperature change; calculating the image contrast evolution or the temperature contrast evolution; and converting the image contrast evolution to the temperature contrast evolution or vice versa, respectively.

  13. Condition Monitoring under In-situ Lubrication Status of Bearing Using Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeon; Hong, Dong Pyo; Yu, Chung Hwan [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The infrared thermography technology rather than traditional nondestructive methods has benefits with non-contact and non-destructive testings in measuring for the fault diagnosis of the rotating machine. In this work, condition monitoring measurements using this advantage of thermography were proposed. From this study, the novel approach for the damage detection of a rotating machine was conducted based on the spectrum analysis. As results, by adopting the ball bearing used in the rotating machine applied extensively, an spectrum analysis with thermal imaging experiment was performed. Also, as analysing the temperature characteristics obtained from the infrared thermography for in-situ rotating ball bearing under the lubrication condition, it was concluded that infrared thermography for condition monitoring in the rotating machine at real time could be utilized in many industrial fields

  14. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  15. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA METASTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shada, Amber L.; Dengel, Lynn T.; Petroni, Gina R.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0–5, >5–15, >15–30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from −1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. Results IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0–5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5–15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15–30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%–100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15–30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Conclusions Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23043862

  16. Some Experimental Investigations on Gas Turbine Cooling Performed with Infrared Thermography at Federico II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Astarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions which are connected with the cooling of gas turbines, performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II with infrared thermography. Measurements concern impinging jets, cooling of rotating disks, and gas turbine blades, which are either stationary or rotating. The heated thin foil sensor, associated with the detection of surface temperature by means of infrared thermography, is exploited to accurately measure detailed convective heat transfer coefficient maps. The paper also intends to show how to correctly apply the infrared technique in a variety of gas turbines cooling problems.

  17. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  18. Benefits of using infrared thermography in utility substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregg, Michael A.

    2004-04-01

    One-way for a utility to deliver a superior product is for it to use infrared thermography (IR) as a preventative maintenance (PM) tool in its generating stations and on its transmission / distribution (T&D) system. Thermography"s use in a PM program can help avoid emergency restorations, identify additional issues to be addressed during routine maintenance, minimize component deterioration which extends component life cycle, and verify work performed as well as identify bad work practices. All these benefits lead to reduced utility maintenance costs and parts stock, and increased system reliability, utility and customer revenues, and utility customer retention.

  19. Technical design note: differential infrared thermography of methane jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzke, Hendrik; Leick, Philippe; Dreizler, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    In this note a novel approach for temperature measurements of methane jets is presented. Differential infrared thermography (DIT) is a contactless, tracer-free temperature determination method for semi-transparent objects, based on an infrared camera. DIT does not rely on a specific a priori value for the emissivity, but typically assumes constant emissivity within the relevant wavelength band. This is reasonable for complex hydrocarbons (i.e. as in liquid fuel sprays) but no longer justified for the discrete absorption spectrum of simple molecules such as methane. An alternative approximation is suggested and discussed, and the feasibility of DIT for the study of supercritical methane jets in a pressure chamber at conditions relevant for internal combustion engines is demonstrated. As DIT also determines the gas emissivity, a combined two-dimensional temperature and projected density visualisation becomes possible and is shown to highlight supersonic structurues such as Mach disks.

  20. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  1. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  2. A millifluidic calorimeter with InfraRed thermography for the measurement of chemical reaction enthalpy and kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hany, Cindy; Pradere, Christophe; Toutain, Jean; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work is to present an infrared calorimeter for the measurement of the kinetics and the enthalpy of high exothermic chemical reactions. The main idea is to use a millifluidic chip where the channel acts as a chemical reactor. An infrared camera is used to deduce the heat flux produced by the chemical reaction from the processing of temperature fields. Due to the size of the microchannel, a small volume of reagents (ml) is used. As the chemical reagents a...

  3. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cultivar ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect...

  4. High speed heterodyne infrared thermography applied to thermal diffusivity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, C.; Clerjaud, L.; Batsale, J. C.; Dilhaire, S.

    2011-05-01

    We have combined InfraRed thermography and thermal wave techniques to perform microscale, ultrafast (microsecond) temperature field measurements. The method is based on an IR camera coupled to a microscope and synchronized to the heat source by means of phase locked function generators. The principle is based on electronic stroboscopic sampling where the low IR camera acquisition frequency facq (25 Hz) undersamples a high frequency thermal wave. This technique permits the measurement of the emissive thermal response at a (microsecond) short time scale (microsecond) with the full frame mode of the IR camera with a spatial thermal resolution of 7 μm. Then it becomes possible to study 3D transient heat transfer in heterogeneous and high thermal conductive thin layers. Thus it is possible for the first time in our knowledge to achieve temperature field measurements in heterogeneous media within a wide range of time domains. The IR camera is now a suitable instrument for multiscale thermal analysis.

  5. Application angle of defects detection in the pipe using lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Won; Go, Gyeong Uk; Kim, Jin Weon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kyung Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This perform research of angle rated defect detection conditions and nuclear power plant piping defect detection by lock-In infrared thermography technique. Defects were processed according to change for wall-thinning length, Circumference orientation angle and wall-thinning depth. In the used equipment IR camera and two halogen lamps, whose full power captaincy is 1 kW, halogen lamps and target pipe's distance fixed 2 m. To analysis of the experimental results ensure for the temperature distribution data, by this data measure for defect length. Reliability of lock-In infrared thermography data is higher than Infrared thermography data. This through research, Shape of angle rated defect is identified industry place. It help various angles defect detection in the nuclear power plant in operation.

  6. Infrared ocular thermography in dogs with and without keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Flávia; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Sampaio, Manuella; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermography was used to measure temperature differences of the corneal surface between nasal and temporal limbus regions and central cornea of normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), in order to establish temperature values in normal canine eyes and in patients with decreased Schirmer tear tests (STT) values. Dogs investigated were all either patients seen at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Federal University of Paraná or normal dogs that belonged to the same institution. STT were performed in all eyes. A total of 40 control eyes (STT ≥15 mm/min) and 20 eyes with low STT values (STT ≤14 mm/min) were examined. The mean STT value for eyes with normal STT values was 22.9 ± 3.9 mm/min (mean ± standard deviation), and the mean STT value for eyes with low STT value was 7.2 ± 4.8 mm/min. The mean corneal temperature was significantly lower in eyes with low STT values than in control eyes (P STT values and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.001, r = 0.256); (iii) STT values and age (P = 0.0001, r = -0.448); (iv) age and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = -0.281); and (v) BUT and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = 0.36). Thermography is a method that can differentiate between eyes with normal and abnormal STT values. In the future, thermography might be incorporated as part of the ophthalmic examination and perhaps become a popular ancillary test for the diagnoses of ocular surface disorders. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  8. Set-up of an experimental procedure for the measurement of thermal transmittances via infrared thermography on lab-made prototype walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Antonio; Aversa, Patrizia; Luprano, Vincenza Anna Maria

    2016-11-01

    In this paper an experimental set-up measurement for the evaluation of the thermal transmittance of opaque elements has been developed. It is based on infrared thermography and it is suggested as alternative to the standard approach set by the ISO 9869:1994 based on heat flow meter (HFM) measurement which is widely accepted by scientific audience. The proposed method has been designed in order to overcome the following restrictions of HFM method: long measuring times (about 72 h), weather conditions as constant as possible and at least a difference of 10-15 °C between the temperatures of internal and external sides of walls. In this work, the alternative method proposed is widely described and applied on lab-made prototype walls: the results are encouraging, showing discrepancies with theoretical U-values, determined in accordance with international standard ISO 6946:2007, in the range -3.5 to 2.9%. The thermal transmittances were also calculated with a commercial software based on finite element analysis; the obtained results were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Moreover, the simulations pointed out that the values obtained on lab-made prototype walls are similar to those associated with partition walls which separate rooms with different environmental conditions.

  9. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  10. Calibration and Evaluation of Ultrasound Thermography Using Infrared Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Deng, Cheri X

    2016-02-01

    Real-time monitoring of the spatiotemporal evolution of tissue temperature is important to ensure safe and effective treatment in thermal therapies including hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Ultrasound thermography has been proposed as a non-invasive technique for temperature measurement, and accurate calibration of the temperature-dependent ultrasound signal changes against temperature is required. Here we report a method that uses infrared thermography for calibration and validation of ultrasound thermography. Using phantoms and cardiac tissue specimens subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound heating, we simultaneously acquired ultrasound and infrared imaging data from the same surface plane of a sample. The commonly used echo time shift-based method was chosen to compute ultrasound thermometry. We first correlated the ultrasound echo time shifts with infrared-measured temperatures for material-dependent calibration and found that the calibration coefficient was positive for fat-mimicking phantom (1.49 ± 0.27) but negative for tissue-mimicking phantom (-0.59 ± 0.08) and cardiac tissue (-0.69 ± 0.18°C-mm/ns). We then obtained the estimation error of the ultrasound thermometry by comparing against the infrared-measured temperature and revealed that the error increased with decreased size of the heated region. Consistent with previous findings, the echo time shifts were no longer linearly dependent on temperature beyond 45°C-50°C in cardiac tissues. Unlike previous studies in which thermocouples or water bath techniques were used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound thermography, our results indicate that high-resolution infrared thermography is a useful tool that can be applied to evaluate and understand the limitations of ultrasound thermography methods.

  11. Visualization of air flow using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V.; Page, R. H.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    2003-02-01

    A technique to visualize airflow using IR thermography is developed. A trace quantity of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is injected into the flow field to detect intensity patterns using a scanning IR thermography system with a single 8-13 µm bandwidth detector. Equations that relate the intensity patterns to volume-averaged temperature and SF6 mass concentration are presented. The visualization technique involves using a background surface at a known temperature different from that of the flow and image subtraction. The technique is demonstrated on free, impinging, and reattachment subsonic air jets, and is shown to be an effective means of visualizing flows at both elevated and ambient temperatures.

  12. Thermal analysis of silicon carbide coating on a nickel based superalloy substrate and thickness measurement of top layers by lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate the capacity of the lock-in infrared thermography technique for the evaluation of non-uniform top layers of a silicon carbide coating with a nickel based superalloy sample. The method utilized a multilayer heat transfer model to analyze the surface temperature response. The modelling of the sample was done in ANSYS. The sample consists of three layers, namely, the metal substrate, bond coat and top coat. A sinusoidal heating at different excitation frequencies was imposed upon the top layer of the sample according to the experimental procedures. The thermal response of the excited surface was recorded, and the phase angle image was computed by Fourier transform using the image processing software, MATLAB and Thermofit Pro. The correlation between the coating thickness and phase angle was established for each excitation frequency. The most appropriate excitation frequency was found to be 0.05 Hz. The method demonstrated potential in the evaluation of coating thickness and it was successfully applied to measure the non-uniform top layers ranging from 0.05 mm to 1 mm with an accuracy of 0.000002 mm to 0.045 mm.

  13. Infrared thermography to evaluate lameness in pregnant sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rocio; Walsh, Shannon; Luimes, Paul H.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of lameness in sows is important to reduce losses and improve animal welfare. Mild-to-moderate lameness is difficult to diagnose in sows. Infrared thermography (IRT) was evaluated as a method of detecting signs of inflammation in the lower limbs as an aid in lameness detection. PMID:24587511

  14. Prognostic value of infrared thermography in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper K; Kellett, John G; Jensen, Nadia H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of infrared thermography in a population of medical patients admitted to the emergency department. Central-to-peripheral temperature gradients were analyzed for association with 30-day mortality. METHODS: This prospective...

  15. Determining the emissivity of pig skin for accurate infrared thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dennis D.; Clausen, Sønnik; Mercer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared thermography may be used for pig health screening and fever detection. In order to achieve the necessary accuracy for this purpose, it is necessary to know emissivity of the skin surface. Previous investigations attempting to find the emissivity of pig skin revealed numbers from 0.8 to 0...

  16. NASA MUST Paper: Infrared Thermography of Graphite/Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Kayla; Koshti, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to use Infrared Thermography, a non-destructive test, to detect detrimental cracks and voids beneath the surface of materials used in the space program. This project will consist of developing a simulation model of the Infrared Thermography inspection of the Graphite/Epoxy specimen. The simulation entails finding the correct physical properties for this specimen as well as programming the model for thick voids or flat bottom holes. After the simulation is completed, an Infrared Thermography inspection of the actual specimen will be made. Upon acquiring the experimental test data, an analysis of the data for the actual experiment will occur, which includes analyzing images, graphical analysis, and analyzing numerical data received from the infrared camera. The simulation will then be corrected for any discrepancies between it and the actual experiment. The optimized simulation material property inputs can then be used for new simulation for thin voids. The comparison of the two simulations, the simulation for the thick void and the simulation for the thin void, provides a correlation between the peak contrast ratio and peak time ratio. This correlation is used in the evaluation of flash thermography data during the evaluation of delaminations.

  17. Use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine and animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary medicine is in a period of innovation with respect to the diagnostic methods, mainly in the field of Diagnostic Imaging. This has considerably developed, leaning on techniques increasingly sophisticated, modern and secure, allowing the veterinarian aid and essential informations for a more complete, secure and efficient diagnostic. Already in animal production, the use of new technologies such as infrared thermography arise, among other applications, as an alternative to define the impact of environmental factors by supporting the decision and promoting health and welfare animal. With the importance that animal welfare has assumed in various fields of veterinary medicine, animal production and also in scientific research in the area, it has become essential to use non-invasive techniques and equipment that appreciate by this welfare and the animal comfort, highlighting thus the infrared thermography. Thus, the study aimed to compile data and diverse informations constants in the national and international literature about the use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine and animal production. It can be inferred through study, that infrared thermography is a technology that can be applied in various fields of veterinary medicine and animal production, with great effectiveness and utilization in different objectives with the most different species being an important alternative for performing obtaining data with accuracy and precision preserving the welfare and animal comfort.

  18. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A L; Gaughan, J B; Lisle, A T; Beard, L; Collins, C W; Johnston, S D

    2017-03-23

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT (r > 0.94, P  0.80, P < 0.001). Surgery produced temporary minor inflammation and scrotal hematoma in two animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  19. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Collins, C. W.; Johnston, S. D.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT ( r > 0.94, P 0.80, P < 0.001). Surgery produced temporary minor inflammation and scrotal hematoma in two animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  20. The relation between skin temperature increase and sensory block height in spinal anaesthesia using infrared thermography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.G. van; Driessen, J.J.; Kadic, L.; Egmond, J. van; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of determining the extent of sympathetic blockade by skin temperature measurement with infrared thermography and relate the cranial extent of the temperature increase to that of the sensory block after spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Before and 5,

  1. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...... reflexes. Thermography is a reliable, non-invasive, and objective method for assessment in serotonin-induced itch model in rat....

  2. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...... reflexes. Thermography is a reliable, non-invasive, and objective method for assessment in serotonin-induced itch model in rat....

  3. Refinement of the Collagen Induced Arthritis Model in Rats by Infrared Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Deleuran, Bent Winding; Svendsen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Collagen induced arthritis in rats is an important model for human rheumatoid arthritis. This study was designed to improve and refine this model by use of infrared thermography by measuring surface temperature of hind feet. Our hypothesis is that the local temperature on the feet correlates...... correlation between temperature and clinical scores. Conclusion: The thermographic response appeared prior to the clinical signs, suggesting that thermography may be used as a predictive sign for the development of disease. This technique could be a non-invasive, objective, rapid, and reproducible method...

  4. Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.

  5. 红外热图在高超声速低密度风洞测热试验中的应用概述%The summarization of infrared thermography on aerodynamic heating measurement in hypersonic low density wind tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 祝智伟; 李志辉

    2013-01-01

    Such problems as surface temperature measurement under great measurement angle,the measurement accuracy,and the corresponding relation between model spatial coordinates and the pixels in infrared thermography etc.,are studied in heating rate measurement by infrared thermography in hypersonic low-density wind tunnel.The studies in the recent years have been summarized and some practical and simple methods are given.To validate these above-mentioned techniques,aerodynamic heating rates on a thin skin flat plate with a wedge were measured by means of both infrared thermography and thermocouple,the ones on a sphere-cylinder model were measured using infrared thermograpy and compared with DMSC theoretical method in hypersonic low density model wind tunnel,and the results agreed well with each other.As a result,the solutions to the problems will push forward infrared thermography to the engineering and practical application.%围绕大极角情况下模型表面温度的测量、红外热图测热精度的提高、模型物面坐标与红外热图像素位置对应关系等问题,对近年来在高超声速偌氏密度风洞开展的红外热图测热工作进行了总结,给出了一些实用、简单、经济的方法.为验证上述技术,在高超声速低密度风洞开展了用红外热图技术与热电偶同时测量一平板带劈薄壁模型表面的气动加热率分布以及半球圆柱模型红外测热数据与DMSC计算结果的比较.不同手段获得的数据与红外测热数据相互验证的结果表明:这些技术的解决,有利于红外热图技术向工程化实用化迈进.

  6. Detection of subsurface defects in metal materials using infrared thermography; Image processing and finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Infrared thermography is an emerging approach to non-contact, non-intrusive, and non-destructive inspection of various solid materials such as metals, composites, and semiconductors for industrial and research interests. In this study, data processing was applied to infrared thermography measurements to detect defects in metals that were widely used in industrial fields. When analyzing experimental data from infrared thermographic testing, raw images were often not appropriate. Thus, various data analysis methods were used at the pre-processing and processing levels in data processing programs for quantitative analysis of defect detection and characterization; these increased the infrared non-destructive testing capabilities since subtle defects signature became apparent. A 3D finite element simulation was performed to verify and analyze the data obtained from both the experiment and the image processing techniques.

  7. IrLaW an OGC compliant infrared thermography measurement system developed on mini PC with real time computing capabilities for long term monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Averty, R.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project is to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, uncooled infrared camera is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its relative low cost on the market. Infrared thermography, when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey), requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The system studied and developed uses a fast Ethernet camera FLIR A320 [1] coupled with a VAISALA WXT520 [2] weather station and a light GPS unit [3] for positioning and dating. It can be used with other Ethernet infrared cameras (i.e. visible ones) but requires to be able to access measured data at raw level. In the present study, it has been made possible thanks to a specific agreement signed with FLIR Company. The prototype system studied and developed is implemented on low cost small computer that integrates a GPU card to allow real time parallel computing [4] of simplified radiometric [5] heat balance using information measured with the weather station. An HMI was developed under Linux using OpenSource and complementary pieces of software developed at IFSTTAR. This new HMI called "IrLaW" has various functionalities that let it compliant to be use in

  8. Infrared thermography applied to transport infrastructures monitoring: outcomes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Crinière, A.

    2017-05-01

    Long term monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography has been studied and tested on different structures. A first standalone infrared system architecture developed is presented and discussed. Results obtained with such system on different Civil Engineering structures are presented. Some data processing approaches and inverse thermal model for data analysis are introduced and discussed. Lessons learned from experiments carried out in outdoor with such system are listed and analyzed. Then, a new generation of infrared system architecture is proposed. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are addressed.

  9. Detecting Moisture In Buildings Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    Visual examination is a reliable means of moisture detection in building walls after serious damaR'e has been done. Traditional spot measurement instruments are inexpedient devices for elusive moisture detection in heterogeneous materials. The infrared thermal imaging system was found t be a more versatile tool for in-situ moisture detection because of its unique characteristics. Several thermographic examples of moisture detection in. building walls are presented, which will aid the reader in the qualitative interpretation o1 therm.ograms 1or moisture problem.s.

  10. An implementation of infrared thermography in maintenance plans within a world class manufacturing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Petar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to show the implementation of infrared thermography within World Class Manufacturing (WCM maintenance strategy. The results from infrared thermography inspections in a food processing and packaging solutions company were presented. Applicability of the infrared thermography, during a two-year period, caused a substantial reduction the potential breakdown in the pilot area. Upon feasibility confirmation, the proposed method was spread to other production equipment of the company.

  11. Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.

  12. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient’s body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as “gold standard” for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1–3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages. PMID:26601003

  13. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  14. Characterization of acoustic streaming and heating using synchronized infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Christopher N; Sou, In Mei; Bartak, Rico; Ray, Chittaranjan; Allen, John S

    2011-09-01

    Real-time measurements of acoustic streaming velocities and surface temperature fields using synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography are reported. Measurements were conducted using a 20 kHz Langevin type acoustic horn mounted vertically in a model sonochemical reactor of either degassed water or a glycerin-water mixture. These dissipative phenomena are found to be sensitive to small variations in the medium viscosity, and a correlation between the heat flux and vorticity was determined for unsteady convective heat transfer.

  15. Porosity and Inclusion Detection in CFRP by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Toscano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever wide use of composite materials in the aeronautical industry has evidenced the need for development of ever more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production costs. Infrared thermography has been recently enclosed amongst the standardized non destructive testing techniques, but its usefulness needs still complete assessment since it can be employed in several different arrangements and for many purposes. In this work, the possibility to detect slag inclusions and porosity is analyzed with both lock-in themography and pulse thermography in the transmission mode. To this end, carbon-fiber-peinforced polymers different specimens are specifically fabricated of several different stacking sequences and with embedded slag inclusions and porosity percentages. As main results, both of the techniques are found definitely able to reveal the presence of the defects above mentioned. Moreover, these techniques could be considered complementary in order to better characterize the nature of the detected defects.

  16. Integration of Infrared Thermography and Photogrammetric Surveying of Built Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioni, M.; Rosina, E.; L'Erario, A.; Dìaz-Vilariño, L.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal analysis of buildings represents a key-step for reduction of energy consumption, also in the case of Cultural Heritage. Here the complexity of the constructions and the adopted materials might require special analysis and tailored solutions. Infrared Thermography (IRT) is an important non-destructive investigation technique that may aid in the thermal analysis of buildings. The paper reports the application of IRT on a listed building, belonging to the Cultural Heritage and to a residential one, as a demonstration that IRT is a suitable and convenient tool for analysing the existing buildings. The purposes of the analysis are the assessment of the damages and energy efficiency of the building envelope. Since in many cases the complex geometry of historic constructions may involve the thermal analysis, the integration of IRT and accurate 3D models were developed during the latest years. Here authors propose a solution based on the up-to-date photogrammetric solutions for purely image-based 3D modelling, including automatic image orientation/sensor calibration using Structure-from-Motion and dense matching. Thus, an almost fully automatic pipeline for the generation of accurate 3D models showing the temperatures on a building skin in a realistic manner is described, where the only manual task is given by the measurement of a few common points for co-registration of RGB and IR photogrammetric projects.

  17. Infrared thermography based studies on mobile phone induced heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2015-07-01

    Here, we report the skin temperature rise due to the absorption of radio frequency (RF) energy from three handheld mobile phones using infrared thermography technique. Experiments are performed under two different conditions, viz. when the mobile phones are placed in soft touch with the skin surface and away from the skin surface. Additionally, the temperature rise of mobile phones during charging, operation and simultaneous charging and talking are monitored under different exposure conditions. It is observed that the temperature of the cheek and ear regions monotonically increased with time during the usage of mobile phones and the magnitude of the temperature rise is higher for the mobile phone with higher specific absorption rate. The increase in skin temperature is higher when the mobile phones are in contact with the skin surface due to the combined effect of absorption of RF electromagnetic power and conductive heat transfer. The increase in the skin temperature in non-contact mode is found to be within the safety limit of 1 °C. The measured temperature rise is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The empirical equation obtained from the temperature rise on the cheek region of the subjects correlates well with the specific absorption rate of the mobile phones. Our study suggests that the use of mobile phones in non-contact mode can significantly lower the skin temperature rise during its use and hence, is safer compared to the contact mode.

  18. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in polymers using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Simavilla, David; Venerus, David; Schieber, Jay

    2014-03-01

    During manufacturing, the anisotropic nature of thermal transport in flowing polymers plays an important role in the final properties of materials. In our laboratory, we have investigated anisotropic thermal conductivity in polymers subjected to deformation using an optical technique based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS). For over a decade, our setup has been the only one capable of testing the linear relationship between anisotropy in thermal conductivity and stress, known as the stress-thermal rule. In order to overcome some of the limitations in the optical properties of materials inherent to FRS, we have recently developed a complementary technique based on infrared thermography (IRT). We validate IRT technique by comparing measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity on crosslinked networks against those obtained with FRS. The main advantage of IRT method is that, it allows us to study optically thick materials, including polymers that are prone to strain induced crystallization. Additionally, examination of IRT transient state experiments enables us to study the effect of deformation on other properties such as specific heat capacity.

  19. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  20. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Bianchini, Eliandra; Paim, Tiago do Prado; de Lima, Flavia Gontijo; Braccini Neto, José; Castanheira, Marlos; Esteves, Geisa Isilda Ferreira; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR) and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR) with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals. PMID:26193274

  1. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumeunier, M-H; Firdaouss, M; Travère, J-M; Loarer, T; Gauthier, E; Martin, V; Chabaud, D; Humbert, E

    2012-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed.

  2. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeunier, M.-H. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); OPTIS, ZE de La Farlede, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Firdaouss, M.; Travere, J.-M.; Loarer, T.; Gauthier, E.; Martin, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Chabaud, D.; Humbert, E. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlede, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed.

  3. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Infrared thermography for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has encountered a wide spreading this last 2 decades, in particular thanks to emergence on the market of low cost uncooled infrared camera. So, infrared thermography is not anymore a measurement technique limited to laboratory application. It has been more and more involved in civil engineering and cultural heritage applications, but also in many other domains, as indicated by numerous papers in the literature. Nevertheless, laboratory, measurements are done as much as possible in quite ideal conditions (good atmosphere conditions, known properties of materials, etc.), while measurement on real site requires to consider the influence of not controlled environmental parameters and additional unknown thermal properties. So, dedicated protocol and additional sensors are required for measurement data correction. Furthermore, thermal excitation is required to enhance the signature of defects in materials. Post-processing of data requires to take into account the protocol used for the thermal excitation and sometimes its nature to avoid false detection. This analysis step is based on signal and image processing tool and allows to carry out the detection. Characterization of anomalies detected at the previous step can be done by additional signal processing in particular for manufactured objects. The use of thermal modelling and inverse method allows to determine properties of the defective area. The present paper will first address a review of some protocols currently in use for field measurement with passive and/or active infrared measurements. Illustrations in various experiments carried out on civil engineering structure will be shown and discussed. In a second part, different post-processing approaches will be presented and discussed. In particular, a review of the most standard processing methods like Fast Fourier Analysis, Principal Components Analysis, Polynomial Decomposition, defect characterization using

  4. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products: Infrared Lock-In Thermography, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy/Chemometrics, and Condensed Phase Laser-Based Photoacoustics—Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs.; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-09-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), infrared lock-in thermography (IRLIT), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with chemometrics. Results were verified versus data obtained by traditional VIS spectrophotometry (SP) that served as a reference technique. Unlike SP, the IRLIT, NIRS, and LPAS require a minimum of sample preparation which enables practically direct quantification of the TCC.

  5. Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.

  6. A study about detection of defects in the nuclear piping loop system using cooling lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Chae; Kang, Sung Hoon; Yun, Na Yeon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A study on the application of cooling defect detection was performed on the basis of a preceding study on the heated defect detection in nuclear piping loop system, using lock-in infrared thermography. A loop system with piping defects was made by varying the wall-thinning length, the circumference orientation angle, and the wall-thinning depth. The test was performed using an IR camera and a cooling device. Distance between the cooling device and the target loop system was fixed at 2 m. For analyzing experimental results, the temperature distribution data for cooling, and phase data were obtained. Through the analysis of this data, the defect length was measured. The reliability of the measurements for cooling defect conditions was shown to be higher in the lock-in infrared thermography data than the infrared thermography data.

  7. Study on the Micro Crack Detection in Joints by Using Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Seung Seok; Huh, Yong Hak [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Young; Jae Seong [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    This study detected SCC defects of dissimilar metal welded(STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) pipes using the ultrasonic infrared thermography method and the lock-in image treatment method among infrared thermography method. The infrared excitement equipment has 250 Watt of output and 20 kHz of frequency. By using the ultrasound infrared thermography method, the internal defects of dissimilar metal weld joints of pipes used at nuclear power plants could get detected. By an actual PT test, it was observed that the cracks inside the pipe existed not as a single crack but rather as a multiple cracks within a certain area and generated a hot spot image of a broad area on the thermography image. In addition, UT technology could not easily defects detected by the width of 10 {mu}m fine hair cracks. but, ultrasound infrared thermography technique was defect detected.

  8. Neonatal infrared thermography imaging: Analysis of heat flux during different clinical scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abbas K.; Heimann, Konrad; Blazek, Vladimir; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    IntroductionAn accurate skin temperature measurement of Neonatal Infrared Thermography (NIRT) imaging requires an appropriate calibration process for compensation of external effects (e.g. variation of environmental temperature, variable air velocity or humidity). Although modern infrared cameras can perform such calibration, an additional compensation is required for highly accurate thermography. This compensation which corrects any temperature drift should occur during the NIRT imaging process. We introduce a compensation technique which is based on modeling the physical interactions within the measurement scene and derived the detected temperature signal of the object. Materials and methodsIn this work such compensation was performed for different NIRT imaging application in neonatology (e.g. convective incubators, kangaroo mother care (KMC), and an open radiant warmer). The spatially distributed temperatures of 12 preterm infants (average gestation age 31 weeks) were measured under these different infant care arrangements (i.e. closed care system like a convective incubator, and open care system like kangaroo mother care, and open radiant warmer). ResultsAs errors in measurement of temperature were anticipated, a novel compensation method derived from infrared thermography of the neonate's skin was developed. Moreover, the differences in temperature recording for the 12 preterm infants varied from subject to subject. This variation could be arising from individual experimental setting applied to the same region of interest over the neonate's body. The experimental results for the model-based corrections is verified over the selected patient group. ConclusionThe proposed technique relies on applying model-based correction to the measured temperature and reducing extraneous errors during NIRT. This application specific method is based on different heat flux compartments present in neonatal thermography scene. Furthermore, these results are considered to be

  9. Efficient reconstruction of corrosion profiles by infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, F; Marinetti, S [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto per le Tecnologie della Costruzione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) (Italy)], E-mail: marcuzzi@math.unipd.it, E-mail: sergio.marinetti@ict.cnr.it

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to solve the hidden corrosion estimation problem from experimental data produced by infrared thermography. This is therefore a thermal inverse problem. The algorithm is put in a predictor-corrector form and uses an Adaptive Finite Element model as the reference model. The adaptation is done in the (linear) predictor step, while the parameter estimation is done in the (nonlinear) corrector step. An ad-hoc regularization strategy has been developed. Experiments with real data have confirmed the effectiveness of the method. Considerable computational savings have been achieved compared to a standard algorithm formulation.

  10. Efficient reconstruction of corrosion profiles by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, F.; Marinetti, S.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to solve the hidden corrosion estimation problem from experimental data produced by infrared thermography. This is therefore a thermal inverse problem. The algorithm is put in a predictor-corrector form and uses an Adaptive Finite Element model as the reference model. The adaptation is done in the (linear) predictor step, while the parameter estimation is done in the (nonlinear) corrector step. An ad-hoc regularization strategy has been developed. Experiments with real data have confirmed the effectiveness of the method. Considerable computational savings have been achieved compared to a standard algorithm formulation.

  11. Concrete Pavement Service Condition Assessment Using Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT, an effective nondestructive testing method, is used to obtain an initial evaluation of the concrete pavement surface and near surface in a time effective manner. In this paper, the effect of the depth of delamination inside concrete pavement on infrared thermography technique is studied for bridge decks inspection. To be able to mimic the delamination in subsurface, two Styrofoam cubes have been inserted in different depth near the surface of the concrete cylinder. After heating up the specimen, thermal images were taken from the surface using an infrared thermal camera to evaluate the effect of subsurface defects on detection sensitivity and accuracy. We also investigated the precision to which the shape and the size of the subsurface anomalies can be perceived using an uncooled thermal camera. To achieve this goal, we used image processing technique to accurately compute the size of delamination in order to compare it with the actual size. In addition, distance/thermal graph is used to detect the presence of the defect underneath the concrete surface. Furthermore, thermal transfer modeling was adopted in this paper to assist the setup of this experiment and the results are compared with laboratory findings.

  12. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  13. Quantification of defects depth in glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by infrared lock-in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The increasing use of composite materials in various industries has evidenced the need for development of more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production cost. Infrared thermography is a noncontact, fast and reliable non-destructive evaluation technique that has received vast and growing attention for diagnostic and monitoring in the recent years. This paper describes the quantitative analysis of artificial defects in Glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by using Lockin infrared thermography. The experimental analysis was performed at several excitation frequencies to investigate the sample ranging from 2.946 Hz down to 0.019 Hz and the effects of each excitation frequency on defect detachability. The four point method was used in post processing of every pixel of thermal images using the MATLAB programming language. The relationship between the phase contrast with defects depth and area was examined. Finally, phase contrast method was used to calculate the defects depth considering the thermal diffusivity of the material being inspected and the excitation frequency for which the defect becomes visible. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of Lock-in infrared thermography as a powerful measurement technique for the inspection of Glass fiber reinforced plastic structures.

  14. Infrared exploration of the architectural heritage: from passive infrared thermography to hybrid infrared thermography (HIRT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfarra, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, infrared thermographic approaches have been considered either passive or active. In the latter case, the heat flux is historically attributed to a non-natural heat source. The use of the sun has recently been incorporated into the active approach thanks to multi-temporal inspections. In this paper, an innovative hybrid thermographic (HIRT approach is illustrated. It combines both the time component and the solar source to obtain quantitative information such as the defect depth. Thermograms were obtained by inspecting the facade of the Santa Maria Collemaggio church (L’Aquila, Italy, whereas quantitative results related to the sub-superficial discontinuities were obtained thanks to the use of advanced techniques. Experimental results linked to passive approach (i.e., the mosaicking procedure of the thermograms performed by selecting a set of historic churches are also included in order to explain, when and where, the hybrid procedure should be used.Hasta la fecha, los enfoques sobre la termografía infrarroja han sido considerados, o pasivos, o activos. En este último caso, el flujo de calor se obtiene a través de una fuente de calor no natural. El uso de energía solar ha sido recientemente incorporado al enfoque activo gracias a los estudios multitemporales. En este trabajo, se ilustra un enfoque innovador de la termografía híbrida (HIRT. Se combina tanto el componente de tiempo y la fuente de energía solar para recuperar la información cuantitativa así como la profundidad del defecto. Las imágenes térmicas se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de la fachada de la Iglesia de Santa María Collemaggio (L’Aquila, Italia, mientras que los resultados cuantitativos inherentes a las discontinuidades sub-superficiales se obtuvieron gracias al uso de otras técnicas avanzadas. Los resultados experimentales vinculados al enfoque pasivo (es decir, el proceso de mosaico de las imágenes térmicas derivan de un conjunto de Iglesias

  15. A Novel Method for Extracting Respiration Rate and Relative Tidal Volume from Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory F.; Gatto, Rodolfo G.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In psychophysiological research, measurement of respiration has been dependent on transducers having direct contact with the participant. The current study provides empirical data demonstrating that a noncontact technology, infrared video thermography, can accurately estimate breathing rate and relative tidal volume across a range of breathing patterns. Video tracking algorithms were applied to frame-by-frame thermal images of the face to extract time series of nostril temperature and to generate breath-by-breath measures of respiration rate and relative tidal volume. The thermal indices of respiration were contrasted with criterion measures collected with inductance plethysmography. The strong correlations observed between the technologies demonstrate the potential use of facial video thermography as a noncontact technology to monitor respiration. PMID:21214587

  16. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    As infrastructures are aging, the evaluation of their health is becoming crucial. To do so, numerous Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are available. Among them, thermal shearography and active infrared thermography represent two full field and contactless methods for surface inspection. The synchronized use of both methods presents multiples advantages. Most importantly, both NDT are based on different material properties. Thermography depend on the thermal properties and shearography on the mechanical properties. The cross-correlation of both methods result in a more accurate and exact detection of the defects. For real site application, the simultaneous use of both methods is simplified due to the fact that the excitation method (thermal) is the same. Active infrared thermography is the measure of the temperature by an infrared camera of a surface subjected to heat flux. Observation of the variation of temperature in function of time reveal the presence of defects. On the other hand, shearography is a measure of out-of-plane surface displacement. This displacement is caused by the application of a strain on the surface which (in our case) take the form of a temperature gradient inducing a thermal stress To measure the resulting out-of-plane displacement, shearography exploit the relation between the phase difference and the optical path length. The phase difference is measured by the observation of the interference between two coherent light beam projected on the surface. This interference is due to change in optical path length as the surface is deformed [1]. A series of experimentation have been conducted in laboratory with various sample of concrete reinforced with CFRP materials. Results obtained reveal that with both methods it was possible to detect defects in the gluing. An infrared lamp radiating was used as the active heat source. This is necessary if measurements with shearography are to be made during the heating process. A heating lamp in the

  17. Method of the Material Stress Assessment Using the Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Seredin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a number of geological and engineering problems require knowledge of the stress state of the structural member material. Non-destructive testing methods are used to evaluate the stress state of materials. They are based on such criteria as sound pressure, temperature, ultrasound wave’s characteristics etc., as well as methods evaluating the stress state of the material after destruction. Development of methods of this group is caused by insufficient reliability of theoretical modelling not providing in some case stability of engineering facilities in practice. To avoid the emergencies, it is important to obtain the information on the actual load (stress at which the structure destruction occurred. These methods are especially important as a tool for experts identifying the cause of the accidents at engineering facilities. Additionally, this information will provide a correction of calculation models improving the safe exploitation of facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method of materials stress state assessment using an infrared thermography data. Experimental studies showed that there exists a relationship between the temperature on the surface of material displacement and the normal stress affecting the area of failure. The temperature on the surface of material increases with an increase in normal stress in a fracture area. On a basis of the revealed relationship, a method of determination of the material stress state using the infrared thermography data was worked out.

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  19. Infrared Thermography Characterization of Defects in Seamless Pipes Using an Infrared Reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Jae Jung [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Young [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Infrared thermography uses infrared energy radiated from any objects above absolute zero temperature, and the range of its application has been constantly broadened. As one of the active test techniques detecting radiant energy generated when energy is applied to an object, ultrasound infrared thermography is a method of detecting defects through hot spots occurring at a defect area when 15-100 kHz of ultrasound is excited to an object. This technique is effective in detecting a wide range affected by ultrasound and vibration in real time. Especially, it is really effective when a defect area is minute. Therefore, this study conducted thermography through lock-in signal processing when an actual defect exists inside the austenite STS304 seamless pipe, which simulates thermal fatigue cracks in a nuclear power plant pipe. With ultrasound excited, this study could detect defects on the rear of a pipe by using an aluminium reflector. Besides, by regulating the angle of the aluminium reflector, this study could detect both front and rear defects as a single infrared thermography image.

  20. Study of heat fluxes on plasma facing components in a tokamak from measurements of temperature by infrared thermography; Etude des champs de flux thermique sur les composants faisant face au plasma dans un tokamak a partir de mesures de temperature par thermographie infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviot, R.

    2010-05-15

    The goal of this thesis is the development of a method of computation of those heat loads from measurements of temperature by infrared thermography. The research was conducted on three issues arising in current tokamaks but also future ones like ITER: the measurement of temperature on reflecting walls, the determination of thermal properties for deposits observed on the surface of tokamak components and the development of a three-dimensional, non-linear computation of heat loads. A comparison of several means of pyrometry, monochromatic, bi-chromatic and photothermal, is performed on an experiment of temperature measurement. We show that this measurement is sensitive to temperature gradients on the observed area. Layers resulting from carbon deposition by the plasma on the surface of components are modeled through a field of equivalent thermal resistance, without thermal inertia. The field of this resistance is determined, for each measurement points, from a comparison of surface temperature from infrared thermographs with the result of a simulation, which is based on a mono-dimensional linear model of components. The spatial distribution of the deposit on the component surface is obtained. Finally, a three-dimensional and non-linear computation of fields of heat fluxes, based on a finite element method, is developed here. Exact geometries of the component are used. The sensitivity of the computed heat fluxes is discussed regarding the accuracy of the temperature measurements. This computation is applied to two-dimensional temperature measurements of the JET tokamak. Several components of this tokamak are modeled, such as tiles of the divertor, upper limiter and inner and outer poloidal limiters. The distribution of heat fluxes on the surface of these components is computed and studied along the two main tokamak directions, poloidal and toroidal. Toroidal symmetry of the heat loads from one tile to another is shown. The influence of measurements spatial resolution

  1. Detection and quantification of localized groundwater inflow in small streams using ground-based infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Localized groundwater (GW) inflow into small streams can be a major source of runoff during low flow periods in headwater catchments. The localization and determination of the fraction of runoff corresponding to a certain area may give insights into aquifer type, flow processes, the composition of base-flow concerning the spatial distribution of catchment storage and water quality issues. Though GW temperature has a small amplitude during the year compared to surface water, a significant temperature difference between stream water and groundwater can be expected in summer and winter. As the technical development of infrared thermography is progressing (the spatial resolution of infrared camera systems is increasing and the measuring error is decreasing) we tested ground based infrared thermography as a non-invasive and remote applicable method to detect and quantify GW entries in small streams during baseflow periods (INFRATEC). In addition, water temperature and electric conductivity of the groundwater entering the stream and of the stream water up- and downstream of localized GW inflow were measured with temperature and EC sensors. Though the zones of complete mixing were identified, point measurements and surface radiation temperatures were taken from the same areas. Discharge measurements were conducted using the salt dilution method with continuous injection. End-member mixing calculations were done using the measured EC and water temperature data and compared to the results of mixing calculations of observed water surface radiation temperatures. The discharge observations were used to validate the fraction calculations. Calculated GW entries using thermogramms had comparable deviations from the measured runoff fractions to those from direct temperature and EC measurements. This leads to the conclusion that the use of ground-based infrared thermography for the detection and quantification of localized groundwater inflows into small streams is a valuable and

  2. The study of micro crack detection in dissimilar metal weld using a variable ultrasound infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Center of Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    As a nondestructive inspection technology currently in use, infrared thermography has gradually expanded its application range to industry. The method detects only defect areas by grafting ultrasound on a technique of detecting infrared energy emitted from all objects with absolute temperature of 0 K and converting this energy into thermography for inspection. Ultrasound infrared thermography has merits including the ability to inspect a wide area in a short time without contacting the target object. This study investigated the applicability of the technique for defect detection using variable ultrasound excitation inspection methods on samples of Terfenol-D, a magnetostrictive material with a tunable natural resonant frequency.

  3. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  4. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to thermophysical characterization of cultural heritage mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to approach stimulated infrared thermography possibilities in terms of measuring longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings in situ. The measuring method principle is first submitted. It is based on temporal analysis of changes in the characteristic radius beams of spatial profiles of the photothermal signal, measured on the spot of the laser excitation. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, thanks to a series of simulations. Lastly, the method enables to correctly estimate longitudinal thermal diffusivity in a test sample, and further in a fragment copy of "Saint Christophe" belonging to the Campana collection in the Louvre.

  5. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  6. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  7. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  8. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  9. A method to simulate grictional heating at defects in ultrasonic infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jar; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak [Center for Safety Measurement, KRISS, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Ultrasonic infrared thermography is an active thermography methods. In this method, mechanical energy is introduced to a structure, it is converted into heat energy at the defects, and an infrared camera detects the heat for inspection. The heat generation mechanisms are dependent on many factors such as structure characteristics, defect type, excitation method and contact condition, which make it difficult to predict heat distribution in ultrasonic infrared thermography. In this paper, a method to simulate frictional heating, known to be one of the main heat generation mechanisms at the closed defects in metal structures, is proposed for ultrasonic infrared thermography. This method uses linear vibration analysis results without considering the contact boundary condition at the defect so that it is intuitive and simple to implement. Its advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. The simulation results show good agreement with the modal analysis and experiment result.

  10. Assessment of surface temperatures of buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) raised under tropical conditions using infrared thermography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, D.V; Silva, L.K.X; Kahwage, P.R; Lourenço Júnior, J.B; Sousa, J.S; Silva, A.G.M; Franco, I.M; Martorano, L.G; Garcia, A.R

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the surface temperatures of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography, considering four distinct anatomical parts over time, and to correlate surface temperatures and thermal comfort indexes...

  11. Measurement of the external parameters in quantitative active thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, R.; Inglese, G.

    2017-10-01

    Infrared thermography is widely used in non-destructive testing and in the non-destructive evaluation of subsurface defects in several materials. The detection and reconstruction (location and shape) of a defect inside a material from thermal data requires the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem. Here the problem is tackled by the thin-plate approximation of the investigated domain. A number of physical quantities must be known for the reconstruction procedure to be successful: some relating to the material (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, density), usually known, and others relating to the heating process. This paper proposes procedures for accurately measuring the latter, whose importance is often not given due consideration. Those procedures allow us to accurately measure the heat flux distribution produced by the sources on the heated surface, and the heat exchange coefficient at the remaining surfaces, and are easily applicable in ‘on field’ situations.

  12. Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. Bulnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burnthrough point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process.

  13. Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; Garcia, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burn-through point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process. PMID:23939585

  14. Monitoring sintering burn-through point using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; Garcia, Daniel F; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2013-08-09

    Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burn-through point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process.

  15. Infrared thermography evaluation from the back region of healthy horses in controlled temperature room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography is a diagnostic imaging tool, which measures the surface temperature of an object through its heat emission. It is a non-invasive method, painless, with no involvement of radiation. Horses have elevated incidence of back injuries which causes decrease in their performance. A rapid and accurate diagnostic is essential to start the treatment. The aim of this paper was to establish the ideal time to the animal stay e inside a controlled room to balance their temperature and in the second time verify the thermographic temperature of specific back regions. It was studied fifteen healthy horses, being performed thermography of thoracic, lumbar and pelvic regions in four different times. There was a significant difference between the thermography performed outside and inside of the controlled temperature room. It was concluded that the ideal time to the horse stay into the controlled temperature room was thirty minutes and the mean thermographic temperatures of back regions, were obtained and can be used as parameters to identify injuries in other horses.

  16. Refinement of the Collagen Induced Arthritis Model in Rats by Infrared Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Deleuran, Bent Winding; Svendsen, Pia

    2011-01-01

    . Methodology: Arthritis was induced with collagen immunization in sixteen Lewis rats. Four of the animals were treated with dexamethasone to function as negative controls. Clinical scores were based on the magnitude of paw edema. The mean temperature of the hind feet (region covering the metatarsus and tarsus......Aims: Collagen induced arthritis in rats is an important model for human rheumatoid arthritis. This study was designed to improve and refine this model by use of infrared thermography by measuring surface temperature of hind feet. Our hypothesis is that the local temperature on the feet correlates...

  17. An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical infrared thermography (MIT is used for analyzing physiological functions related to skin temperature. Technological advances have made MIT a reliable medical measurement tool. This paper provides an overview of MIT´s technical requirements and usefulness in sports medicine, with a special focus on overuse and traumatic knee injuries. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical applicability and limitations of MIT. It is concluded that MIT is a non-invasive, non-radiating, low cost detection tool which should be applied for pre-scanning athletes in sports medicine.

  18. A synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography technique applied to an acoustic streaming flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sou, In Mei; Ray, Chittaranjan [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Honolulu, HI (United States); Allen, John S.; Layman, Christopher N. [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Subsurface coherent structures and surface temperatures are investigated using simultaneous measurements of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and infrared (IR) thermography. Results for coherent structures from acoustic streaming and associated heating transfer in a rectangular tank with an acoustic horn mounted horizontally at the sidewall are presented. An observed vortex pair develops and propagates in the direction along the centerline of the horn. From the PIV velocity field data, distinct kinematic regions are found with the Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) method. The implications of this analysis with respect to heat transfer and related sonochemical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  19. The Use of Infrared Thermography as a Novel Approach for Real-Time Validation of PCR Thermocyclers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Löfström, Charlotta; Helleskov, Jens Bue

    2010-01-01

    Validation of PCR thermocycler performance is crucial to obtain reliable results. In this study, infrared (IR) thermography was evaluated as a novel validation tool. After stabilisation, no significant difference in the temperatures recorded using thermography and a reference blockbased system...... was found. By employing IR thermography, information about the length of the time until temperature stabilisation in the sample could be obtained. This study shows the potential of using IR thermography for validation of thermocyclers....

  20. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  1. Exit Presentation: Infrared Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the internship project that was accomplished during the summer of 2010. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Simulate Flash Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy Flat Bottom hole Specimen and thin void specimens, (2) Obtain Flash Thermography data on Graphite/Epoxy flat bottom hole specimens, (3) Compare experimental results with simulation results, Compare Flat Bottom Hole Simulation with Thin Void Simulation to create a graph to determine size of IR Thermography detected defects

  2. Monitoring of microvascular free flaps following oropharyngeal reconstruction using infrared thermography: first clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Maren; Chalopin, Claire; Unger, Michael; Halama, Dirk; Neumuth, Thomas; Dietz, Andreas; Fischer, Miloš

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate static and dynamic infrared (IR) thermography for intra- and postoperative free-flap monitoring following oropharyngeal reconstruction. Sixteen patients with oropharyngeal reconstruction by free radial forearm flap were included in this prospective, clinical study (05/2013-08/2014). Prior ("intraop_pre") and following ("intraop_post") completion of the microvascular anastomoses, IR thermography was performed for intraoperative flap monitoring. Further IR images were acquired one day ("postop_1") and 10 days ("postop_10") after surgery for postoperative flap monitoring. Of the 16, 15 transferred free radial forearm flaps did not show any perfusion failure. A significant decreasing mean temperature difference (∆T: temperature difference between the flap surface and the surrounding tissue in Kelvin) was measured at all investigation points in comparison with the temperature difference at "intraop_pre" (mean values on all patients: ∆T intraop_pre = -2.64 K; ∆T intraop_post = -1.22 K, p < 0.0015; ∆T postop_1 = -0.54 K, p < 0.0001; ∆T postop_10 = -0.58 K, p < 0.0001). Intraoperative dynamic IR thermography showed typical pattern of non-pathological rewarming due to re-established flap perfusion after completion of the microvascular anastomoses. Static and dynamic IR thermography is a promising, objective method for intraoperative and postoperative monitoring of free-flap reconstructions in head and neck surgery and to detect perfusion failure, before macroscopic changes in the tissue surface are obvious. A lack of significant decrease of the temperature difference compared to surrounding tissue following completion of microvascular anastomoses and an atypical rewarming following a thermal challenge are suggestive of flap perfusion failure.

  3. A study on real-time fault monitoring detection method of bearing using the infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jong; Hong, Dong Pyo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Since real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection has been very important, infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method was proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with the frequency data of the existing. As results, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally it was confirmed that the infrared technique was useful for real-time detection of the bearing damages.

  4. Suitabilityof infrared thermography for the examination of rural buildings: the particular case of a spanish region

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas Guerrero, Ignacio; Martín Ocaña, Silvia; González Requena, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    This article is aimed a! establishing the chance of applying the infrared thermography techniquefor !he examination of rural buildings. The results from field worh are collected. The next issues were determined by thermography: Hidden materials and elements; dgerences behveen different materials; location of crach; localion of slructures; localion ofhumid areas; points ofheat losses and areas where the hot air is accumulated. It ispossible lo inspect a high number of buildings in a short time...

  5. Primjena infracrvene termografije u kemijskom inženjerstvu (Application of Infrared Thermography in Chemical Engineering)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bolf

    2004-01-01

    The infrared (IR) thermography has become a powerful tool for basic and applied research in various scientific fields, varying from heat transfer to non-destructive testing, fluids and solids mechanics, biomedical application, environmental protection, etc. This paper has the intention to familiarize researchers and industrial staff with possibilities of applying IR thermography in the field of chemical engineering and process industry aiming in safe operating, saving of energy and environme...

  6. Infrared thermography to impact damaging of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Simone; Boffa, Natalino D.; Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; Meola, Carosena; Ricci, Fabrizio; Russo, Pietro; Simeoli, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Composite materials are becoming ever more popular and being used in an increasing number of applications. This because, to meet the users' demand, it is possible to create a new material of given characteristics in a quite simple way by changing either the type of matrix, or reinforcement. Of course, any new material requires characterization for its appropriate exploitation. In this context, infrared thermography (IRT) represents a viable means since it is non-contact, non-intrusive and can be used either for non-destructive evaluation to detect manufacturing defects, or fatigue induced degradation, or else for monitoring online the response to applied loads. In this work, IRT is used to investigate different types of composite materials which are based on either a thermoset, or a thermoplastic matrix, which may be neat, or modified by addition of a percentage of a specific compatibilizing agent, and reinforced with carbon, glass, or jute fibers. IRT is used with a twofold function. First, to non-destructively evaluate, with the lock-in technique, materials before and after impact to either assure absence of manufacturing defects, or discover the damage caused by the impact. Second, IRT is used to visualize thermal effects, which develop when the material is subjected to impact. The obtained results show that it is possible to follow the material bending, delamination and eventual failure under impact and get information, which may be valuable to deepen the complex impact damaging mechanisms of composites

  7. Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bianchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses.

  8. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

    2013-02-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.

  9. Inspection of reinforcement concrete structures with active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanik, Barbara; Chady, Tomasz; Frankowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    In this article the reinforced concrete non-destructive evaluation using active thermography is discussed. There are several aspects of possible non-destructive testing of mentioned structures. One of them is the detection and assessment of the reinforcement itself. In case of active thermography, the external energy source has to be used to induce the thermal response of the inspected specimen. Here, authors propose two different techniques: microwave heating and induction heating. In this article authors will present several experimental results which will allow to compare mentioned two techniques of heating. suitability of each one to assess the reinforced concrete by using the active thermography will be discussed.

  10. Framework for 2D-3D image fusion of infrared thermography with preoperative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nico; Weidner, Florian; Urban, Peter; Meyer, Tobias; Schnabel, Christian; Radev, Yordan; Schackert, Gabriele; Petersohn, Uwe; Koch, Edmund; Gumhold, Stefan; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2017-01-23

    Multimodal medical image fusion combines information of one or more images in order to improve the diagnostic value. While previous applications mainly focus on merging images from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic and single-photon emission computed tomography, we propose a novel approach for the registration and fusion of preoperative 3D MRI with intraoperative 2D infrared thermography. Image-guided neurosurgeries are based on neuronavigation systems, which further allow us track the position and orientation of arbitrary cameras. Hereby, we are able to relate the 2D coordinate system of the infrared camera with the 3D MRI coordinate system. The registered image data are now combined by calibration-based image fusion in order to map our intraoperative 2D thermographic images onto the respective brain surface recovered from preoperative MRI. In extensive accuracy measurements, we found that the proposed framework achieves a mean accuracy of 2.46 mm.

  11. Effectiveness of infrared thermography in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaydakov ME

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maxim E Shaydakov, Jose A Diaz Department of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, Conrad Jobst Vascular Research Laboratories, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, MI, USA Abstract: Venous thromboembolism is a serious medical, social, and economic problem. A number of treatment options exist to decrease mortality and morbidity in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT. An accurate and timely diagnosis of this condition is important to improve immediate and long-term prognosis. The standard diagnostic algorithm implying assessment of the clinical probability of the disease, d-dimer test, and venous duplex ultrasound is not optimal. Infrared thermography is a relatively new diagnostic modality under clinical investigation for various medical conditions. This study aims to review the published evidence on infrared thermography as a possible alternative tool in DVT diagnosis. The authors conclude that infrared thermography is still an experimental diagnostic tool for patients with DVT, and requires more clinical research evidence to support theoretical advantages and suggest a possible clinical application. Keywords: deep vein thrombosis, venous thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, infrared thermography, thermography, diagnostics

  12. Diagnostic use of infrared thermography in a patient with chronic pain following electrocution: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrell John

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Survival after severe electrocution is uncommon but chronic pain after such trauma is rare. We present a case report of an individual in whom the only modality providing objective evidence of pain related injury was infrared thermography. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre with severe pain in her left hand and foot following electrocution. All previous clinical and neurological testing had been normal. Infrared thermography demonstrated a significant reduction in temperature in the regions affected on her left hand and foot. Pain was reduced with the use of pregabalin but without changes to thermal differences in the affected limbs. Conclusion It would appear from this case report that infrared thermography may be of use in the documentation of abnormalities associated with chronic pain following survival after electrocution. Pregabalin may be of benefit in pain reduction after electrocution.

  13. Evaluation of paint coating thickness variations based on pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, S.; Perrin, E.; Vrabie, V.; Bodnar, J. L.; Marthe, J.; Cauwe, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a pulsed Infrared thermography technique using a homogeneous heat provided by a laser source is used for the non-destructive evaluation of paint coating thickness variations. Firstly, numerical simulations of the thermal response of a paint coated sample are performed. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thickness of both coating and substrate layers, optimal excitation parameters of the heating source are determined. Two characteristic parameters were studied with respect to the paint coating layer thickness variations. Results obtained using an experimental test bench based on the pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique are compared with those given by a classical Eddy current technique for paint coating variations from 5 to 130 μm. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach and suggest that the pulsed Infrared thermography technique presents good perspectives to characterize the heterogeneity of paint coating on large scale samples with other heating sources.

  14. Potentialities of infrared thermography to assess damage in bonding between concrete and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. CALDEIRA

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the application of the active infrared thermography to detect damage in bonding between concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP. Specimens of concrete and mortar with GFRP externally bonded were prepared and at their interfaces were inserted polystyrene discs to simulate damages. The samples were divided into two groups. In group 1, one sample was correctly bonded by a GFRP plate to the concrete, but in the other three were inserted polystyrene discs which had different diameters to simulate damages in bonding. In group 2, all of the samples contained identical polystyrene discs at their interfaces, but the total thickness of each specimen was different, because the objective was to evaluate the ability of the camera to capture the simulated damage in depth. The experimental procedure was divided into two stages. In the first stage, four types of heating were used to heat samples of group 1: incandescent lamp, kiln, blended lamp and fan heater. Thus, it was possible to detect the damage and to observe its format and length. It was noticed that the infrared images are different depending on the heat source incident on the specimen. Therefore, group 2 was tested only for the more efficient heating (incandescent lamp. In the second stage, the infrared equipment was tested. Some of the parameters that must be inserted in the camera were varied in order to understand their influence on image formation. The results show the effectiveness of infrared thermography to assess adherence in GFRP/concrete interface. In the present work, the best results were obtained when the image is captured towards GFRP/concrete and using incandescent lamp. It was observed that the image and measured temperature suffer significant distortion when a false value was inserted for the parameter emissivity.

  15. Using aerial infrared thermography to detect utility theft of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Lucas, R. Gillem

    2012-06-01

    Natural gas and electric utility companies, public utility commissions, consumer advocacy groups, city governments, state governments and the federal government United States continue to turn a blind eye towards utility energy theft of service which we conservatively estimate is in excess of 10 billion a year. Why? Many in the United States have exhausted their unemployment benefits. The amounts for federal funding for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAP) funds were cut by nearly 40% for 2012 to 3.02 billion. "At peak funding ($5.1 billion in 2009), the program was national in scale but still only had enough resources to support roughly 1/4 of the eligible households.i" Contributions to charities are down and the number of families below the poverty line who are unable to pay to heat their houses continues to rise. Many of the less fortunate in our society now consider theft and fraud to be an attractive option for their supply of natural gas and/or electricity. A record high mild winter in 2011-2012 coupled with 10-year low natural gas prices temporarily obscured the need for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAPs) from the news and federal budgets, but cold winters will return. The proliferation of smart meters and automated meter infrastructures across our nation can do little to detect energy theft because the thieves can simply by-pass the meters, jumper around the meters and/or steal meters from abandoned houses and use them. Many utility systems were never set-up to stop these types of theft. Even with low-cost per identified thief method using aerial infrared thermography, utilities continue to ignore theft detection.

  16. In-flight investigations of the unsteady behaviour of the boundary layer with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Smusz, Robert; de Groot, Klaus; Meyer, Joerg; Kucaba-Pietal, Anna; Rzucidlo, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) has been well established in wind tunnel and flight tests for the last decade. Former applications of IRT were focused, in nearly all cases, on steady measurements. In the last years, requirements of unsteady IRT measurements (up to 10 Hz) have been formulated, but the problem of a very slow thermal response of common materials of wind tunnel models or airplane components has to be overcome by finding a surface modification with a fast thermal response (low heat capacity, low thermal conductivity and high thermal diffusivity). Therefore, lab investigations of potential material combinations and flight tests with a ‘low cost’ aircraft, i.e. a glider with a modified wing surface, were conducted. In order to induce unsteady conditions (rapid change of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition), special maneuvers of a glider during IRT measurements were performed.

  17. Assessing Consistency in Radiated Thermal Output of Beef Steers by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radiated thermal output are claimed to reflect the metabolic efficiency of mammals. This is important in food-producing animals because a measure of metabolic efficiency may translate to desirable characteristics, such as growth efficiency or residual feed intake, and permit the grouping of animals by metabolic characteristics that can be more precisely managed. This study addresses the question of whether radiated thermal parameters are characteristic of individual animals under normal and metabolically-challenging conditions. Consistency in radiated thermal output was demonstrated over a period of four weeks on condition that a sufficiently representative sample of measurements could be made on individual animals. The study provided evidence that infrared thermography could be used as an automated, rapid, and reliable tool for assessing thermoregulatory processes.

  18. A numerical study of the inverse problem of breast infrared thermography modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared thermography has been shown to be a useful adjunctive tool for breast cancer detection. Previous thermography modeling techniques generally dealt with the "forward problem", i.e., to estimate the breast thermogram from known properties of breast tissues. The present study aims to deal with the so-called "inverse problem", namely to estimate the thermal properties of the breast tissues from the observed surface temperature distribution. By comparison, the inverse problem is a more direct way of interpreting a breast thermogram for specific physiological and/or pathological information. In tumor detection, for example, it is particularly important to estimate the tumor-induced thermal contrast, even though the corresponding non-tumor thermal background usually is unknown due to the difficulty of measuring the individual thermal properties. Inverse problem solving is technically challenging due to its ill-posed nature, which is evident primarily by its sensitivity to imaging noise. Taking advantage of our previously developed forward-problemsolving techniques with comprehensive thermal-elastic modeling, we examine here the feasibility of solving the inverse problem of the breast thermography. The approach is based on a presumed spatial constraint applied to three major thermal properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, blood perfusion, and metabolic heat generation, for each breast tissue type. Our results indicate that the proposed inverse-problem-solving scheme can be numerically stable under imaging noise of SNR ranging 32 ~ 40 dB, and that the proposed techniques can be effectively used to improve the estimation to the tumor-induced thermal contrast, especially for smaller and deeper tumors.

  19. On-power detection of wall-thinned defects using lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Suk [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Lock-in IR thermography was proposed to detect wall-thinned defects during normal NPP operation. • A mock-up loop was constructed that contained artificially generated defects. • The fluid inside the loop was maintained at a temperature similar to NPP operating conditions. • The boundary of the wall-thinned defective part was clear from acquired images. - Abstract: Recently, nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been using ultrasonic testing (UT) to inspect the pipes of secondary piping systems. However, UT is not suitable for measuring wall-thinned defects in small-diameter pipes and requires a long period of time to acquire analysis results. In addition, it is less reliable when inspecting small-diameter piping, and it is almost impossible to inspect defects during NPP normal operation. Therefore, UT is not reliable for detecting wall-thinned defects in the small-diameter pipes of NPPs during normal operation. In this study, we developed a lock-in infrared (IR) thermography technique to detect wall-thinned defects in the small diameter pipes of a NPP's secondary systems during normal operation. For experiments, a mock-up loop was constructed that contained artificially generated defects. The fluid inside the loop was maintained at a temperature similar to the operating conditions of a NPP. Based on the results of experiments where lock-in IR thermography was applied, it is expected to be possible to detect wall-thinned defects in piping during normal operation, shorten the maintenance time of NPPs, and improve the work efficiency of the inspector.

  20. Determination of Thermal Diffusivity of Austenitic Steel Using Pulsed Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochanowski K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The simple method of determining thermal diffusivity of solid materials at room temperature using the pulsed infrared thermography (IRT is proposed. The theoretical basis of the method and experimental results are presented. The study was conducted on austenitic steel 316L. Theobtained results show that the thermal diffusivity value of the tested steel determined by means of pulsed infrared thermography is very approximate to the values given in the literature, obtained by using more complicated methods. The differences between these values are 0.5%.

  1. Interference filters as an enhancement tool for infrared thermography in humidity studies of building elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, E.; de Frutos, J.

    1997-06-01

    In the present work, the utility of infrared thermography applied to the study of moisture in builiding materials or in buildings (including those cases in which the water content is very high) is shown. Moreover, an increase in the information content of the thermal image by the use of suitable interference filters is demonstrated. The use of such filters allows us to determine the kind of hydric process. In the present work, different examples are given illustrating the use of infrared thermography (with and without interference filters) when moisture movement is studied.

  2. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  3. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics-New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabentheiner, Anton, E-mail: anton.stabentheiner@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kovac, Helmut, E-mail: he.kovac@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hetz, Stefan K. [Department of Animal Physiology/Systems Neurobiology and Neural Computation, Philippstrasse 13-Leonor Michaelis Haus, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin (Germany); Kaefer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of infrared thermography with respiratory measurements in insect ecophysiological research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared thermography enables repeated investigation of behaviour and thermoregulation without behavioural impairment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with respirometry brings new insights into the mechanisms of energetic optimisation of bee and wasp foraging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods improves interpretation of respiratory traces in determinations of insect critical thermal limits. - Abstract: Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O{sub 2} consumption or CO{sub 2} production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results. To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13-30 Degree-Sign C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed. In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits

  4. Non-destructive Testing of Forged Metallic Materials by Active Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, S.; Cadith, J.; Bouteille, P.; Legros, G.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, infrared thermography is considered as the reference method in many applications such as safety, the inspection of electric installations, or the inspection of buildings' heat insulation. In recent years, the evolution of both material and data-processing tools also allows the development of thermography as a real non-destructive testing method. Thus, by subjecting the element to be inspected to an external excitation and by analyzing the propagation of heat in the examined zone, it is possible to highlight surface or subsurface defects such as cracks, delaminations, or corrosion. One speaks then about active infrared thermography. In this study, some results obtained during the collective studies carried out by CETIM and the University of Reims for the forging industry are presented. Various experimental possibilities offered by active thermography are presented and the interest in this method in comparison with the traditional non-destructive testing methods (penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection) is discussed. For example, comparative results on a forged cracked hub, a steering joint, and a threaded rod are presented. They highlight the interest of infrared thermography stimulated by induction for forged parts.

  5. Application defects detection in the small bore pipe using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Won; Kim, Dong Lyul; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In the advanced research deducted infrared thermography (IRT) test using 4 inch pipe with artificial wall thinning defect to measure on the wall thinned nuclear pipe components. This study conducted for defect detection condition of nuclear small bore pipe research using deducted condition in the advanced research. Defect process is processed by change for defect length, circumferential direction angle, wall thinning depth. In the used equipment IR camera and two halogen lamps, whose full power capacity is 1 kW, halogen lamps and Target pipe experiment performed to the distance of the changed 1 m, 1.5 m, 2 m. To analysis of the experimental results ensure for the temperature distribution data, by this data measure for defect length. Artificial defect of 4 inch pipe is high reliability in the 2 m, but small bore pipe is in the 1.5 m from defect clearly was detected.

  6. Characterization of defects situated in a fresco by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candoré, J. C.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.; Grossel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to approach the possibilities of stimulated infrared thermography in dimensional characterization of defects situated in mural paintings. Towards this end, we have proceeded in two stages. Initially, we have developed, with the help of a point source photothermal analysis, an in situ measurement of the longitudinal thermal diffusivity parameter. Then, we have proceeded to the characterization of the depth of the studied defect, by means of a wide photothermal analysis and of a confrontation between theory and experiment. In this article, we present these two measurement techniques and show that the approach allows a good estimation of the depth of an inclusion of plastazote in a copy of the "Saint Christophe" of the "Campana" collection of the "Louvre Museum".

  7. Comparison of FEA with condition monitoring for real-time damage detection of bearing using infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Since real-time monitoring systems, such as early fault detection, have been very important, an infrared thermography technique was proposed as a new diagnosis method. This study focused on damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearings using the non-destructive, infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with finite element analysis (FEA) results from ANSYS. In this investigation, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally, it was confirmed that the infrared thermography technique was useful for the real-time detection of damage to bearings.

  8. Technical note: Relationship between infrared thermography and heat production in young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R A; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Johnson, K A; Galvão, M C; Rodrigues, A C; Lourençoni, D; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-03-01

    The traditional techniques to measure heat production (HP) are calorimetry (direct and indirect) and comparative slaughter. Both methods are expensive and require extensive amounts of time and infrastructure. Infrared thermography (IRT) could be a faster and less expensive alternative to estimate cattle HP. The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the IRT technique as an indicator of HP in cattle. A total of 24 bulls (12 Nellore and 12 Black Angus) with initial BW of 380 ± 7 kg were used. Initially, 4 animals of each breed were harvested (baseline animals) and simple regressions were developed for each breed from these baseline animals to estimate the initial chemical composition of the remaining bulls. Eight animals of each breed were fed a silage/concentrate diet for ad libitum intake in individual stalls. On the 25th, 50th, and 75th experimental day, infrared thermal images (Fluke Ti 55ft; Fluke Corporation) were taken of each animal's face to access skin and ocular surface temperatures. A metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the ME intake (MEI). After 84 experimental days, the cattle were harvested and retained energy (RE) and HP were calculated. The data were analyzed using the MIXED and REG procedures of SAS adopting a significance level of 0.05. Angus cattle had a greater daily MEI, HP, and skin and eye temperatures than Nellore. We found significant correlations ( ≤ 0.005) between daily HP and maximum ( = 0.65) and average skin temperatures ( = 0.65) and maximum ( = 0.65) and average ocular surface ( = 0.69) temperatures recorded on d 50. Infrared thermography has potential to be used to evaluate HP in cattle.

  9. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  10. Value of knee skin temperature measured by infrared thermography and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the diagnosis of peri-prosthetic knee infection in Chinese individuals following total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumingjiang Yishake; Zhou Xindie; He Rongxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful and frequently performed procedure in orthopedic surgery.The diagnosis of peri-prosthetic joint infection following TKA remains challenging.The present study estimated the usefulness of knee skin temperature (measured by infrared thermography) and serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (slCAM-1) in the diagnosis of post-operative knee peri-prosthetic infection.Methods Patients were divided into three groups:21 patients undergoing uncomplicated TKAs,seven with prosthesis infection,and three undergoing TKA revisions.The serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6),C-reactive protein (CRP),erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),and slCAM-1 as well as the local knee skin temperature were measured preoperatively and on Days 1 and 7 and at 1,3,and 6 months post-operatively in Groups 1 and 3.The same parameters were measured in Group 2 at the time of prosthesis infection diagnosis.Results In Group 1,the levels of IL-6,CRP,ESR,and knee skin temperature were significantly elevated post-operatively,but returned to baseline levels within 6 months.The slCAM-1 levels were not significantly different.The mean differential temperature (MDT) and levels of siCAM-1,IL-6,CRP,and ESR differed significantly between Groups 1 and 2.The MDT had returned to normal in Group 3 by 6 months post-operatively.Conclusions Elevations in IL-6,CRP,ESR,and MDT in patients undergoing TKA could be a normal response to surgical trauma,but sustained elevations may be indicative of complications.The knee skin temperature and slCAM-1 may be used as indicators in the diagnosis of knee prosthesis infection following TKA.

  11. Defect Detection in Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Electrodes Using Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsh, Michael; Porter, Jason M.; Bittinat, Daniel C.; Bender, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are energy conversion devices that offer high power densities and high efficiencies for mobile and other applications. Successful introduction into the marketplace requires addressing cost barriers such as production volumes and platinum loading. For cost reduction, it is vital to minimize waste and maximize quality during the manufacturing of platinum-containing electrodes, including gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). In this work, we report on developing a quality control diagnostic for GDEs, involving creating an ex situ exothermic reaction on the electrode surface and using infrared thermography to measure the resulting temperature profile. Experiments with a moving GDE containing created defects were conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the diagnostic for real-time web-line inspection.

  12. Evaluation of Defects Detection of Loop System in the Pipe using Lock-in Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. C.; Jung, H. C.; Choi, T. H.; Jung, H. I.; Kim, K. S. [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The pipes of nuclear power plant could be thinned by the corrosion and fatigue and the defect could lead to a big accident. For this reason, the effective non-destructive testing method is necessary. This perform research of angle rated defect detection conditions and nuclear power plant piping defect detection by Lock-In Infrared Thermography technique. Defects were processed according to change for wall-thinning length, Circumference orientation angle and wall-thinning depth. In the used equipment IR camera and two halogen lamps, whose full power capacitany is 1 kW, halogen lamps and target pipe's distance fixed 2m. To analysis of the experimental results ensure for the temperature distribution data, by this data measure for defect length.

  13. Heat flow characterization and baseline of sandstone using infra-red thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Y.; Padmanabhan, E.; Ano, A. B.; Ismail, W.

    2016-11-01

    Infra-red thermography was applied to sandstone to characterize and obtain a baseline or a reference thermal image for sandstone. The sample was imaged at room temperature and then heated and imaged again at different time intervals. The thermal images and the optical gradient obtained were analyzed, calibrated, and equated to actual-temperature measured geothermal gradient under controlled heat flux. Heat flow propagation is not consistent in the first time intervals (below 25 minutes). However, after that, the difference in temperature in the distal part and the proximal parts to the heat source almost remained constant. In general, the heat flow could fit to a linear model that is directly proportional to time. The results can be useful when applied to borehole thermal imaging, as well as in thermal conductivity and geothermal gradient determination.

  14. Thermal runaway in polyimide at high electric field probed by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaham, Sombel; Belijar, Guillaume; Locatelli, Marie-Laure; Lebey, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    An original way for characterizing dielectrics under high electric field and high temperature based on the coupling between electric current measurements and real-time fast infrared (IR) thermography is demonstrated. Particularly, the Joule heating phenomenon at high field is quantified by 2D-temperature cartography in a polyimide (PI) film set at an initial temperature of 300 °C through IR observations of the polarized electrode. 2D-temperature cartography highlights the temperature increase with increasing the electric field. The thermal runway occurs prior to the dielectric breakdown from an electric field threshold of 140-150 V/μm. This corresponds to a dissipated volume power density between 2 and 5 mW/μm3. Such values report the limit of the electro-thermal equilibrium in PI film.

  15. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ki Soo; Yang, Sun Choel; Kim, Jae-Young; Kook, Myung Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Choi, Hae Young; Kim, Geon Hee

    2012-01-01

    A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect. PMID:22666050

  16. Precise Temperature Mapping of GaN-Based LEDs by Quantitative Infrared Micro-Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Hee Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A method of measuring the precise temperature distribution of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography is reported. To reduce the calibration error, the same measuring conditions were used for both calibration and thermal imaging; calibration was conducted on a highly emissive black-painted area on a dummy sapphire wafer loaded near the LED wafer on a thermoelectric cooler mount. We used infrared thermal radiation images of the black-painted area on the dummy wafer and an unbiased LED wafer at two different temperatures to determine the factors that degrade the accuracy of temperature measurement, i.e., the non-uniform response of the instrument, superimposed offset radiation, reflected radiation, and emissivity map of the LED surface. By correcting these factors from the measured infrared thermal radiation images of biased LEDs, we determined a precise absolute temperature image. Consequently, we could observe from where the local self-heat emerges and how it distributes on the emitting area of the LEDs. The experimental results demonstrated that highly localized self-heating and a remarkable temperature gradient, which are detrimental to LED performance and reliability, arise near the p-contact edge of the LED surface at high injection levels owing to the current crowding effect.

  17. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a

  18. Application of infrared thermography for the analysis of rewarming in patients with cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Brandsma, M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Cold intolerance is a serious long-term problem after injury to the ulnar and median nerves, and its pathophysiology is unclear. We investigated the use of infrared thermography for the analysis of thermoregulation after injury to peripheral nerves. Four patients with injuries to the ulnar nerve and

  19. Application of infrared thermography for the analysis of rewarming in patients with cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Brandsma, M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Cold intolerance is a serious long-term problem after injury to the ulnar and median nerves, and its pathophysiology is unclear. We investigated the use of infrared thermography for the analysis of thermoregulation after injury to peripheral nerves. Four patients with injuries to the ulnar nerve and

  20. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  1. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecutive...

  2. Measurement uncertainty on subsurface defects detection using active infrared thermographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Kim [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jae [Center for Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Active infrared thermography methods have been known to possess good fault detection capabilities for the detection of defects in materials compared to the conventional passive thermal infrared imaging techniques. However, the reliability of the technique has been under scrutiny. This paper proposes the lock-in thermography technique for the detection and estimation of artificial subsurface defect size and depth with uncertainty measurement.

  3. Non-destructive Testing by Infrared Thermography Under Random Excitation and ARMA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Candoré, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Photothermal thermography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method, which has many applications in the field of control and characterization of thin materials. This technique is usually implemented under CW or flash excitation. Such excitations are not adapted for control of fragile materials or for multi-frequency analysis. To allow these analyses, in this article, the use of a new control mode is proposed: infrared thermography under random excitation and auto regressive moving average analysis. First, the principle of this NDT method is presented. Then, the method is shown to permit detection, with low energy constraints, of detachments situated in mural paintings.

  4. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils) temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI) detection) and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors. PMID:22243660

  5. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbas K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of vital parameters is an important topic in neonatal daily care. Progress in computational intelligence and medical sensors has facilitated the development of smart bedside monitors that can integrate multiple parameters into a single monitoring system. This paper describes non-contact monitoring of neonatal vital signals based on infrared thermography as a new biomedical engineering application. One signal of clinical interest is the spontaneous respiration rate of the neonate. It will be shown that the respiration rate of neonates can be monitored based on analysis of the anterior naris (nostrils temperature profile associated with the inspiration and expiration phases successively. Objective The aim of this study is to develop and investigate a new non-contact respiration monitoring modality for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU using infrared thermography imaging. This development includes subsequent image processing (region of interest (ROI detection and optimization. Moreover, it includes further optimization of this non-contact respiration monitoring to be considered as physiological measurement inside NICU wards. Results Continuous wavelet transformation based on Debauches wavelet function was applied to detect the breathing signal within an image stream. Respiration was successfully monitored based on a 0.3°C to 0.5°C temperature difference between the inspiration and expiration phases. Conclusions Although this method has been applied to adults before, this is the first time it was used in a newborn infant population inside the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The promising results suggest to include this technology into advanced NICU monitors.

  6. Liquid Crystal Thermography Measurement Uncertainty Analysis and Its Application to Turbulent Heat Transfer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal thermography is an advanced nonintrusive measurement technique, which is capable of providing a high-accuracy continuous temperature field measurement, especially for a complex structured heat transfer surface. The first part of the paper presents a comprehensive introduction to the thermochromic liquid crystal material and the related liquid crystal thermography technique. Then, based on the aythors' experiences in using the liquid crystal thermography for the heat transfer measurement, the parameters affecting the measurement uncertainty of the liquid crystal thermography have been discussed in detail through an experimental study. The final part of the paper describes the applications of the steady and transient liquid crystal thermography technique in the study of the turbulent flow heat transfer related to the aeroengine turbine blade cooling.

  7. On the use of infrared thermography as NDT of aerospace materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan SOROHAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical structures are manufactured in a large range of materials like metallic, plastic or composite. The maintenance of aerospace structures consists in conventional inspections using different Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE methods in order to maximize the structure life and safety. LEISC (Laboratory for Integrity Evaluation of Composite Structures from the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest is currently developing NDE methods based on the ultrasonic guided Lamb waves propagation and on the infrared thermography (IRT, methods also adapted for composite and sandwich structures. The present study focuses on the aid provided by the infrared thermography for non-destructive evaluation of aerospace materials and structures. Several samples were manufactured and tested. They consist in different materials employed in aerospace structures (metals, plexiglass, composites, hybrid composites, sandwiches and include the most commonly encountered kinds of damages (inclusions, loss of material, delaminations, impact damages. Some results concerning the use of the Infrared Thermography (IRT for monitoring the integrity of different type of materials used in aerospace structures are presented. Both passive and active thermography applications with illustrative examples are considered.

  8. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  9. Computerized tomography technique for reconstruction of obstructed temperature field in infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, F. C.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, L.; Chen, Y. S.; Hung, Y. Y.; Lo, T. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a rapid, non-invasive and full-field technique for non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E). With all the achievements on IR instrumentation and image processing techniques attained, it has been extended far beyond simple hot-spot detection and becomes one of the most promising NDT&E techniques in the last decades. It has achieved increasing acceptance in different sectors include medical imaging, manufacturing component fault detection and buildings diagnostic. However, one limitation of IR thermography is that the testing results are greatly affected by object surface emissivity. Surface with various emissivities may lead to difficult discrimination between area of defect and area with different emissivity. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on eliminating emissivity, for example, the time derivative approach, lock-in processing and differential contrast measurements. In these methods, sequence of themo-data/images are recorded and being processed in order to eliminate differences of emissivity. Another problem of IR thermography is that any obstruction may limit stimulations and imaging which leads to the observation of unclear defect image. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an algorithm based on the principle of computerized tomography which permits the reconstruction of unavailable/partially available temperature distribution of the affected area using the measured surrounding temperature field. In the process, a set of imaginary rays are projected from many different directions across the area. For each ray, integration of the temperature derivatives along the ray is equals to the temperature difference between the boundary points intercepted by the ray. Therefore, a set of linear equations can be established by considering the multiple rays. Each equation expresses the unknown temperature derivatives in the affected area in terms of the measured boundary temperature data. Solution of the set of simultaneous

  10. Shearography and pulsed stimulated infrared thermography applied to a nondestructive evaluation of FRP strengthening systems bonded on concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taillade, Frédéric; Quiertant, Marc; Benzarti, Karim; Aubagnac, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two complementary techniques, shearography and pulsed stimulated infrared thermography, used to detect and characterize depth and width of the adhesion defects (delaminations or adhesive disbonds) of externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) on concrete surface structures. Shearography associated to a depressure load on the one hand, and step heating infrared thermography on the other hand are presented. In a first step, the feasibility study of the two methods is ...

  11. Development of an interatmospheric window wavelength (5-9 μm) infrared thermography with an advanced image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro

    2006-04-01

    Recently, deterioration of concrete structures before their design life has become a serious social problem in Japan. Nondestructive inspection techniques are required, for detecting defects and damages in concrete structures, such as subsurface void or delamination. As one of these techniques, the thermographic NDT can be applied as an effective NDT technique to inspect large area of the objective structure from distant place. In addition, it does not require any chemicals and application of physical excitation for inspection. However, the thermographic NDT has a shortcoming that the measurement results are affected by the reflection of atmospheric radiation due to the sunlight, sky or surrounding materials. Since most of the buildings in Japan are covered with luster materials with low emissivity, such as tile or mortal, infrared reflection on the surface is difficult to be neglected. To reduce the influence of these reflection noises, the infrared thermography with detectable wavelength from 5 to 8 μm, which coincides with absorption range of moisture, is utilized. In this research, a new infrared thermography with 5 to 8 μm wavelength range by applying a band pass filter and an uncooled microbolometer infrared array detector. Further, a new signal to noise (S/N) ratio improvement technique has been developed in order to compensate a deterioration of sensitivity due to the band pass filter.

  12. Detection and location of fouling on photovoltaic panels using a drone-mounted infrared thermography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lifu; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Hongming; Sun, Xuejian

    2017-01-01

    Due to weathering and external forces, solar panels are subject to fouling and defects after a certain amount of time in service. These fouling and defects have direct adverse consequences such as low-power efficiency. Because solar power plants usually have large-scale photovoltaic (PV) panels, fast detection and location of fouling and defects across large PV areas are imperative. A drone-mounted infrared thermography system was designed and developed, and its ability to detect rapid fouling on large-scale PV panel systems was investigated. The infrared images were preprocessed using the K neighbor mean filter, and the single PV module on each image was recognized and extracted. Combining the local and global detection method, suspicious sites were located precisely. The results showed the flexible drone-mounted infrared thermography system to have a strong ability to detect the presence and determine the position of PV fouling. Drone-mounted infrared thermography also has good technical feasibility and practical value in the detection of PV fouling detection.

  13. Infrared thermography: possibilities and application to the study of material surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayo, E.

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive measurement techniques are revealing themselves as a very important tool in the different fields or research due to their very own nature. The Materials team of ICCET is developing, since some time ago, the application of one of these techniques —specifically speaking, infrarred thermography— to the follow-up and quantification of the moisture present in the buildings of the Architectural Heritage. At all events, that technique can be applied to any physical phenomenon involving a variation of temperature or emissivity. This paper shows different possible applications of infrared thermography.

    Las técnicas de medida no destructivas se están perfilando como un elemento muy importante en los distintos campos de investigación por su propio carácter. El equipo de Materiales del ICCET está desarrollando, desde hace algún tiempo, la aplicación de una de estas técnicas; concretamente la termografía infrarroja al seguimiento y cuantificación de humedades presentes en edificios del Patrimonio Arquitectónico. De cualquier manera, dicha técnica puede ser aplicable a cualquier fenómeno físico que conlleve una variación de temperatura o emisividad. En el presente trabajo se muestran distintas posibilidades de aplicación de la Termografía Infrarroja.

  14. Nondestructive diagnosis of rotation components of a railway vehicle using infrared thermography and pattern recognitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seok Jin; Kim, Min Su; Seo, Jung Won [New Transportation Research Center, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Bu Beong [Dept. of of Railway Vehicle System Engineering, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The faults in railway vehicle components may result in either the stoppage of the service and the derailment of the vehicle. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and monitor the main components of a railway vehicle. The use of temperature is one of the basic methods for the diagnosis of abnormal conditions in the rotational components of a railway vehicle, such as bearings, reduction gears, brake discs, wheels and traction motors. In the present study, the diagnose of the rotational components using infrared thermography and a pattern recognition technique was carried out and a field test was performed. The results show that this method of diagnosis using infrared thermography can be used to identify abnormal conditions in rotational components of a railway vehicle.

  15. Quantitative defects detection in wind turbine blade using optical infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwaon, Koo Ahn [School of Aerospace System Engineering, UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong; Park, Hee Sang; Park, Jeong Hak; Huh, Yong Hak; Choi, Won Jai [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A wind turbine blade is an important component in wind-power generation, and is generally exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Ultrasonic inspection is mainly used to inspect such blades, but it has been difficult to quantify defect sizes in complicated composite structures. Recently, active infrared thermography has been widely studied for inspecting composite structures, in which thermal energy is applied to an object, and an infrared camera detects the energy emitted from it. In this paper, a calibration method for active optical lock-in thermography is proposed to quantify the size. Inclusion, debonding and wrinkle defects, created in a wind blade for 100 kW wind power generation, were all successfully detected using this method. In particular, a 50.0 mm debonding defect was sized with 98.0% accuracy.

  16. Quantitative detection of defects based on Markov-PCA-BP algorithm using pulsed infrared thermography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingju; Dai, Jingmin; Liu, Junyan; Liu, Chunsheng; Liu, Yuanlin; Ren, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative detection of debonding defects' diameter and depth in TBCs has been carried out using pulsed infrared thermography technology. By combining principal component analysis with neural network theory, the Markov-PCA-BP algorithm was proposed. The principle and realization process of the proposed algorithm was described. In the prediction model, the principal components which can reflect most characteristics of the thermal wave signal were set as the input, and the defect depth and diameter was set as the output. The experimental data from pulsed infrared thermography tests of TBCs with flat bottom hole defects was selected as the training and testing sample. Markov-PCA-BP predictive system was arrived, based on which both the defect depth and diameter were identified accurately, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed method for quantitative detection of debonding defects in TBCs.

  17. Use of a remote infrared thermography in experimental medicine at extreme influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an analysis of published data on the use of remote infrared thermography in medicine and veterinary science and evaluated the main opportunities, methods and ways of thermovision registration in experimental medical studies on biological objects, including at extreme influences. The following resources of the bibliographic electronic databases had been used: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science. Now methods of infrared thermography in insufficient degree are used in experimental medicine, including when studying adverse biological effect of various harmful and dangerous extreme factors, which main manifestation, especially in the early period after exposure, are systemic microvascular disorders, determining the state of capacity of human biomodels. These dynamic remote ther-mographic studies of experimental biological objects can be used to evaluate disorders of the peripheral circulation, working capacity and an emotional condition of the biomodels exposed to extreme factors, including early after experimental studies in laboratory and field work.

  18. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  19. Validity of inner canthus temperature recorded by infrared thermography as a non-invasive surrogate measure for core temperature at rest, during exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Brito, Ciro José; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Bach, Aaron J E; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Research into obtaining a fast, valid, reliable and non-invasive measure of core temperature is of interest in many disciplinary fields. Occupational and sports medicine research has attempted to determine a non-invasive proxy for core temperature particularly when access to participants is limited and thermal safety is of a concern due to protective encapsulating clothing, hot ambient environments and/or high endogenous heat production during athletic competition. This investigation aimed to determine the validity of inner canthus of the eye temperature (TEC) as an alternate non-invasive measure of intestinal core temperature (TC) during rest, exercise and post-exercise conditions. Twelve physically active males rested for 30min prior to exercise, performed 60min of aerobic exercise at 60% V̇O2max and passively recovered a further 60min post-exercise. TEC and TC were measured at 5min intervals during each condition. Mean differences between TEC and TC were 0.61°C during pre-exercise, -1.78°C during exercise and -1.00°C during post-exercise. The reliability between the methods was low in the pre-exercise (ICC=0.49 [-0.09 to 0.82]), exercise (ICC=-0.14 [-0.65 to 0.44]) and post-exercise (ICC=-0.25 [-0.70 to 0.35]) conditions. In conclusion, poor agreement was observed between the TEC values measured through IRT and TC measured through a gastrointestinal telemetry pill. Therefore, TEC is not a valid substitute measurement to gastrointestinal telemetry pill in sports and exercise science settings.

  20. Investigation of the energy efficiency of the military museum building by infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica S. Ristić; Suzana R. Polić-Radovanović; Bore V. Jegdić

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, as a diagnostic technique, is used to find anomalies in the thermal signature of the Military museum building in Belgrade, to identify irregularities or deficiencies, such as wet materials, voids, or missing insulation and to inspect energy efficiency of the museum building and microclimatic indoor conditions.  It is very important to perform preventative maintenance and stop undesirable environment influences that induce structural damage, modification of material...

  1. Use of infra-red thermography for automotive climate control analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S.D.; Hassani, V.; Penney, T.R.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, several automotive climate control applications for IR thermography are described. Some of these applications can be performed using conventional IR techniques. Others, such as visualizing the air temperature distribution within the cabin, at duct exits, and at heater and evaporator faces, require new experimental methods. In order to capture the temperature distribution within an airstream, a 0.25-mm-thick (0.01 inch) fiberglass screen is used. This screen can be positioned perpendicular or parallel to the flow to obtain three-dimensional spatial measurements. In many cases, the air flow pattern can be inferred from the resulting temperature distribution, allowing improved air distribution designs. In all cases, significant improvement in the speed, ease, and quantity of temperature distribution information can be realized with thermography as compared to conventional thermocouple array techniques. Comparisons are presented between IR thermography images and both thermocouple measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions.

  2. Infrared thermography coupled with digital image correlation in studying plastic deformation on the mesoscale level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Witz, Jean-François; El Bartali, Ahmed; Jiang, Chao

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on a study of plastic deformation on the mesoscale level by infrared thermography coupled with digital image correlation. First, a novel technique for fully-coupled thermal and kinematic measurements was developed, and the common problem of spatial coupling in the multifield measurement was solved successfully using an image registration method. Then the developed technique was applied to investigate the plastic deformation of a pure aluminium oligocrystal specimen in a tensile test. The deformed specimen manifested high strains of type out-of-plane, which were found closely associated with the crystallographic structure. From a metrological point of view, the out-of-plane effect on the thermographic measurement was analyzed, and the pertinent radiometric artifacts were estimated. The source of errors was verified through a correlation analysis between the estimated artifacts and specimen surface profile. Moreover, the out-of-plane effect on the kinematic measurement was investigated, and the relevant errors were analyzed via the correlation residual. The analysis highlighted the role of the microstructure that played in the plastic deformation and showed that grain boundary was crucial in shaping the heterogeneous deformation patterns for aluminium oligocrystals.

  3. A study on the health evaluation in spot welded zone by using optical pulse and lock-in phase infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Mang Yog; Kwon, Koo Ahn; Park, Jeong Hak [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Young [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The non-destructive testing using infrared thermography is extended to a variety of industries and non-destructive testing of welds using infrared thermography is also in progress in various ways. Currently, a non-destructive testing of electrical resistance spot welds which is mainly used is Radiography Testing. This study detected area of spot welds nugget using optical-infrared thermography. In the results, it is possible for detecting defects of nugget in a short period of time using pulse-infrared thermography.

  4. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  5. Infrared thermography inspection for monoblock divertor target in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shigetoshi, E-mail: nakamura.shigetoshi@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sakasai, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography inspection is modified to inspect JT-60SA divertor targets. • Infrared thermography inspection is effective to detect joining defects of targets. • Numerical analysis is in good agreement with inspection results of mock-up targets. • Database for setting screening criteria has been constructed by numerical analysis. - Abstract: Carbon fiber composite (CFC) monoblock divertor target is required for power handling in JT-60SA. Quality of the targets depends on a joining technology in manufacturing process. To inspect the quality of more than 900 target pieces, efficient non-destructive inspection is needed. An infrared thermography inspection (IR inspection), has been proposed by ITER and IRFM, where the quality between CFC and a cooling tube is examined by a use of transient thermal response at a rapid switch from hot to cold water flow. In JT-60SA divertor target, a screw tube will be employed to obtain high heat transfer efficiency with simple structure. Since the time response of the screw tube is much faster than that of smooth tube, it is required to confirm the feasibility of this IR inspection. Thus, the effect of joining defects on transient thermal response of the targets has been investigated experimentally by using the mock-up targets containing defects which are artificially made. It was found that the IR inspection can detect the defects. Moreover, screening criteria of IR inspection for acceptable monoblock target is discussed.

  6. Infrared thermography of transition due to isolated roughness elements in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, F.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; Cardone, G.

    2016-02-01

    Boundary layer transition in high-speed flows is a phenomenon that despite extensive research over the years is still extremely hard to predict. The presence of protrusions or gaps can lead to an accelerated laminar-to-turbulent transition enhancing the thermal loads and the skin friction coefficient. In the current investigation, inverse heat transfer measurements using infrared thermography are performed on the flow past different roughness geometries in the form of cylinders and diamond at free stream Mach number equal to 7.5, h/δ ranging between 0.5 and 0.9 (where h is the roughness height and δ is the boundary layer thickness), and Reθ ranging between 1305 and 2450. The roughness elements are positioned on a 5° ramp placed at zero angle of attack. The measurements indicate that the roughness geometry influences the transitional pattern while the frontal area influences both the transition location and the maximum value of the Stanton number along the centreline. Moreover, there is a strong connection between the streamwise centreline Stanton number and the spreading of the wake width. In particular, the transition process is characterized by an approximately constant wake width. Differently, the wake width spreads at the location where the streamwise centreline Stanton number reaches the turbulent level. This point corresponds to a local maximum of the wake amplitude defined as one half of the maximum spanwise variation of the Stanton number.

  7. Magnetic hyperthermia study in water based magnetic fluids containing TMAOH coated Fe3O4 using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-01-01

    We study the alternating magnetic field induced heating of a water based ferrofluid containing tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide coated iron oxide nanoparticles using infrared thermography and compare the results obtained from the conventional fiber optic temperature sensor. Experiments are performed on ferrofluid samples of five different concentrations and under four different external field amplitudes at a fixed frequency. The temperature rise curves measured using both the infrared thermography and fiber optic sensor are found to be very similar up to a certain time interval, above which deviations are observed, which are attributed to the internal and external convection phenomena. A correction methodology is developed to account for the convection losses. The convection corrected specific absorption rate is found to be in good agreement with the values obtained from the conventional fiber optic temperature sensor, within a maximum error of ±3.4%. The highest specific absorption rate obtained in the present study is 135.98 (±4.6) W/gFe for a sample concentration of 3 wt.%, at an external field amplitude and a frequency of 63.0 kA m-1 and 126 kHz, respectively. The specific absorption rate is found to decrease with increasing sample concentration, due to the enhancement of dipolar interaction with increasing sample concentration due to agglomeration. This study validates the efficacy and universal applicability of IRT as an alternate, real time, non-contact and wide area temperature measurement methodology for magnetic fluid hyperthermia experiments without any sample contamination.

  8. NDE of the internal hole defect of dental composite restoration using infrared lock in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Ja Uk; Choi, Nak Sam [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the pin hole defect of dental composite restoration using lock in thermography method. Amplitude and phase images of the composite resin specimens were analyzed according to the lock in frequency and the diameter of defect area. Through the amplitude image analysis, at lock in frequency of 0.05 Hz, defect diameters 2-5 mm exhibited the highest amplitude contrast value between defective area and sound area. The lock in frequency range of 0.3-0.5 Hz provided good phase angle contrast for contrast value. It is concluded that the infrared lock in thermography method verified the effectiveness for detecting the pin hole defect of dental composite restoration.

  9. Investigation of the energy efficiency of the military museum building by infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica S. Ristić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR thermography, as a diagnostic technique, is used to find anomalies in the thermal signature of the Military museum building in Belgrade, to identify irregularities or deficiencies, such as wet materials, voids, or missing insulation and to inspect energy efficiency of the museum building and microclimatic indoor conditions.  It is very important to perform preventative maintenance and stop undesirable environment influences that induce structural damage, modification of materials and agglomeration of pollutants and microorganisms on the cultural heritage artifacts, stored in the museum depot or exhibited in the galleries. The main causes for corrosion in historical buildings and museum artifacts are moisture and changeable temperature conditions. This paper deals with the results obtained in the application of IR thermography in determination of these conditions in the Military museum building, where very important metal artifacts are exhibited and deposed. The results show poor thermal insulation, wet walls and, generally, low energy efficiency.

  10. Infrared thermography and ultrasonics to evaluate composite materials for aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, S.; Boffa, N. D.; Carlomagno, G. M.; Maio, L.; Meola, C.; Ricci, F.

    2015-11-01

    The attention of this paper is focused on the suitability of two techniques: infrared thermography and ultrasonics to evaluate impact damaged carbon/epoxy specimens. The obtained results are compared by highlighting advantages and disadvantages of each technique, as well their limits in view of an integrated use. In this context, a crucial task may be to assess the extension of delamination caused by an impact event, which may ask one to guess between sound and damaged materials at the edge of the instrument background noise. To help fixing this problem, results obtained with either lock-in thermography, or an ultrasonic phased array system, are analysed with the aid of thermographic data collected during impact tests.

  11. A study on detection of micro-cracks in the dissimilar metal weld through ultrasound infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heesang; Choi, Manyong; Park, Jeounghak; Kim, Wontae

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate a possibility of detecting stress corrosion crack defects in a pipe welded with dissimilar metals (STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) through infrared ultrasound thermography and lock-in phase method. The ultrasound generator was set as 250 W in output and 19.8 kHz in frequency. With experiment results, this study could detect, cracks located inside the dissimilar metal weld pipe through lock-in infrared thermography and compare thermography images obtained from both the inside and the outside when the ultrasound vibration was applied to the outer part of the pipe. Besides, after cutting off the pipe in the axial direction, this study conducted PT inspection. As a result, it was found there existed more than a single crack in a certain range inside the pipe, which made hot spots appear in a wide range on the thermography image. Moreover, through ultrasound infrared thermography and lock-in phase method this study verified the possibility of detecting micro-sized shattered cracks through ultrasound thermography, which were not easy to detect with the existing techniques.

  12. The Use of Infrared Thermography for Porosity Assessment of Intact Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, S.; Pappalardo, G.

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary results on a new test for the indirect assessment of porosity through infrared thermography are presented. The study of the cooling behavior of rock samples in laboratory, through the analysis of thermograms, proved an innovative tool for the estimation of such an important property, which is one of the main features affecting the mechanical behavior of rocks. A detailed experimentation was performed on artificially heated volcanic rock samples characterized by different porosity values. The cooling trend was described both graphically and numerically, with the help of cooling curves and Cooling Rate Index. The latter, which proved strictly linked to porosity, was employed to find reliable equations for its indirect estimation. Simple and multiple regression analyses returned satisfactory outcomes, highlighting the great match between predicted and measured porosity values, thus confirming the goodness of the proposed model. This study brings a novelty in rock mechanics, laying the foundation for future researches aimed at refining achieved results for the validation of the model in a larger scale.

  13. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  14. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied.

  15. The roles of vibration analysis and infrared thermography in monitoring air-handling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Industrial and commercial building equipment maintenance has not historically been targeted for implementation of PdM programs. The focus instead has been on manufacturing, aerospace and energy industries where production interruption has significant cost implications. As cost-effectiveness becomes more pervasive in corporate culture, even office space and labor activities housed in large facilities are being scrutinized for cost-cutting measures. When the maintenance costs for these facilities are reviewed, PdM can be considered for improving the reliability of the building temperature regulation, and reduction of maintenance repair costs. An optimized program to direct maintenance resources toward a cost effective and pro-active management of the facility can result in reduced operating budgets, and greater occupant satisfaction. A large majority of the significant rotating machinery in a large building environment are belt-driven air handling units. These machines are often poorly designed or utilized within the facility. As a result, the maintenance staff typically find themselves scrambling to replace belts and bearings, going from one failure to another. Instead of the reactive-mode maintenance, some progressive and critical institutions are adopting predictive and proactive technologies of infrared thermography and vibration analysis. Together, these technologies can be used to identify design and installation problems, that when corrected, significantly reduce maintenance and increase reliability. For critical building use, such as laboratories, research facilities, and other high value non-industrial settings, the cost-benefits of more reliable machinery can contribute significantly to the operational success.

  16. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  17. Infrared thermography of evaporative fluxes and dynamics of salt deposition on heterogeneous porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani; Dragila, Maria; Weisbrod, Noam

    2011-12-01

    Evaporation of saline solutions from porous media, common in arid areas, involves complex interactions between mass transport, energy exchange and phase transitions. We quantified evaporation of saline solutions from heterogeneous sand columns under constant hydraulic boundary conditions to focus on effects of salt precipitation on evaporation dynamics. Mass loss measurements and infrared thermography were used to quantify evaporation rates. The latter method enables quantification of spatial and temporal variability of salt precipitation to identify its dynamic effects on evaporation. Evaporation from columns filled with texturally-contrasting sand using different salt solutions revealed preferential salt precipitation within the fine textured domains. Salt precipitation reduced evaporation rates from the fine textured regions by nearly an order of magnitude. In contrast, low evaporation rates from coarse-textured regions (due to low capillary drive) exhibited less salt precipitation and consequently less evaporation rate suppression. Experiments provided insights into two new phenomena: (1) a distinct increase in evaporation rate at the onset of evaporation; and (2) a vapor pumping mechanism related to the presence of a salt crust over semidry media. Both phenomena are related to local vapor pressure gradients established between pore water and the surface salt crust. Comparison of two salts: NaCl and NaI, which tend to precipitate above the matrix surface and within matrix pores, respectively, shows a much stronger influence of NaCl on evaporation rate suppression. This disparity reflects the limited effect of NaI precipitation on matrix resistivity for solution and vapor flows.

  18. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  19. Influence of season, age and management on scrotal thermal profile in Murrah bulls using scrotal infrared digital thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Maneesh Kumar; Kataktalware, Mukund Amritrao; Ramesha, Kerekoppa Puttaiah; Pushpadass, Heartwin Amaladhas; Jeyakumar, Sakthivel; Revanasiddu, Deginal; Kour, Reen Jagish; Nath, Sapna; Nagaleekar, Anand Kumar; Nazar, Sayyad

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of non-genetic factors on scrotal thermographic profile viz., proximal pole temperature (PPT °C), mid pole temperature (MPT °C), distal pole temperature (DPT °C) and ocular temperature (OcT) of Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) breeding bulls. A total of 109 buffalo bulls, maintained at three semen stations (SS), were monitored for scrotal surface and ocular temperatures using infrared thermography twice daily during rainy, winter and summer seasons using an FLIR i5 infrared camera and temperatures were measured. Thermograms were analysed by FLIR QuickReport v.1.2 SP2 software. Statistical analysis revealed that semen station, season, temperature humidity index (THI), housing system and timing of observations had significant (P 80.88; health of buffalo bulls.

  20. Medical 3D thermography system

    OpenAIRE

    GRUBIŠIĆ, IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is an imaging technology which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These propertiesmake IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various industrial applications to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. This paper presents a conceptual model of Medical 3D Thermo...

  1. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  2. Detection and Characterization of Package Defects and Integrity Failure using Dynamic Scanning Infrared Thermography (DSIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott A

    2016-02-01

    A dynamic scanning infrared thermography (DSIRT) system developed at the Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Packaging Lab relies on variation in transient thermal artifacts to indicate defects, and offers the possibility of characterization of many types of materials and structures. These include newer polymer and laminate-based structures for shelf-stable foods that lack a reliable, nondestructive method for inspection, which is a continuing safety issue. Preliminary trials were conducted on a polyester/aluminum foil/polypropylene retort pouch laminate containing artificially-induced failed seal and insulating inclusion defects ranging from 1 to 10 mm wide in the plane of the seal. The samples were placed in relative motion to a laterally positioned infrared laser, inducing heating through the plane of the seal. The emergent thermal artifact on the obverse side was sensed using either a bolometer camera or a thermopile sensor, with thermal anomalies indicating potential defects and the results of each sensors were compared. The bolometer camera detected defects to the limit of its measured optical resolution-approximately 1 mm at 20 cm-although the lower-resolution thermopile sensors were only capable of detecting 5 mm defects even at closer distances of approximately 5 mm. In addition, a supplementary magnification system was fitted to the bolometer camera which increased resolution but reduced field of view and would require a much higher frame rate to be useful. Automatic processing of the image data rapidly detected the model defects and can lead to development of an automated inspection system.  Much higher material throughput speeds are feasible using faster instruments, and the system is scalable. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Szymanik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented.

  4. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanik, Barbara; Frankowski, Paweł Karol; Chady, Tomasz; John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah

    2016-02-16

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented.

  5. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics-New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Hetz, Stefan K; Käfer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel

    2012-04-20

    Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O(2) consumption or CO(2) production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results.To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13-30 °C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed.In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits, the combined use of respiratory measurements and thermography made possible a more conclusive interpretation of respiratory traces.

  6. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics—New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Hetz, Stefan K.; Käfer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O2 consumption or CO2 production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results. To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13–30 °C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed. In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits, the combined use of respiratory measurements and thermography made possible a more conclusive interpretation of respiratory traces. PMID:22723718

  7. Detection of adherence imperfections at the inteface of substrate-coating layer by using infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Murariu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Infrared Thermography (IRT for non-destructive examination of the imperfections in the coatings layers deposited by Electric Arc Spraying (EASP, designed to assess the dimension and position of the lack of adhesion, as a typical imperfection placed at the interface between the coating layer and the base material. Metallographic analyses were used to confirm the absence or presence of imperfections, enabling establishment of the etalon for non-destructive examination and detection of adherence imperfections at the coating–substrate interface layer, together with optimum process parameters, obtained by experiments.

  8. Nondestructive Inspection of Thin Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Combined Terahertz Imaging and Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Lopato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inspection of thin basalt fiber reinforced composite materials was carried out using two nondestructive methods: terahertz time domain imaging and infrared thermography. In order to combine the information about the defects arising in examined materials the inspection results were parametrized. In order to acquire more information content, new approximation based features are proposed. Then, a knowledge extraction based multivariate analysis of preselected features’ vector was carried out. Finally, in order to integrate features distributions of representing different dynamic level of information, a multiresolution wavelet based data fusion algorithm was applied. The results are presented and discussed.

  9. Analyzing the thermal regime of power supply units in portable betatrons by using infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonova O.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentials of infrared thermography in analyzing a thermal regime of the 7.5 MeV betatron power supply are discussed. Both the heating rate and thermal inertia of particular electronic components have been evaluated by processing pixel-based temperature histories. The data treatment has been performed by using the original ThermoFit Pro software to illustrate that some advanced processing algorithms, such as the Fourier transform and principle component analysis, are valuable in identifying thermal dynamics of particular power supply parts.

  10. Time-resolved pulsed stimulated infrared thermography applied to carbon-epoxy non destructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapez, J.-C.; Boscher, D.; Delpech, Ph.; Deom, A.; Gardette, G.; Balageas, D.

    Since several years, time-resolved pulsed stimulated infrared thermography (SIRT) has been developed at ONERA with the aim of combining fast screening and quantitative characterization. The analysis of pixel by pixel thermograms leads to depth-location and thermal resistance images of delaminations. In this paper we present recent enhancements of the portable SIRT system and refinement of the data reduction procedure which demonstrate the possibility of detecting and evaluating delaminations in C-epoxy at depths higher than 3 mm. A 2-D inversion procedure is proposed to better characterize defects of reduced lateral extend as compared to the former 1-D method.

  11. Reconstruction of size and depth of simulated defects in austenitic steel plate using pulsed infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka-Fotek, Olga; Oliferuk, Wiera; Maj, Michał

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the size and depth (distance from the tested surface) of defects in austenitic steel were estimated using pulse infrared thermography. The thermal contrast calculated from the surface distribution of the temperature is dependent on both these parameters. Thus, two independent experimental methods of defect size and depth determination were proposed. The defect size was estimated on the basis of surface distribution of the time derivative of the temperature, whereas the defect depth was assessed from the dependence of surface thermal contrast vs. cooling time.

  12. Single nanowire thermal conductivity measurements by Raman thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerk, Gregory S; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2010-08-24

    A facile, rapid, and nondestructive technique for determining the thermal conductivity of individual nanowires based on Raman temperature mapping has been demonstrated. Using calculated absorption efficiencies, the thermal conductivities of single cantilevered Si nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method are measured and the results agree well with values predicted by diffuse phonon boundary scattering. As a measurement performed on the wire, thermal contact effects are avoided and ambient air convection is found to be negligible for the range of diameters measured. The method's versatility is further exemplified in the reverse measurement of a single nanowire absorption efficiency assuming diffuse phonon boundary scattering. The results presented here outline the broad utility that Raman thermography may have for future thermoelectric and photovoltaic characterization of nanostructures.

  13. High-accuracy infra-red thermography method using reflective marker arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirollos, Benjamin; Povey, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for high-accuracy infra-red (IR) thermography measurements in situations with significant spatial variation in reflected radiation from the surroundings, or significant spatial variation in surface emissivity due to viewing angle non-uniformity across the field of view. The method employs a reflective marker array (RMA) on the target surface—typically, high emissivity circular dots—and an integrated image analysis algorithm designed to require minimal human input. The new technique has two particular advantages which make it suited to high-accuracy measurements in demanding environments: (i) it allows the reflected radiation component to be calculated directly, in situ, and as a function of position, overcoming a key problem in measurement environments with non-uniform and unsteady stray radiation from the surroundings; (ii) using image analysis of the marker array (via apparent aspect ratio of the circular reflective markers), the local viewing angle of the target surface can be estimated, allowing corrections for angular variation of local emissivity to be performed without prior knowledge of the geometry. A third advantage of the technique is that allows for simple focus-stacking algorithms due to increased image entropy. The reflective marker array method is demonstrated for an isothermal, hemispherical object exposed to an external IR source arranged to give a significant non-uniform reflected radiation term. This is an example of a challenging environment, both because of the significant non-uniform reflected radiation term, and also the significant variation in target emissivity due to surface angle variation. We demonstrate that the new RMA IR technique leads to significantly lower error in evaluated surface temperature than conventional IR techniques. The method is applicable to any complex radiative environment.

  14. The Role of Infrared Thermography as a Non-Invasive Tool for the Detection of Lameness in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Alsaaod

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of infrared thermography for the identification of lameness in cattle has increased in recent years largely because of its non-invasive properties, ease of automation and continued cost reductions. Thermography can be used to identify and determine thermal abnormalities in animals by characterizing an increase or decrease in the surface temperature of their skin. The variation in superficial thermal patterns resulting from changes in blood flow in particular can be used to detect inflammation or injury associated with conditions such as foot lesions. Thermography has been used not only as a diagnostic tool, but also to evaluate routine farm management. Since 2000, 14 peer reviewed papers which discuss the assessment of thermography to identify and manage lameness in cattle have been published. There was a large difference in thermography performance in these reported studies. However, thermography was demonstrated to have utility for the detection of contralateral temperature difference and maximum foot temperature on areas of interest. Also apparent in these publications was that a controlled environment is an important issue that should be considered before image scanning.

  15. Monitoring Composites under Bending Tests with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention of the present paper is focused on the use of an infrared imaging device to monitor the thermal response of composite materials under cyclic bending. Three types of composites are considered including an epoxy matrix reinforced with either carbon fibres (CFRP or glass fibres (GFRP and a hybrid composite involving glass fibres and aluminium layers (FRML. The specimen surface, under bending, displays temperature variations pursuing the load variations with cooling down under tension and warming up under compression; such temperature variations are in agreement with the bending moment. It has been observed that the amplitude of temperature variations over the specimen surface depends on the material characteristics. In particular, the presence of a defect inside the material affects the temperature distribution with deviation from the usual bending moment trend.

  16. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  17. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Di Maio, Rosa; Fedi, Maurizio; Meola, Carosena

    2011-09-01

    This work is focused on the integration of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for the inspection of architectonic structures. First, laboratory tests were carried out with both techniques by considering an ad hoc specimen made of concrete and with the insertion of anomalies of a different nature and at different depths. Such tests provided helpful information for ongoing inspections in situ, which were later performed in two important Italian archaeological sites, namely Pompeii (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration was devoted to the analysis of the wall paintings of Villa Imperiale with the aim of evaluating the state of conservation of frescoes as well of the underneath masonry structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allowed outlining some areas, which were damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials, and also for recognition of previous restoration. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the attention was driven towards the evaluation of the state of degradation of the theatre remnants. Our prospections show that the front side of the theatre, being more strongly affected by degradation, needs a massive restoration work. As a general result, we demonstrated that a joint interpretation of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data supplies detailed 3D information from near-surface to deep layers, which may assist in restoration planning.

  18. Reconstruction of a nonlinear heat transfer law from uncomplete boundary data by means of infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarelli, Fabrizio; Inglese, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    Heat exchange between a conducting plate and the environment is described here by means of an unknown nonlinear function F of the temperature u. In this paper we construct a method for recovering F by means of polynomial expansion, perturbation theory and the toolbox of thermal inverse problems. We test our method on two examples: In the first one, we heat the plate (initially at 20 ^\\circ {{C}}) from one side, read the temperature on the same side and identify the heat exchange law on the opposite side (active thermography); in the second example we measure the temperature of one side of the plate (initially at 1500 ^\\circ {{C}}) and study the heat exchange while cooling (passive thermography).

  19. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to differentiate scar tissue from peri-scar tissue: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Damien; Houel, Nicolas; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Every human injury leads to a scar formation. The healing process leads to the formation of new tissue: the scar, which is different from the original tissue. This process is influenced by mechanical strength and the local vasculature is modified. The purpose of this study is to show that there are various temperatures between the scar and the peri-scar area associated with the healing process that can be estimated using the thermal infrared camera. In the study, 12 scars were stimulated by cold. Several changes of temperature were observed between scar and peri-scar area for 10 min. Scars appeared significantly colder with a Wilcoxon test (p = 0.01). Results showed that stimulated infrared thermography can be used to monitor the temperature difference between the scar and peri-scar tissue.

  20. Irradiance-based emissivity correction in infrared thermography for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellvehi, M; Perpiñà, X; Lauro, G L; Perillo, F; Jordà, X

    2011-11-01

    This work analyzes, discusses, and proposes a solution to the problem of the emissivity correction present in infrared thermography when coatings with known emissivity cannot be deposited on the inspected surface. It is shown that the conventional technique based on two reference thermal images and the linearization of the blackbody radiation dependence on temperature is not a reliable and accurate solution when compared with the coating procedure. In this scenario, a new approach based on the direct processing of the output signal of the infrared camera (which is proportional to the detected irradiance) is proposed to obtain an accurate emissivity and surrounding reflections map, perfectly compensating the thermal maps. The results obtained have been validated using a module as a test vehicle containing two thermal test chips which incorporate embedded temperature sensors.

  1. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  2. Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hanging wall and impending falls of ground.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility study of Infrared (IR) Thermography/Radiometry for detection of loose rock in hard rock mines. The method is based on the temperature difference (gradient) between solid rock and the tip of loose...

  3. Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

  4. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Turk, Z

    2008-01-01

    Thermography for the measurement of surface temperatures is well known in industry, although is not established in medicine despite its safety, lack of pain and invasiveness, easy reproducibility, and low running costs. Promising results have been achieved in nerve entrapment syndromes, although thermography has never represented a real alternative to electromyography. Here an attempt is described to improve the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome with thermography using a computer-based system employing artificial neural networks to analyse the images. Method reliability was tested on 112 images (depicting the dorsal and palmar sides of 26 healthy and 30 pathological hands), with the hand divided into 12 segments and compared relative to a reference. Palmar segments appeared to have no beneficial influence on classification outcome, whereas dorsal segments gave improved outcome with classification success rates near to or over 80%, and finger segments influenced by the median nerve appeared to be of greatest importance. These are preliminary results from a limited number of images and further research will be undertaken as our image database grows.

  5. The use of infrared thermography and accelerometers for remote monitoring of dairy cow health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M; Wilson, M T; Schaefer, A L; Huddart, F; Sutherland, M A

    2017-03-02

    Increasing reliance on automated systems on-farm has led to a need for remote monitoring of health and welfare. We aimed to validate 2 methods that could be integrated into automated systems currently in use: infrared thermography (IRT) to measure respiration rate (RR), and accelerometers to measure the flinch, step, kick (FSK) response and assessing stress and discomfort. We monitored 22 multiparous, nonlactating, Friesian and Friesian × Jersey cows (average 5.1 yr of age) during a baseline period (2 min), a restraint in a crush (2 min), and then a recovery period after exposure to a startle (2 min). We measured RR with continuous IRT imaging of airflow through the nostrils and by counting flank movements from video and live recordings. We recorded heart rate (HR) and HR variability using HR monitors, and we recorded FSK from continuous video analysis of leg movements and indirectly using accelerometers attached to both hind legs. The FSK response was scored between 1 and 4 based on the height and direction of each leg movement. We observed no change in RR, HR variability, or FSK in response to the startle; however, HR increased briefly by 10 bpm. Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between the different methods of measuring RR, with average differences of -0.01 ± 0.87, 0.83 ± 0.57, and 0.37 ± 1.02 breaths/min for video versus live, IRT versus live and IRT versus video, respectively. Acceleration was also highly correlated with FSK scores of ≤3 (R(2) = 0.96) and ≤2 (R(2) = 0.89) and moderately correlated with FSK scores of 1 (R(2) = 0.66) over the 4-min sampling period. The results show that accelerometers can provide an indirect measure of the FSK response, and IRT can be used reliably to measure RR. With further development, both technologies could be integrated into existing systems for remote monitoring of dairy cows' health and welfare on-farm.

  6. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera du...

  7. The influence of swimming type on the skin-temperature maps of a competitive swimmer from infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïdi, H; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Polidori, G

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the usability of infrared thermography in swimming for the purpose of quantifying the influence of the swimming style on the cartographies of cutaneous temperatures of a swimmer. Only one subject took part in the experimental protocol, who was to accomplish a 4 x 100 m 4 medley. Thermal acquisitions followed by one period of recovery with return to thermal balance were carried out between particular strokes. IR thermography made it possible to discuss the influence of the swimming style on the distributions of cutaneous temperatures in various body zones. This process seems to be completely adaptable to the development of future statistical studies.

  8. ThermoPoD: A reliability study on active infrared thermography for the inspection of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuxia [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China); Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier P. V. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada); Servais, Pierre; Genest, Marc [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    In this study, a Probability of Detection (PoD) experimental study was carried out in the framework of a Belgian-Quebec/Canada collaborative research project called ThermoPoD. Experiments were implemented on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) specimen with embedded material simulating delamination. For active infrared thermography, different heating sources (optical or ultrasound), heating forms (pulsed or lock-in), and data processing methods, such as Fourier Transform, Thermal Signal Reconstruction, Wavelet Transform, Differential Absolute Contrast, and Principal Component Thermography are of interest. In the present study, the effects of various data processing methods on PoD curves are compared.

  9. Detection and characterisation of delamination in PV modules by active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A.; Sastry, O. S.; Gupta, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a fast and efficient method for the detection and characterisation of delamination in photovoltaic (PV) modules by using active infrared thermography approach. A discrete part of PV module was irradiated by step heating and its thermal image sequence was used to detect and analyse delamination. Different types of heating source for thermal excitation for this application have been studied. An electro-thermal model was developed to simulate the active thermography approach for the characterisation of delamination in PV module by equivalent resistance-capacitance (RC) network using a circuit simulator. This simulation approach was used to estimate the extent of delamination in the module and to determine the optimum parameters for the characterisation of delamination. Different applications based on front and backsides of heating the module were also proposed in this paper. The proposed method has the potential to be employed for the quality check of PV modules during inline production as well as for the predictive maintenance of outdoor PV plants.

  10. Integral methods of active infrared thermography; Integrale Verfahren der aktiven Infrarotthermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    Non-destructive evaluation is a task of utmost importance for both, the economic point of view and to guarantee the required safety and reliability of technical systems. Thermography is a fast and contactless technique which received continued attention not least through the significant price drop at the infrared camera market. It is typically used to detect near-surface defects which are expanded parallel to the surface. This thesis deals with two non-standard inspection tasks. With the weld lens diameter of spot welds, a feature in the sample's geometrical center is indirectly sized by flash thermography. The presented method is suitable to distinguish typical error classes like stick welds or expulsions. This fact is validated by statistical evaluations of thermographic and destructive test series. As an example for perpendicularly oriented imperfections, surface cracks are investigated, which can be a major problem at welding seams. A technique for detecting cracks entirely based on commercially available equipment is developed. In addition, the accessibility of geometric characteristics of cracks was examined by experiments and FEM-simulations. Similar to the method developed for assessing spot welds, an approach based on the analysis of spatial and temporal integral quantities which depend on the thermal resistance is used. In doing so, the simultaneous determination of crack angle and depth is possible.

  11. Use of infrared thermography to detect signs of rabies infection in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike R; MacCarthy, Kathleen A

    2006-12-01

    Infrared thermography was evaluated as a technique to determine if raccoons (Procyon lotor) experimentally infected with rabies virus could be differentiated from noninfected raccoons. Following a 10-day adjustment period, raccoons (n = 6) were infected with a virulent rabies street strain raccoon variant by injection into the masseter muscle at a dose of 2 x 10(4) tissue-culture infectious dose (TCID50) in 0.2 ml (n = 4) or 10(5) TCID50 in 1 ml (n = 2). Five of the six raccoons developed prodromal signs of rabies 17 to 22 days postinoculation (PI) and distinctive clinical signs of furious rabies between 19 and 24 days PI. At the time of euthanasia, which occurred 2 days after the onset of clinical signs of rabies, these five raccoons tested positive for rabies virus in brain tissue. Infrared thermal images of each raccoon were recorded twice daily during the preinoculation and PI periods. No apparent differences were identified among thermal temperatures compared among days for the eye, average body surface, and body temperature recorded from subcutaneous implants throughout the experiment for any of the six raccoons. However, increases in infrared surface temperature of the noses and differences in the visual thermal images of the noses were detected when animals began showing clinical signs of rabies. Differences were detected among the mean infrared nose temperatures for the disease progression intervals (F3.12 = 70.03, P raccoons in the infectious stage and capable of exhibiting clinical signs of rabies.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of infrared thermography in detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, B; Colak, A; Cengiz, M; Yanmaz, L E; Oral, H; Bastan, A; Kaya, S; Hayirli, A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine interrelationships among mastitis indicators and evaluate the subclinical mastitis detection ability of infrared thermography (IRT) in comparison with the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Somatic cell count (SCC), CMT, and udder skin surface temperature (USST) data were compiled from 62 Brown Swiss dairy cows (days in milk=117+/-51, milk yield=14.7+/-5.2 kg; mean +/- SD). The CORR, REG, and NLIN procedures of Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) were employed to attain interrelationships among mastitis indicators. The diagnostic merit of IRT as an indirect measure of subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT using the receiver operating characteristics curves. The udder skin surface temperature was positively correlated with the CMT score (r=0.86) and SCC (r=0.73). There was an exponential increase in SCC (SCC, x10(3) cells/mL=22.35 x e(1.31 x CMT score); R(2)=0.98) and a linear increase in USST (USST, degrees C=33.45+1.08 x CMT score; R(2)=0.75) as the CMT score increased. As SCC increased, USST increased logarithmically [USST, degrees C=28.72+0.49 x ln(SCC, x10(3) cells/mL); R(2)=0.72]. The USST for healthy quarters (SCC 400,000 cells/mL; n=135) (mean +/- SE; 33.45+/-0.09 vs. 35.80+/-0.08 degrees C). The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 95.6, 93.6, 14.97, 0.05, 95.0, and 93.6, respectively, for IRT and 88.9, 98.9, 83.56, 0.11, 99.2, and 86.1, respectively, for CMT. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for IRT and CMT was not different. In conclusion, as a noninvasive and quick tool, IRT can be employed for screening subclinical mastitis via measuring USST, with a high predictive diagnostic ability similar to CMT when microbiological culturing is unavailable. However, the reliability of IRT among cows with different characteristics and those living under various

  13. Infrared thermography for process control and predictive maintenance purposes in a steel wire drawing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozlosnik, Andres E.; Lardone, Victor M.

    1999-03-01

    The industrial drawing process reduces the section of the wire rod by pulling the material through a hard die. This process generates heat by deformation and friction. The heat generated must be immediately removed after every reduction diameter step, otherwise the final quality of wire and the drawing performance will be poor. That is the reason why the improvement of the cooling efficiency in the drawing machine is of great importance. The better the cooling efficiency, the greater the wire quality and the productivity of the process will be. Nowadays, the infrared thermography control offer the possibility to analyze how the drawing aspect is affecting the cooling efficiency and how this technique allows the drawing process improvements. As you look at the capstans in the wire process control, you are doing at the same time, predictive maintenance in the machine.

  14. Medical infrared thermography technique%医用红外热像技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕少文; 李红; 赵丽君; 何文彤

    2003-01-01

    @@ 医用红外热像(infrared thermography,IRT)技术是一门新兴的综合性高新技术,具有灵敏精确,成像直观,信息丰富,无创检测,简便经济等优秀特性,受到国内外学者的普遍关注.与之相继出现的Computed tomography(CT)、Nuclear magnetic resonance(MRI)、Brightness mode ultrasonic(B超)等成像技术相比,IRT的基本原理还不为人们所熟悉,直接影响了这一高新技术的推广普及.因此,系统阐述人体红外辐射的探测原理,具有重要意义.

  15. Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

  16. Experimental Study on Detection of Deterioration in Concrete Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Huh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is certainly prone to internal deteriorations or defects during the construction and operating periods. Compared with other nondestructive techniques, infrared thermography can easily detect the subsurface delamination in a very short period of time, but accurately identifying its size and depth in concrete is a very challenging task. In this study, experimental testing was carried out on a concrete specimen having internal delaminations of various sizes and at varying depths. Delaminations at 1 and 2 cm deep showed a good temperature contrast after only 5-minute heating, but delaminations at 3 cm practically identified the value of the temperature contrast from heating of 15 minutes. In addition, the size of the delamination at 3 cm deep could be estimated with a difference of 10% to 28% for 20 minutes of heating. The depth of the delamination was linearly correlated with the increase in its size.

  17. Delamination of carbon-fiber strengthening layer from concrete beam during deformation (infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Shardakov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology of strengthening reinforced concrete structures with composite materials has found wide application. The effectiveness of strengthening of concrete structures with externally bonded reinforcement is supported by a great deal of experimental evidence. However, the problem of serviceability of such structures has not been adequately explored. The present work describes the results of experimental studies on the loadcarrying capacity of concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Special emphasis is placed on studying the debonding of the strengthening layer from the concrete surface and analyzing its influence on the load-carrying capacity of beams. Infrared thermography is used to detect the first signs of debonding and to assess the debond growth rate

  18. Active infrared thermography for visualizing subsurface micro voids in an epoxy molding compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji Yeol [Test and Package Center, Samsung Electronics, Asan(Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon Kyu; Choi, Jae Mook; Sohn, Hoon [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents an automated subsurface micro void detection technique based on pulsed infrared thermography for inspecting epoxy molding compounds (EMC) used in electronic device packaging. Subsurface micro voids are first detected and visualized by extracting a lock-in amplitude image from raw thermal images. Binary imaging follows to achieve better visualization of subsurface micro voids. A median filter is then applied for removing sparse noise components. The performance of the proposed technique is tested using 36 EMC samples, which have subsurface (below 150 μm ~ 300 μm from the inspection surface) micro voids (150 μm ~ 300 μm in diameter). The experimental results show that the subsurface micro voids can be successfully detected without causing any damage to the EMC samples, making it suitable for automated online inspection.

  19. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence as a screening method for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Mertik, M; Turk, Z

    2009-01-01

    This study further evaluated a computer-based infrared thermography (IRT) system, which employs artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) using a large database of 502 thermal images of the dorsal and palmar side of 132 healthy and 119 pathological hands. It confirmed the hypothesis that the dorsal side of the hand is of greater importance than the palmar side when diagnosing CTS thermographically. Using this method it was possible correctly to classify 72.2% of all hands (healthy and pathological) based on dorsal images and > 80% of hands when only severely affected and healthy hands were considered. Compared with the gold standard electromyographic diagnosis of CTS, IRT cannot be recommended as an adequate diagnostic tool when exact severity level diagnosis is required, however we conclude that IRT could be used as a screening tool for severe cases in populations with high ergonomic risk factors of CTS.

  20. The uses of infrared thermography to evaluate the effects of climatic variables in bull's reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Bremm, Carolina; Pimentel, Concepta; Lopes, Rubia Branco; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Carvalho, Helena Robattini; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects of the environment on sperm quality in subtropical region determined by temperature and humidity index (THI). We used 20 Brangus bulls (5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore) aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Semen evaluations were performed twice per season during 1 year. Climate THI data were collected from an automatic weather station from the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images were used to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis to assess the testicular temperature gradient (TG). The seasonal effects on seminal and climatic variables were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS. Sperm motility in spring (60.1 %), summer (57.6 %), and autumn (64.5 %) showed difference compared to winter (73.0 %; P bulls.

  1. Non-destructive testing of works of art by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candoré, J. C.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.; Grossel, P.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we present various examples of assistance to the restoration of works of art by stimulated infrared thermography. We show initially that the method allows the detection of delamination located in mural paintings, such as in the "Saint Christophe" of the Campana collection of the Louvre French museum. We show then that it also makes it possible to detect delaminations or galleries of worms in marquetries. We show in a third stage that it provides for the detection of detachment of grayness in stained glasses. We show in a fourth stage that it allows the visualization of shards or metal inserts located in a Greek "panathénaque" amphora of the French National museum of the Ceramics of Sevres. We show finally, that the method permits the detection of a crack located in an ovoid vase of the same French National museum of the Ceramics of Sevres.

  2. Photothermal and infrared thermography characterizations of thermal diffusion in hydroxyapatite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Conde-Contreras, M.; Trujillo, S.; Martinez-Torres, P.; Cruz-Jimenez, B.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    Non destructive analysis of hydroxyapatite materials is an active research area mainly in the study of dental pieces and bones due to the importance these pieces have in medicine, archeology, dentistry, forensics and anthropology. Infrared thermography and photothermal techniques constitute highly valuable tools in those cases. In this work the quantitative analysis of thermal diffusion in bones is presented. The results obtained using thermographic images are compared with the ones obtained from the photothermal radiometry. Special emphasis is done in the analysis of samples with previous thermal damage. Our results show that the treatments induce changes in the physical properties of the samples. These results could be useful in the identification of the agents that induced modifications of unknown origin in hydroxyapatite structures.

  3. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage.

  4. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using infrared thermography and formal concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Long; Hong, Wen-Xue; Liu, Jie-Min

    2014-04-01

    This paper presented a novel approach to objective assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on infrared thermography and formal concept analysis. Sixty five patients with facial nerve paralysis on one side were included in the study. The facial temperature distribution images of these 65 patients were captured by infrared thermography every five days during one-month period. First, the facial thermal images were pre-processed to identify six potential regions of bilateral symmetry by using image segmentation techniques. Then, the temperature differences on the left and right sides of the facial regions were extracted and analyzed. Finally, the authors explored the relationships between the statistical averages of those temperature differences and the House-Brackmann score for objective assessment degree of nerve damage in a facial nerve paralysis by using formal concept analysis. The results showed that the facial temperature distribution of patients with facial nerve paralysis exhibited a contralateral asymmetry, and the bilateral temperature differences of the facial regions were greater than 0.2 degrees C, whereas in normal healthy individuals these temperature differences were less than 0.2 degrees C. Spearman correlation coefficient between the bilateral temperature differences of the facial regions and the degree of facial nerve damage was an average of 0.508, which was statistically significant (p facial regions was greater than 0.2 degrees C, and all were less than 0.5 degrees C, facial nerve paralysis could be determined as for the mild to moderate; if one of the temperature differences of bilateral symmetry was greater than 0.5 degrees C, facial nerve paralysis could be determined as for serious. In conclusion, this paper presents an automated technique for the computerized analysis of thermal images to objectively assess facial nerve related thermal dysfunction by using formal concept analysis theory, which may benefit the clinical diagnosis and

  5. Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures: comment by Rixin Chen and Zhimai Lv and reply from Gerhard Litscher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A comment on G. Litscher: Infrared thermography fails to visualize stimulation-induced meridian-like structures. Biomed. Eng. OnLine 2005, 4:38 (15 June 2005), with a response by the author. PMID:21906400

  6. Infrared thermography in the detection of brown adipose tissue in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Christina; Jalapu, Sandya; Thuzar, Moe; Law, Phillip W; Jeavons, Susanne; Barclay, Johanna L.; Ho, Ken K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PET‐CT using 18F‐FDG is employed for detecting brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Alternative methods are needed because of the radiation and cost of PET‐CT imaging. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting human BAT benchmarked to PET‐CT imaging. Seventeen individuals underwent a total of 29 PET‐CT scans, 12 of whom were studied twice, after 2 h of cold stimulation at 19°C, in parallel with measurement of skin temperatures overlying the supraclavicular (SCV) fossa and the lateral upper chest (control), before and after cold stimulation. Of the 29 scans, 20 were BAT positive after cold stimulation. The mean left SCV temperature tended to be higher in the BAT‐positive group before and during cooling. It was significantly higher (P =0.04) than the temperature of the control area, which fell significantly during cooling in the BAT‐positive (−1.2 ± 0.3°C, P =0.002) but not in the negative (−0.2 ± 0.4°C) group. The temperature difference (Δtemp) between left SCV and chest increased during cooling in the BAT‐positive (1.2 ± 0.2 to 2.0 ± 0.3°C, P <0.002) but not in the negative group (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1°C). A Δtemp of 0.9°C conferred a positive predictive value of 85% for SCV BAT, superior to that of SCV temperature. The findings were similar on the right. In conclusion, the Δtemp is significantly and consistently greater in BAT‐positive subjects. The Δtemp quantified by IRT after 2‐h cooling shows promise as a noninvasive convenient technique for studying SCV BAT function. PMID:25413316

  7. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  8. 我国红外热像检测技术的研究及发展展望%Research and prospects of the domestic infrared thermography technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫朝霞; 陈沅江

    2014-01-01

    红外热像技术具有检测速度快、非接触、精度高、范围广、易于实现自动化和实时观测等优点,目前是非接触式检测领域的研究热点之一。为了更好地了解我国红外热像技术的研究情况,该文通过检索C N KI网中我国近十年来有关红外热像技术的研究文献,对该领域的研究成果及未来发展方向进行了总结和分析。目前我国红外热像技术的研究可分为基础研究、产品研发、应用研究等三个方面。其中红外热像的技术开发研究、红外图像分析处理、测温精度影响因素、红外热像仪新产品的开发以及其在军事、医疗、电力、农林业等领域的应用等方面的研究极具潜力,应用前景广泛。%Infrared thermography technology has become one of the most active hotspots for its advantages of fast meas-urement,non-contact test,large measuring range,high accuracy,easiness to realize automation and real-time observa-tion,etc.To master the research situation of the domestic infrared thermography technology,its research and develop-ment are summarized and analyzed.The study of infrared thermography technology is divided into three parts,inclu-ding fundamental research,product development and application research.The development of infrared thermography, infrared image processing,the factors of affecting accuracy and the infrared camera′s development at home are intro-duced.Its applications in the field of military,medical,electricity,agriculture and forestry have broad prospects.

  9. The use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive method for fever detection in sheep infected with bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Diego, Ana C; Sánchez-Cordón, Pedro J; Pedrera, Miriam; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Gómez-Villamandos, José C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

    2013-10-01

    Fever, which is closely linked to viraemia, is considered to be both the main and the earliest clinical sign in sheep infected with bluetongue virus (BTV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of infrared thermography (IRT) for early detection of fever in sheep experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and serotype 8 (BTV-8). This would reduce animal stress during experimental assays and assist in the development of a screening method for the identification of fever in animals suspected of being infected with BTV. Rectal and infrared eye temperatures were collected before and after BTV inoculation. The two temperature measures were positively correlated (r=0.504, Psheep with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 97%. The results showed that eye temperature measured using IRT was a useful non-invasive method for the assessment of fever in sheep infected with BTV under experimental conditions. Further research is required to evaluate the use of IRT under field conditions to identify potentially infected animals in bluetongue surveillance programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of infrared thermography in children with shock: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ortiz-Dosal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shock is a complex clinical syndrome caused by an acute failure of circulatory function resulting in inadequate tissue and organ perfusion. Digital infrared thermal imaging is a non-invasive technique that can detect changes in blood perfusion by detecting small changes in the temperature of the skin. In this preliminary study, eight pediatric patients (five boys, three girls, ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (average: 9.8 years, were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto” Central Hospital; here, the patients were examined using digital infrared thermal imaging. Patients in shock showed a significant decrease in distal temperature (at least 7°, compared to critically ill patients without shock. The latter group presented a skin temperature pattern very similar to the one previously reported for healthy children. The results show that infrared thermography can be used as a non-invasive method for monitoring the temperature in pediatric patients in intensive care units in order to detect shock in its early stages.

  11. Use of infrared thermography in children with shock: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Dosal, Alejandra; Rivera-Vega, Rosalina; Simón, Jorge; González, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Shock is a complex clinical syndrome caused by an acute failure of circulatory function resulting in inadequate tissue and organ perfusion. Digital infrared thermal imaging is a non-invasive technique that can detect changes in blood perfusion by detecting small changes in the temperature of the skin. In this preliminary study, eight pediatric patients (five boys, three girls), ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (average: 9.8 years), were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto” Central Hospital; here, the patients were examined using digital infrared thermal imaging. Patients in shock showed a significant decrease in distal temperature (at least 7°), compared to critically ill patients without shock. The latter group presented a skin temperature pattern very similar to the one previously reported for healthy children. The results show that infrared thermography can be used as a non-invasive method for monitoring the temperature in pediatric patients in intensive care units in order to detect shock in its early stages. PMID:27489669

  12. Dynamic Infrared Thermography Study of Blood Flow Relative to Lower Limp Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, I.; Skouroliakou, K.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.

    2015-09-01

    Thermography is an established method for studying skin temperature distribution. Temperature distribution on body surface is influenced by a variety of physiological mechanisms and has been proven a reliable indicator of various physiological disorders. Blood flow is an important factor that influences body heat diffusion and skin temperature. In an attempt to validate and further elucidate thermal models characterizing the human skin, dynamic thermography of the lower limp in horizontal and vertical position was performed, using a FLIR T460 thermographic camera. Temporal variation of temperature was recorded on five distinct points of the limp. Specific points were initially cooled by the means of an ice cube and measurements of the skin temperature were obtained every 30 seconds as the skin temperature was locally reduced and afterwards restored at its initial value. The return to thermal balance followed roughly the same pattern for all points of measurement, although the heating rate was faster when the foot was in horizontal position. Thermal balance was achieved faster at the spots that were positioned on a vein passage. Our results confirm the influence of blood flow on the thermal regulation of the skin. Spots located over veins exhibit different thermal behaviour due to thermal convection through blood flow. Changing the position of the foot from vertical to horizontal, effectively affects blood perfusion as in the vertical position blood circulation is opposed by gravity.

  13. Use of infrared thermography for the diagnosis and grading of sprained ankle injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, João; Vardasca, Ricardo; Pimenta, Madalena; Gabriel, Joaquim; Torres, João

    2016-05-01

    Ankle joint sprains are a common medical condition estimated to be responsible for 15-25% of all musculoskeletal injuries worldwide. The pathophysiology of the lesion can represent considerable time lost to injury, as well as long-term disability in up to 60% of patients. A percentage between 10% and 20% may complicate with chronic instability of the ankle joint and disability in walking, contributing to morbidity and poor life quality. Ankle sprains can be classified as grade I, II, or III, based on the extent of damage and number of ligaments affected. The diagnostic grading is important for setting further treatment and rehabilitation, since more severe injuries carries risk of recurrence, added morbidity and decrease in life quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adequacy of infrared thermography as a potential complimentary diagnostic tool of the distinct lesions grades. Evaluation of different thermographic values of the ankle region (in both affected and non-affected foot) was conducted for this purpose. The principal results to be highlighted are that some of the regions, namely anterior view for non defined time after injury analysis, and anterior, frontal, posterior and anterior talofibular ligament regions and proximal calcaneofibular ligament regions in acute lesions (herein defined as less than 6 h post-traumatic event) presented consistent profiles of variation. The analyses were performed considering affected and non-affected ankles results on plotted graphics representing termographic evaluation and grading of these lesions performed using ultrasound by experimented medical radiologists. An increase in temperature values was observed when progressing from mild to severe ankle sprain injuries, with these regions presenting lower values for the affected ankle when compared to the non-affected ankle in all the analysis performed. The remaining analysed regions did not present the same variations. Statistical analysis using Kruskal

  14. RAMI approach as guidance for optimizing the design of the WEST machine protection system using IR thermography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchambre, E., E-mail: elise.delchambre@cea.fr; Houtte, D. van; Courtois, X.; Aumeunier, M.H.; Bucalossi, J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In the framework of the WEST project, a RAMI analysis has been performed to evaluate the availability of the IR thermography diagnostic and to compare it with the objective. • Due to a too low availability value, especially for the machine protection function, a major modification of the initial design of the IR thermography diagnostic was required to meet WEST expectations. • Thanks to the design change and some other recommendations in terms of spares on-site and maintenance, the expected availability of the machine protection function has been improved from ∼43% to 91% and therefore contribute in the mitigation of technical/operational risks during the WEST operation phase. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady State Tokamak) is targeted at minimizing risks in support of the ITER divertor strategy. Part of the machine protection system will be based on Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) thermography diagnostic which consists in monitoring and controlling in real time the power load on the plasma facing components through the surface temperature measurements. The inherent availability objective of such a machine protection diagnostic is essential for WEST operation. A functional analysis of the IR system from highest level main functions down to basic operational functions has been developed. The availability of the initial design has been assessed by making a RAMI (Reliability, Availability Maintainability and Inspectability) analysis. Despite mitigation actions to reduce the frequency of potential failures and their time to repair, the availability required by the project could not be reached. With the aim of achieving the availability target, a recommendation was made to consider an alternative design. This paper presents a RAMI analysis of the IR thermography diagnostic whose results have led to modifying the design of antennas protection system to a more available system as required by the WEST project.

  15. FATIGUE CHARACTERISATION BASED ON QUANTITATIVE INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY%疲劳特性的红外热像定量分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊俊铃; 郭杏林; 吴承伟

    2012-01-01

    定量红外热像法,作为一种无损、全场、实时、非接触的测试手段,不仅能够用于对材料内部缺陷的无损检测,而且能够对在役结构的疲劳损伤演化状态进行识别.定量红外热像法还能够快速预测材料的疲劳极限和S-N(stress-number of cycles)曲线,实验周期短,成本低.文中较为系统地综述了定量红外热像法的发展现状及应用,讨论了定量红外热像法应用过程中的几个重点问题.最后总结展望了定量红外热像法的未来发展方向及应用前景.%The quantitative infrared thermography, as a non-destructive, full-field, real-time and non-contact measurement technique, can not only be used to detect the internal defect of materials, but also can identify the fatigue damage evolution of structures in situ. Moreover, it can also be applied to rapidly predict the fatigue limit and the S-N (stress-number of cycles) curve of materials in a short test period with a low cost. This paper systematically reviews the current development and applications of the quantitative infrared thermography, and discusses some important problems in this research field. Finally, the future development and application of the quantitative infrared thermography are discussed.

  16. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  17. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Jayaprakash, G; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Prakash, M Arul; Kumar, R Dhinesh

    2016-10-01

    The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry ₹6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow's illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  18. Infrared thermography with non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions on the rotor endwall of an axial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzi Gazzini, S.; Schädler, R.; Kalfas, A. I.; Abhari, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    It is technically challenging to measure heat fluxes on the rotating components of gas turbines, yet accurate knowledge of local heat loads under engine-representative conditions is crucial for ensuring the reliability of the designs. In this work, quantitative image processing tools were developed to perform fast and accurate infrared thermography measurements on 3D-shaped film-heaters directly deposited on the turbine endwalls. The newly developed image processing method and instrumentation were used to measure the heat load on the rotor endwalls of an axial turbine. A step-transient heat flux calibration technique is applied to measure the heat flux generated locally by the film heater, thus eliminating the need for a rigorously iso-energetic boundary condition. On-board electronics installed on the rotor record the temperature readings of RTDs installed in the substrate below the heaters in order to evaluate the conductive losses in the solid. Full maps of heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature are produced for two different operating conditions, demonstrating the sensitivity of the technique to local flow features and variations in heat transfer due to Reynolds number effect.

  19. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-04-01

    [1] L. Ibos, J-P. Monchau, V. Feuillet, Y. Candau, A comparative study of in-situ measurement methods of a building wall thermal resistance using infrared thermography, in Proc. SPIE 9534, Twelfth International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision 2015, 95341I (April 30, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2185126 [2] Nassiopoulos, A., Bourquin, F., On-site building walls characterization, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A : Applications, 63(3) :179 :200, 2013 [3] J. Brouns, Développement d'outils numériques pour l'audit énergétique des bâtiments, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Est, SIE, 2014 [4] J.-L. Lions, Contrôle optimal de systèmes gouvernés par des équations aux dérivées partielles. Book, Dunod editor, 1968.

  20. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  1. Infrared thermography of the pig thorax: an assessment of selected regions of interest by computed tomographical and anatomical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, A; Siewert, C; Gasse, H; Seifert, H; Hoeltig, D; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2015-04-01

    Current methods of diagnosis of respiratory diseases in swine are invasive, time-consuming and expensive. Infrared thermography (IRT) of the thorax might provide a new method of high specificity to select swine affected with lung alterations for further diagnostics. In this study, layer thickness of different tissues was determined in frozen thorax slices (FTS) by computed tomography (CT) and then related to skin temperatures measured by IRT in healthy pigs. The aim was to determine appropriate regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation of IRT images. Organ layer thicknesses measured in CT images correspond to those measured in FTS. Temperature differences between lung ROIs and abdomen ROIs were positively correlated with lung layer thickness at certain localizations, and negatively correlated with the thickness of the thorax wall and of inner organ layers. Reference values of differences between skin temperatures were established for two ROIs on the thorax with potential practical use for lung health status determination. Respective ROIs were located on vertical lines crossing the 7th (right) and the 10th (left) thoracic vertebrae. The presence of ribs affected skin temperature significantly. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Gatidis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT.120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data.Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%. Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness.We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  3. Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarian Negar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with severe motor impairments often require an alternative access pathway, such as a binary switch, to communicate and to interact with their environment. A wide range of access pathways have been developed from simple mechanical switches to sophisticated physiological ones. In this manuscript we report the inaugural investigation of infrared thermography as a non-invasive and non-contact access pathway by which individuals with disabilities can interact and perhaps eventually communicate. Methods Our method exploits the local temperature changes associated with mouth opening/closing to enable a highly sensitive and specific binary switch. Ten participants (two with severe disabilities provided examples of mouth opening and closing. Thermographic videos of each participant were recorded with an infrared thermal camera and processed using a computerized algorithm. The algorithm detected a mouth open-close pattern using a combination of adaptive thermal intensity filtering, motion tracking and morphological analysis. Results High detection sensitivity and low error rate were achieved for the majority of the participants (mean sensitivity of all participants: 88.5% ± 11.3; mean specificity of all participants: 99.4% ± 0.7. The algorithm performance was robust against participant motion and changes in the background scene. Conclusion Our findings suggest that further research on the infrared thermographic access pathway is warranted. Flexible camera location, convenience of use and robustness to ambient lighting levels, changes in background scene and extraneous body movements make this a potential new access modality that can be used night or day in unconstrained environments.

  4. Design study of a wide-angle infrared thermography and visible observation diagnostic on JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K., E-mail: kamiya.kensaku@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka 311-0193, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Itami, K.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka 311-0193, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Enokuchi, A. [Genesia Co., Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Design study of a wide-angle infrared (IR) thermography (surface temperature measurement) and visible observation diagnostics for JT-60SA are reported. The new design offers an optical solution without a “blind spot” which is one of the advantages. In order to image a large section inside the vacuum vessel (both in poloidal and toroidal directions), the optical system of endoscope is to provide a wide-angle view in the IR and visible wavelength ranges. The estimated IR optical spatial resolution is approximately 2 cm at a distance of 7.6 m from the front optics with a pupil diameter of 4 mm. For a surface temperature measurement it would be larger (∼4 cm for a surface temperature error less than 5%). The optics of this system can be divided into three parts: (1) a mirror based optical head (two set of spherical mirrors plus two flat mirrors) that produces an intermediate image, (2) a Cassegrain telescope system, and (3) a relay group of lenses, being adapted to the two kinds of detectors for IR and visible observations.

  5. Infrared thermography for monitoring heat generation in a linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, L.; Liberini, M.; Campanella, D.; Astarita, A.; Esposito, S.; Boccardi, S.; Meola, C.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes capable to decrease production costs and manufacturing times. In this regard welding and other joining techniques play an important role. Today, solid state friction joining processes, such as friction stir welding, friction spot welding, inertia friction welding, continuous-drive friction welding and linear friction welding (LFW), represent promising methods for part manufacturing. They allow for joining at temperature essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined, without the addition of filler metal. However, the knowledge of temperature is essential to understand and model the phenomena involved in metal welding. A global measured value represents only a clue of the heat generation during the process; while, a deep understanding of welding thermal aspects requires temperature field measurement. This paper is focused on the use of infrared thermography applied to the linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy. The attention is concentrated on thermal field that develops on the outer wall of the two parts to be joined (i.e. heat generated in the friction zone), and on the maximum temperature that characterizes the process before and after the flash formation.

  6. Infrared thermography and acupuncture of the lobe of the outer ear in patients with facial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ricardo; Lluesma, Eliseo G.

    2001-03-01

    We have assessed the thermal camera to complement the clinical odontology with the clinical assistance of acupuncture. Relevant cases of study were those of patients with facial pain. This work has registered the temperatures of the microsystem of the lobe of the outer ear. The recordings were made before, during and after removing the needles. Measurements of patients' temperatures were made very two minutes for 20 minutes, and a gradual increase of temperature was observed. The thermal camera allowed to register maps (thermography) that show an area affected with pain. After thermograms were performed to odontology patients treated with acupuncture, we were able to compare the temperature distribution maps and we found that they were quasi repetitive in the same zones in several patients for a specific illness. We made this technique available to different patients with lack of good irrigation on face and neck with the aim to establish patterns.

  7. Mechanical design and thermo-hydraulic simulation of the infrared thermography diagnostic of the WEST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micolon, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.micolon@cea.fr; Courtois, Xavier; Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène; Chenevois, Jean-Pierre; Larroque, Sébastien

    2015-10-15

    The WEST (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is a partial rebuild of the Tore Supra tokamak to make it an X-point metallic environment machine aimed at testing ITER technologies in relevant plasma environment. For the safe operation of the WEST tokamak, infra-red (IR) thermography is a crucial diagnostic as it is a sound and reliable way to detect hotspots or abnormal heating patterns on the plasma facing components (PFCs). Thus WEST will be fitted with middle/short-IR (1.5–2 μm or 3–5 μm) cameras in the upper port plugs to get a full view of the critical PFCs (in particular the new lower divertor) and radio-frequency (RF) heating antennas and one camera at the equatorial level to monitor the new upper divertor and the first wall. This paper describes the design of the up-to-date optical system along with the hydraulic analysis and the thermal and mechanical finite element analysis conducted to ensure adequate heat extraction capabilities. Boundary conditions and simulation results will be presented and discussed as well as technological solutions retained.

  8. Study on the defects detection in composites by using optical position and infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwn, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Non-destructive testing methods for composite materials (e.g., carbon fiber-reinforced and glass fiber-reinforced plastic) have been widely used to detect damage in the overall industry. This study detects defects using optical infrared thermography. The transient heat transport in a solid body is characterized by two dynamic quantities, namely, thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity. The first quantity describes the speed with thermal energy diffuses through a material, whereas the second one represents a type of thermal inertia. The defect detection rate is increased by utilizing a lock-in method and performing a comparison of the defect detection rates. The comparison is conducted by dividing the irradiation method into reflection and transmission methods and the irradiation time into 50 mHz and 100 mHz. The experimental results show that detecting defects at 50 mHz is easy using the transmission method. This result implies that low-frequency thermal waves penetrate a material deeper than the high-frequency waves.

  9. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Harley; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisangela; Bakuzis, Andris F

    2017-03-17

    Monitoring noninvasively and in real-time the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcome for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can inform the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports a magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia study (MNH) using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and nonuniform field configuration. Five 30-minute in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with fibre optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as huge as 7^{o}C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, it is shown how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  10. Particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography in a levitated droplet with nanosilica suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan [University of Central Florida, Department of Mechanical Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Orlando, FL (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2012-03-15

    Preferential accumulation and agglomeration kinetics of nanoparticles suspended in an acoustically levitated water droplet under radiative heating has been studied. Particle image velocimetry performed to map the internal flow field shows a single cell recirculation with increasing strength for decreasing viscosities. Infrared thermography and high speed imaging show details of the heating process for various concentrations of nanosilica droplets. Initial stage of heating is marked by fast vaporization of liquid and sharp temperature rise. Following this stage, aggregation of nanoparticles is seen resulting in various structure formations. At low concentrations, a bowl structure of the droplet is dominant, maintained at a constant temperature. At high concentrations, viscosity of the solution increases, leading to rotation about the levitator axis due to the dominance of centrifugal motion. Such complex fluid motion inside the droplet due to acoustic streaming eventually results in the formation of a ring structure. This horizontal ring eventually reorients itself due to an imbalance of acoustic forces on the ring, exposing larger area for laser absorption and subsequent sharp temperature rise. (orig.)

  11. Classification of electrical problems detected by infrared thermography using a risk assessment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gregory B.; Huff, Roy

    2016-05-01

    For more than 40 years thermography has been used for electrical problem detection. In addition, since radiometric infrared cameras can establish apparent surface temperature of the problem, a classification system is often utilized based upon surface temperature, or temperature rise above normal operating temperature or ambient air temperature. This however can be an extremely unreliable classification method for a number of reasons including: emissivity and background energy; a lack of regard for failure modes and stressors; surface temperature variability with load and ambient conditions; temperature gradient from internal source to surface; and the presence of convection, just to name a few. Standards, such as NFPA 70B, try to address some of these issues by having very low threshold temperature limits, but this as well has issues including identifying an over-abundance of non-critical problems for immediate repair. This paper will present a risk assessment process and matrix which classifies electrical problems based upon a variety of factors affecting both probability and consequence of electrical component failure. Inherent in this process will be a discussion of understanding and analysing electrical connection failure modes and failure stressors, as well as consideration of both heat energy flow and stored energy rather than only considering surface temperature as a single point predictor of catastrophic failure.

  12. Toward quantitative aerial thermal infrared thermography for energy conservation in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, David; Medjdoub, Benachir; Wilson, Robin

    2005-03-01

    The UK Home Energy Conservation Act puts a duty on local authorities to develop strategies to improve energy efficiency in all public and private sector housing in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The City of Nottingham, UK turned to aerial Thermal InfraRed Thermography (TIRT) to try and identify households where energy savings can be made. In this paper, existing literature is reviewed to explain the limitations of aerial TIRT for energy conservation in the built environment and define the techniques required to overcome them. This includes the range of suitable meteorological conditions at the time of the survey, the use of ground truth data, the need to account for all radiation paths and losses when calculating roof surface temperature and the assumptions that must be made when calculating insulation levels. Atmospheric calibration, roof surface emissivity and sky view factor must also be determined by some means and approaches to these problems are reviewed from the wider literature. Error analysis and benchmarking are important if the technique is to be validated and these are discussed with reference to the literature. A methodology for determining the thickness of loft insulation for residential buildings in the city of Nottingham, UK using aerial TIRT data within a GIS software environment is proposed.

  13. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  14. Infra-Red Thermography as a High-Throughput Tool for Field Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prashar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvements in crop production needed to meet the increasing food demand in the 21st Century will rely on improved crop management and better crop varieties. In the last decade our ability to use genetics and genomics in crop science has been revolutionised, but these advances have not been matched by our ability to phenotype crops. As rapid and effective phenotyping is the basis of any large genetic study, there is an urgent need to utilise the recent advances in crop scale imaging to develop robust high-throughput phenotyping. This review discusses the use and adaptation of infra-red thermography (IRT on crops as a phenotyping resource for both biotic and abiotic stresses. In particular, it addresses the complications caused by external factors such as environmental fluctuations and the difficulties caused by mixed pixels in the interpretation of IRT data and their effects on sensitivity and reproducibility for the detection of different stresses. Further, it highlights the improvements needed in using this technique for quantification of genetic variation and its integration with multiple sensor technology for development as a high-throughput and precise phenotyping approach for future crop breeding.

  15. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared thermography is a promising modality for such a system. The temperature differences between corresponding areas on contralateral feet are the clinically significant parameters. This asymmetric analysis is hindered by (1) foot segmentation errors, especially when the foot temperature and the ambient temperature are comparable, and by (2) different shapes and sizes between contralateral feet due to deformities or minor amputations. To circumvent the first problem, we used a color image and a thermal image acquired synchronously. Foot regions, detected in the color image, were rigidly registered to the thermal image. This resulted in 97.8%±1.1% sensitivity and 98.4%±0.5% specificity over 76 high-risk diabetic patients with manual annotation as a reference. Nonrigid landmark-based registration with B-splines solved the second problem. Corresponding points in the two feet could be found regardless of the shapes and sizes of the feet. With that, the temperature difference of the left and right feet could be obtained.

  16. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Harley F.; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli M.; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela; Bakuzis, Andris F.

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive and real-time monitoring of the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH) is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcomes for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can determine the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports an MNH study using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and non-uniform field configuration. Five 30 min in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with a fiber optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal’s surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as large as 7~\\circ C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, we show how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  17. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  18. Determination of needed parameters for measuring temperature fields in air by thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the parameters determination of equipment for measuring temperature fields in air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields in an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. The accuracy of air temperature measurement (or of surface temperature of supplies by this method depends especially on (except for parameters of infrared camera the determination of the static and the dynamic qualities of auxiliary material. The emissivity of support material is the static quality and the dynamic quality is time constant. Support materials with a high emissivity and a low time constant are suitable for the measurement. The high value of emissivity results in a higher measurement sensitivity and the radiation temperature independence. In this article the emissivity of examined kinds of auxiliary materials (papers and textiles is determined by temperature measuring of heated samples by a calibrated thermocouple and by thermography, with the emissivity setting on the camera to 1 and with the homogeneous radiation temperature. Time constants are determined by a step change of air temperature in the surrounding of auxiliary material. The time constant depends mainly on heat transfer by the convection from the air into the auxiliary material. That is why the effect of air temperature is examined in this article (or a temperature difference towards the environmental temperature and the flow velocity on the time constant with various types of auxiliary materials. The obtained results allow to define the conditions for using the method of measurement of temperature fields in air during various heating and air conditioning applications.

  19. How good is this food? A study on dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travain, Tiziano; Colombo, Elisa Silvia; Grandi, Laura Clara; Heinzl, Eugenio; Pelosi, Annalisa; Prato Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-15

    Understanding how animals express positive emotions is becoming an interesting and promising area of research in the study of animal emotions and affective experiences. In the present study, we used infrared thermography in combination with behavioral measures, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to investigate dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event: receiving palatable food from the owner. Nineteen adult pet dogs, 8 females and 11 males, were tested and their eye temperature, HR, HRV and behavior were recorded during a 30-minutestestconsisting of three 10-minute consecutive phases: Baseline (Phase 1), positive stimulation through the administration of palatable treats (Feeding, Phase 2) and Post-feeding condition following the positive stimulation (Phase 3). Dogs' eye temperature and mean HR significantly increased during the positive stimulation phase compared with both Baseline and Post-feeding phases. During the positive stimulation with food (Phase 2), dogs engaged in behaviors indicating a positive emotional state and a high arousal, being focused on food treats and increasing tail wagging. However, there was no evidence of an increase in HRV during Phase 2 compared to the Phase 1, with SDNN significantly increasing only in Phase 3, after the positive stimulation occurred. Overall results point out that IRT may be a useful tool in assessing emotional states in dogs in terms of arousal but fails to discriminate emotional valence, whose interpretation cannot disregard behavioral indexes.

  20. Experimental study using infrared thermography on the convective heat transfer of a TGV brake disc in the actual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Monica; Harmand, Souad; Desmet, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    We present an experimental identification of the local and mean Nusselt number from a rotating TGV brake disk model in the actual environment and exposed to an air flow parallel to the disk surface. This method is based on the use of a heated thermally thick disk combined with the technique of temperature measurement by infrared thermography. The local and mean convective heat transfer coefficient from the disk surface is identified by solving the steady state heat equation by a finite difference method using the experimental temperature distribution as boundary conditions. The experimental setup is constituted of a model disk with all the representative parts of the actual TGV brake system. The disk and its actual environment are inside a wind tunnel test section, so that the rotational disk speed and the air flow velocity can be varied. Tests were carried out for rotational speeds w between 325 and 2000 rpm (rotational Reynolds number Re between 88,500 and 545,000), and for an air flow velocity U ranging between 0 and 12 m(DOT)s-1 (air flow Reynolds number Re0 between 0 and 153,000).

  1. [Study on the manifestation of facial infrared thermography induced by acupuncturing Guangming (GB 37) and Hegu (LI 4)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-jing; Zhang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    To manifest the specificity of acupoints objectively through observing the relationship of both Guangming (GB 37) and Hegu (LI 4) with the some areas of face. The patients with peripheral facial paralysis were divided into the Guangming (GB 37) group and Hegu (LI 4) group, and punctured respectively. Before and after treatment, the distribution and change of facial temperatures were measured with infrared thermography and the data on each area was comparatively analyzed. After punctured at Guangming (GB 37), the temperature went up in the areas around the eyes of both health and affected sides, especially on the affected side, which was significantly different from the other facial areas (all P<0.05). After punctured at Hegu (IA 4), the temperature obviously went up in the area around the mouth, which was significantly different from other areas of face, such as the areas of Yintag and health eye. The temperature in the area around the affected eye was significantly higher than that of the area around the health eye. There is some close coordination between Guangming (GB 37) and eye area, as well as between Hegu (LI 4) and mouth area, suggesting the specificity of acupoints.

  2. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  3. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  4. Short communication: early detection of mastitis using infrared thermography in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, A; Polat, B; Okumus, Z; Kaya, M; Yanmaz, L E; Hayirli, A

    2008-11-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) absorbs infrared radiation and generates images based on the amount of heat generated. It has been used in human medicine for diagnosis of various cancers. This experiment was conducted to determine if IRT had merit for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk sample and skin surface temperature (SST) were simultaneously evaluated using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and IRT for each quarter in 94 dairy cows (49 Brown Swiss and 45 Holstein). Average days in milk (DIM) and milk production were 93 +/- 37 d and 16 +/- 2.2 kg (mean +/- SD) and their ages ranged from 4 to 8 yr. There was a strong correlation between SST and CMT score (r = 0.92). Average SST was 33.19, 34.08, 34.99, and 36.15 degrees C for quarters with the CMT score of 0 (n = 156), +1 (n = 116), +2 (n = 80), and +3 (n = 24), respectively. This association was best described by a linear model as follows: y = 0.94x + 33.17, R(2) = 0.85, where y = SST and x = CMT score. Changes in rectal temperature (RT) due to the CMT score were minor (y = 0.09x + 38.39, R(2) = 0.07, where y = RT and x = average CMT score). In conclusion, RT may not confirm mastitis. However, IRT is sensitive enough to perceive changes in SST in response to varying degrees of severity of the mammary gland infection as reflected by the CMT score, suggesting that as a noninvasive tool, IRT can be employed for screening dairy cows for mastitis.

  5. Wearing lead aprons in surgical operating rooms: ergonomic injuries evidenced by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Dominique; Prieto, Marc; Beaumont, Fabien; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the weight of radiation protection lead aprons on the discomfort and the fatigue of the medical staff within an operating room of interventional gastroenterology. To quantify this fatigue, we analyzed variations of the physiological parameters, including heart rate, blood pressure, and cutaneous temperature; we compared two situations: the first within the classic endoscopy department (without apron) and the second within the operating room with apron. A follow-up study with lighter lead aprons was also conducted. We used infrared thermography as the principal method of analysis in our study. This technique permits us to obtain data, without body contact, of the spatial and temporal orientation of temperatures on subject skin. This method proves to be beneficial in the evaluation of the posture of users. The symmetry of the temperature evolution among the different body zones can contribute to the body balance analysis. Our results of the cutaneous temperatures obtained by infrared camera show significant differences in the muscular activity. All the muscular groups studied were revealed significant temperature increases. The temperature curve T2-T1 reveals the actual influence of carrying heavy apron loads. Regardless of the muscular group, this temperature increase varies on the range between 0.55°C and 0.95°C. The muscular groups most recruited are the trapezoids and pectorals. The muscles least recruited are those of the lower limbs. The study shows the impact of load bearing on the body mechanics of medical staff during work. It will be beneficial to develop this study to predict changes in skin temperature because of the various types of aprons and to determine the possible correlation between the thermal distribution and users' sense of comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  7. Comparative study on submillimeter flaws in stitched T-joint carbon fiber reinforced polymer by infrared thermography, microcomputed tomography, ultrasonic c-scan and microscopic inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Hassler, Ulf; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Robitaille, Francois; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Joncas, Simon; Maldague, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Stitching is used to reduce dry-core (incomplete infusion of T-joint core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it may cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. Microscopic inspection, ultrasonic c-scan, pulsed thermography, vibrothermography, and laser spot thermography are used to investigate the internal flaws in a stitched T-joint carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Then, a new microlaser line thermography is proposed. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is used to validate the infrared results. A comparison between microlaser line thermography and microCT is performed. It was concluded that microlaser line thermography can detect the internal submillimeter defects. However, the depth and size of the defects can affect the detection results. The microporosities with a diameter of less than 54 μm are not detected in the microlaser line thermography results. Microlaser line thermography can detect the microporosity (a diameter of 0.162 mm) from a depth of 90 μm. However, it cannot detect the internal microporosity (a diameter of 0.216 mm) from a depth of 0.18 mm. The potential causes are given. Finally, a comparative study is conducted.

  8. Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetocaloric effect and the local magnetic field using thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2010-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect causes a magnetic material to change temperature upon application of a magnetic field. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the adiabatic temperature change are performed on a plate of gadolinium using thermography. The adiabatic temperature change is used to extract...

  9. FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainer, Boris G [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 13, Lavrentyev avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-07

    This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psycho-physiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 {sup 0}C) fast 128 x 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 {mu}m) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable

  10. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of

  11. Infrared thermography as option for evaluating the treatment effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty by patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffa, Erik; Bernard, Vladan; Kubicek, Lubos; Vlachovsky, Robert; Vlk, Daniel; Mornstein, Vojtech; Bourek, Ales; Staffa, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of infrared thermography as a supplementary method to the ankle-brachial index used in assessing the treatment effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The study included 21 patients, mean age was 60.22 years. Healthy control group included 20 persons, mean age was 55.60 years. Patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (Fontaine stages I-III) were admitted for endovascular treatment by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Thermal images and ankle-brachial index values were obtained before and after treatment by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Median temperature change in the treated limb was 0.4℃, for non-treated limb was -0.5℃. The median value of ankle-brachial index in the treated limb increased by 0.17 from 0.81 after the procedure. The median value of ankle-brachial index in the non-treated limb decreased by 0.03 from the value of 1.01. Significant difference between treated limb and non-treated limb in change of ankle-brachial index was found with p value = .0035. The surface temperature obtained by the infrared thermography correlates with ankle-brachial index. We present data showing that the increase of ankle-brachial index is associated with increase of skin temperature in the case of limbs treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Our results also suggest potential of the use of infrared thermography for monitoring foot temperature as a means of early detection of onset of foot ischemic disorders.

  12. A new measurement method of coatings thickness based on lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-bin; Ma, Yong-chao

    2016-05-01

    Coatings have been widely used in modern industry and it plays an important role. Coatings thickness is directly related to the performance of the functional coatings, therefore, rapid and accurate coatings thickness inspection has great significance. Existing coatings thickness measurement method is difficult to achieve fast and accurate on-site non-destructive coatings inspection due to cost, accuracy, destruction during inspection and other reasons. This paper starts from the introduction of the principle of lock-in thermography, and then performs an in-depth study on the application of lock-in thermography in coatings inspection through numerical modeling and analysis. The numerical analysis helps explore the relationship between coatings thickness and phase, and the relationship lays the foundation for accurate calculation of coatings thickness. The author sets up a lock-in thermography inspection system and uses thermal barrier coatings specimens to conduct an experiment. The specimen coatings thickness is measured and calibrated to verify the quantitative inspection. Experiment results show that the lock-in thermography method can perform fast coatings inspection and the inspection accuracy is about 95%. Therefore, the method can meet the field testing requirements for engineering projects.

  13. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples’ surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  14. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  15. Pathology of Building Materials in Historic Buildings. Relationship Between Laboratory Testing and Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerma, C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of historic buildings requires a pathology analysis of the construction materials used in order to define their conservation state. Usually we can find capillary moisture, salt crystalli-zation or density differences by deterioration. Sometimes this issue is carried out by destructive testing which determine materials’ physical and chemical characteristics. However, they are unfavorable regarding the building’s integrity, and they are sometimes difficult to implement. This paper presents a technique using infrared thermography to analyze the existing pathology and has the advantage of being able to diagnose inaccessible areas in buildings. The results obtained by this technique have been compared with those obtained in the laboratory, in order to validate this study and thus to extrapolate the methodology to other buildings and materials.El estudio de edificios históricos requiere un análisis de la patología de los materiales de construcción empleados para poder definir su estado de conservación. Habitualmente nos encontramos con humedades por capilaridad, cristalización de sales o diferencias de densidad por deterioro. En ocasiones esto se lleva a cabo mediante ensayos destructivos que nos determinan las características físicas y químicas de los materiales, pero que resultan desfavorables respecto a la integridad del edificio, y en ocasiones resulta complejo llevarlos a cabo. Este trabajo presenta una técnica para analizar la patología existente mediante el empleo de termografía infrarroja con la ventaja de poder diagnosticar zonas de difícil acceso en los edificios. Para validar este estudio se han comparado los resultados obtenidos mediante esta técnica con los alcanzados en el laboratorio. De esta forma podemos extrapolar la metodología empleada a otros edificios y materiales.

  16. Use of infrared thermography to assess laying-hen feather coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Dong, B

    2013-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT. For all the 6 body parts and the area-weighted overall, the area of excellent feather (EF) determined by IRT was positively correlated with the 4-scale scores determined by FS (P hens at all body parts. Feather coverage of the hens was classified as 98.7% EF, 1.3% FF, and 0% NF at 28 wk of age; 70.2% EF, 20.6% FF, and 9.2% NF at 56 wk of age; and 35.4% EF, 17.1% FF, and 49.5% NF at 73 wk of age. As a result of less feather coverage and higher surface temperature, sensible heat loss was speculated to be higher for 56- and 73-wk-old hens than for 28-wk-old hens, potentially leading to higher feed-to-egg conversion for the elder hens. It was concluded that IRT is a promising technique or tool that may provide a more objective and quantitative evaluation of laying-hen feather conditions and delineation of bird thermoregulation.

  17. Applying Infrared Thermography as a Quality-Control Tool for the Rapid Detection of Proton-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell Catalyst-Layer-Thickness Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aieta, N. V.; Das, P. K.; Perdue, A.; Bender, G.; Herring, A. M.; Weber, A. Z.; Ulsh, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods are needed to enable increased volumes with high quality. One necessary component of this industrial growth will be the accurate measurement of the variability of a wide range of material properties during the manufacturing process. In this study, a method to detect defects in fuel cell catalyst layers is investigated through experiment and mathematical simulation. The method uses infrared thermography and direct-current electronic-excitation methods to detect variations in platinum-containing catalyst-layer thickness with high spatial and temporal resolution. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored, showing the measurement of defects on the millimeter length scale. Overall, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate great potential of this technique as a nondestructive method to measure defects that is amenable to use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

  18. Applications of infrared thermography for nondestructive testing of fatigue cracks in steel bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Izumi, Yui; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Mizokami, Yoshiaki; Kawabata, Sunao

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, fatigue crack propagations in aged steel bridge which may lead to catastrophic structural failures have become a serious problem. For large-scale steel structures such as orthotropic steel decks in highway bridges, nondestructive inspection of deteriorations and fatigue damages are indispensable for securing their safety and for estimating their remaining strength. As conventional NDT techniques for steel bridges, visual testing, magnetic particle testing and ultrasonic testing have been commonly employed. However, these techniques are time- and labor- consuming techniques, because special equipment is required for inspection, such as scaffolding or a truck mount aerial work platform. In this paper, a new thermography NDT technique, which is based on temperature gap appeared on the surface of structural members due to thermal insulation effect of the crack, is developed for detection of fatigue cracks. The practicability of the developed technique is demonstrated by the field experiments for highway steel bridges in service. Detectable crack size and factors such as measurement time, season or spatial resolution which influence crack detectability are investigated.

  19. Combined lock-in thermography and heat flow measurements for analysing heat dissipation during fatigue crack propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bär

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During fatigue crack propagation experiments with constant force as well as constant stress intensity lock in thermography and heat flow measurements with a new developed peltier sensor have been performed. With lock in thermography space resolved measurements are possible and the evaluation allows to distinguish between elastic and dissipated energies. The specimens have to be coated with black paint to enhance the emissivity. The thickness of the coating influences the results and therefore quantitative measurements are problematic. The heat flow measurements are easy to perform and provide quantitative results but only integral in an area given by the used peltier element. To get comparable results the values measured with thermography were summarized in an area equivalent to that of the peltier element. The experiments with constant force show a good agreement between the thermography and the heat flow measurements. In case of the experiments with a constant stress intensity some differences become visible. Whereas the thermography measurements show a linear decrease of the signal with rising crack length, the heat flow measurements show a clearly nonlinear dependency. Obviously the measured energies in thermography and peltier based heat flow measurement are not comparable

  20. Study of the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 stainless steel using acoustic emission and infrared thermography techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thodamrakandy Haneef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE and infrared thermography technique (IRT have been used to study the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 stainless steel. Strain rates of tensile testing were varied from 1.4 × 10−3 s−1 to 1.4 × 10−2 s−1. AE root mean square voltage increases with increase in strain rate due to the increase in source activation. Dominant frequency of the AE signals generated during different regions of tensile deformation has also been used to compare the results for different strain rates. The dominant frequency increases from elastic region to around 590 kHz during work hardening and 710 kHz around ultimate tensile strength (UTS for all the strain rates. Temperature changes during different regions of deformation are monitored using infrared thermography. The temperature rise in the work hardening region is found to approximately increase linearly with time and from the slopes of the linear regression analyses the rate of temperature rise in the work-hardening region is obtained which is found to be very sensitive to strain rates. From the experimental results an empirical equation that relates the rate of temperature increase with strain rate and thermal hardening coefficient is obtained. The correlation between the variation of AE dominant frequency and temperature rise during different deformation regions provided better insight into the tensile behavior of AISI type 316 SS for different strain rates.

  1. Infrared thermography based studies on the effect of age on localized cold stress induced thermoregulation in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Nishanthi, K.; Mohanalakshmi, K.; Veni, L.; Saumya; Yacin, S. M.; Philip, John

    2016-05-01

    Thermoregulatory control of blood flow plays an important role in maintaining the human body temperature and it provides physiological resistance against extreme environmental thermal stresses. To understand the role of age on thermal signals from veins and the thermoregulatory mechanism, the dynamic variation of the vein temperature on the hands of 17 human subjects, under a localized cold stress, was studied using infrared thermography. It was observed that the vein temperature of the stimulated hand initially decreased with time up to a time interval (called 'inversion time'), which was attributed to the localized cutaneous vasoconstriction. Beyond inversion time, a rise in the vein temperature of the stimulated hand was observed. A shift in the inversion time to higher values was observed for the older subjects, which was attributed to the reduced efficiency and responsiveness of the cutaneous vasoconstriction mechanism in these subjects. Our studies indicated that the inversion time increased linearly with subject age with strong positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94. It was also observed that the contralateral symmetry in vasoconstriction was much lower in older subjects than the younger subjects. The absolute difference between the left and right inversion time varied between 11-118 s and 5-28 s for the older and younger subjects, respectively. Our study clearly demonstrated that infrared thermography is one of the most effective experimental tool for studying dynamic variation in vein pixel temperature under localized thermal stresses.

  2. Assessment of surface temperatures of buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis raised under tropical conditions using infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the surface temperatures of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography, considering four distinct anatomical parts over time, and to correlate surface temperatures and thermal comfort indexes. The humid tropical climate (Köppen's Afi was predominant in the research station where the experiment was performed and the trial lasted from April to August. Ten bulls (n=10 were evaluated every 25 days (morning: 6:00-9:00; afternoon: 12:00-15:00 and the parameters assessed were respiratory rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and the thermograms of surface temperature for orbital area (ORB, right flank (RF, left flank (LF and scrotum (SCR. Climatological data was continuously monitored and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI and the Index of Comfort of Benezra (ICB were calculated. The average values of THI were ≥78, and significant differences between shifts were observed (P<0.05. The ICB ranged from 1.96 to 2.25 and significant differences were observed for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05. The averages of surface temperatures were RT=38.2±0.5°C, ORB=36.1±0.8°C, LF=33.5±2.5°C, RF=35.4±1.7ºC and SCR=33.3±1.1°C, which exhibited significant differences for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05. Positive correlations were obtained between THI and ORB (0.72, RF (0.77, LF (0.75 and SCR (0.41 (P<0.0001. The maximum temperature of ORB showed the highest correlation with RT (0.58, P<0.0001. Therefore, the surface temperatures are subject to climatic variations and increase throughout the day, due to the variation in thermal comfort indexes, and the maximum ORB temperature was the parameter most related to rectal temperature. Lastly, the results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive and accurate tool to detect the variations in ORB, LF, RF and SCR temperature in buffalo bulls.

  3. Practical identification of moisture sources in building assemblies using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gregory B.; Colantonio, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Water, in its various phases, in any environment other than desert (hot or cold) conditions, is the single most destructive element that causes deterioration of materials and failure of building assemblies. It is the key element present in the formation of mold and fungi that lead to indoor air quality problems. Water is the primary element that needs to be managed in buildings to ensure human comfort, health and safety. Under the right thermodynamic conditions the detection of moisture in its various states is possible through the use of infrared thermography for a large variety of building assemblies and materials. The difficulty is that moisture is transient and mobile from one environment to another via air movement, vapor pressure or phase change. Building materials and enclosures provide both repositories and barriers to this moisture movement. In real life steady state conditions do not exist for moisture within building materials and enclosures. Thus the detection of moisture is in a constant state of transition. Sometimes you will see it and sometimes you will not. Understanding the limitations at the time of inspection will go a long way to mitigating unsatisfied clients or difficult litigation. Moisture detection can be observed by IRT via three physical mechanisms; latent heat absorption or release during phase change; a change in conductive heat transfer; and a change in thermal capacitance. Complicating the three methodologies is the factor of variable temperature differentials and variable mass air flow on, through and around surfaces being inspected. Building enclosures come in variable assembly types and are designed to perform differently in different environmental regions. Sources for moisture accumulation will vary for different environmental conditions. Detection methodologies will change for each assembly type in different ambient environments. This paper will look at the issue of the methodologies for detection of the presence of moisture and

  4. Thermography: A New Diagnostic Tool in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani Deb Sikdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The various biochemical processes in the human body generate heat, which must be dissipated. Skin is the major route for heat dissipation using blood as the heat exchange fluid. Skin temperature is an indicator of aberrations in metabolism, hemodynamis or in neuronal thermoregulatory processes. Since most of the heat dissipation of skin is by infrared black body emission skin temperature should be measured without contact, by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation. This has been the basis of telethermography Thermography is being used to detect various pathological conditions in the medical field. There are also various orofacial conditions in which thermography can be used. This paper deals with the history of thermography and its various uses in dentistry.

  5. 红外热成像技术在高分子科学研究中的应用%The Application of Infrared Thermography in Polymer Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟; 廖云; 陈大俊

    2013-01-01

    红外热成像技术是一种非接触、非破坏性的测试材料表面温度的方法,具有既能生成优质图像,又能够精确测温的特点.该技术已被广泛用于全球工业行业的过程状态检测,如电力、建筑、医疗、军事等领域,但在高分子科学的研究领域应用还较少.本文介绍了红外热成像技术的基本原理,综述了红外热成像技术在高分子科学研究中的应用状况,包括研究材料在拉伸、冲击、疲劳过程的热效应特征,研究纤维成形过程的纺丝动力学及高分子聚合过程的反应动力学.%s:Infrared thermography (IRT),which is a non-contact and non-destructive technique to measure temperature variations on the surface of the materials,has been widely used in global industrial process (e.g.electricity,construction,health care,military,et,al.) because it's characters of producing high quality image and accurately determining temperature.However,the application of infrared thermography in polymer science is relatively few.In this paper,the principle of IRT is introduced briefly and the application of IRT in the research of polymeric science is reviewed,including study on deformation thermal effects of materials in extension,impact,fatigue test,dynamics of fiber formation processes and polymerization processes.

  6. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  7. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  8. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  9. Infrared thermography - a non-invasive tool to evaluate thermal status of neonatal pigs based on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund Kammersgaard, Trine; Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. Infrared (IR) thermography is a promising non-invasive method to assess thermal status, but has not been evaluated for use on neonatal pigs from birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of IR thermography as a non......-invasive tool to estimate body temperature and assess the thermal status in newborn pigs by (1) estimating the relationship between surface temperature and rectal temperature (RT) in neonatal pigs; and (2) estimating the influence of air temperature (AT), birth weight and the time from birth on the relationship...... between surface temperature and RT. The method was evaluated on the basis of 1695 thermograms and 915 RTs on 91 neonatal pigs born in loose farrowing pens with floor heating at 34°C, and three different ATs (15°C, 20°C and 25°C). Full-body thermograms of the back and the side of the pigs and RT were...

  10. Use of infrared thermography as a tool to monitor skin temperature along the recovery process of an anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Piñonosa Cano, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is a safe and non-invasive tool used for examining physiological functions based on skin temperature (Tsk) control. Thermograms from 25 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgically operated patients (2 female, 23 male) were taken with a FLIR infrared camera according to the protocol established by the International Academy of Clinical Thermology (IACT). This work consists of 4 studies. Studies 1 and 3 were related to establish the probable thermal difference among d...

  11. NDE of low-velocity impact damage in GFRP using infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ghi Seok [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kye Sung; Hur, Hwan; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Geon Hee [Center for Analytical Instrumentation Development, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, low-velocity impact damage (LVID) in glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) was investigated using pulse thermography (PT) and lock-in thermography (LIT) techniques. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the detection performance of each technique for LVID in GFRP. Unidirectional and cross-ply GFRPs were prepared with four energy levels using a drop weight impact machine and they were inspected from the impact side, which may be common in actual service conditions. When the impacted side was used for both inspection and thermal loading, results showed that the suggested techniques were able to identify the LVID which is barely visible to the naked eye. However, they also include limitations that depend on the GFRP thickness at the location of the delamination produced by the lowest impact energy of five joule.

  12. Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Melero Asensio, Mar; González, Fernando; Nicolás, Olga; López, Irene; Jiménez Martínez, María de Los Ángeles; Jato Sánchez, Susana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spa...

  13. Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved. Cases presentation The three raptors presented lesions lacking thermal bilateral symmetry and were consistent with electrocution of feet, wings and eyes, visible by thermography before than clinically; lesions were well-defined and showed a lower temperature than the surrounding tissue. Some lesions evolved thermally and clinically until the appearance of normal tissue recovered, while others evolved and became necrotic. A histopathological analysis of a damaged finger amputated off a Lammergeier, and the necropsy and histopathology examination of an osprey, confirmed the electrocution diagnosis. Conclusions These results suggest that thermography is effective and useful for the objective and early detection and monitoring of electrocuted birds, and that it may prove especially useful for examining live animals that require no amputation or cannot be subjected to invasive histopathology. PMID:23880357

  14. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  15. Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Mar; González, Fernando; Nicolás, Olga; López, Irene; Jiménez, María de Los Ángeles; Jato-Sánchez, Susana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-23

    Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved. The three raptors presented lesions lacking thermal bilateral symmetry and were consistent with electrocution of feet, wings and eyes, visible by thermography before than clinically; lesions were well-defined and showed a lower temperature than the surrounding tissue. Some lesions evolved thermally and clinically until the appearance of normal tissue recovered, while others evolved and became necrotic. A histopathological analysis of a damaged finger amputated off a Lammergeier, and the necropsy and histopathology examination of an osprey, confirmed the electrocution diagnosis. These results suggest that thermography is effective and useful for the objective and early detection and monitoring of electrocuted birds, and that it may prove especially useful for examining live animals that require no amputation or cannot be subjected to invasive histopathology.

  16. Infrared Thermography as Applied to Thermal Testing of Power Systems Circuit Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan James

    All operational electronic equipment dissipates some amount of energy in the form of infrared radiation. Faulty electronic components on a printed circuit board can be categorized as hard (functional) or soft (latent functional). Hard faults are those which are detected during a conventional manufacturing electronic test process. Soft failures, in contrast, are those which are undetectable through conventional testing, but which manifest themselves after a product has been placed into service. Such field defective modules ultimately result in operational failure and subsequently enter a manufacturer's costly repair process. While thermal imaging systems are being used increasingly in the electronic equipment industry as a product-testing tool, applications have primarily been limited to product design or repair processes, with minimal use in a volume manufacturing environment. Use of thermal imaging systems in such an environment has mostly been limited to low-volume products or random screening of high-volume products. Thermal measurements taken in a manufacturing environment are often taken manually, thus defeating their capability of rapid data acquisition and constraining their full potential in a high-volume manufacturing process. Integration of a thermal measurement system with automated testing equipment is essential for optimal use of expensive infrared measurement tools in a high-volume manufacturing environment. However, such a marriage presents problems with respect to both existing manufacturing test processes and infrared measurement techniques. Methods are presented in this dissertation to test automatically for latent faults, those which elude detection during conventional electronic testing, on printed circuit boards. These methods are intended for implementation in a volume manufacturing environment and involve the application of infrared imaging tools. Successful incorporation of infrared testing into existing test processes requires that: PASS

  17. Energy deposition onto HL-2A divertor plates in ELMy H-mode discharges using infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.M., E-mail: gaojm@swip.ac.cn; Li, W.; Liu, Y.; Ji, X.Q.; Cheng, J.; Dong, Y.B.; Chen, C.Y.; Feng, B.B.; Lu, J.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q.W.

    2015-08-15

    Using infrared (IR) thermography, power loads onto the divertor plates have been investigated in ELMy H-mode plasmas on HL-2A. In the ELMy H-mode discharges, ELMs are the largest contributors to the divertor target energy load. Analysis of energy balance shows that up to 45% of the energy losses are deposited onto the divertor targets during ELMs and about 30% are found as plasma radiation. Moreover, divertor heat flux mitigation has been achieved during an ELMy H-mode phase by using Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI), characterized by a sharp increase of ELM frequency and a reduction in peak heat flux. The increased plasma radiation energy losses, especially the doubled plasma radiation in the divertor region, should be responsible for the reduction of integrated energy deposition onto divertor targets.

  18. A synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography technique applied to convective mass transfer in champagne glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bailly, Yannick; Polidori, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    In champagne glasses, it was recently suggested that ascending bubble-driven flow patterns should be involved in the release of gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and volatile organic compounds. A key assumption was that the higher the velocity of the upward bubble-driven flow patterns in the liquid phase, the higher the volume fluxes of gaseous CO2 desorbing from the supersaturated liquid phase. In the present work, simultaneous monitoring of bubble-driven flow patterns within champagne glasses and gaseous CO2 escaping above the champagne surface was performed, through particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography techniques. Two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels were investigated, namely a long-stemmed flute and a wide coupe. The synchronized use of both techniques proved that the cloud of gaseous CO2 escaping above champagne glasses strongly depends on the mixing flow patterns found in the liquid phase below.

  19. Thermography colloquium 2015. Abstracts; Thermographie-Kolloquium 2015. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The USB stick contains 17 lectures which where held on the Thermography colloquium 2015 in Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany). Here a selection of the topics: Thermal Chladni sound figures in nondestructive testing (M. Rahammer); Flash thermography with several flashes (R. Krankenhagen); Frequency optimization of ultrasound-induced thermography during the measurement (C. Srajbr); Worldwide introduction of a thermographic inspection system for gas turbine components (M. Goldammer); Practical aspects of automation of thermographic weld inspection (G.Mahler); Investigations to determine the crack depth with inductive thermography (B. Oswald-Tranta); Testing of spot welds with laser thermography (M. Ziegler).

  20. Thermal imaging for detection of SM45C subsurface defects using active infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Active thermography techniques have the capability of inspecting a broad range simultaneously. By evaluating the phase difference between the defected area and the healthy area, the technique indicates the qualitative location and size of the defect. Previously, the development of the defect detection method used a variety of materials and the test specimen was done. In this study, the proposed technique of lock-in is verified with artificial specimens that have different size and depth of subsurface defects. Finally, the defect detection capability was evaluated using comparisons of the phase image and the amplitude image according to the size and depth of defects.

  1. Thermography and complementary method: a tool for cost-effective measures in retrofitting buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg, Mats D.; Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1991-03-01

    Thermographic methods have a good accuracy in indicating damages and energy related conditions of building envelopes. Radiative temperature patterns indicate the extension and character of building anomalies, while radiative temperature differences indicate the severity of the anomaly. However, the usefulness of applying thermography increases substantially if combined with complementary methods. Photographic inspection, using fiber optics, of the interior of the building envelope confirms the indicated occurrence of air leak paths. The influence of air leaks may be quantified by measuring the air change rate using tracer gas techniques. The energy losses for various building components can be calculated using as input building design data and thermographic data. To retrofit or implement energy conservation measures of buildings, the most cost-effective measures must be identified. This requires the collection of relevant technical and economic data. Thermography and complementary methods provides data for making a priority between different possible measures. In this paper, we present the results from a detailed study of one building that was to be retrofitted. Before the retrofit, we analyzed the probable reduction in energy consumption for different measures proposed. Also, the highest investment cost compatible with the investment pay-ff criteria required by the building manager was calculated for each measure. This information was presented in the form of a priority list to the building manager and the contractor. Some measures were selected for implementation. After the retrofit, we have carried out an evaluation of the cost-benefit of the

  2. Comparison of photovoltaic parameters of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells with infrared Images obtained with lock-in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkert, Torben; Ohland, Joerg; Knecht, Robin; Parisi, Juergen [Thin Film Photovoltaics, Energy- and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Raymund; Dimmler, Bernhard [Wuerth Solar GmbH and Co. KG, Alfred-Leikam-Strasse 25, D-74523 Schwaebisch-Hall (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The performance of photovoltaic modules comprised of monolithically series connected solar cells is basically determined by the weakest element in the circuit. In chalcopyrite thin film modules lateral film inhomogeneities and losses due to interconnection are likely to deteriorate the photovoltaic performance of individual cell stripes and, in consequence, to reduce the module efficiency. In this work we correlate microscopic features with the macroscopic device parameters of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells cut from large-area modules. Imaging of the film imperfections and regions of enhanced joule heating was realized by applying infrared Lock-In Thermography (LIT) with optical (I-LIT) and electrical (D-LIT) excitation of the sample. Via comparison of the infrared LIT images with the photovoltaic cell parameters obtained from STC current voltage profiling and quantum efficiency measurements we try to correlate macroscopic junction failure with microscopic disruptions of the film properties. These problems will also be discussed on the module level by analysis of D-LIT results obtained for individual cell stripes in an integrated series compound of a CIGSe-module.

  3. Thermography colloquium 2007; Thermografie-Kolloquium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The CD contains 16 contributions, mostly in the form of manuscripts or summaries, and two posters on the following subjects: 1. Environmental influences affecting the accuracy of building thermography (G. Dittie, Dittie Thermografie, Koenigswinter). 2. Energetic modernisation of older buildings: BlowerDoor inspection and IR thermography as decision aids for modernisation measures (K. Schwarz, Beratender Ingenieur, Ingenieurbuero Schwarz, Owingen / Baden). 3. Gas leak detection in the oil and gas industry using infrared optical imaging (J. Tegstam, FLIR Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden; et al.). 4. The Medical Use of Infrared-Thermography; History and Recent Applications (R. Berz, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Thermographie und Regulationsmedizin, Hilders / Rhoen; et al.). 5. Dual-Band-QWIP IR Camera ''Geminis 110k ML'' Technology and applications (O. Schreer, IRCAM, Erlangen; et al.). 6. Quantitative Phase and Amplitude Evaluation in the Active Thermography Frequency Range using Rectangular Pulse Heating (R. Arndt, BAM Berlin; et al.). 8. Spatially resolved detection of fatigue processes in metals using IR thermography (J. Medgenberg, TU Braunschweig, Institut fuer Bauwerkserhaltung und Tragwerk, Braunschweig, et al.). 9. Active thermography for analysis of transport processes (C.S. Garbe, IWR und IUR, Universitaet Heidelberg et al.). 10. Frequency optimisation of ultrasonic thermography methods (C. Spiessberger, Institut fuer Kunststofftechnik (IKT), Universitaet Stuttgart et al.). 11. Detection of cracks near the tooths of toothed gears using thermography and eddy current testing (W. Reimche, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Garbsen et al.). 12. Spatially resolved solar cell characterisation using Lock-in thermography (K. Ramspeck, Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung, Hameln / Emmerthal et al.). 14. Puls-Phase Thermography of CFRPL components with defined damage and repair (T. Krell, WIWEB, Erding et al.). 15. Depth-resolved defect detection using

  4. A nondestructive method for diagnostic of insulated building walls using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. First, a test bench is set up in order to measure front and back sides temperatures of standard panels. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. The front side is heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developped under Matlab environment. Also, we developped a three dimensional model based on finite volumes using Fluent computational code. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  5. Thermography Applied During Exercises With or Without Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation: Individual and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Emery C.; Corazza, Adalberto Vieira; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the cutaneous temperature during an exercise on a treadmill with or without infrared light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation in postmenopausal women. Background data: Thermography is an imaging technique in which radiation emitted by a body in the middle and far infrared spectrum is detected and associated with the temperature of the body's surface. Materials and methods: Eighteen postmenopausal women were randomly divided into two groups: (1) the LED group, which performed the exercises on a treadmill associated with phototherapy (n=9) and; (2) the exercise group, which performed the exercises on a treadmill without additional phototherapy (n=9). The irradiation parameters for each women's thigh were: array of 2000 infrared LEDs (850 nm) with an area of 1,110 cm2, 100 mW, 39 mW/cm2, and 108 J/cm2 for 45 min. The submaximal constant-speed exercise on the treadmill at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HRmax) with or without phototherapy were performed during 45 min, to perform the thermographic analysis. Thermography images were captured before the exercise (t=0), after 10, 35, and 45 min of exercising (t=10, t=35, and t=45) and at 5 min post-exercising (t=50). Results: The LED group showed an increased cutaneous thigh temperature during the exercise (from 33.5±0.8°C to 34.6±0.9°C, p=0.03), whereas the exercise group showed a reduced cutaneous temperature (from 33.5±0.6 to 32.7±0.7°C, p=0.02). The difference between the groups was significant (p<0.05) at t=35, t=45, and t=50. Conclusions: These data indicate an improved microcirculation, and can explain one possible mechanism of action of phototherapy associated with physical exercises. PMID:23819505

  6. An car fire investigation by infrared thermography%利用红外热像仪调查一起汽车火灾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华

    2011-01-01

    通过红外热像仪调查一起汽车火灾,探讨红外热像仪在火调工作中的应用,为火灾调查提供一些思路.%Infrared thermography was used in an car fire investigation. and its application in fire investigation was discussed.which gave some references.

  7. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  8. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  9. Thermal signature analysis of human face during jogging activity using infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarti, Putria W.; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru

    2016-11-01

    Thermal imaging has been widely used for many applications. Thermal camera is used to measure object's temperature above absolute temperature of 0 Kelvin using infrared radiation emitted by the object. Thermal imaging is color mapping taken using false color that represents temperature. Human body is one of the objects that emits infrared radiation. Human infrared radiations vary according to the activity that is being done. Physical activities such as jogging is among ones that is commonly done. Therefore this experiment will investigate the thermal signature profile of jogging activity in human body, especially in the face parts. The results show that the significant increase is found in periorbital area that is near eyes and forehand by the number of 7.5%. Graphical temperature distributions show that all region, eyes, nose, cheeks, and chin at the temperature of 28.5 - 30.2°C the pixel area tends to be constant since it is the surrounding temperature. At the temperature of 30.2 - 34.7°C the pixel area tends to increase, while at the temperature of 34.7 - 37.1°C the pixel area tends to decrease because pixels at temperature of 34.7 - 37.1°C after jogging activity change into temperature of 30.2 - 34.7°C so that the pixel area increases. The trendline of jogging activity during 10 minutes period also shows the increasing of temperature. The results of each person also show variations due to physiological nature of each person, such as sweat production during physical activities.

  10. Comparison of abdominal skin temperature between fertile and infertile women by infrared thermography: A diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Hyunho

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the differences in abdominal temperature (AT) between fertile (n=206; age) and infertile (n=250) women between the ages of 30 and 39 years. We evaluated the differences in two distinctive skin temperatures by thermography: ΔT1 (CV8 index) - difference in temperature between the mid-abdomen (CV8 acupuncture area) and ventral upper arm (VUA) and ΔT2 (CV4 index) - difference in temperature between the lower abdomen (CV4 acupuncture area) and VUA. The results indicated that the ΔT1 and ΔT2 of infertile women were significantly lower (by 1.05°C and 0.79°C, respectively; p<0.001, both) compared to those of fertile women. Additionally, the area under the curve of ΔT1 (0.78) was greater compared to that of ΔT2 (0.736), and its threshold was set at 0.675°C, by which, the sensitivity and specificity of ΔT1 for determination of fertility were found to be 80.8% and 68.4%, respectively. In conclusion, infertility is associated with lower AT. The decrease in AT in infertile women might be due to poor blood perfusion to the core muscles and tissues of the body. These findings provide a basis for further research for evaluation of clinical feasibility of thermography for analysis of infertility in women. Further evaluation of the influence of AT on fertility outcomes is required to determine the causal relationship between AT and infertility.

  11. Infrared thermography based magnetic hyperthermia study in Fe3O4 based magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2016-09-01

    Owing to the immense clinical benefits, magnetic hyperthermia is likely to emerge as an alternate cancer therapeutic procedure in the near future. Presently, radio frequency immune fiber optic based sensors are being used to monitor temperature changes during magnetic hyperthermia measurements, which have inherent limitations due to the requirement of physical contact of the sensor with the sample, contamination and temperature monitoring at a single point. Here, we investigate the field induced heating of oil based oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanofluid, synthesized using co-precipitation method, using infrared thermal imaging (IRT) camera and compare the results with those of fiber optic temperature sensor. Experiments were performed on nanofluid samples of four different concentrations and under five different external field amplitudes. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the samples were determined from the initial rate of temperature rise measured using both the techniques. The SAR values determined from both the techniques were in very good agreement with each other, with in an accuracy of 5%, after incorporating convection loss correction on the infrared thermal imaging data. The consecutive thermal cycling on the samples showed good thermal stability and thermal recovery. The maximum SAR obtained was 95.9 W/gFe for a sample concentration and field amplitude of 23 wt.% and 57.3 kA m-1, respectively. This study showed the efficacy and accuracy of temperature measurement using IRT during field induced heating of magnetic nanofluid and its advantages over conventional point measurements techniques for real-time, non-contact and wide area temperature mapping without sample contamination.

  12. When it's too hot to touch use infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnander, B. (AGEMA Infrared Systems, Inc., Secaucus, NJ (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Infrared imaging is an invaluable technique for the non-destructive temperature measurement of PCB's and other electronic components, whose contact with the measurement device would be impractical or would seriously alter the test results. Care must be taken, however, in the selection of the IR instrument, the methodology used to compensate for the characteristics of the component under study, and the effects of ambient radiation. In general, cameras operating at 3 to 5 microns are less affected by those component characteristics and irrelevant radiation than ones operating in the 8 to 12 micron range. The varying emissivities of the materials of the components under study must be determined and provided to the system if correct temperature measurements are to be obtained. In order to measure the temperature of small objects accurately, the imager used should have a high slit response function of modulations up to 100 percent. This capability is greatly enhanced if the imager has a field stop in the detector image plane to avoid stray radiation. Some cameras incorporate a software implemented model of the measurement situation that will compensate for the effects of emissivity, atmosphere, and radiation reflected in the component from its surroundings. The camera should have a good temperature drift compensation system, capable of eliminating both gain and offset drift to reduce the influence of the temperature of the thermal imager itself.

  13. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Sonza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3±2.6 years participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P≤0.05. Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  14. Whole body vibration at different exposure frequencies: infrared thermography and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  15. Relationship among eye temperature measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of...

  16. Defect Detection in Composite Coatings by Computational Simulation Aided Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R. M.; Souza, M. P. V.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thermography is based on the measurement of superficial temperature distribution of an object inspected subjected to tension, normally thermal heat. This measurement is performed with a thermographic camera that detects the infrared radiation emitted by every object. In this work thermograph was simulated by COMSOL software for optimize experimental parameters in composite material coatings inspection.

  17. Infrared Thermography for Monitoring of Freeze-Drying Processes: Instrumental Developments and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from −40°C to 25°C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5°C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8°C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13°C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10°C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. © 2014 European Union 103:2088–2097, 2014 PMID:24902839

  18. A nondestructive method for diagnosis of insulated building walls using infrared thermography in real situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi Youcef, Mohamed H. A.; Mazioud, Atef; Bremond, Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves; Piro, Michel; Filloux, Alain

    2008-03-01

    In order to provide a method to control conformity of insulation of buildings after restoration, Protomeres project was launched under Prebat 2005 program. This work deals with the development of an experimental protocol for the diagnostic of multi-layered insulated building walls. In a previous study, a test bench was set up in order to measure front and back side temperatures of standard panels compounded of 1cm of plaster and various thicknesses of polystyrene. The panels considered have insulation thicknesses of 2, 6 and 10cm. In the present work, the panels are fixed on walls in laboratory to test real situations in constructions. The front side is painted in standardized black color and heated by two halogen lamps of 500W. A CEDIP Jade Long wave infrared camera and thermocouples are used to carry out temperature measurements during an exposure time and subsequent cooling. In a second time, a one dimensional model based on thermal quadruples and Laplace transforms was developed under Matlab environment. This model simulates a three-layered wall with a blade of air between polystyrene and concrete. Finally, a method of identification of physical parameters is implemented by performing least square minimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The experimental measurements are compared to theoretical results and by minimization we obtain thermal conductivity and diffusivity as well as thickness of the two layers.

  19. A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huon V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-term objectives of this study is to be able to act quickly on body burns, to avoid propagating lesions due to heat diffusion. An experimental and numerical study is presented to better understand the thermomechanical behavior of the skin and its direct environment when exposed to strong thermal variations. The experimental step, suggested in this article, consists in placing a cooled cylindrical steel bar on the skin of a human forearm and measuring the temperature change using an infra-red camera. Blood circulation in the veins was seen to clearly influence of the heat diffusion. These experimental measurements provide a numerical model of the skin and its direct vicinity. This two-dimensional multi-layer model uses the Pennes equation to model biological tissue and the equation of heat in a fluid, to model blood. The properties of materials from the literature are validated by experimentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the experimental observations, but also to estimate blood speed in the veins.

  20. A new method of dynamic and static stall detection using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. D.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.

    2016-09-01

    A new method of detecting flow separation for static and pitching airfoils is described, with application to the generation of stall maps for helicopter rotors. An airfoil is heated using a lamp, and a high-speed infrared camera monitors the surface temperature. Subtracting consecutive images and performing a spatial standard deviation over a region of interest yields a single σ {DIT} value which is used to detect boundary layer separation on the airfoil. The data can be analysed to identify attached flow (low values of σ {DIT}) and separated flow (high values of σ {DIT}). Although appropriate filtering can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the method is robust regarding the exact method of analysis and the unfiltered data are sufficiently clear to be analysed without additional processing. For the test airfoil used, stall was measured up to a pitching frequency of 5 Hz, and signal-to-noise ratios indicate that it should be possible to measure stall for a pitching frequency of 20 Hz for a carbon-fibre surface with the thermal properties used.

  1. A new method of infrared thermography for quantification of brown adipose tissue activation in healthy adults (TACTICAL): a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Qi Yan; Goh, Hui Jen; Cao, Yanpeng; Li, Yiqun; Chan, Siew-Pang; Swain, Judith L; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2017-05-01

    The ability to alter the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults is a potential strategy to manage obesity and related metabolic disorders associated with food, drug, and environmental stimuli with BAT activating/recruiting capacity. Infrared thermography (IRT) provides a non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to the current methods (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET) used to assess BAT. We have quantified BAT activation in the cervical-supraclavicular (C-SCV) region using IRT video imaging and a novel image computational algorithm by studying C-SCV heat production in healthy young men after cold stimulation and the ingestion of capsinoids in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Subjects were divided into low-BAT and high-BAT groups based on changes in IR emissions in the C-SCV region induced by cold. The high-BAT group showed significant increases in energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and heat output in the C-SCV region post-capsinoid ingestion compared to post-placebo ingestion, but the low-BAT group did not. Based on these results, we conclude that IRT is a promising tool for quantifying BAT activity.

  2. Evaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region with the aid of infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with aid of infrared thermography in the environmental conditions of the Brazilian semiarid region. Were used 36 female goats, with a mean of 2.5 years and an average weight of 45 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design 2 x 2 in a factorial arrangement; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine Brown and two shifts (morning and afternoon, with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had significant effect (P<0.05 on rectal temperature (RT, average surface temperature (AST and thermal gradients, but the breed had no significant effect (P>0.05 and there was no significant interaction between breed and shift. With respect to physiological parameters: respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature of the muzzle of cinnamon there was significant effect of breed and shift and significant interaction between breed and shift (P<0.05. Positive correlations between physiological parameters and room temperature and negative correlation between thermal gradients and more parameters. The Anglo Nubian breed had become more adapted to the semi-arid environmental conditions representing a good alternative for breeding programs. The Alpine breed increased respiratory effort required to dissipate heat and maintain homeothermy, proving to be more demanding regarding system creation and management in the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  3. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method.

  4. The use of high-resolution infrared thermography (HRIT) for the study of ice nucleation and ice propagation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Michael; Neuner, Gilbert; Gusta, Lawrence V

    2015-05-08

    Freezing events that occur when plants are actively growing can be a lethal event, particularly if the plant has no freezing tolerance. Such frost events often have devastating effects on agricultural production and can also play an important role in shaping community structure in natural populations of plants, especially in alpine, sub-arctic, and arctic ecosystems. Therefore, a better understanding of the freezing process in plants can play an important role in the development of methods of frost protection and understanding mechanisms of freeze avoidance. Here, we describe a protocol to visualize the freezing process in plants using high-resolution infrared thermography (HRIT). The use of this technology allows one to determine the primary sites of ice formation in plants, how ice propagates, and the presence of ice barriers. Furthermore, it allows one to examine the role of extrinsic and intrinsic nucleators in determining the temperature at which plants freeze and evaluate the ability of various compounds to either affect the freezing process or increase freezing tolerance. The use of HRIT allows one to visualize the many adaptations that have evolved in plants, which directly or indirectly impact the freezing process and ultimately enables plants to survive frost events.

  5. 用于高温测量的红外热成像技术%The IR thermography technique for high temperature measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建平; 王国林; 黄沛然

    2001-01-01

    用于高焓风洞实验中模型表面温度测量的CCD红外热成像系统,测温范围1000~3500K。笔者介绍系统原理和标定过程,并给出了初步风洞实验结果。通过与红外高温计测量结果的比较分析,验证了该系统的可靠性和实用性。系统的研制成功为地面防热/热结构实验中模型表面温度测量提供了先进的手段。%A CCD IR thermography system can be used to measure the model surface tempe~ratures up to 3500K.In this paper,the system calibration test and dynamical compare test are introduced.The surface temperatures distribution of the hemispherical and small blunt model in high enthalpy facility are measured by the CCD IR thermography system. The results are compared with that obtained by an infrared pyrometer.It indicats that the developed system is successful and it will play an important role in high enthalpy wind tunnel experiment.

  6. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared

  7. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  8. Bonding quality evaluation of wind turbine blades by pulsed thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui-gang; Kong, De-juan; Zeng, Zhi; Tao, Ning; Zhang, Cun-lin; Feng, Li-chun

    2011-08-01

    The glue defects of the wind turbine blades which are composed of the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite plates make its strength greatly reduced, so security issues could be caused. To improve the safety of wind turbine blades, nondestructive testing technique using pulsed thermography is being investigated in this study. The results of ultrasonic C scan test were compared with the results of thermography. The current results indicated that both methods can successfully detect two gluing situations. However, the inspect specimens need to be putted in the water in the detection process by ultrasonic C scan, and the detection time lasts much longer than pulsed thermography. And in situ applications, the measured wind turbine blades are normally in the size of several tens meter, and also only one side is available for the inspection especially at the tip of blades. Thus, ultrasonic C scan of current experimental setup is not suitable for the applications in the field. Pulsed thermography is not necessary to contact with inspected specimens. The infrared results by pulsed thermography indicate that the shape and size of deficiency glue defects in the specimens show good agreement with the real situation, so it is more suitable for the inspection in the field. The preliminary results in this study indicate that pulse thermography can be used to detect glue faults of GFRP which are not too thick.

  9. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  10. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  11. Infrared thermography to diagnose and manage venomous animal bites and stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Infrared imaging (IR is a noninvasive technique that quantifies body surface temperature, producing a digital color image. IR has been used to study diseases in which skin temperature can reflect the presence of inflammation. METHODS This was an observational pilot study of eight patients envenomed by snakes, spiders, and scorpions. All patients were examined using a thermal camera. RESULTS In all cases, we obtained infrared images that corroborated clinical findings indicating localized effects of venom, specifically inflammation. CONCLUSIONS IR has potential for use as a research, diagnostic, and monitoring tool for localized effects of animal venoms.

  12. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  13. ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography and visible observation diagnostic using reflective optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, E.; Roche, H.; Thomas, E.; Droineau, S.; Bertrand, B.; Migozzi, J.B.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Dague, L.; Andrew, P.; Tiscornia, T.; Sands, D.

    2007-01-01

    Control of the plasma-wall interaction during transient events will be a critical issue in ITER. A new ITER-like wide-angle infrared and visible diagnostic, allowing to observe plasma wall interaction in the main chamber, has been installed on JET. The design and the manufacture of the diagnostic

  14. ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography and visible observation diagnostic using reflective optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, E.; Roche, H.; Thomas, E.; Droineau, S.; Bertrand, B.; Migozzi, J.B.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Dague, L.; Andrew, P.; Tiscornia, T.; Sands, D.

    2007-01-01

    Control of the plasma-wall interaction during transient events will be a critical issue in ITER. A new ITER-like wide-angle infrared and visible diagnostic, allowing to observe plasma wall interaction in the main chamber, has been installed on JET. The design and the manufacture of the diagnostic an

  15. Restoration of abraded and covered marks engraved in steel using active infrared thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quattrocchi, A.; Piccolo, Sebastiano; Montanini, R.

    2016-01-01

    by means of different manufacturing processes (laser, dot peen, impact, press and scribe). Optical excitation of the target surface has been achieved using pulse, lock-in and step heating. Raw infrared images were analysed with a dedicated image processing software originally developed in Matlab (TM......), exploiting several methods, which include thermographic signal reconstruction, guided filtering and logarithmic transformation....

  16. 红外热像仪船用数据采集方法应用%Applications on method of ship equipments temperature data gathering by infrared thermography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝斌; 石明华; 马卫民; 郭海生

    2011-01-01

    基于红外热像仪数据采集方法和国内外仪器设备无损检测方法应用研究,以热像仪船舶应用为案例,提出了集热像图采集、处理、存贮和利用的热像图图文信息采集管理方案.该方案规范了热像图的采集、处理过程,使热像图真正起到在船用设备隐患预警中的指导作用.%In this paper, based on studies of temperature data gathering with infrared therniography and applications in non-loss equipments testing method, illustrating with some successful cases about its usages for ship electronic facilities, gives a useful method or plan of temperature data gathering, processing, management, as well as data storage with the infrared thermography. As this plan would standardize the process of data gathering and management, it could make best use of infrared thermography maps and gives some necessary indicates in advance in testing of shipfittings.

  17. Use of infrared thermography in detection, remediation, and commissioning of thermal comfort problems in office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    2001-03-01

    Thermal comfort complaints within work places are one of the leading causes of workforce productivity loss within office environments. Generally, mechanical systems are relied on to provide adequate indoor environments. In many situations, these systems cannot provide suitable work environments due to unacceptable asymmetrical radiant temperature conditions found in exterior zones of building interiors. Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) has developed methodologies using infrared technology to assist building and office managers in reducing thermal comfort complaints and improve workforce productivity. Detection, verification, remediation and commissioning of solutions are easily and effectively carried out with the assistance of infrared radiometers and proper inspection and analysis procedures. This paper will outline two case studies and detail methodologies used in each case.

  18. Determination of thermal contact conductance in vacuum-bagged thermoplastic prepreg stacks using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Théo; De Almeida, Olivier; Menary, Gary; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice; Bikard, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The infrared heating of a vacuum-bagged, thermoplastic prepreg stack of glass/PA66 was studied to investigate the influence of vacuum level on thermal contact resistance between plies. A higher vacuum level was shown experimentally to decrease the transverse heat transfer efficiency, indicating that considering only the effect of heat conduction at the plies interfaces is not sufficient to predict the temperature distribution. An inverse analysis was used to retrieve the contact resistance coefficients as a function of vacuum pressure.

  19. Using infrared thermography to determine the presence and correct placement of grouted cells in single-width concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Allen, Lee R.

    1999-03-01

    Determining the placement of reinforcing grout in single-width CMU (Concrete Masonry Unit) walls has, in the past, been a painstaking and destructive undertaking. Usually, a test is performed because -- by accident -- missing cells are discovered when a wall penetration is retrofitted or change order is executed, requiring that the wall be opened. Often, a hammer or hammer drill is used to punch holes where the grouting is supposed to be. The test results are used to extrapolate the extent of the problem. This method falls short, since the sample is so small, that only outright fraud can be found, and excess grouting cannot be determined. This paper discusses the results of a joint effort between Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc. (SITS) and Allen Applied Infrared Technology, Inc. (AAIT) to produce a methodology for using non-destructive infrared thermography to ensure that the design specifications are being met.

  20. Amplitude-sensitive modulation thermography to measure moisture in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter; Buescher, Konstantin A.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    There have been reports about moisture detection in building walls by reflective IR-thermography. Typically, only limited results could be obtained because of the emission coefficient variations, leaking radiation or inhomogeneous illumination of the object. In addition, the quantitative relation between remission spectra and the moisture has often been unclear. Reflectometry uses constant excitation illumination which is recorded by the IR camera. With the use of the 'lock-in-technology' a low frequency modulated signal of an IR radiation source is coupled with the thermo camera and a frequency and phase sensitive signal from the thermal images can be derived. The advantage is, that emission coefficient dependencies are eliminated and that leaking radiation does not have any influence on the measured signal. The selective water measurement is possible, because there is an interference filter mounted in front of the radiator which has its transmission maximum at the wavelength of an absorption band of water. The area investigated is therefore illuminated under well defined circumstances and quantitative moisture measurement on the surface of building materials becomes a possibility. The illumination modulation is done with a sine wave to facilitate the calculation of the temporal intensity behavior of the amplitude signal. Subsequently, the amplitude image is used to determine the distribution and the level of moisture quantitatively. Point measurements in the laboratory were carried out on several building materials with changing moisture levels. It could be shown that this method successfully eliminates disturbing contributions to the measured signal like surface effects or leaking radiation.

  1. Non destructive testing in situ, of works of art by stimulated infra-red thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Grossel, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents various examples of assistance to the restoration of mural paintings by infra-red photothermal radiometry. First, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Then, we show the possibility to detect separation or air voids by this technique in various works of art as the Saint Christopher of the Campanna collection of Louvre, in the painted ceilings of the abbey of Savin Saint sur Gartempe (classified with the world heritage of UNESCO) and finally in the Cocteau frescoes of the vault Saint Pierre of Villefranche sur mer.

  2. 3D thermography for improving temperature measurements in thermal vacuum testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. W.; Simpson, R.; Parian, J. A.; Cozzani, A.; Casarosa, G.; Sablerolle, S.; Ertel, H.

    2017-07-01

    The application of thermography to thermal vacuum (TV) testing of spacecrafts is becoming a vital additional tool in the mapping of structures during thermal cycles and thermal balance (TB) testing. Many of the customers at the European Space Agency (ESA) test centre, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), The Netherlands, now make use of a thermal camera during TB-TV campaigns. This complements the use of embedded thermocouples on the structure, providing the prospect of monitoring temperatures at high resolution and high frequency. For simple flat structures with a well-defined emissivity, it is possible to determine the surface temperatures with reasonable confidence. However, for most real spacecraft and sub-systems, the complexity of the structure's shape and its test environment creates inter-reflections from external structures. This and the additional complication of angular and spectral variations of the spacecraft surface emissivity make the interpretation of the radiation detected by a thermal camera more difficult in terms of determining a validated temperature with high confidence and well-defined uncertainty. One solution to this problem is: to map the geometry of the test specimen and thermal test environment; to model the surface temperatures and emissivity variations of the structures and materials; and to use this model to correct the apparent temperatures recorded by the thermal camera. This approach has been used by a team from NPL (National Physical Laboratory), Psi-tran, and PhotoCore, working with ESA, to develop a 3D thermography system to provide a means to validate thermal camera temperatures, based on a combination of thermal imaging photogrammetry and ray-tracing scene modeling. The system has been tested at ESTEC in ambient conditions with a dummy spacecraft structure containing a representative set of surface temperatures, shapes, and spacecraft materials, and with hot external sources and a high power lamp as a sun

  3. 3D thermography for improving temperature measurements in thermal vacuum testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. W.; Simpson, R.; Parian, J. A.; Cozzani, A.; Casarosa, G.; Sablerolle, S.; Ertel, H.

    2017-09-01

    The application of thermography to thermal vacuum (TV) testing of spacecrafts is becoming a vital additional tool in the mapping of structures during thermal cycles and thermal balance (TB) testing. Many of the customers at the European Space Agency (ESA) test centre, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), The Netherlands, now make use of a thermal camera during TB-TV campaigns. This complements the use of embedded thermocouples on the structure, providing the prospect of monitoring temperatures at high resolution and high frequency. For simple flat structures with a well-defined emissivity, it is possible to determine the surface temperatures with reasonable confidence. However, for most real spacecraft and sub-systems, the complexity of the structure's shape and its test environment creates inter-reflections from external structures. This and the additional complication of angular and spectral variations of the spacecraft surface emissivity make the interpretation of the radiation detected by a thermal camera more difficult in terms of determining a validated temperature with high confidence and well-defined uncertainty. One solution to this problem is: to map the geometry of the test specimen and thermal test environment; to model the surface temperatures and emissivity variations of the structures and materials; and to use this model to correct the apparent temperatures recorded by the thermal camera. This approach has been used by a team from NPL (National Physical Laboratory), Psi-tran, and PhotoCore, working with ESA, to develop a 3D thermography system to provide a means to validate thermal camera temperatures, based on a combination of thermal imaging photogrammetry and ray-tracing scene modeling. The system has been tested at ESTEC in ambient conditions with a dummy spacecraft structure containing a representative set of surface temperatures, shapes, and spacecraft materials, and with hot external sources and a high power lamp as a sun

  4. Study on NDT Fault Diagnosis of the Ball Bearing under Stage of Abrasion by Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jin Ju; Hong, Dong Pyo [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    For fault detection about the abrasion stage of rotational machineries under the dynamic loading conditions unlike the traditional diagnosis method used in the past decade, the infrared thermographic method with its distinctive advantages in non-contact, non-destructive, and visible aspects is proposed. In this paper, by applying a rotating deep-grooved ball bearing, passive thermographic experiments were conducted as an alternative way to proceeding the traditional fault monitoring on spectrum analyzer. As results, the thermographic experiment was compared with the traditional vibration spectrum analysis to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Based on the results obtained as NDT, the temperature characteristics and abnormal fault detections of the ball bearing according to the abrasion stage were analyzed.

  5. Methodology for heat flux investigation on leading edges using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Y.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Dejarnac, R.; Gaspar, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Rigollet, F.

    2017-01-01

    During steady state plasma operation in fusion devices, leading edges of the actively cooled plasma-facing components can be impacted by plasma flux with nearly normal angle of incidence, causing local overheating. The overheating can be a critical issue in high-power machines, especially in the presence of mechanical misalignments. Due to heat diffusion through the material, the edge power overload also leads to a local increase of temperature on the top part of the tile that can be detected by the infrared imaging system (viewed from the top of the machine). In the Tore Supra tokamak, heat flux impinging on the top and the leading edge of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tiles are characterized with both an infrared (IR) thermographic system and 2D thermal modelling of the tile. A specific sensor correction based on a laboratory blackbody-slit experiment has been developed to simulate the spatial resolution related effects (necessary here since the temperature gradient near the leading edge is smaller than the pixel size of the IR system). The transfer function of the IR system is characterized by a Gaussian distribution function. The standard deviation is found to be σ  =  1.75 mm for a pixel size of 3.1 mm. The heat flux calculation is applied to CFC flat tiles and, after being processed with the transfer function, compared to experimental IR data for two geometrical situations: one with 0.2 mm misalignment between two adjacent tiles and the other without misalignment (well-aligned tiles). The heat flux ratio between the leading edge and top is found to be ~25 in the case of the protruding tile, which is lower than the expected ratio using the guiding-centre ballistic approximation with no cross-field heat flux (57).

  6. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums; Termografia infravermelha aplicada ao monitoramento de tambores de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M., E-mail: paulafuziki@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: flavio.arcalado@gmail.com, E-mail: bruno.phil@gmail.com, E-mail: criisviana@hotmail.com, E-mail: rma@ufmg.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica

    2013-07-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  7. Objective Assessment of Facial Paralysis Using Local Binary Pattern in Infrared Thermography%基于红外热像LBP的面瘫客观评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭龙; 洪文学; 张涛; 吴振英

    2013-01-01

    Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a con-tralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0. 86 and 0. 89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0. 657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis.%面瘫是一种多发的面神经疾病,表现为面部一侧横纹肌运动失调.目前,尚缺乏一种客观量化的诊断和评估方法.正常人体面部的温度分布双侧对称,面瘫通常会使这种温度分布的对称性发生改变.因此,本文提出利用面部温度分布的不对称度来客观评估面瘫的严重度,利用面部红外热像图健患双侧的局部二值模式(LBP)的直方图距离来表示面部温度分布的不对称度.对面瘫患者和健康人群作对照试验,结果表明:此方

  8. High-resolution infrared thermography for capturing wildland fire behaviour - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. O’Brien; E. Louise Loudermilk; Benjamin Hornsby; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; J. Kevin Hiers; Casey Teske; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fire radiant energy emission is one of the only measurements of combustion that can be made at wide spatial extents and high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, spatially and temporally explicit measurements are critical for making inferences about fire effects and useful for examining patterns of fire spread. In this study we describe our...

  9. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and “thermography” and “neurologic”. The chronological period was defined from 2000 to 2014 (the least 15 years). Among the studies included in this review, only seven were with experimental design. It is few to bring thermography as a daily tool in clinical practice. However, these studies have suggested good results. The studies of review and an analyzed patent showed that the authors consider the thermography as a diagnostic tool and they recommend its usage. It can be concluded that thermography is already used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of patients with neuropathies, particularly in complex regional pain syndrome, and stroke. And yet, this tool has great potential for future research about its application in diagnosis of other diseases of neurological origin. PMID:26191090

  10. Thermal territories of the abdomen after caesarean section birth: infrared thermography and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, C; Siraj, M R; Fair, F J; Selvan, A N; Soltani, H; Wilmott, J; Farrell, T

    2016-09-01

    To develop and refine qualitative mapping and quantitative analysis techniques to define 'thermal territories' of the post-partum abdomen, the caesarean section site and the infected surgical wound. In addition, to explore women's perspectives on thermal imaging and acceptability as a method for infection screening. Prospective feasibility study undertaken at a large University teaching hospital, Sheffield UK. Infrared thermal imaging of the abdomen was undertaken at the bedside on the first two days after elective caesarean section. Target recruitment: six women in each of three body mass index (BMI) categories (normal, 18.5-24.9 kg/m²; overweight 25-29.9 kg/m²; obese ≥30 kg/m²). Additionally, women presenting to the ward with wound infection were eligible for inclusion in the study. Perspectives on the use of thermal imaging and its practicality were also explored via semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. We recruited 20 women who had all undergone caesarean section. From the booking BMI, eight women were obese (including two women with infected wounds), seven women were overweight and five women had a normal BMI. Temperature (ºC) profiling and pixel clustering segmentation (hierarchical clustering-based segmentation, HCS) revealed characteristic features of thermal territories between scar and adjacent regions. Differences in scar thermal intensity profiles exist between healthy scars and infected wounds; features that have potential for wound surveillance. The maximum temperature differences (∆T) between healthy skin and the wound site exceed 2º C in women with established wound infection. At day two, two women had a scar thermogram with features observed in the 'infected' wound thermogram. Thermal imaging at early and later times after caesarean birth is feasible and acceptable. Women reported potential benefits of the technique for future wound infection screening. Thermal intensity profiling and HCS for pixel

  11. Thermal characterization of rods, tubes and spheres using pulsed infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinaniz, E [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Mendioroz, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Madariaga, N [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Oleaga, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Celorrio, R [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Rio Ebro, Edificio Torres Quevedo, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Salazar, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-01-07

    In this work we analyse the accuracy of an extension of the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of rods, tubes and spheres, which was recently proposed by the authors. We have performed measurements in a wide set of calibrated samples of different sizes and we have found that a lower limiting size of the radius can be established for the validity of the method. On the other hand, a procedure to retrieve the thermal conductivity of tubes, based on filling them with a contrast liquid (water), is proposed. Moreover, the thermal contact resistance between the two layers of coated cylinders is also obtained. Measurements on calibrated samples confirm the validity of the two latest methods.

  12. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  13. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  14. Comparison of the insulation property of an innovative material and a traditional one by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizza, A.; Bison, P.; Boldrini, S.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Colla, L.; Ferrarini, G.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative ceramic material has been developed as a possible substitute of the traditional rock-wool as thermal insulating material. It should be used in the future inside a machine working at a temperature greater than 200 °C. The effect of exposition to this temperature for several hours has been evaluated to check if a degradation of the insulating properties can be measured. Experiments did not show any evidence of degradation. Nonetheless the value of the thermal conductivity measured both at high and ambient temperature was not so good as expected. At the same time, the same measurements on rock-wool (the traditional choice for insulation in this machinery) revealed to be very difficult as it is not possible to prepare samples to be tested in a laser flash. To overcome this problem in the measurement of the performance at high temperature a new experiment was prepared by heating one side of the material by means of an electric heater and by looking and comparing (at least qualitatively) the temperature increase on the other side. On the purpose, two parallel-piped samples of the two rival materials, with the same thickness have been prepared and put in contact with the electric heater plate. The temperature evolution of the side facing the ambient has been measured by means of a thermographic camera for almost one hour. The experiment shows that the traditional material owns better insulation performance than the innovative one. Attention has been paid on the properties of the innovative material that, being highly hygroscopic, can maintain a low temperature during the drying process due to the very high value of the latent heat of water when changing from liquid to gas phase.

  15. Methods and Systems for Characterization of an Anomaly Using Infrared Flash Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterizing an anomaly in a material comprises (a) extracting contrast data; (b) measuring a contrast evolution; (c) filtering the contrast evolution; (d) measuring a peak amplitude of the contrast evolution; (d) determining a diameter and a depth of the anomaly, and (e) repeating the step of determining the diameter and the depth of the anomaly until a change in the estimate of the depth is less than a set value. The step of determining the diameter and the depth of the anomaly comprises estimating the depth using a diameter constant C.sub.D equal to one for the first iteration of determining the diameter and the depth; estimating the diameter; and comparing the estimate of the depth of the anomaly after each iteration of estimating to the prior estimate of the depth to calculate the change in the estimate of the depth of the anomaly.

  16. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the construction sector, most of the measurements carried out from IR camera devices are exploited in a qualitative way (e.g. observation of thermal bridges). However, unless a quantitative analysis is realized, it is not possible to assess the impact of the observed phenomena. Most of research efforts and proposed solutions to identify quantified thermal properties (e.g. U-values) have to be completed, adapted to the built environment and validated in experimental ...

  17. Determining directional emissivity: Numerical estimation and experimental validation by using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Ribbens, B.; Dirckx, J. J. J.; Steenackers, G.

    2016-07-01

    Little research has examined that inaccurate estimations of directional emissivity form a major challenge during both passive and active thermographic measurements. Especially with the increasing use of complex curved shapes and the growing precision of thermal cameras, these errors limit the accuracy of the thermal measurements. In this work we developed a technique to estimate the directional emissivity using updated numerical simulations. The reradiation on concave surfaces is examined by thermal imaging of a homogeneous heated curved metal and nylon test sample. We used finite element modelling to predict the reradiation of concave structures in order to calculate the parameters of an approximating formula for the emissivity dependent on the angle to the normal vector on each element. The differences between experimental and numerical results of the steel test sample are explained using electron microscopy imaging and the validation on different materials. The results suggest that it is possible to determine the errors of thermal imaging testing of complex shapes using a numerical model.

  18. Fire testing and infrared thermography of oak barrels filled with distilled spirits (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jaap

    2017-05-01

    Adequate fire protection of distilled spirits stored in oak barrels requires understanding the failure mode of these barrels, including quantifying the leak rate. In this study, the use of a custom-calibrated, long-wave microbolometer camera is demonstrated to seek new protection methods for rack-stored distilled spirits. Individual oak barrels ranging between 200 L and 500 L filled with 75%/25% ethanol/water were exposed to both propane gas fires and pure ethanol pool fires. The IR camera was used to see through the smoke and flames showing the location of the leaks. The increase in HRR due to the leaked content was measured using gas calorimetry of the combustion products. This study showed that barrels leaked at a rate of approximately 4-8 lpm, resulting in heat release rates ranging between 1.2 and 2.4 MW. These numbers are confirmed by the quantitative measurements of gaseous H2O and CO¬2 in the exhaust. Surface temperature of the exposed oak could reach temperatures up to 750ºC.

  19. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S

    2004-07-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to {radical}(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  20. Combined Holographic Subsurface Radar and Infrared Thermography for Diagnosis of the Conditions of Historical Structures and Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capineri, L.; Falorni, P.; Ivashov, S.; Zhuravlev, A.; Vasiliev, I.; Razevig, V.; Bechtel, T.; Stankiewicz, G.

    2009-04-01

    of RASCAN radar and infrared thermography (IRT) as a means of alleviating the non-uniqueness problem. Coincident RASCAN and IRT images have been recorded for laboratory mock-ups of stone, wood and plaster structures and artworks containing subsurface cracks, voids, moisture, insect damage, supports, repairs, and the like. In addition, some initial side-by-side testing has been performed on actual historic structures and artworks. Since both RASCAN and IRT produce real-time, plan-view images, they are easily overlain and compared, and both can be interpreted visually - especially by persons familiar with the particular item under investigation. Because they are sensitive to completely independent physical properties (dielectric constant for RASCAN and thermal conductivity and heat capacity for IRT), this comparison can allow confident identification of target materials and conditions. Our testing confirms that both are exquisitely sensitive to hidden moisture. Finally, instrumentation for both RASCAN and IRT is commercially available, relatively low cost, and easy to use and interpret - making this combination of methods a potentially powerful tool for workers engaged in the preservation and restoration of artworks and architecture.

  1. Different imaging methods in the comparative assessment of vascular lesions: color-coded duplex sonography, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Peter; Philipp, Carsten M.; Weinberg, Lutz; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Aim of the study was the comparative investigation of cutaneous and subcutaneous vascular lesions. By means of color coded duplex sonography (CCDS), laser doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and infrared thermography (IT) we examined hemangiomas, vascular malformations and portwine stains to get some evidence about depth, perfusion and vascularity. LDI is a helpful method to get an impression of the capillary part of vascular lesions and the course of superficial vessels. CCDS has disadvantages in the superficial perfusion's detection but connections to deeper vascularizations can be examined precisely, in some cases it is the only method for visualizing vascular malformations. IT gives additive hints on low blood flow areas or indicates arterial-venous-shunts. Only the combination of all imaging methods allows a complete assessment, not only for planning but also for controlling the laser treatment of vascular lesions.

  2. Uso da termografia infravermelha na análise da termorregulação de cavalo em treinamento Infrared thermography to evaluate the training horse thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella J. de Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O estresse térmico em equinos aciona mecanismos termorregulatórios, como mudanças no fluxo sanguíneo periférico, para a manutenção da homeostase corporal. A termografia infravermelha permite detectar estas alterações, sendo uma ferramenta útil para avaliar o estresse em animais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso da termografia infravermelha na termorregulação de equino em condição de treinamento. Foi utilizado um cavalo anglo-árabe, exercitado uma vez ao dia. Foram captadas imagens termográficas da axila, garupa, peito e virilha do cavalo e registrados os parâmetros fisiológicos antes e após exercício e 0; 5 e 10 minutos após o banho, durante 8 dias. A temperatura, a umidade relativa e a velocidade do ar foram monitoradas. A temperatura de superfície da garupa e do peito não diferiu entre os tratamentos, indicando baixa participação destas partes na termorregulação. Em contrapartida, a temperatura superficial da axila e da virilha aumentou após o exercício e diminuiu após o banho, sugerindo evidência dos mecanismos vasomotores para a troca térmica do cavalo. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para as variáveis fisiológicas, o que demonstra tentativas orgânicas do organismo para sair das condições de estresse térmico. Concluiu-se que a termografia infravermelha permitiu determinar com precisão a temperatura de superfície corporal do cavalo, sendo possível inferir sobre a termorregulação.Heat-regulation mechanisms, such as changes in peripheral blood flow, are activated by thermal stress to maintain body homeostasis. The infrared thermography enables to identify changes in blood flow and it has been valuable for recognizing stress in animals. This research aimed to evaluate the use of infrared thermography in the training horse thermoregulation. An Anglo-Arab horse was studied and exercised once a day. Infrared thermography images of horse´s armpit, croup, breast and groin and

  3. Resolution of an inverse heat conduction problem with a nonlinear least square method in the Hankel space. Application to photothermal infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaie, D.; Pron, H.; Bissieux, C.

    2008-11-01

    Integral transforms (Laplace, Fourier, Hankel) are widely used to solve the heat diffusion equation. Moreover, it often appears relevant to realize the estimation of thermophysical properties in the transformed space. Here, an analytical model has been developed, leading to a well-posed inverse problem of parameter identification. Two black coatings, a thin black paint layer and an amorphous carbon film, were studied by photothermal infrared thermography. A Hankel transform has been applied on both thermal model and data and the estimation of thermal diffusivity has been achieved in the Hankel space. The inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear least square problem and a Gauss-Newton algorithm is used for the parameter identification.

  4. Influence rule of excitation parameters in ultrasound infrared thermography%超声红外热像法的激励参数影响规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍济钢; 李赞; 李学军; 龚木红

    2016-01-01

    超声红外热像作为一项新型无损检测方法早已引起国内外研究人士的重视,研究超声波激励参数的影响对该方法的工程应用和理论研究具有重要意义。本文基于 ANSYS 有限元软件采用热固耦合的方法对超声波激励裂纹生热的过程模拟分析,研究了不同激励参数下(激励时间、激励幅值、激励位置)结构件裂纹缺陷的生热规律。并进行了超声波红外热像疲劳裂纹检测实验,实验结果验证了有限元分析的可行性。%The ultrasound infrared thermography as a new nondestructive testing method has attracted the attention of domestic and overseas researchers,so the influence research of ultrasonic excitation parameters has important signifi-cance for the engineering application and theoretical research of this method.The heat -generation process of crack excited by ultrasound was simulated and analyzed through the thermos -solid coupling method based on ANSYS.The heat -generation rule of crack defect was studied under different excitation parameters (excitation amplitude,excita-tion frequency,excitation position).And the cracks were detected by ultrasound infrared thermography.The results verify the feasibility of the finite element analysis.

  5. Thermography in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Ven, H., E-mail: hvandeven@thesnellgroup.com [The Snell Group, Barre, VT (United States)

    2013-03-15

    In the past, maintenance in the coal industry was using the 'run-to-failure' philosophy. This mindset is not only costly; it can also be dangerous. Today, some of the more progressive coal companies are trying to find ways to be more cost effective in their maintenance practices including adding infrared thermography for to their maintenance process. (author)

  6. Determining the material parameters for the reconstruction of defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymers from data measured by flash thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan P.; Götschel, Sebastian; Maierhofer, Christiane; Weiser, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Flash thermography is a fast and reliable non-destructive testing method for the investigation of defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials. In this paper numerical simulations of transient thermography data are presented, calculated for a quasi-isotropic flat bottom hole sample. They are compared to experimental data. These simulations are one important step towards the quantitative reconstruction of a flaw by assessing thermographic data. The applied numerical model is based on the finite-element method, extended by a semi-analytical treatment of the boundary of the sample, which is heated by the flash light. A crucial part for a reliable numerical model is the prior determination of the material parameters of the specimen as well as of the experimental parameters of the set-up. The material parameters in plane and in depth diffusivity are measured using laser line excitation. In addition, the absorption and heat transfer process of the first layers is investigated using an IR microscopic lens. The performance of the two distinct components of CFRP during heating - epoxy resin and carbon fibers - is examined. Finally, the material parameters are optimized by variation and comparison of the simulation results to the experimental data. The optimized parameters are compared to the measured ones and further methods to ensure precise material parameter measurements are discussed.

  7. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  8. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  9. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Jayaprakash, G; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  10. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography and feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunze; Tian, GuiYun; Pan, Mengchun; Chen, Dixiang

    2013-08-01

    This letter proposed an eddy current pulsed phase thermography technique combing eddy current excitation, infrared imaging, and phase analysis. One steel sample is selected as the material under test to avoid the influence of skin depth, which provides subsurface defects with different depths. The experimental results show that this proposed method can eliminate non-uniform heating and improve defect detectability. Several features are extracted from differential phase spectra and the preliminary linear relationships are built to measure these subsurface defects' depth.

  11. Spatial Structure of Turbulent Heat Exchange at the Snow-Atmosphere Interface Inferred from Time-sequential Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A.; Oldroyd, H. J.; Diebold, M.; Huwald, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Land surfaces with a low thermal admittance, such as snow, experience fluctuations in their surface temperature (Ts) not only due to the diurnal course of the energy balance, but also on much shorter time-scales as the consequence of turbulent heat exchange between the surface and the atmospheric surface layer. High-frequency fluctuations in Ts, as reported for selected land-surfaces in the literature, are the imprint of coherent turbulent structures transporting heat away or towards the surface in the atmospheric surface layer. Our hypothesis is that spatially coherent perturbations in Ts on a snowpack can be mapped using time-sequential thermography (TST) - time series of thermal images sampled using state-of-the-art thermal cameras. The low thermal admittance of fresh snow implies that snow should respond with higher amplitudes in Ts to atmospheric forcing than many other land-surfaces, where fluctuations in Ts can be below the radiometric resolution of common thermal camera systems. On February 13 and 14, 2013 we operated an uncooled thermal camera (A320, FLIR, Wilsonville, OR, USA) over a snow covered glacier (';Glacier de la Plaine Morte', 46°22'37"N, 7°29'16" E, 2720 m a.s.l.). The thermal camera was mounted on a short 3 m mast to provide an oblique view of a uniform and flat part of the glacier upstream of the tower, with a filed of view (FOV) of 25 x 19° at 320 x 240 pixel resolution. Thermal images of the apparent surface temperature were acquired with ~5Hz and complemented by 20 Hz measurements of the atmospheric flow with three ultrasonic anemometer-thermometers (CSAT-3, CSI, Logan, UT, USA), of which one was installed in the FOV of the thermal camera. During the measurement campaign, the atmospheric surface layer was stably stratified (clear skies, air temperatures -15 to -10°C), and Ts ranged between -21 and -10°C. The snow-surface exhibited quite large fluctuations in Ts up to ×3 K over short time (within ~10-30 seconds). The extracted spatio

  12. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  13. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  14. Non-destructive testing of high heat flux components of fusion devices by infrared thermography: modeling and signal processing; Controle non destructif par thermographie infrarouge des composants face au plasma des machines de fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cismondi, F

    2007-07-01

    In Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) the joint of the CFC armour material onto the metallic CuCrZr heat sink needs to be significant defects free. Detection of material flaws is a major issue of the PFCs acceptance protocol. A Non-Destructive Technique (NDT) based upon active infrared thermography allows testing PFCs on SATIR tests bed in Cadarache. Up to now defect detection was based on the comparison of the surface temperature evolution of the inspected component with that of a supposed 'defect-free' one (used as a reference element). This work deals with improvement of thermal signal processing coming from SATIR. In particular the contributions of the thermal modelling and statistical signal processing converge in this work. As for thermal modelling, the identification of a sensitive parameter to defect presence allows improving the quantitative estimation of defect Otherwise Finite Element (FE) modeling of SATIR allows calculating the so called deterministic numerical tile. Statistical approach via the Monte Carlo technique extends the numerical tile concept to the numerical population concept. As for signal processing, traditional statistical treatments allow a better localization of the bond defect processing thermo-signal by itself, without utilising a reference signal. Moreover the problem of detection and classification of random signals can be solved by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. Two filters maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio are optimized: the stochastic matched filter aims at detects detection and the constrained stochastic matched filter aims at defects classification. Performances are quantified and methods are compared via the ROC curves. (author)

  15. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and ...

  16. Measurement of the Peltier coefficient of semiconductors by lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Hilmar; Wagner, Jan-Martin; Breitenstein, Otwin

    2009-08-01

    Lock-in thermography is applied to image Joule heating and Peltier-type heat transport separately. Images obtained for a multicrystalline silicon solar cell are quantitatively evaluated using an integration method. The results are interpreted in terms of diffusion and electron/hole drag contributions. The approach presented is especially interesting where the thermal contact resistance to the sample is a problem and where versatility with respect to sample geometry is needed. A further advantage of the method is that it does not need any separate power or temperature calibration.

  17. Comparative Study of Surface Temperature Behavior of Commercial Li-Ion Pouch Cells of Different Chemistries and Capacities by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovon Goutam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniform surface temperature distribution of a battery cell results from complex reactions inside the cell and makes efficient thermal management a challenging task. This experimental work attempts to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution of three pouch type commercial cells: Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC-based 20 Ah cell, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP 14 Ah, and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO 5 Ah battery cell by using contact thermistor and infrared (IR thermography. High current (up to 100 A continuous charge/discharge and high current (80 A micro pulse cycling profile were applied on the cells. It was found that thermistor based temperature profile varied cell to cell, especially the LTO cell. Among the investigated cells, the NMC cell shows highest temperature rise and the LTO cell the lowest rise. IR (Infrared images revealed the spatial distribution of surface temperature, in particular the location of the hottest region varies depending not only on the geometrical and material properties of the cell, but also the type of loads applied on the cells. Finally, a modeling perspective of the cell temperature non-uniformity is also discussed.

  18. Non-destructive testing of objects of complex shape using infrared thermography: rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupkep Dizeu, F. B.; Laurendeau, Denis; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography allows contactless non-destructive testing of objects based on their thermal behavior. Quantitative inspection of an object aims to characterize its internal defects by estimating their size and their depth. In the field, a one-dimensional thermal model has been used for depth estimation. Unfortunately, the methods based on this model become inaccurate when the inspected object has a high thermal diffusivity, a complex shape, or when the defects, like corrosion, have a complex geometry. For such cases, a 3D formulation of the problem is needed. In this paper, we consider the defect characterization as an inverse geometry problem and we propose a new method: the rear surface reconstruction by temporal tracking of the thermal front. The idea is to follow the thermal front while it propagates inside the object. Referring to the duality time-depth, at every moment, the penetration depth of the thermal front can be estimated. As soon as the thermal front reaches the rear surface, a temperature change will be noticeable on the frontal surface. It is then possible to update the internal geometry of the object at each time step in such a way that the difference between the theoretical temperature, obtained by a 3D solver, and the experimental temperature, recorded by an infrared camera, is minimized. The proposed method shows accurate results and can address situations involving rear surfaces with complex geometry and objects with high thermal diffusivity and a complex shape.

  19. Spatiotemporal infrared measurement of interface temperatures during water droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    High-fidelity experimental characterization of sessile droplet evaporation is required to understand the interdependent physical mechanisms that drive the evaporation. In particular, cooling of the interface due to release of the latent heat of evaporation, which is not accounted for in simplified vapor-diffusion-based models of droplet evaporation, may significantly suppress the evaporation rate on nonwetting substrates, which support tall droplet shapes. This suppression is counteracted by convective mass transfer from the droplet to the air. While prior numerical modeling studies have identified the importance of these mechanisms, there is no direct experimental evidence of their influence on the interfacial temperature distribution. Infrared thermography is used here to simultaneously measure the droplet volume, contact angle, and spatially resolved interface temperatures for water droplets on a nonwetting substrate. The technique is calibrated and validated to quantify the temperature measurement accuracy; a correction is employed to account for reflections from the surroundings when imaging the evaporating droplets. Spatiotemporally resolved interface temperature data, obtained via infrared thermography measurements, allow for an improved prediction of the evaporation rate and can be utilized to monitor temperature-controlled processes in droplets for various lab-on-a-chip applications.

  20. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Garrett J.; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress–strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1] PMID:26380838

  1. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Pataky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress–strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1

  2. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Garrett J; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress-strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1].

  3. Experimental Determination of the Thermal Parameters of Carbon Fiber-Composite Materials Exposed to Fire by Infrared Imaging Pulse Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carballido, S.; Justo-María, C.; Meléndez, J.; Cortés, F.; López, F.; López del Cerro, F. J.

    2013-09-01

    A new procedure adapted from the classical one performed by Parker et al. has been developed to extend it to insulating plates (carbon fiber-reinforced composites). The measurement system consists of an infrared camera synchronized with a flash lamp. This method has been implemented to obtain the thermal parameters of the samples in different states of degradation by fire. The method is based on experimental-theory adjustment to obtain the intrinsic thermal parameters: thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity. In addition, the method has required development of a theoretical model accounting for the cooling losses significant for insulating plates. The results have been validated by comparison between the experimental data and those provided by a heat transfer model.

  4. 3D medical thermography device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  5. Intracoronary Thermography: a vulnerable Plaque Detection Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. ten Have (Anna)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis were performed to answer the central question: can intracoronary thermography be used for vulnerable plaque detection? To answer this question, we have identified parameters that influence intracoronary thermography measurements, and have studied to w

  6. Evidence of different thermoregulatory mechanisms between two sympatric Scarabaeus species using infrared thermography and micro-computer tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available In endotherms insects, the thermoregulatory mechanisms modulate heat transfer from the thorax to the abdomen to avoid overheating or cooling in order to obtain a prolonged flight performance. Scarabaeus sacer and S. cicatricosus, two sympatric species with the same habitat and food preferences, showed daily temporal segregation with S. cicatricosus being more active during warmer hours of the day in opposition to S. sacer who avoid it. In the case of S. sacer, their endothermy pattern suggested an adaptive capacity for thorax heat retention. In S. cicatricosus, an active 'heat exchanger' mechanism was suggested. However, no empirical evidence had been documented until now. Thermographic sequences recorded during flight performance showed evidence of the existence of both thermoregulatory mechanisms. In S. sacer, infrared sequences showed a possible heat insulator (passive thermal window, which prevents heat transfer from meso- and metathorax to the abdomen during flight. In S. cicatricosus, infrared sequences revealed clear and effective heat flow between the thorax and abdomen (abdominal heat transfer that should be considered the main mechanism of thermoregulation. This was related to a subsequent increase in abdominal pumping (as a cooling mechanism during flight. Computer microtomography scanning, anatomical dissections and internal air volume measurements showed two possible heat retention mechanisms for S. sacer; the abdominal air sacs and the development of the internal abdominal sternites that could explain the thermoregulation between thorax and abdomen. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between sympatric species are regulated by very different mechanisms. These mechanisms create unique thermal niches for the different species, thereby preventing competition and modulating spatio-temporal distribution and the composition of dung beetle assemblages.

  7. Buying Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madding, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The cost of thermographic information obtained by contracting for a service is compared to that of buying equipment and doing the work in-house. A breakeven analysis method is used to find the number of days per year an instrument must be used to justify buying it. Life-cycle costing techniques are used to find the equivalent annual cost of various classes of thermographic instruments. Results indicate that a full-time person earning 20,000 annually must use a 30,000 instrument at least 73 days per year if thermography can otherwise be contracted for $675 per day. By devoting a person to thermography part-time, the number of inspection days for this case can be reduced to about 28. Further in-house advantage can be gained by considering investment tax credits, salvage value and, to some extent, accelerated depreciation. Techniques for finding the breakeven number of inspection days for other costs are developed. A nomogram is included for rapid comparisons.

  8. Infrared measurements in defence application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available -range surveillance, earth observation, imaging using infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems, image processing, camouflage, simulation, the evaluation and optimisation of military IR systems and protection of military personnel and equipments against observation...

  9. Direct Imaging of the Onset of Electrical Conduction in Silver Nanowire Networks by Infrared Thermography: Evidence of Geometrical Quantized Percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannicolo, Thomas; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Moreau, Stéphane; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Bréchet, Yves; Bellet, Daniel

    2016-11-09

    Advancement in the science and technology of random metallic nanowire (MNW) networks is crucial for their appropriate integration in many applications including transparent electrodes for optoelectronics and transparent film heaters. We have recently highlighted the discontinuous activation of efficient percolating pathways (EPPs) for networks having densities slightly above the percolation threshold. Such networks exhibit abrupt drops of electrical resistance when thermal or electrical annealing is performed, which gives rise to a "geometrically quantized percolation". In this Letter, lock-in thermography (LiT) is used to provide visual evidence of geometrical quantized percolation: when low voltage is applied to the network, individual "illuminated pathways" can be detected, and new branches get highlighted as the voltage is incrementally increased. This experimental approach has allowed us to validate our original model and map the electrical and thermal distributions in silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. We also study the effects of electrode morphology and wire dimensions on quantized percolation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the network failure at high temperature can also be governed by a quantized increase of the electrical resistance, which corresponds to the discontinuous destruction of individual pathways (antipercolation). More generally, we demonstrate that LiT is a promising tool for the detection of conductive subclusters as well as hot spots in AgNW networks.

  10. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED (IR) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DESTRUCTION NOTICE FOR CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L

  11. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  12. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  13. 家猫大脑皮层温度的图象显示%Infrared thermography display of cortical temperature in cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 王淑友; 傅卫星

    2002-01-01

    Objective To use infrared thermography to take cat cerebral cortical temperature in order to visualize the temperature of its entire cerebral cortex as an image. Methods After performing craniotomy for exposure of cerebral hemispheres in 52 cats, their cortical temperatures were displayed and analyzed by computerized infrared thermovision.Results The temperature distribution of the cerebral cortex was uneven, with a maximum difference of 2.3℃ among different cortical areas. The temperature in the cortical anterior-inferior area (including the Ant. Ectosylvian, the lower section of Mid. Ectosylvian and the Ant. Sylvian) was higher compared to the temperature in the posterior-super-parts (Post. Suprasylvian, Mid. Suprasylvian, Post. Lateral and Ant. Lateral). Locations with higher or lower temperatures showed little change within three days after craniotomy, and the cortical temperature held steady. Conclusion The use of cortical infrared thermo-images for display of cat cortical temperature is possible and has many advantages over traditional methods. This new neuroimaging method has a practical value in neurological research.%目的建立一种新的大脑皮层温度图像显示方法观察和分析大脑皮层的温度分布.方法 52只家猫在开颅后,用红外热像仪显示大脑皮层的温度图像,并用计算机提取和分析皮层各区温度数值.结果大脑皮层温度分布不均匀,不同区域温度高低最大差值在2.3℃左右;皮层前下部(前外薛氏回、中外薛氏回下段、前薛氏回等)温度较高,后上部(后上薛氏回,中上薛氏回后段,后总回及前总回)等温度较低;术后3天内皮层高低温区的位置无大变化,温度稳定性较好.结论大脑皮层的红外热像图显像清晰,本文建立的观察和显示方法是成功的,这一新的神经图像方法用于皮层温度的研究具有实用价值.

  14. 医用红外热像图反映周围神经病的冷激发试验%Medical infrared thermography in cold provocation test reflecting peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 苑秀华; 沈艺莲; 李少忠; 俞澄; 田丽君

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION At present,ultrasonic doppler is used to examine blood circulation in big vessels in clinic,but there isn't still good and simple method for examination of blood circulation and vascular functions of limbs end and infrared thermography has some advantage in this aspect.It is well known that Raynaud phenomenon is caused by spasm and lesion of small end vessels of limbs.In clinic,provocation test might be used to provoke its onset and acknowledge of reaction condition of provocation in healthy people is the premise to judge abnormality and other lesions.

  15. Infrared technology and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, London, England, June 26-28, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettington, A.H.; (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern, England)

    1990-01-01

    Industrial infrared spectroscopy, detectors, applied thermography, optical manufacturing techniques, and optical design and testing are covered. Papers on various aspects of ductile grinding and diamond machining are presented, and focus is placed on thermal signature applications of a high-speed spectroradiometer, and industrial applications of the photothermal effect. Uncooled infrared thermal detector arrays are covered as well as submicron thin-film MOM diodes for the detection of 10-micron infrared laser radiation. Infrared thermal-imaging construction-fault location, industrial and research applications of thermography, and the control of materials by infrared thermography are considered. The optical design of a dual-magnification infrared telescope is presented, and image restoration in thermo-dynamic applications of infrared digital imagery is investigated along with a measurement method for wide-angle afocal telescopes.

  16. Optically and non-optically excited thermography for composites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2016-03-01

    Composites, such as glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), and adhesive bonding are being increasingly used in fields of aerospace, renewable energy, civil and architecture, and other industries. Flaws and damages are inevitable during either fabrication or lifetime of composites structures or components. Thus, nondestructive testing (NDT) are extremely required to prevent failures and to increase reliability of composite structures or components in both manufacture and in-service inspection. Infrared thermography techniques including pulsed thermography, pulsed phase thermography, and lock-in thermography have shown the great potential and advantages. Besides conventional optical thermography, other sources such as laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound excited thermography are drawing increasingly attentions for composites. In this work, a fully, in-depth and comprehensive review of thermography NDT techniques for composites inspection was conducted based on an orderly and concise literature survey and detailed analysis. Firstly, basic concepts for thermography NDT were defined and introduced, such as volume heating thermography. Next, the developments of conventional optic, laser, eddy current, microwave, and ultrasound thermography for composite inspection were reviewed. Then, some case studies for scanning thermography were also reviewed. After that, the strengths and limitations of thermography techniques were concluded through comparison studies. At last, some research trends were predicted. This work containing critical overview, detailed comparison and extensive list of references will disseminates knowledge between users, manufacturers, designers and researchers involved in composite structures or components inspection by means of thermography NDT techniques.

  17. A study on the Predictive Maintenance in NPP by Thermography diagnosis test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Gwangyeol; Lee, Goungjin [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The data are obtained, analyzed, trended, and used to predict equipment failures. When equipment failure timing is known, then actions can be taken to prevent or delay failure. This allows equipment reliability to remain high. Thermal measurement technology measures the absolute or relative temperatures of key equipment parts or areas being monitored. Abnormal temperatures indicate developing problems. Temperature and thermal behaviour of plant components are the most critical factors in the maintenance of plant equipment. For this reason, temperature is frequently considered the key to successful plant maintenance and is the frequently measured quantity. There are two types of equipment used in this technology: contact and non-contact. Contact methods of temperature measurement, using thermometers and thermocouples, are still commonly used for many applications. However, non-contact measurement using infrared sensors has become an increasingly desirable alternative to conventional methods. Maintenance is conducted every six months to two years on all the 428(in Young Gwang NPP 1, 2) plant thermography diagnosis equipment to be inspected including pumps, fans, transformers. Through the thermography measurement, there was a abnormal temperature detected recently on the transformers and pumps which was promptly responded to before showing any signs of malfunction, contributing to improving reliability of the facility. In case of the high-voltage switchgear, for the safety of the thermography inspector, additional safety precautions should be taken by installing the thermography measurement inspection window on the transformer's panel door.

  18. Infrared technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettington, A.H. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered by the following topics: innovations in industrial infrared spectroscopy, detectors, advances in applied thermography, optical manufacturing techniques, optical design and testing.

  19. Applications of the infrared thermography on the metal mechanical processing%红外热成像测温技术在金属机械加工方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冠华; 黄炜

    2001-01-01

    为了探索红外热成像测温仪在金属机械加工过程中的应用前景,使用焦平面热成像测温仪对金属机械加工、热处理、焊接等工艺过程以及热处理炉等大型设备的状态进行了测试。通过对相关工艺过程的现场检测,得到了车、刨、铣、焊接等工艺的关键加工部位的热像温度分布图像,验证了理论上对相关工艺状态的描述,为工艺研究课题的开展以及工艺参数的确定提供了可靠的检测手段。同时,结合热处理加热炉体的验收,进行了现场检测,发现了多处因绝热材料填充不匀造成的炉体局部温升过高,以及由于接触不良导致的部分电气线路及开关的局部温度过高现象,为确定相关设备的维护方案提供了依据。%To explore the foreground of the applications of the Infrared Thermography on the metal cutting, the Infrared Thermography device is used to monitor and survey the manufacturing procedures, such as metal cutting, heat treat and welding, also the conditions of heat treat ovens, and the IR thermography images have been gained for the temperature distribution in cutting area for lathing, planing, milling and welding processing, validated the description in the corresponding theories and references. The Infrared Thermography is suggested for the research projects on the metal cutting and determining the processing parameters for next period. In practice, a field survey has been made on the inner/outside wall and electric parts of a large heat treat oven for its delivery trial running. As a result, some areas with partly overheats have been found, which due to the insulate materials are not filled evenly and electric cables/fuses/switches are conducted badly, the result of this field survey finally has been as an evidence for the repair plan of the oven.

  20. Non-contact one-sided evaluation of hidden corrosion in metallic constructions by using transient infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavilov, V. P.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A short review of recent achievements in both theory and practice of transient infrared thermographic nondestructive evaluation in the application to corrosion detection is given. The potentials of 1D, 2D and 3D approaches to solving a heat conduction problem related to detecting material loss are compared, as well as the requirements to the inspection equipment are formulated. The practical illustrations are taken from the inspection of thin aluminum structures and thick steel samples.

    Se presenta una corta revisión sobre los logros recientes en teoría y práctica de la evaluación no destructiva por termografía infrarroja transitoria aplicada a la detección de la corrosión. Se comparan los potenciales de las aproximaciones 1D, 2D y 3D para resolver el problema de la conducción del calor relacionada a la detección de pérdida de material, y, también, se formulan los requerimientos de los equipos de inspección. Se toman ilustraciones prácticas de la inspección de estructuras delgadas de aluminio y de muestras de acero gruesas.

  1. Infrared thermography applied to lower limb muscles in elite soccer players with functional ankle equinus and non-equinus condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius-soleus equinus (GSE is a foot-ankle complaint in which the extensibility of the gastrocnemius (G and soleus muscles (triceps surae and ankle are limited to a dorsiflexion beyond a neutral ankle position. The asymmetric forces of leg muscles and the associated asymmetric loading forces might promote major activation of the triceps surae, tibialis anterior, transverses abdominal and multifidus muscles. Here, we made infrared recordings of 21 sportsmen (elite professional soccer players before activity and after 30 min of running. These recordings were used to assess temperature modifications on the gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and Achilles tendon in GSE and non-GSE participants. We identified significant temperature modifications among GSE and non-GSE participants for the tibialis anterior muscle (mean, minimum, and maximum temperature values. The cutaneous temperature increased as a direct consequence of muscle activity in GSE participants. IR imaging capture was reliable to muscle pattern activation for lower limb. Based on our findings, we propose that non-invasive IR evaluation is suitable for clinical evaluation of the status of these muscles.

  2. Dental Applications of Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Bhat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermography is a technique which utilizes imaging and visual evaluation of the thermal changes. The amount of blood circulation varies at different layers of the skin and hence, there is a change in temperature accordingly. This is the basis behind the principle of thermography. This technique is utilized in diagnostics. In this review article, we have made an attempt to highlight the applications of thermography in dentistry. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 84-96

  3. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel. Part 5: Infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    A survey of infrared thermography for aerodynamics was made. Particular attention was paid to boundary layer transition detection. IR thermography flow visualization of 2-D and 3-D separation was surveyed. Heat transfer measurements and surface temperature measurements were also covered. Comparisons of several commercial IR cameras were made. The use of a recently purchased IR camera in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels was studied. Optical access for these facilities and the methods to scan typical models was investigated.

  4. Kinetic Super-Resolution Long-Wave Infrared (KSR LWIR) Thermography Diagnostic for Building Envelopes: Scott AFB, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    to begin imaging. This mitigated the effects of solar radiation and allowed the team to capture da- ta at a period with the largest temperature...quality and utility of the images and analysis. Handheld radiometric imaging instruments are standard equipment for energy efficiency measurements of...techniques of measuring energy loss due to enve- lope inefficiencies from the built environment. A multi-sensor hardware device attached to the roof of a

  5. Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McCoy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using an infrared scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The thermal functions of a commercially available infrared scanner (Insight Subluxation Station® were evaluated for clinical reliability. Two practicing clinicians conducted the measures on 100 subjects. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs were calculated from the collected data. RESULTS: Mean bilateral paraspinal skin temperature was 89.78° F and ranged from 88.77° F to 91.43° F. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs for agreement and consistency ranged from 0.959 to 0.976. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs ranged from 0.783 to 0.859 with tight confidence intervals indicating robust estimates of these quantities. CONCLUSION: This study revealed excellent intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using a commercially available unit.

  6. Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reproducibility of Paraspinal Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Matthew; Campbell, Ismay; Stone, Pamela; Fedorchuk, Curtis; Wijayawardana, Sameera; Easley, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using an infrared scanner. Materials and Methods The thermal functions of a commercially available infrared scanner (Insight Subluxation Station®) were evaluated for clinical reliability. Two practicing clinicians conducted the measures on 100 subjects. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated from the collected data. Results Mean bilateral paraspinal skin temperature was 89.78° F and ranged from 88.77° F to 91.43° F. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for agreement and consistency ranged from 0.959 to 0.976. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) ranged from 0.783 to 0.859 with tight confidence intervals indicating robust estimates of these quantities. Conclusion This study revealed excellent intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using a commercially available unit. PMID:21347290

  7. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  8. Determination of thermal diffusivity of dental enamel and dentin as a function of temperature, using infrared thermography; Determinacao da difusividade termica do esmalte e dentina em funcao de temperatura, utilizando termografia no infravermelho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago Martini

    2009-07-01

    In this work it was developed a software that calculates automatically, the thermal diffusivity value as a function of temperature in materials. The infrared thermography technique was used for data acquisition of temperature distribution as a function of time. These data were used to adjust a temperature function obtained from the homogeneous heat equation with specific boundary conditions. For that, an infrared camera (detecting from 8 {mu}m to 9 {mu}m) was calibrated to detect temperature ranging from 185 degree C up to 1300 degree C at an acquisition rate of 300 Hz. It was used, 10 samples of dental enamel and 10 samples of dentin, with 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm, which were obtained from bovine lower incisor teeth. These samples were irradiated with an Er:Cr:YSGG pulsed laser ({lambda} = 2,78 {mu}m). The resulting temperature was recorded 2 s prior, 10 s during irradiation and continuing for 2 more seconds after it. After each irradiation, all obtained thermal images were processed in the software, creating a file with the data of thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature. Another file with the thermal diffusivity values was also calculated after each laser pulse. The mean result of thermal diffusivity obtained for dental enamel was 0,0084 {+-} 0,001 cm2/s for the temperature interval of 220-550 degree C. The mean value for thermal diffusivity obtained for dentin was 0,0015 0,0004 cm2/s in temperatures up to 360 degree C; however, this value increases for higher temperatures. According to these results, it was possible to conclude that the use of infrared thermography, associated with the software developed in this work, is an efficient method to determine the thermal diffusivity values as a function of temperature in different materials. (author)

  9. Skin temperature evaluation by infrared thermography: Comparison of two image analysis methods during the nonsteady state induced by physical exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Rossi, Alessio; Trecroci, Athos; Alberti, Giampietro; Gargano, Marco; Merla, Arcangelo; Ammer, Kurt; Caumo, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The most common method to derive a temperature value from a thermal image in humans is the calculation of the average of the temperature values of all the pixels confined within a demarcated boundary defined region of interest (ROI). Such summary measure of skin temperature is denoted as Troi in this study. Recently, an alternative method for the derivation of skin temperature from the thermal image has been developed. Such novel method (denoted as Tmax) is based on an automated (software-driven) selection of the warmest pixels within the ROI. Troi and Tmax have been compared under basal, steady-state conditions, resulting very well correlated and characterized by a bias of approximately 1 °C (Tmax > Troi). Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Tmax and Troi under the nonsteady-state conditions induced by physical exercise. Thermal images of quadriceps of 13 subjects performing a squat exercise were recorded for 120 s before (basal steady state) and for 480 s after the initiation of the exercise (nonsteady state). The thermal images were then analysed to extract Troi and Tmax. Troi and Tmax changed almost in parallel during the nonstead -state. At a closer inspection, it was found that during the nonsteady state the bias between the two methods slightly increased (from 0.7 to 1.1 °C) and the degree of association between them slightly decreased (from Pearson's r = 0.96 to 0.83). Troi and Tmax had different relationships with the skin temperature histogram. Whereas Tmax was the mean, which could be interpreted as the centre of gravity of the histogram, Tmax was related with the extreme upper tail of the histogram. During the nonsteady state, the histogram increased its spread and became slightly more asymmetric. As a result, Troi deviated a little from the 50th percentile, while Tmax remained constantly higher than the 95th percentile. Despite their differences, Troi and Tmax showed a substantial agreement in assessing the changes in skin

  10. Study of a brittle and precious medieval rose-window by means of the integration of GPR, stress wave tests and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2009-04-01

    The correct management and restoration of architectural monuments of high cultural interest requires a comprehensive understanding of their status of preservation, the detection of the building features, the localization of damages and possibly the identification of their causes, nature and extent. To this aim, in recent times there is a growing interest on non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical methods as an invaluable tool for correlating spatially the information gained through destructive tests, which are restricted to a few locations of the investigated structure, and to optimize the choice of their position in order to minimize their impact on the monument structural stability. Moreover, the integration of the classical geophysical techniques with emerging surface and subsurface sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) provides a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the monument state of preservation and its material and building components, which is vital for addressing maintenance and restoration issues. The present case study focuses on the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), infrared thermography (IRT), sonic and ultrasonic tests to analyze a 13th century precious rose window in Southern Italy, affected by widespread decay and instability problems. The Cathedral of Troia (Apulia, Italy) is the masterpiece of the Apulian Romanesque architecture. Its façade is adorned with an astonishing 6 m diameter rose window consisting of 11 twin columns, in various stone and reused marbles, connected to a central oculus and to a ring of trapezoidal elements decorated with arched ribworks. Between the twin columns there are 11 triangular carved panels with different and strongly symbolic geometrical patterns. According to visual inspection, mineralogical and petrographic studies, different materials have been used for the different architectural elements: fine grained limestone for the central oculus, medium-fine grained calcarenite

  11. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.

    2015-06-01

    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  12. Temperature measurements on solid surfaces in rack-storage fires using IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J.; Ren, N.; Chaos, M.

    2015-05-01

    The development of fire modeling tools capable of predicting large-scale fire phenomena is of great value to the fire science community. To this end, FM Global has developed an open-source CFD fire simulation code, FireFOAM. The accuracy of this code relies fundamentally on high-quality experimental validation data. However, at larger scales, detailed measurements of local quantities (e.g., surface temperatures) needed for model validation are difficult to obtain. Often, the information obtained from large-scale fire tests is limited to the global heat release rates (HRR) or point temperature or heat flux measurements from embedded thermocouples or heat flux gauges, respectively. The present study addresses this limitation by introducing IR thermographic measurements in a three- and a five-tier-high rack storage scenario. IR temperatures are compared against modeled results. The tested and modeled cases represent realistic industrial warehouse fire scenarios. The rack-stored commodity consisted of corrugated paperboard boxes wrapped around a steel cubic liners, placed on top of a hardwood pallet. The global heat release rate was measured using a 20- MW fire products collector located inside FM Global's Fire Technology Laboratory. An in-house calibrated microbolometer IR camera was used to obtain two-dimensional temperature measurements on the fuel surfaces and on the surfaces inside the flue spaces. Maximum temperatures up to 1200 K were observed on the external surfaces of the test array. Inside the flue spaces between pallet loads, temperatures up to 1400 K were measured. The modeled fire spread results match well fire spread shown in the IR thermographic images. The peak modeled surface temperatures obtained inside some of the horizontal flue spaces were ~1400K, which agreed well with the peak temperatures seen by the IR camera. The effect of the flames present between the surfaces of interest and the IR camera only contribute to about 50 K increase in measured

  13. Infrared thermography of loose hangingwalls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available on the thermal conductivity of the rock, the ventilation conditions, the looseness of the rock and, to a lesser extent, the type of rock and age of mining. Such a gradient could be anything from a tenth of a degree to a few degrees Centigrade....

  14. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak; Thermographie proche infrarouge par cameras CCD et application aux composants de premiere paroi du tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-06-07

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m{sup 2}). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. 87 refs.

  15. Application of infrared thermography in bonding effect detection of building waterproofing materials%红外热像法在检测建筑防水卷材粘合效果的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓烨; 石永平; 关洪军; 李宏伟; 刘华丽

    2014-01-01

    红外热像法(Infrared Thermography)在建筑检测领域具有相当广阔的应用前景.本文利用NEC_H2640型红外热像仪,结合软件编程及参考红外热像法检测建筑外墙饰面粘结质量技术规程[1],提出红外热像法检测的具体技术方法,对某建筑地下车库外墙防水卷材粘合效果进行了检测尝试,发现红外热像法对大部分空鼓具有很高辨识度.实现了红外热像法在建筑防水检测领域的有效应用.

  16. 热像法和能量法快速评估Q235钢的疲劳性能%Fast Evaluation of Fatigue Behavior of Q235 Steel by Infrared Thermography and Energy Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊俊铃; 郭杏林; 吴承伟; 邓德伟

    2012-01-01

    借助热像法和能量法快速确定了单轴循环应力作用下Q235钢的疲劳性能参数,与传统实验结果相比,吻合较好.基于极限能理论假设,建立了Miner线性累积损伤理论的能量模型以预测构件的残余寿命.研究结果表明:热像法和能量法可以在较短的实验周期内快速地确定材料的疲劳极限和S-N曲线等疲劳性能参数;Miner理论的能量模型具有明确的物理意义,能准确预测循环载荷作用下构件的残余寿命.%The infrared thermography was used to rapidly determine the fatigue parameters of Q235 steel undergoing uniaxial cyclic stress, and a good agreement was achieved between the predicted results and the results from the traditional fatigue testing methods. Based on the assumption of the limiting energy theory, the energy approach based on Miner's law was advanced to predict the residual fatigue life of samples. The results show that the infrared thermography and the energy approach can be used to rapidly determine the fatigue limit and the S-N curve in a short test period; and that the residual fatigue life can be accurately predicted by the energy approach based on Miner's law with clear physical meaning.

  17. Measurement of borneol based on infrared spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Gu; Yan Wang; Huili Sun; Kexin Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ The infrared spectrometry contains multiple information of the sample, and it is easy to be applied to online measurement. To Chinese medicine, this technology can improve the standard of quality control and accelerate the modernization course. In this paper, we investigate the spectral characteristics of borneol,an effective ingredient in many Chinese medicines. The following results are achieved. In middle infrared (MIR) region, utilizing the linear relationship between absorption and concentration, the concentration of borneol with relative error within 4.30% in the strongest absorption region (2950-2970 cm-1) is measured;in near infrared (NIR) region, the predicted concentrations of borneol are calculated by using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis, in which the wavelengths are selected by genetic algorithm (GA) from the absorption bands of borneol in NIR region. The predicted relative error of calibration model is less than 2%. This result shows that PLS regression analysis combining genetic algorithm is a good method to improve prediction and reduce data in NIR region.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Thermography Studies and Electrical Measurement of Partial Discharges in Underground Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Parada, A.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Guzman-Sepulveda, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The principal cause of damage in underground power cable installations is partial discharge (PD) activity. PD is a localized non-linear phenomenon of electrical breakdown that occurs in the insulating medium sitting between two conducting materials, which are at different potentials. The damage to the insulating material is induced by the AC voltage to which the insulator is subjected during the discharge process, and it can be directly or indirectly measured by the charge displacement across the insulation and the cavity defect. Non-invasive detection techniques that help in identifying the onset of the discharge process are required as PD is a major issue in terms of maintenance and performance of underground power installations. The main locations of failure are the accessories at points of connection such as terminals or splices. In this article, a study of electrical detection of PD and image processing of thermal pictures is presented. The study was carried out by controllably inducing specific failures in the accessories of the installation. The temporal evolution of the PD signals was supported with thermal images taken during the test in order to compare the PD activity and thermal increase due to failure. The analysis of thermographic images allows location of the failure by means of intensity-based texture segmentation algorithms. This novel technique was found to be suitable for non-invasive detection of the PD activity in underground power cable accessories.

  19. 半透明复合材料脉冲热像检测的有限元仿真分析%Modeling of Infrared Pulsed Thermography on Translucent Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 郭兴旺; 刘颖韬

    2016-01-01

    Internal disbonds of translucent laminates were not detected successfully in some cases of infrared pulsed thermography (PT).To investigate the reason,based on the heat theoretical analysis and the optical parameters of experimental measurements,the energy distribution of body heat in PT for the studied obj ects,glass fiber laminates,was obtained.A simulation of PT was performed by 2D modeling,and the inner heat stimulated by illumination was imitated by inner heat-generating.A comparative analysis of the translucent model and the regular model was conducted using the finite element analysis.The results show that the translucent property can lead to failure in PT.The depth and size of a defect that could not be detected were calculated by applying detectable defect signal standard to the simulation results,and it was testified that raising the pulsed energy could contribute to the defect inspection of translucent materials.%利用脉冲热像法对半透明复合材料的内部脱粘进行检测,时有漏检发生。为研究缺陷漏检机理,以玻璃纤维层压板为对象,通过对材料光学受热的理论分析和光学参数试验测量,得到了半透明复合材料脉冲检测时体受热的能量分布规律。建立二维仿真模型,用内生热模拟加热时半透明复合材料的内部受热;利用有限单元法对半透明模型和常规模型进行了对比分析。结果表明,材料的半透明性可导致缺陷漏检。通过仿真曲线与指定缺陷可检标准给出了漏检缺陷对应的深度和大小范围,并验证了提高加热能量可减少缺陷漏检这一结论的正确性。

  20. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.

    2015-05-01

    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  1. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  2. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  3. A Study on the Optimized Test Condition of Lock-in IR Thermography by Image Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Jin [Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, it was studies the utilization of LIT(lock-in infrared thermography) which can detect defects in welded parts of ship and offshore structures. Quantitative analysis was used through methods of filtering and texture measurement of image processing techniques to find the optimized experimental condition. We verified reliability in our methods by applying image processing techniques in order to normalize evaluations of comparative images that show phase difference. In addition, low to mid exposure showed good results whereas high exposure did not provide significant results in regards to intensity of light exposure on surface. Lock-in frequency was satisfactory around 0.1 Hz regardless of intensity of light source we had. In addition, having the integration time of thermography camera inversely proportional to intensity of exposed light source during the experiment allowed good outcome of results.

  4. Temperature measurement of contact resistance based on infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, De; Feng, Jieyu

    2010-11-01

    For science and technology, the level of science and technology is determined by the measurement accuracy and efficiency to some extent. Contact resistance can not be ignored in precise measurement. Because the measured object is not directly contacted with infrared measurement device, there is no friction. Infrared measurement has the advantage of high sensitivity, fast response and so on. In this paper, the reasons for the temperature rising of the contact resistance and its harm and the importance of measuring the temperature of the contact resistance in precise measurement are analyzed firstly; then some theories of the infrared detection technology are introduced; finally, an infrared temperature measurement system based on SCM is designed.

  5. Simulations and measurements of artificial cracks and pits in flat stainless steel plates using tone burst eddy-current thermography (TBET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, B. W.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET) is a new hybrid, non-contacting, Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method which employs a combination of Pulsed Eddy current Thermography (PEC) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE). For understanding the influence of cracking and pitting on heat generation and flow within a metallic body, a fundamental knowledge of the detailed induced current density distribution in the component under test is required. This information enables us to calculate the amount of heat produced by the defects and how that heat diffuses to the surface where it is imaged. This paper describes simulation work done for artificial pits and cracks within pits on the far surface of poorly conducting metals like stainless steel. The first phase of this investigation simulates the transient thermal distribution for artificial 2D pit and crack-like defects using the finite element package COMSOL multi-physics with the AC/DC module and general heat transfer. Considering the reflection measurement geometry where thermal excitation and temperature monitoring are on the same surface, pitting reduces the material volume thereby contributing to a larger temperature rise for the same thermal energy input. A crack within a pit gives a further increase in temperature above the pure pit baseline. The tone burst frequency can be changed to obtain approximately uniform heating (low frequency) or heating of a thin region at the observation surface. Although front surface temperature changes due to 10% deep far-side pits in a 6 mm thick plate can be measured, it is not yet clear whether a 20% deep crack within this pit can be discriminated against the background. Both simulations and measurements will be presented. The objective of this work is to determine whether the TBET method is suitable for the detection and characterization of far side pitting, cracking and cracks within those pits.

  6. The Use of Infrared Thermography as a Rapid, Quantitative, and Noninvasive Method for Evaluation of Inflammation Response in Different Anatomical Regions of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Thermographic assessment of temperature distribution within the examined tissues allows a quick, noncontact, noninvasive measurement of their temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of digital infrared imaging in monitoring experimental inflammation of pleura (PL, lower lip (LL, and left paw (LP and right paw (RP of lower limbs in rats. Materials and Methods. The inflammatory reaction was induced by injection of 1% carrageenin solution into pleural cavity, lip, or paws. With the use of digital infrared imaging temperature measurement was conducted at 0 to 72 hours of the inflammatory reaction. Results. The temperature decrease was observed at the site of injection directly afterwards. Next, it was gradually increasing and it reached the maximum on the third day of the inflammatory reaction. Statistically significant changes were observed after 48-hour period in PL and LL regions, as well as after 72-hour period in LP and RP regions P<0.005. Conclusion. It was found that thermographic examination allows for indicating the presence of inflammatory reaction within examined tissues and determining the dynamics of this process. This method could be used as alternative procedure that allows using fewer animals for experiments.

  7. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, F.; Paulucci, L.

    2016-03-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as the data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments, promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the 4-30 cm range. As a proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems.

  8. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, F

    2016-01-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over the typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc.) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the $\\rm 4-30~cm$ range. As proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems.

  9. Department of National Defence's use of thermography for facilities maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittson, John E.

    1990-03-01

    Since the late seventies DND through the Director General Works has been actively encouraging the use of thermography as an efficient and effective technique for supporting preventive maintenance quality assurance and energy conservation programs at Canadian Forces Bases (CFBs). This paper will provide an overview of DND''s experiences in the utilization of thermography for facilities maintenance applications. 1. HISTORICAL MILESTONES The following are milestones of DND''s use of thermography: a. Purchase of Infrared Equipment In 1976/77 DND purchased five AGA 750 Infrared Thermovision Systems which were distributed to commands. In 1980/81/82 six AGA liOs five AGA TPT8Os two AGA 782s and one AGA 720 were acquired. Finally DND also purchased seven AGEMA 870 systems during 1987/88. b. First and Second Interdepartaental Building Thermography Courses In 1978 and 1980 DND hosted two building thermography courses that were conducted by Public Works Canada. c. CE Thermographer Specialist Training Courses DND developed a training standard in 1983 for Construction Engineering (CE) Thermographer qualification which included all CE applications of thermography. The first annual inhouse training course was conducted at CFB Borden Ontario in 1984. These are now being conducted at the CFB Chilliwack Detachment in Vernon British Columbia. 2 . MARKETING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE IR Of paramount importance for successfully developing DND appreciation for thermography was providing familiarization training to CE staff at commands and bases. These threeday presentations emphasized motivational factors conducting thermographic surveys and utilizing infrared data of roofs electrical/mechanical systems heating plants steam distribution and building enclosures. These factors consisted mainly of the following objectives: a. preventive maintenance by locating deficiencies to be repaired b. quality assurance by verification of workmanship materials and design c. energy conservation by locating

  10. 3D thermography in non-destructive testing of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstein, Piotr; Szwedo, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    The combination of 3D scanners and infrared cameras has lead to the introduction of 3D thermography. Such analysis produces results in the form of three-dimensional thermograms, where the temperatures are mapped on a 3D model reconstruction of the inspected object. All work in the field of 3D thermography focused on its utility in passive thermography inspections. The authors propose a new real-time 3D temperature mapping method, which for the first time can be applied to active thermography analyses. All steps required to utilise 3D thermography are discussed, starting from acquisition of three-dimensional and infrared data, going through image processing and scene reconstruction, finishing with thermal projection and ray-tracing visualisation techniques. The application of the developed method was tested during diagnosis of several industrial composite structures—boats, planes and wind turbine blades.

  11. Assessing the reliability of thermography to infer internal body temperatures of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A; Silva, Francisco; Sannolo, Marco

    2016-12-01

    For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (Tb) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer Tb of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer Tb of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure Tb in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R(2)=0.84-0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal's internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards.

  12. Infrared clutter measurements of marine backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, Piet B.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the infrared wavelength band between 8 and 12 μm of sea backgrounds have been recorded with a CCIR compatible imager for a large number of sea states (0 - 6). Recordings took place in coastal areas as well as on open seas. The behavior of clutter in the infrared data was analyzed in

  13. RF heating optimization on Tore Supra using feedback control of infrared measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Ph. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: philippe.jacques.moreau@cea.fr; Barana, O.; Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Balorin, C.; Caulier, G.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Jouve, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lombard, G.; Millon, L.; Mitteau, R.; Mollard, P.; Roche, H.; Travere, J.M. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2007-10-15

    Using the Tore Supra infrared thermography diagnostics, a new real time feedback control has been successfully implemented to maximize additional RF power while preventing plasma facing components (PFCs) from overheating and damage. As a first step, a thermography feedback control has been used to detect and extinguish electric arcs on lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launchers. Secondly, heating sources on PFCs have been identified highlighting the role of the power from each ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna and LHCD launcher and the interactions between them. A new feedback control algorithm was developed to control the additional power. The real time feedback control of PFC temperatures which makes part of an integrated feedback controller, is a reliable tool routinely used as a basic protection system. Furthermore, it has proven its capability to operate in parallel with other control schemes such as the current profile control.

  14. Method for improving detection efficiency using infrared pulse phase thermography%红外脉冲相位热像检测效率提高方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜杰; 杨正伟; 田干; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    为提高脉冲相位热像法(PPT)温度序列相位的计算速度和检测效率,对传统的傅里叶变换(FFT)进行优化,提出了适用于PPT的相位快速计算方法,使运算速度提高了1.9~12.4倍。为确定相位算法中温度序列的最佳采样长度和频率分量,结合热扩散深度公式提出了最佳采样长度估算公式。对铝合金试件和钢材料试件进行了脉冲相位热波检测,当缺陷检测效果最佳时,热图序列最佳采样长度分别为1.1 s和3.9 s,基频相位差有最佳的缺陷分辨能力。结果表明:该算法显著提高了相位计算速度,量化的最佳采样长度估算公式能直接确定热图采样长度,减少了操作的主观性和参数设置的随机性,有效提高了脉冲相位热像检测效率。%In order to improve the phase calculation speed and detection efficiency of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT), a fast phase algorithm optimized from Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was proposed, with which the calculation speed could be increased by 1.9-12.4 times. To solve the optimal sampling length of thermal image sequence and frequency ratio, the calculation method for optimal sampling length was proposed based on the heat diffusion formula. Experiment was carried out on aluminium and iron specimens. Results show that the optimal sampling length is 1.1 s and 3.9 s for aluminium and iron specimens respectively and the phase difference at fundamental frequency has the best capability to distinguish defects. The calculation speed is evidently improved by the proposed fast algorithm and the optimal sampling length can be directly calculated by the improved numerical formula. Operation subjectivity and random settings of parameters can be avoided and the detection efficiency of pulse phase thermography can be improved.

  15. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  16. Characterization of an Inclusion of Plastazote Located in an Academic Fresco by Photothermal Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Mouhoubi, K.; Candore, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to approach the possibilities of stimulated infrared thermography in dimensional characterization of defects situated in mural paintings. For this purpose, it is suggested to proceed in two stages. First, an in situ longitudinal thermal-diffusivity measurement is developed. Then the characterization of the depth of the studied defect by means of an extended photothermal analysis and a comparison between theory and experiment is carried out. In this article is shown that this approach allows a good estimate of the depth of a plastazote inclusion in a partial copy of the “Saint Christophe” of the Campana collection in the Louvre Museum.

  17. Thermography of the hoof

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Maren

    2010-01-01

    In this study thermograms of clinically normal hooves and horses with different hoof diseases were examined. The goal of this study was to determine a thermography pattern of clinically normal hoof and to show the different influences on surface hooftemperature. Bilateral symmetry of hoof surface temperature (difference < 1°C) has been documented in 85% of the cases. The coronary band was the warmest area of the healthy hooves, followed by concentric circles decreasing in 1°C as they ra...

  18. Document Flash Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cory; Baker, Doran

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of flash thermography techniques to the analysis of documents. Motivation for this research is to develop the ability to reveal covered writings in archaeological artifacts such as the Codex Selden or Egyptian Cartonnage. An emphasis is placed on evaluating several common existing signal processing techniques for their effectiveness in enhancing subsurface writings found within a set of test documents. These processing techniques include: contrast stretching, ...

  19. Document Flash Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the application of ash thermography techniques to the analysis of documents. The motivation for this research is to develop the ability to non-destructively reveal covered writings in archaeological artifacts such as the Codex Selden or Egyptian car- tonnage. Current common signal processing techniques are evaluated for their effectiveness in enhancing subsurface writings found within a set of test documents. These processing techniques include: false colorization, contra...

  20. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  1. Some fundamentals of handheld snow surface thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concepts needed to perform snow surface thermography with a modern thermal imager. Snow-specific issues in the 7.5 to 13 μm spectrum such as ice emissivity, photographic angle, operator heating, and others receive detailed review and discussion. To illustrate the usefulness of this measurement technique, various applications are presented. These include detecting spatial temperature variation on snow pit walls and measuring the dependence of heat conduction on grain type.

  2. Some fundamentals of handheld snow surface thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concepts needed to perform snow surface thermography with a modern thermal imager. Snow-specific issues in the 7.5 to 13 μm spectrum such as ice emissivity, photographic angle, operator heating, and others receive detailed review and discussion. To illustrate the usefulness of this measurement technique, various applications are presented. These include detecting spatial temperature variation on snow pit walls and measuring the dependence of heat conduction on grain type.

  3. Analysis of the sensible heat flux from the exterior surface of buildings using time sequential thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyano, Akira; Asano, Kohichi; Kanamaru, Takehisa

    In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings having different characteristics was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Measurements were made in the summer, the period in Japan during which heat flux from buildings is of major interest, and again in the winter for comparison purposes. The heat characteristics of each building were obtained throughout the day by time-sequential thermography (TST), and the surface temperature of each physical element was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position. When the temperature of a surface could not be determined by an infrared camera mounted on the top of a building or a pole, temperature measurements were made using a hand-held IR camera. In addition, the sensible heat flux from each surface was calculated using TST and the surface area of each element as calculated from blueprints of the buildings.

  4. Application of infrared thermography in FCC reaction regeneration system monitoring%应用红外热像技术监测催化装置反再系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建苹; 张建平; 梁学福; 柏海见

    2012-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography technology in Lanzhou Petrochemical Industries Co of the 1400000 ton/ year catalytic device for reaction-reproduction system monitoring, through the detection data to judge the heat equipment lining damage cases, judges the device part position of defect damage, if the process control of a slight negligence, with cases a serious accident. Through this special inspection, as a device to provide a scientific basis for safe operation. Through the application of non-destructive testing technology of key parts, executive key monitoring, safeguard the normal running of the device,to meet the needs of production and operation of the plant.%利用红外热像技术对兰州石化公司140万吨/年催化装置反再系统进行监测,通过检测数据判断热设备衬里损伤情况,经判断该套装置部分位置出现缺陷损伤,如果工艺控制稍有疏忽,会导致严重事故.通过本次特护检测,为装置的安全运行提供科学的参考依据.通过无损检测技术的应用,对重点部位实施重点监测,保障装置的正常运行,满足装置生产运行的需求.

  5. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    techniques such as attenuated total reflectance [6]. The two final papers deal with what seem to be wholly different scientific fields [7, 8]. One paper describes SOFIA, an aeroplane-based astronomical observatory covering the whole IR range [7], while the other represents a small review of the quite new topic of terahertz physics at the upper end of the IR spectral range, from around 30 µm to 3 mm wavelength, and its many applications in science and industry [8]. Although artificially separated, all these fields use similar kinds of detectors, similar kinds of IR sources and similar technologies, while the instruments use the same physical principles. We are convinced that the field of infrared physics will develop over the next decade in the same dynamic way as during the last, and this special issue may serve as starting point for regular submissions on the topic. At any rate, it shines a light on this fascinating and many-faceted subject, which started more than 200 years ago. References [1] Mangold K, Shaw J A and Vollmer M 2013 The physics of near-infrared photography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S51-71 [2] Vollmer M and Möllmann K-P 2013 Characterization of IR cameras in student labs Eur. J. Phys. 34 S73-90 [3] Ibarra-Castanedo C, Tarpani J R and Maldague X P V 2013 Nondestructive testing with thermography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S91-109 [4] Shaw J A and Nugent P W 2013 Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere Eur. J. Phys. 34 S111-21 [5] Möllmann K-P and Vollmer M 2013 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses Eur. J. Phys. 34 S123-37 [6] Heise H M, Fritzsche J, Tkatsch H, Waag F, Karch K, Henze K, Delbeck S and Budde J 2013 Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products Eur. J. Phys. 34 S139-59 [7] Krabbe A, Mehlert D, Röser H-P and Scorza C 2013 SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

  6. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  7. Comparative Study of Surface Temperature Behavior of Commercial Li-Ion Pouch Cells of Different Chemistries and Capacities by Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The non-uniform surface temperature distribution of a battery cell results from complex reactions inside the cell and makes efficient thermal management a challenging task. This experimental work attempts to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution of three pouch type commercial cells: Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC)-based 20 Ah cell, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) 14 Ah, and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) 5 Ah battery cell by using contact thermistor and infrared (IR) the...

  8. Comparative Study of Surface Temperature Behavior of Commercial Li-Ion Pouch Cells of Different Chemistries and Capacities by Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The non-uniform surface temperature distribution of a battery cell results from complex reactions inside the cell and makes efficient thermal management a challenging task. This experimental work attempts to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution of three pouch type commercial cells: Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC)-based 20 Ah cell, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) 14 Ah, and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) 5 Ah battery cell by using contact thermistor and infrared (IR) ther...

  9. Integration of active thermography into the assessment of cultural heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Christiane; Röllig, Mathias; Krankenhagen, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    Applications of infrared thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. Active infrared thermography methods enable structural investigations of building elements with one-sided access up to a depth of about 10 cm. Masonry and especially historical masonry has a very heterogeneous structure containing several different materials (brick, stone, mortar, plaster, wood, metal, etc.) with various thermal properties. As many classes of damage originate from defects that are close to the surface, active thermography is in general very well suited to assessing different test problems in cultural heritage buildings. In this paper, the physical background, equipment, environmental influences and material properties are discussed. Several application results are presented. It is shown how active thermography can be integrated into a holistic approach for the assessment of historical structures.

  10. Skin vasomotor hemiparesis followed by overactivity: characteristic thermography findings in a patient with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    We present a 21-year-old female with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction. In this patient, infrared thermography revealed a hemibody skin temperature increase followed by excessive focal decreases, indicating skin vasomotor hemiparesis and overactivity.

  11. Basic Study of Air Leakage Position Based on Thermography Mosaic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Jin; Tao Wang; Bo Wang

    2014-01-01

    When locating the leakage of thermal field of a certain container, it is hard for us to evaluate the leakage with one or several separate thermal infrared images. Instead, panoramic imagery with a wide visual angle and high distinguishability is always needed. However, we can only get images for part of the scene because of the limited visual field of thermography and the large size of the measured object in practical. What is more, the hardware that can be used to get panoramic images is always expensive and cannot be used in large scale. Therefore, this paper introduces image mosaic technology, which can be used to get the intact thermal infrared image of the measured and increase the efficiency of detection. The experiment results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. Investigation of Multivariable Estimation in Breast Tumor Diagnosis by Infrared Thermography%基于红外检测乳腺肿瘤的多参数反演研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鉴; 卢玫; 李博汉; 张涛

    2015-01-01

    根据红外热像仪测得的体表温度来获得肿瘤相关信息,可以抽象为一个含有内热源的导热反问题。针对同时反演肿瘤位置、肿瘤代谢热强度及乳腺导热系数等多参数反问题的特点,本研究提出并建立了与反演参数相关的辅助目标函数,同时对求解所采用的粒子群优化算法中的更新方式进行了相应的改进。数值验证结果表明:在反演多参数反问题中采用多目标函数能提高反演精度,加快收敛速度。研究结果为根据乳腺红外热像图量化诊断体内肿瘤提供了理论依据。%Medical infrared thermography is a non -contact,non -invasive imaging method that applied in the area of breast canc-er detection.With thermogram,parameters of tumor inside can be estimated,and an inverse heat conduction model with inner heat source was obtained from it.Embark upon the situation that inverse heat conduction problem has multi variables,tumor position,meta-bolic heat generation rate and thermal conductivity,two more assistant fitness function were established base on how heat source posi-tion and conductivity influence the surface temperature,and Particle Swarm Optimization was modified to solve the multivariable inverse problem.Numerical verification showed that the method was suitable for breast tumor properties estimation,and the modified PSO with multi fitness functions improved the accuracy and shortened the solution time.The results provide theoretical basis for quantitative diag-nosis of breast tumor by infrared thermal images.

  13. 红外热像法研究屋顶绿化对热环境的影响%Study of Roof Greening's Effect on Thermal Environment by Using Infrared Thermography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑星; 杨真静; 刘葆华; 郑晓楷; 范伟; 关庆庆

    2013-01-01

    该研究应用红外热像法测量绿化屋顶的表面温度,进而分析屋顶绿化对热环境的影响.通过采集斜坡屋顶绿化、轻型屋顶绿化和蓄水覆土屋顶绿化在阴天、雨后一天、晴天三种天气条件下的红外热像图,分析对比三种绿化屋顶在同一天内及三种不同天气条件下的温度变化.结果表明绿化屋顶表面温度的变化主要受太阳辐射和气温的影响,而蓄水覆土绿化屋顶的表面温度还受到其含水量的影响;屋顶绿化在夏季天气条件下可有效降低屋顶的表面温度、减小温度波动幅度,有利于改善城市热环境.%The aim of the present study is to detect the surface temperature of the green roofs by using infrared thermography,and then analyze the roof greening's effect on thermal environment.The slope roof greening,lightweight roof greening and water storage roof greening's infrared thermal images were shot in a cloudy day,a day after the rain and a sunny day,and then the same day and different days' surface temperatures of the three typical green roof were compared.The results show that the green roofs' surface temperature are mainly under the influence of solar radiation and air temperature,and water storage green roof's surface temperature is also influenced by its water content.Roof greening can effectively reduce the roof surface temperature and decrease the range of temperature fluctuation in any weather conditions.

  14. Infrared Thermography In-situ Inspection for Damage Trend of TBCs in Simulated Service Environment%模拟服役环境下热障涂层损伤趋势的红外原位检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何箐; 吴鹏; 汪瑞军; 王伟平

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) can increase the operating temperature and efficiency for aero engine and gas turbine,which are used under complex service conditions,and the failure of coating may result in serious damage for hot section parts.A non-destructive method for damage determination is necessary for TBCs.Damage trend for TBCs is in-situ inspected by infrared thermography in simulated service environment with high thermal gradient and heating-cooling cycle.The parameter of diversity factor of infrared radiation (△TR) is used to characterize the expansion trend of internal defects of TBCs.Thermal cycle life of defects in coating consists of steady stage (<50%-60% total cycles),thermal anomaly extend stage and acceleration unstable stage (>80%-90% total cycles).During the period of 50-60% cycle life of defect,the spallation area and remaining life can be predicted.Acceleration unstable stage can be determined to be stripped of the area with defects.%热障涂层会显著提高航空发动机和燃气轮机的运行温度和热效率,其服役工况复杂,一旦失效后会严重影响热端部件的服役性能,甚至引发事故,因而对热障涂层内部损伤进行无损检测是十分必要的.文中利用红外热成像技术,在燃气加热、高温度梯度和冷热交替循环的模拟服役环境下对多组热障涂层的损伤趋势进行了原位检测,提出了利用红热辐射差异水平参数△TR表征了热障涂层内部缺陷的扩展趋势的方法.涂层内部缺陷的寿命周期可分为稳定阶段(<50% ~60%热循环寿命)、热异常扩展阶段和加速失稳阶段(>80%~90%热循环寿命),在热异常扩展阶段可预判失效区域和剩余寿命,而加速失稳阶段可确定缺陷区域即将剥离失效.

  15. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  16. Assessment of Lower Limb Prosthesis through Wearable Sensors and Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Perego, Paolo; Fusca, Marcello C.; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Andreoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the application of infrared thermography in combination with ambulatory wearable monitoring of temperature and relative humidity, to assess the residual limb-to-liner interface in lower-limb prosthesis users. Five male traumatic transtibial amputees were involved, who reported no problems or discomfort while wearing the prosthesis. A thermal imaging camera was used to measure superficial thermal distribution maps of the stump. A wearable system for recording the temperature and relative humidity in up to four anatomical points was developed, tested in vitro and integrated with the measurement set. The parallel application of an infrared camera and wearable sensors provided complementary information. Four main Regions of Interest were identified on the stump (inferior patella, lateral/medial epicondyles, tibial tuberosity), with good inter-subject repeatability. An average increase of 20% in hot areas (P < 0.05) is shown after walking compared to resting conditions. The sensors inside the cuff did not provoke any discomfort during recordings and provide an inside of the thermal exchanges while walking and recording the temperature increase (a regime value is ∼+1.1 ± 0.7 °C) and a more significant one (∼+4.1 ± 2.3%) in humidity because of the sweat produced. This study has also begun the development of a reference data set for optimal socket/liner-stump construction. PMID:24618782

  17. Assessment of Lower Limb Prosthesis through Wearable Sensors and Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Cutti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the application of infrared thermography in combination with ambulatory wearable monitoring of temperature and relative humidity, to assess the residual limb-to-liner interface in lower-limb prosthesis users. Five male traumatic transtibial amputees were involved, who reported no problems or discomfort while wearing the prosthesis. A thermal imaging camera was used to measure superficial thermal distribution maps of the stump. A wearable system for recording the temperature and relative humidity in up to four anatomical points was developed, tested in vitro and integrated with the measurement set. The parallel application of an infrared camera and wearable sensors provided complementary information. Four main Regions of Interest were identified on the stump (inferior patella, lateral/medial epicondyles, tibial tuberosity, with good inter-subject repeatability. An average increase of 20% in hot areas (P < 0.05 is shown after walking compared to resting conditions. The sensors inside the cuff did not provoke any discomfort during recordings and provide an inside of the thermal exchanges while walking and recording the temperature increase (a regime value is ~+1.1 ± 0.7 °C and a more significant one (~+4.1 ± 2.3% in humidity because of the sweat produced. This study has also begun the development of a reference data set for optimal socket/liner-stump construction.

  18. Infrared thermography and meridian-effect evidence and explanation in Bell's palsy patients treated by moxibustion at the Hegu (LI4) acupoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Li, Gaobo; Yang, Yiling; Deng, Xiufang; Cai, Peisi

    2012-01-01

    Subjects with Bell's palsy and healthy individuals were treated with moxibustion thermal stimulation on the Hegu (LI4) acupoint; an infrared thermal imaging system was used to observe facial-temperature changes. Bell's palsy patients developed low or high temperatures at the affected side, with poor symmetry. Healthy people showed high temperatures on the forehead, medial angle of the eye, nasal ala and around the lips, but low temperatures on bilateral cheeks, thus forming a “T-type hot area” in the face, with good temperature symmetry. Moxibustion treatment for 11 minutes significantly improved high asymmetry in temperature in the faces of Bell's palsy patients. This evidence indicates that moxibustion treatment on Hegu enables increases in facial temperatures in healthy people and Bell's palsy patients, especially around the lips. Moxibustion stimulation at the Hegu not only improves the global circulation but also has specific effects on the lips in Bell's palsy patients, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:25745463

  19. [Calculation of infrared temperature measurement on non-Lambertian objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Shi-cheng; Yang, Li

    2010-08-01

    According to the theory of infrared radiation and principles of temperature measurement using infrared imager, a universal mathematical model of infrared imager is established. Based on the normal emissivity characteristics of measured surface, the mathematical model is simplified, and the formula of temperature measurement using infrared imager is obtained. Through the relevant experiment, it is proved that the sum of emissivity and reflectivity of objects remained basically unchanged in a certain temperature range. The sum of emissivity and reflectivity of objects is relevant to the object types, surface conditions and the object temperature. The closer an object to Lambertian objects, the greater the sum is and the closer it is to 1. The farther the surface conditions deviate from the Lambertian surface, or the smoother the surface, the smaller the sum is. Experimental results show that if the object is close to Lambertian objects, it could be regarded as Lambertian, without the need for amendments to the actual objects. For non-Lambertian body (especially the smooth surfaces and low-emissivity objects), the amendment is necessary, or the temperature measurement error will increase, or even the obtained temperature is very far away from its true temperature. The study shows that, through the amendment, infrared temperature measurement on non-Lambertian objects is available.

  20. Evaluation of Exercise Effects Using Infrared Thermography%采用远红外热成像技术评估运动效果初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金超; 饶伟; 刘静

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the article is to introduce infrared thermal imaging technique to the fields of sports medicine. Methods The relation of localized human muscle temperature to the body activities is investigated. Submaximal exercise and maximal exercise are applied in the experiment.Infrared thermal images for frontal, back, left and right sides of body are captured after every ten weightlifting movements. By combining human anatomy image and data of testee' s infrared thermography, the temperature indications of muscle groups during exercising are interpreted. The temperature values (including minimum, maximum, mean temperatures and their standard deviation) of biceps brachii and deltoid muscle are computed. The relationship between temperature and physical activity during maximal exercise is explored. Results Experimental results show an evident increase in temperature of local muscle group during exercise. Furthermore, there exists a relation of temperature (a rising curve at the beginning and a flat curve later on) to the training intensity during the process of exercise.Conclusion Thermal infrared mapping can be used for monitoring body surface temperature change and thus estimating the effect of exercise.%目的:采用远红外热成像技术监测运动效果,无损实时考察人体局部温度与运动量之间的关系.方法:设计定量负荷和最大负荷上肢负重力量训练实验,双手持重物同时向前上方举起直至与视线平行,每10次动作为1组,每组实验后采集被试正背面上半身及左右侧面的红外热图数据,结合人体二维解剖学结构图谱进行定性分析,解读运动发力肌群表面温度动态变化.利用计算机图像处理技术,计算人体正面肱二头肌及三角肌部位体表温度统计特征值,包括最低温度Min、最高温度Max、平均温度Avg以及标准差Std.为实现标准化分析,最大负荷实验采用局部与上躯体的温度差进行体表温度与运动量