Sample records for infrared spectral weight

  1. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.


    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  2. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter


    "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy...

  3. An improved pulse coupled neural network with spectral residual for infrared pedestrian segmentation (United States)

    He, Fuliang; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao


    Pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) has become a significant tool for the infrared pedestrian segmentation, and a variety of relevant methods have been developed at present. However, these existing models commonly have several problems of the poor adaptability of infrared noise, the inaccuracy of segmentation results, and the fairly complex determination of parameters in current methods. This paper presents an improved PCNN model that integrates the simplified framework and spectral residual to alleviate the above problem. In this model, firstly, the weight matrix of the feeding input field is designed by the anisotropic Gaussian kernels (ANGKs), in order to suppress the infrared noise effectively. Secondly, the normalized spectral residual saliency is introduced as linking coefficient to enhance the edges and structural characteristics of segmented pedestrians remarkably. Finally, the improved dynamic threshold based on the average gray values of the iterative segmentation is employed to simplify the original PCNN model. Experiments on the IEEE OTCBVS benchmark and the infrared pedestrian image database built by our laboratory, demonstrate that the superiority of both subjective visual effects and objective quantitative evaluations in information differences and segmentation errors in our model, compared with other classic segmentation methods.

  4. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.


    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  5. Laboratory Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.


    Though basaltic materials dominate the composition of the Martian surface, a material with a relatively high silica component in an area of Eos Chasma was reported by [1] from thermal infrared (TIR) data. The spectrum of the silica phase resembles quartz or chert, but with the existing information it is difficult to tell which phase best fits the observations. Though quartz, chert, and amorphous silica are chemically identical (SiO2), their physical differences (e.g., microstructures) result in different TIR spectral characteristics. Previous studies have analyzed a limited number of chert samples using emission infrared spectroscopy [2] and transmission infrared spectroscopy [3]. We continue these preliminary studies with an investigation aiming to more completely understand and document the variation in spectral character of cherts. This knowledge may help to identify the silica phase in Eos Chasma and any future discoveries. Our study includes a more extensive sampling of geologic chert in hand sample (>15 samples) with various sources, methods of formation, surface textures, and crystallinities. We analyzed their visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra, as well as spectral features in TIR emission spectra. We measured multiple locations on each sample to determine spectral homogeneity across the sample and between various orientations. Where possible, natural, cut, and recently fractured surfaces were measured. We compared the collected TIR spectra for similarities and differences in shape and spectral contrast within each sample and between samples that may relate to variations in the samples' structure (e.g. crystallinity, and surface texture). VNIR measurements show features indicative of non-silica phases and water that may be present in the cherts. [1] Hamilton, V.E. (2005) Eos Trans. AGU, Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract P24A-08. [2] Michalski, J.R. (2005) PhD Diss., ASU, Tempe. [3] Long, D. G. et al. (2001) Canadian Archaeological Assoc., 33rd

  6. Spectrally-Tunable Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...

  7. Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert and Amorphous Silica (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.; Cady, S. L.; Knauth, P.


    We look in detail at the thermal infrared and visible to near-infrared spectra of various forms of chert and amorphous silica and compare the spectral variations between samples with variations in physical and chemical characteristics.

  8. High spectral resolution infrared observations of V1057 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.


    High-resolution near-infrared spectra of V1057 Cygni obtained in 1986 with the KPNO 4-m Fourier transform spectrometer provide support for a previously proposed accretion disk model. The model predicts that the observed rotational broadening of spectral lines should be smaller in the infrared than in the optical. The present observations show that V1057 Cyg rotates more slowly at 2.3 microns than at 6000 A by an amount quantitatively consistent with the simple disk models. The absence of any radial velocity variations in either the infrared or optical spectral regions supports the suggestion that the accreted material arises from a remnant disk of protostellar material. 19 references

  9. Infrared spectral reflectances of asteroid surfaces (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Veeder, G. J.


    This review compares the types of compositional information produced by three complementary techniques used in infrared observations of asteroid surfaces: broadband JHKL photometry, narrow band photometry, and multiplex spectroscopy. The high information content of these infrared observations permits definitive interpretations of asteroid surface compositions in terms of the major meteoritic minerals (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, hydrous silicates, and metallic Ni-Fe). These studies emphasize the individuality of asteroid surface compositions, the inadequacy of simple comparisons with spectra of meteorites, and the need to coordinate spectral measurements of all types to optimize diagnostic capabilities.

  10. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program


    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  11. Hyper-Spectral Imager in visible and near-infrared band for lunar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, will have a Hyper-Spectral Imager in the visible and near-infrared spectral ... mapping of the Moon's crust in a large number of spectral channels. The planned .... In-flight verification may be done.

  12. The Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) Spectral Library: Cool Stars (United States)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D.


    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ~ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  13. Spectral classification by the near infrared photometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tignanelli, H.L.; Feinstein, A.


    From the analysis of the measurements of KM-type stars done in the near infrared (1 to 3.5 microns: the JHKL bands of Johnsons's system), with an 83 cm reflector and a PbS detector at La Plata Observatory, we try to establish a new photometric classification system that discriminates luminosity class by means of certain parameters defined by infrared colours and infrared magnitudes. Data compiled and homogenized by J.Koornneef of southern bright stars in those bands were also included. The results give us information about the spectral types and reddening of those stars. We also indicate how to calculate the radiation excess that those stars could have. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D.


    We present a 0.8-5 μm spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  15. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Principles and Spectral Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Peter


    Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques are used by chemists, environmental scientists, forensic scientists etc to identify unknown chemicals. In the case of an organic chemist these tools are part of an armory of techniques that enable them to conclusively prove what compound they have made, which is essential for those being used in medical applications. The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation

  16. Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of MUSES C Target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, F.; Kelley, M. S.; Abell, P. A.


    The Japanese MUSES C mission launched the Hayabusa spacecraft last May 15, 2003, to encounter and study the near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The spacecraft will obtain visible images through broadband filters similar to the ECAS filters, and near-infrared spectra from 0.85 - 2.1 microns. In preparation for this encounter, opportunities to study the asteroid with Earth-based telescopes have been fully leveraged. Visible and near-infrared spectral observations were made of asteroid 25143 Itokawa during several nights of March, 2001, around the last apparition. We report here on the results of extensive spectral observations made to address the questions of compositional variations across the surface of the asteroid (as determined by the rotational period and shape model); variations in phase angle (Sun-Itokawa-Earth angle) on spectral characteristics; and predictions of Itokawa observations by Hayabusa based on the spectral resolution and responsivity of the NIRS and AMICA instruments.

  17. [Study on expert system of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible smoke agent]. (United States)

    Song, Dong-ming; Guan, Hua; Hou, Wei; Pan, Gong-pei


    The present paper studied the application of expert system in prediction of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible anti-infrared smoke agent. The construction of the expert system was founded, based on the theory of minimum free energy and infrared spectral addition. After the direction of smoke agent was input, the expert system could figure out the final combustion products. Then infrared spectrogram of smoke could also be simulated by adding the spectra of all of the combustion products. Meanwhile, the screening index of smoke was provided in the wave bands of 3-5 im and 8-14 microm. FTIR spectroscope was used to investigate the performance of one kind of HC smoke. The combustion products calculated by the expert system were coincident with the actual data, and the simulant infrared spectrum was also similar to the real one of the smoke. The screening index given by the system was consistent with the known facts. It was showed that a new approach was offered for the fast discrimination of varieties of directions of smoke agent.

  18. Influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio of Fourier transform infra-red spectra on identification of high explosive substances (United States)

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka M.; Heussler, Sascha P.; Breese, Mark B. H.


    In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science). In this paper the investigation of the influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio on the identification of high explosive substances by applying multivariate statistical methods on the Fourier transform infra-red spectral data sets is studied. All mathematical procedures on spectral data for dimension reduction, clustering and validation were implemented within R open source environment.

  19. Brown carbon absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral region (United States)

    Hoffer, András; Tóth, Ádám; Pósfai, Mihály; Eddy Chung, Chul; Gelencsér, András


    Black carbon (BC) aerosols have often been assumed to be the only light-absorbing carbonaceous particles in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Here we report that tar balls (a specific type of organic aerosol particles from biomass burning) do absorb red and near-infrared radiation significantly. Tar balls were produced in a laboratory experiment, and their chemical and optical properties were measured. The absorption of these particles in the range between 470 and 950 nm was measured with an aethalometer, which is widely used to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. We find that the absorption coefficient of tar balls at 880 nm is more than 10 % of that at 470 nm. The considerable absorption of red and infrared light by tar balls also follows from their relatively low absorption Ångström coefficient (and significant mass absorption coefficient) in the spectral range between 470 and 950 nm. Our results support the previous finding that tar balls may play an important role in global warming. Due to the non-negligible absorption of tar balls in the near-infrared region, the absorption measured in the field at near-infrared wavelengths cannot solely be due to soot particles.

  20. Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.


    We investigated the area to the northwest of the Isidis impact basin (hereby referred to as "NW Isidis") using thermal infrared emission datasets to characterize and quantify bulk surface mineralogy throughout this region. This area is home to Jezero crater and the watershed associated with its two deltaic deposits in addition to NE Syrtis and the strong and diverse visible/near-infrared spectral signatures observed in well-exposed stratigraphic sections. The spectral signatures throughout this region show a diversity of primary and secondary surface mineralogies, including olivine, pyroxene, smectite clays, sulfates, and carbonates. While previous thermal infrared investigations have sought to characterize individual mineral groups within this region, none have systematically assessed bulk surface mineralogy and related these observations to visible/near-infrared studies. We utilize an iterative spectral unmixing method to statistically evaluate our linear thermal infrared spectral unmixing models to derive surface mineralogy. All relevant primary and secondary phases identified in visible/near-infrared studies are included in the unmixing models and their modeled spectral contributions are discussed in detail. While the stratigraphy and compositional diversity observed in visible/near-infrared spectra are much better exposed and more diverse than most other regions of Mars, our thermal infrared analyses suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions with less observed variability in the amount and diversity of alteration phases. These results help to constrain the mineralogical context of these previously reported visible/near-infrared spectral identifications. The results are also discussed in the context of future in situ investigations, as the NW Isidis region has long been promoted as a region of paleoenvironmental interest on Mars.

  1. Thermal infrared spectral analysis of compacted fine-grained mineral mixtures: implications for spectral interpretation of lithified sedimentary materials on Mars (United States)

    Pan, C.; Rogers, D.


    Characterizing the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral mixing behavior of compacted fine-grained mineral assemblages is necessary for facilitating quantitative mineralogy of sedimentary surfaces from spectral measurements. Previous researchers have demonstrated that TIR spectra from igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as coarse-grained (>63 micron) sand mixtures combine in proportion to their volume abundance. However, the spectral mixing behavior of compacted, fine-grained mineral mixtures that would be characteristic of sedimentary depositional environments has received little attention. Here we characterize the spectral properties of pressed pellet samples of pestle and centrifuged to obtain less than 10 micron size. Pure phases and mixtures of two, three and four components were made in varying proportions by volume. All of the samples were pressed into pellets at 15000PSI to minimize volume scattering. Thermal infrared spectra of pellets were measured in the Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory at Stony Brook University with a Thermo Fisher Nicolet 6700 Fourier transform infrared Michelson interferometer from ~225 to 2000 cm-1. Our preliminary results indicate that some pelletized samples have contributions from volume scattering, which leads to non-linear spectral combinations. It is not clear if the transparency features (which arise from multiple surface reflections of incident photons) are due to minor clinging fines on an otherwise specular pellet surface or to partially transmitted energy through optically thin grains in the compacted mixture. Inclusion of loose powder (analysis of TES and Mini-TES data of lithified sedimentary deposits.

  2. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON


    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  3. Real photon spectral weight functions, imaginary part of vacuum polarization and electromagnetic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.; College de France, 75 - Paris. Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)


    The concept of a real photon spectral weight function for any cross-section involving charged particles is introduced as a simple approximation taking into account the soft part of photon emission to all orders in perturbation theory. The spectral weight function replaces the energy-momentum conservation delta function in the elastic cross-section. The spectral weight function is computed in closed form in space-time and in the peaking approximation in momentum space. The spectral weight function description is applied to the imaginary part of vacuum polarization ImPI and to electron-proton scattering. A spectral representation for ImPI is derived and its content compared with the known fourth order result, showing in particular the identity of the soft and peaking approximations in lowest order. The virtual photon radiative corrections are discussed in part, with emphasis on the threshold behavior of the vertex functions. A relativistic generalization of the electric non-relativistic vertex function is given, whose asymptotic behavior is approppriate to use in conjuction with the spectral weight function

  4. Temperature Dependence of Quasiparticle Spectral Weight and Coherence in High Tc Superconductors (United States)

    He, Yang; Zhang, Jessie; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hoffman Lab Team


    Superconductivity arises from the Cooper pairing of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface. Understanding the formation of Cooper pairs is an essential step towards unveiling the mechanism of high Tc superconductivity. We compare scanning tunneling microscope investigations of the temperature dependence of quasiparticle spectral weight and quasiparticle interference in several families of high Tc materials. We calculate the coherent spectral weight related to superconductivity, despite the coexistence of competing orders. The relation between pairing temperature and coherent spectral weight is discussed. We acknowledge support by the New York Community Trust-George Merck Fund.

  5. Toward optimal spatial and spectral quality in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy of IR labelled single cells. (United States)

    Mattson, Eric C; Unger, Miriam; Clède, Sylvain; Lambert, François; Policar, Clotilde; Imtiaz, Asher; D'Souza, Roshan; Hirschmugl, Carol J


    Advancements in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy have recently been demonstrated following the commissioning of IRENI (InfraRed ENvironmental Imaging), a Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center. The present study demonstrates the effects of magnification, spatial oversampling, spectral pre-processing and deconvolution, focusing on the intracellular detection and distribution of an exogenous metal tris-carbonyl derivative 1 in a single MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. We demonstrate here that spatial oversampling for synchrotron-based infrared imaging is critical to obtain accurate diffraction-limited images at all wavelengths simultaneously. Resolution criteria and results from raw and deconvoluted images for two Schwarzschild objectives (36×, NA 0.5 and 74×, NA 0.65) are compared to each other and to prior reports for raster-scanned, confocal microscopes. The resolution of the imaging data can be improved by deconvolving the instrumental broadening that is determined with the measured PSFs, which is implemented with GPU programming architecture for fast hyperspectral processing. High definition, rapidly acquired, FTIR chemical images of respective spectral signatures of the cell 1 and shows that 1 is localized next to the phosphate- and Amide-rich regions, in agreement with previous infrared and luminescence studies. The infrared image contrast, localization and definition are improved after applying proven spectral pre-processing (principal component analysis based noise reduction and RMie scattering correction algorithms) to individual pixel spectra in the hyperspectral cube.

  6. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range


    Robert Kucharski; Łukasz Janicki; Marcin Zajac; Monika Welna; Marcin Motyka; Czesław Skierbiszewski; Robert Kudrawiec


    GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type) on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples) or dopant ionization (p-type samples). In the mid-in...

  7. [Identification of Dendrobium varieties by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with spectral retrieval]. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Deng, Xing-yan; Jin, Hang; Yang, Chun-yan


    The infrared spectral of stems of 165 trees of 23 Dendrobium varieties were obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. The spectra show that the spectra of all the samples were similar, and the main components of stem of Dendrobium is cellulose. By the spectral professional software Omnic8.0, three spectral databases were constructed. Lib01 includes of the average spectral of the first four trees of every variety, while Lib02 and Lib03 are constructed from the first-derivative spectra and the second-derivative spectra of average spectra, separately. The correlation search, the square difference retrieval and the square differential difference retrieval of the spectra are performed with the spectral database Lib01 in the specified range of 1 800-500 cm(-1), and the yield correct rate of 92.7%, 74.5% and 92.7%, respectively. The square differential difference retrieval of the first-derivative spectra and the second-derivative spectra is carried out with Lib02 and Lib03 in the same specified range 1 800-500 cm(-1), and shows correct rate of 93.9% for the former and 90.3% for the later. The results show that the first-derivative spectral retrieval of square differential difference algorithm is more suitabe for discerning Dendrobium varieties, and FTIR combining with the spectral retrieval method can identify different varieties of Dendrobium, and the correlation retrieval, the square differential retrieval, the first-derivative spectra and second-derivative spectra retrieval in the specified spectral range are effective and simple way of distinguishing different varieties of Dendrobium.

  8. Solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral analysis of benzimidazoles and their N 1-protonated salts (United States)

    Ivanova, B. B.


    A stereo structural characterization of 2,5,6-thrimethylbenzimidazole (MBIZ) and 2-amino-benzimidaziole (2-NH 2-BI) and their N 1 protonation salts was carried out using a polarized solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis in nematic liquid crystal suspension. All experimental predicted structures were compared with the theoretical ones, obtained by ab initio calculations. The Cs to C2v* symmetry transformation as a result of protonation processes, with a view of its reflection on the infrared spectral characteristics was described.

  9. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kucharski


    Full Text Available GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples or dopant ionization (p-type samples. In the mid-infrared the transparency cut-off, which for a semi-insulating GaN is at ~7 µm due to an absorption on a second harmonic of optical phonons, shifts towards shorter wavelengths due to an absorption on free carriers up to ~1 µm at n ~ 1020 cm−3 doping level. Moreover, a semi-insulating GaN crystal shows good transparency in the 1–10 THz range, while for n-and p-type crystal, the transparency in this spectral region is significantly quenched below 1%. In addition, it is shown that in the visible spectral region n-type GaN substrates with a carrier concentration below 1018 cm−3 are highly transparent with the absorption coefficient below 3 cm−1 at 450 nm, a satisfactory condition for light emitting diodes and laser diodes operating in this spectral range.

  10. [Study of near infrared spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection methods for endometrial cancer tissue]. (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ting; Xiang, Yu-Hong; Dai, Yin-Mei; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong


    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to measure the tissue slice of endometrial tissues for collecting the spectra. A total of 154 spectra were obtained from 154 samples. The number of normal, hyperplasia, and malignant samples was 36, 60, and 58, respectively. Original near infrared spectra are composed of many variables, for example, interference information including instrument errors and physical effects such as particle size and light scatter. In order to reduce these influences, original spectra data should be performed with different spectral preprocessing methods to compress variables and extract useful information. So the methods of spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection have played an important role in near infrared spectroscopy technique. In the present paper the raw spectra were processed using various preprocessing methods including first derivative, multiplication scatter correction, Savitzky-Golay first derivative algorithm, standard normal variate, smoothing, and moving-window median. Standard deviation was used to select the optimal spectral region of 4 000-6 000 cm(-1). Then principal component analysis was used for classification. Principal component analysis results showed that three types of samples could be discriminated completely and the accuracy almost achieved 100%. This study demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy technology and chemometrics method could be a fast, efficient, and novel means to diagnose cancer. The proposed methods would be a promising and significant diagnosis technique of early stage cancer.

  11. The infrared spectral transmittance of Aspergillus niger spore aggregated particle swarm (United States)

    Zhao, Xinying; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Li, Le


    Microorganism aggregated particle swarm, which is quite an important composition of complex media environment, can be developed as a new kind of infrared functional materials. Current researches mainly focus on the optical properties of single microorganism particle. As for the swarm, especially the microorganism aggregated particle swarm, a more accurate simulation model should be proposed to calculate its extinction effect. At the same time, certain parameters deserve to be discussed, which helps to better develop the microorganism aggregated particle swarm as a new kind of infrared functional materials. In this paper, take Aspergillus Niger spore as an example. On the one hand, a new calculation model is established. Firstly, the cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) model is used to simulate the structure of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle. Secondly, the single scattering extinction parameters for Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle are calculated by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. Thirdly, the transmittance of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle swarm is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. On the other hand, based on the model proposed above, what influences can wavelength causes has been studied, including the spectral distribution of scattering intensity of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle and the infrared spectral transmittance of the aggregated particle swarm within the range of 8-14μm incident infrared wavelengths. Numerical results indicate that the scattering intensity of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle reduces with the increase of incident wavelengths at each scattering angle. Scattering energy mainly concentrates on the scattering angle between 0-40°, forward scattering has an obvious effect. In addition, the infrared transmittance of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle swarm goes up with the increase of incident wavelengths. However, some turning points of the trend are

  12. Microwave, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far Infrared Spectral Databases (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, H. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Chen, P.; Cohen, E. A.


    The spectrum of most known astrophysical molecules is derived from transitions between a few hundred to a few hundred thousand energy levels populated at room temperature. In the microwave and millimeter wave regions. spectroscopy is almost always performed with traditional microwave techniques. In the submillimeter and far infrared microwave technique becomes progressively more technologically challenging and infrared techniques become more widely employed as the wavelength gets shorter. Infrared techniques are typically one to two orders of magnitude less precise but they do generate all the strong features in the spectrum. With microwave technique, it is generally impossible and rarely necessary to measure every single transition of a molecular species, so careful fitting of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians to the transitions measured are required to produce the complete spectral picture of the molecule required by astronomers. The fitting process produces the most precise data possible and is required in the interpret heterodyne observations. The drawback of traditional microwave technique is that precise knowledge of the band origins of low lying excited states is rarely gained. The fitting of data interpolates well for the range of quantum numbers where there is laboratory data, but extrapolation is almost never precise. The majority of high resolution spectroscopic data is millimeter or longer in wavelength and a very limited number of molecules have ever been studied with microwave techniques at wavelengths shorter than 0.3 millimeters. The situation with infrared technique is similarly dire in the submillimeter and far infrared because the black body sources used are competing with a very significant thermal background making the signal to noise poor. Regardless of the technique used the data must be archived in a way useful for the interpretation of observations.

  13. Near-infrared spectral imaging Michelson interferometer for astronomical applications (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.


    The design and operation of an imaging Michelson interferometer-spectrometer used for near-infrared (0.8 micron to 2.5 microns) spectral imaging are reported. The system employs a rapid scan interferometer modified for stable low resolution (250/cm) performance and a 42 element PbS linear detector array. A microcomputer system is described which provides data acquisition, coadding, and Fourier transformation for near real-time presentation of the spectra of all 42 scene elements. The electronic and mechanical designs are discussed and telescope performance data presented.

  14. Recent Characterization of the Night-Sky Irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Band (United States)

    Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve


    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.

  15. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K


    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  16. Analysis of cirrus cloud spectral signatures in the far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Tosi, E.; Veglio, P.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Di Girolamo, P.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Summa, D.


    This paper analyses high spectral resolution downwelling radiance measurements in the far infrared in the presence of cirrus clouds taken by the REFIR-PAD interferometer, deployed at 3500 m above the sea level at the Testa Grigia station (Italy), during the Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission (ECOWAR) campaign. Atmospheric state and cloud geometry are characterised by the co-located millimeter-wave spectrometer GBMS and by radiosonde profile data, an interferometer (I-BEST) and a Raman lidar system deployed at a nearby location (Cervinia). Cloud optical depth and effective diameter are retrieved from REFIR-PAD data using a limited number of channels in the 820–960 cm −1 interval. The retrieved cloud parameters are the input data for simulations covering the 250–1100 cm −1 band in order to test our ability to reproduce the REFIR-PAD spectra in the presence of ice clouds. Inverse and forward simulations are based on the same radiative transfer code. A priori information concerning cloud ice vertical distribution is used to better constrain the simulation scheme and an analysis of the degree of approximation of the phase function within the radiative transfer codes is performed to define the accuracy of computations. Simulation-data residuals over the REFIR-PAD spectral interval show an excellent agreement in the window region, but values are larger than total measurement uncertainties in the far infrared. Possible causes are investigated. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the water vapour and temperature profiles are of the same order as the sensitivity to the a priori assumption on particle habits for an up-looking configuration. In case of a down-looking configuration, errors due to possible incorrect description of the water vapour profile would be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • We analyze down-welling spectral radiances in the far infrared (FIR) spectrum. • Discuss the scattering in the fir and the ice crystals phase function

  17. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.


    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  18. Infrared and Raman spectra, DFT-calculations and spectral assignments of germacyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksa, V., E-mail:; Ozerenskis, D.; Pucetaite, M.; Sablinskas, V. [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9, block 3, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Cotter, C.; Guirgis, G. A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)


    Raman spectra of germacyclohexane in liquid and solid states were recorded and depolarization data obtained. Infrared absorption spectra of the vapor and liquid have been studied. The wavenumbers of the vibrational modes were derived in the harmonic and anharmonic approximation in B3LYP/ccpVTZ calculations. According to the calculations, germacyclohexane exists in the stable chair conformation, whereas a possible twist form should have more than 15 kJ·mol{sup -1} higher enthalpy of formation what makes this conformer experimentally not observable. The 27 A' and 21 A'' fundamentals were assigned on the basis of the calculations and infrared and Raman band intensities, contours of gas phase infrared spectral bands and Raman depolarization measurements. An average discrepancy of ca. 0.77 % was found between the observed and the calculated anharmonic wavenumbers for the 48 modes. Substitution of carbon atom with Ge atom in the cyclohexane ring is reasoning flattening of the ring.

  19. The optical + infrared L dwarf spectral sequence of young planetary-mass objects in the Upper Scorpius association (United States)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.


    We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups of the lowest mass member candidates in the nearest OB association, Upper Scorpius (∼5-10 Myr; 145 ± 17 pc), with the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) and European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). We confirm the membership of the large majority (>80 per cent) of candidates originally selected photometrically and astrometrically based on their spectroscopic features, weak equivalent widths of gravity-sensitive doublets and radial velocities. Confirmed members follow a sequence over a wide magnitude range (J = 17.0-19.3 mag) in several colour-magnitude diagrams with optical, near- and mid-infrared photometry and have near-infrared spectral types in the L1-L7 interval with likely masses below 15 Jupiter masses. We find that optical spectral types tend to be earlier than near-infrared spectral types by a few subclasses for spectral types later than M9. We investigate the behaviour of spectral indices, defined in the literature as a function of spectral type and gravity, by comparison with values reported in the literature for young and old dwarfs. We also derive effective temperatures in the 1900-1600 K range from fits of synthetic model-atmosphere spectra to the observed photometry, but we caution that the procedure carries large uncertainties. We determine bolometric corrections for young L dwarfs with ages of ∼5-10 Myr (Upper Sco association) and find them to be similar in the J band but larger by 0.1-0.4 mag in the K band with respect to field L dwarfs. Finally, we discover two faint young L dwarfs, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) J1607-2146 (L4.5) and VISTA J1611-2215 (L5), that have Hα emission and possible flux excesses at 4.5 μm, pointing to the presence of accretion from a disc on to the central objects of mass below ∼15MJup at an age of 5-10 Myr.

  20. Near-infrared metallicities, radial velocities, and spectral types for 447 nearby M dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Centro de Astrofsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Covey, Kevin [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lloyd, James P., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    We present metallicities, radial velocities, and near-infrared (NIR) spectral types for 447 M dwarfs determined from moderate resolution (R ≈ 2000) NIR spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF)/SpeX. These M dwarfs are primarily targets of the MEarth Survey, a transiting planet survey searching for super Earths around mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 pc. We present NIR spectral types for each star and new spectral templates for the IRTF in the Y, J, H, and K-bands, created using M dwarfs with near-solar metallicities. We developed two spectroscopic distance calibrations that use NIR spectral type or an index based on the curvature of the K-band continuum. Our distance calibration has a scatter of 14%. We searched 27 NIR spectral lines and 10 spectral indices for metallicity sensitive features, taking into account correlated noise in our estimates of the errors on these parameters. We calibrated our relation using 36 M dwarfs in common proper pairs with an F-, G-, or K-type star of known metallicity. We validated the physical association of these pairs using proper motions, radial velocities, and spectroscopic distance estimates. Our resulting metallicity calibration uses the sodium doublet at 2.2 μm as the sole indicator for metallicity. It has an accuracy of 0.12 dex inferred from the scatter between the metallicities of the primaries and the estimated metallicities of the secondaries. Our relation is valid for NIR spectral types from M1V to M5V and for –1.0 dex < [Fe/H] < +0.35 dex. We present a new color-color metallicity relation using J – H and J – K colors that directly relates two observables: the distance from the M dwarf main sequence and equivalent width of the sodium line at 2.2 μm. We used radial velocities of M dwarf binaries, observations at different epochs, and comparison between our measurements and precisely measured radial velocities to demonstrate a 4 km s{sup –1} accuracy.

  1. Concentric circular ring and nanodisk optical antenna enhanced multispectral quantum dot infrared photodetector with spectral localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kemsri, Thitikorn; Li, Lin; Lu, Xuejun; Gu, Guiru


    In this paper, we report a concentric circular ring and nanodisk plasmonic optical antenna (POA) enhanced multispectral quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The circular ring and the nanodisk POA structures are designed to have plasmonic resonant wavelengths in the longwave infrared (LWIR) and the midwave infrared (MWIR) spectral regimes, respectively. The electric field ( E -field) distributions are simulated and show spectral localization due to the distinct plasmonic resonant wavelengths of the POA structures. The circular ring is found to enhance the E -fields in the nanodisk regions due to the mutual coupling. A concentric circular ring and nanodisk POA enhanced multispectral QDIP was fabricated and tested. Multispectral enhancement was observed. The enhancement is compared to that of a QDIP with only the circular ring POA structure. The experiment data agree with the simulation. The concentric circular ring and nanodisk POA provides a compact planar structure for multispectral QDIP enhancement. (paper)

  2. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  3. Integrative Multi-Spectral Sensor Device for Far-Infrared and Visible Light Fusion (United States)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Chen, Lulu; Pang, Yusong; Yan, Gaowei


    Infrared and visible light image fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of multi-sensor fusion technology in recent years. Existing infrared and visible light fusion technologies need to register before fusion because of using two cameras. However, the application effect of the registration technology has yet to be improved. Hence, a novel integrative multi-spectral sensor device is proposed for infrared and visible light fusion, and by using the beam splitter prism, the coaxial light incident from the same lens is projected to the infrared charge coupled device (CCD) and visible light CCD, respectively. In this paper, the imaging mechanism of the proposed sensor device is studied with the process of the signals acquisition and fusion. The simulation experiment, which involves the entire process of the optic system, signal acquisition, and signal fusion, is constructed based on imaging effect model. Additionally, the quality evaluation index is adopted to analyze the simulation result. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor device is effective and feasible.

  4. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.


    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  5. Analysis of dust and marine aerosol optical depth spectral-curvature information in the UV to SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) wavelength regions. (United States)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Sakerin, S.; Kabanov, D.


    Traditional sunphotometry in the UV, visible and very NIR (Near Infrared) spectral regions is weighted, in terms of spectral information content, towards sub-micron (fine mode) particles. Sunphotometry in the NIR and SWIR increases the diversity and information content of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements for supermicron (coarse mode) particles. Two data sets representing dust aerosols from the UAE (United Arab Emirates) region and marine aerosols from the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in terms of their spectral curvature diversity and information content. The former data set was acquired using NIR-enhanced CIMEL sunphotometers (340, 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 1020, 1640 nm) as part of the August to October, 2004 UAE2 field campaign while the latter data set was acquired using an automated Russian UV to SWIR SP-5 sunphotometer (339, 423, 438, 484, 552, 633, 677, 777, 869, 1241, 1560, 2148, 4000 nm) as part of a October/December 2004 cruise campaign in the northern, tropical and south Atlantic Ocean. A Microtops hand-held sunphotometer was also employed to acquire VIS to NIR AOD spectra during the latter field campaign. Results will be presented in terms of robust micro-physical and spectral curvature parameters which characterize super-micron aerosols and, in a more general sense, in terms of what universal/fundamental optical inferences can be drawn from the two disperse data sets.

  6. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková


    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  7. The infrared spectral properties of frozen volatiles. [in cometary nuclei (United States)

    Fink, U.; Sill, G. T.


    Since Whipple's dirty snowball model of comet nuclei, it has been generally accepted that volatile ices help to explain cometary phenomena. The infrared spectral properties of many substances that are potential candidates for frozen volatiles in the solar system are being pursued; indeed some of these frozen materials have been found in the solar system: H2O, CO2, and SO2. A review of laboratory spectra in the range 1 to 20 microns of H2O, CO2, SO2, CH4, NH3, H2S, CO, NH4HS and NH3.H2O is presented. Both reflection spectra of thick frosts and transmission spectra of thin films are shown, and their main characteristics are described. Hydrates, clathrates, and composite spectra are discussed. When it is possible to observe the nuclei of comets at close range, it may be possible to identify frozen volatiles by their infrared spectra.

  8. White light spectral interferometer for measuring dispersion in the visible-near infrared (United States)

    Arosa, Yago; Rodríguez Fernández, Carlos Damian; Algnamat, Bilal S.; López-Lago, Elena; de la Fuente, Raul


    We have designed a spectrally resolved interferometer to measure the refractive index of transparent samples over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1550 nm. The measuring device consists of a Michelson interferometer whose output is analyzed by means of three fiber spectrometers. The first one is a homemade prism spectrometer, which obtains the interferogram produced by the sample over 400 to 1050 nm; the second one is a homemade transmission grating spectrometer thought to measure the interferogram in the near infrared spectral band from 950 to 1550 nm; the last one is a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer used to make high precision measurements of the displacement between the Michelson mirrors also using white light interferometry. The whole system is illuminated by a white light source with an emission spectrum similar to black body. We have tested the instrument with solid and liquids samples achieving accuracy to the fourth decimal on the refractive index after fitting it to a Cauchy formula

  9. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others


    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  11. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.


    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  13. Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Spicer, W.E.; Arko, A.J.; List, R.S.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.


    Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of single-crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ was observed by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As the sample goes superconducting, not only is there spectral weight transfer from the gap region to the pileup peak as in BCS theory, but along the Γ-bar M direction there is also some spectral weight transfer from higher binding energies in the form of a dip. In addition, we note that at the superconducting transition there is a decrease (increase) in the occupied spectral weight for the spectra taken along Γ-bar M (Γ-X)

  14. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng


    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  15. Pepper seed variety identification based on visible/near-infrared spectral technology (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun; Fan, Pengfei; Cai, Jichen


    Pepper is a kind of important fruit vegetable, with the expansion of pepper hybrid planting area, detection of pepper seed purity is especially important. This research used visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectral technology to detect the variety of single pepper seed, and chose hybrid pepper seeds "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" as research sample. VIS/NIR spectral data of 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" pepper seeds were collected, and the original spectral data was pretreated with standard normal variable (SNV) transform, first derivative (FD), and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was adopted to reduce the dimension of the spectral data and extract principal components, according to the distribution of the first principal component (PC1) along with the second principal component(PC2) in the twodimensional plane, similarly, the distribution of PC1 coupled with the third principal component(PC3), and the distribution of PC2 combined with PC3, distribution areas of three varieties of pepper seeds were divided in each twodimensional plane, and the discriminant accuracy of PCA was tested through observing the distribution area of samples' principal components in validation set. This study combined PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify single pepper seed varieties, results showed that with the FD preprocessing method, the discriminant accuracy of pepper seed varieties was 98% for validation set, it concludes that using VIS/NIR spectral technology is feasible for identification of single pepper seed varieties.

  16. [The Identification of the Origin of Chinese Wolfberry Based on Infrared Spectral Technology and the Artificial Neural Network]. (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Liu, Ming-de; Ji, Shou-xiang


    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is established to find the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry quickly. In the paper, the 45 samples of Chinese wolfberry from different places of Qinghai Province are to be surveyed by FTIR. The original data matrix of FTIR is pretreated with common preprocessing and wavelet transform. Compared with common windows shifting smoothing preprocessing, standard normal variation correction and multiplicative scatter correction, wavelet transform is an effective spectrum data preprocessing method. Before establishing model through the artificial neural networks, the spectra variables are compressed by means of the wavelet transformation so as to enhance the training speed of the artificial neural networks, and at the same time the related parameters of the artificial neural networks model are also discussed in detail. The survey shows even if the infrared spectroscopy data is compressed to 1/8 of its original data, the spectral information and analytical accuracy are not deteriorated. The compressed spectra variables are used for modeling parameters of the backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry are used for parameters of export. Three layers of neural network model are built to predict the 10 unknown samples by using the MATLAB neural network toolbox design error back propagation network. The number of hidden layer neurons is 5, and the number of output layer neuron is 1. The transfer function of hidden layer is tansig, while the transfer function of output layer is purelin. Network training function is trainl and the learning function of weights and thresholds is learngdm. net. trainParam. epochs=1 000, while net. trainParam. goal = 0.001. The recognition rate of 100% is to be achieved. It can be concluded that the method is quite suitable for the quick discrimination of producing areas of Chinese wolfberry. The infrared spectral analysis technology

  17. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.


    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  18. Wide-field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry: Bringing High Resolution to the Far- Infrared (United States)

    Leisawitx, David

    Wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry combines spatial and spectral interferometric data to provide integral field spectroscopic information over a wide field of view. This technology breaks through a mission cost barrier that stands in the way of resolving spatially and measuring spectroscopically at far-infrared wavelengths objects that will lead to a deep understanding of planetary system and galaxy formation processes. A space-based far-IR interferometer will combine Spitzer s superb sensitivity with a two order of magnitude gain in angular resolution, and with spectral resolution in the thousands. With the possible exception of detector technology, which is advancing with support from other research programs, the greatest challenge for far-IR interferometry is to demonstrate that the interferometer will actually produce the images and spectra needed to satisfy mission science requirements. With past APRA support, our team has already developed the highly specialized hardware testbed, image projector, computational model, and image construction software required for the proposed effort, and we have access to an ideal test facility.

  19. PCA determination of the radiometric noise of high spectral resolution infrared observations from spectral residuals: Application to IASI (United States)

    Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Jacquette, E.; Vandermarcq, O.; Bermudo, F.; Coppens, D.; Tobin, D.


    The problem of characterizing and estimating the instrumental or radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers directly from Earth observations is addressed in this paper. An approach has been developed, which relies on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a suitable criterion to select the optimal number of PC scores. Different selection criteria have been set up and analysed, which is based on the estimation theory of Least Squares and/or Maximum Likelihood Principle. The approach is independent of any forward model and/or radiative transfer calculations. The PCA is used to define an orthogonal basis, which, in turn, is used to derive an optimal linear reconstruction of the observations. The residual vector that is the observation vector minus the calculated or reconstructed one is then used to estimate the instrumental noise. It will be shown that the use of the spectral residuals to assess the radiometric instrumental noise leads to efficient estimators, which are largely independent of possible departures of the true noise from that assumed a priori to model the observational covariance matrix. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) has been considered. A series of case studies has been set up, which make use of IASI observations. As a major result, the analysis confirms the high stability and radiometric performance of IASI. The approach also proved to be efficient in characterizing noise features due to mechanical micro-vibrations of the beam splitter of the IASI instrument.

  20. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology (United States)

    Li, Xiang


    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  1. Infrared imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings correlate with microperimetry in acute macular neuroretinopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Sandeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with acute macular neuroretinopathy, and correlation with functional defects on microperimetry, are presented. Case presentation A 25-year old Caucasian woman presented with bitemporal field defects following an upper respiratory tract infection. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and a dilated fundus examination revealed bilateral hyperpigmentary changes in the papillomacular bundle. Our patient underwent further evaluation with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Functional changes were assessed by microperimetry. Infrared imaging showed the classic wedge-shaped defects and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography exhibited changes at the inner segment-outer segment junction, with a thickened outer plexiform layer overlying these areas. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography did not demonstrate any perfusion defects or any other abnormality. Microperimetry demonstrated focal elevation in threshold correlating with the wedge-shaped defects in both eyes. Conclusion Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings provide new evidence of the involvement of the outer plexiform layer of the retina in acute macular neuroretinopathy.

  2. Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacylate monomers and their use in latent fingermark detection by mid-infrared spectral imaging. (United States)

    Tahtouh, Mark; Scott, Sonia A; Kalman, John R; Reedy, Brian J


    Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacrylate monomers (alkyl=1-cyanoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, trideuteromethyl and pentadeuteroethyl) have been tested for their ability to develop latent fingermarks that can then be visualized using mid-infrared spectral (chemical) imaging. Each of the four monomers was chosen for its potential to produce a strong, isolated infrared spectral band in its corresponding polymer (to provide spectral contrast against most backgrounds), as well as for its potential ability to be fumed onto fingermarks in the manner of conventional ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (superglue). With the exception of the 2-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, which had to be fumed under reduced pressure, all of the monomers were found to be sufficiently volatile to be fumed in a conventional fuming cabinet. All four monomers polymerized selectively on fingermark ridges on a variety of non-porous and semi-porous surfaces, leading to excellent development of the fingermarks. Unfortunately, although high quality mid-infrared spectral images of the fingermarks could be formed for all of the polymers at various frequencies, the new CN or CD stretching vibrations did not give rise to strong enough absorption intensities for good contrast on difficult backgrounds such as polymer banknotes. However, in the 1-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate polymer, the presence of the additional nitrile group had the unintended but desirable effect of shifting the strong CO absorption to higher frequencies, moving it away from interfering banknote absorptions. This enabled fingermark contrast to be achieved even against the intaglio printing on the banknotes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Origin of Spectral Band Patterns in the Cosmic Unidentified Infrared Emission (United States)

    Álvaro Galué, Héctor; Díaz Leines, Grisell


    The cosmic unidentified infrared emission (UIE) band phenomenon is generally considered as indicative of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in space. However, a coherent explanation of emission spectral band patterns depending on astrophysical source is yet to be resolved under this attribution. Meanwhile astronomers have restored the alternative origin as due to amorphous carbon particles, but assigning spectral patterns to specific structural elements of particles is equally challenging. Here we report a physical principle in which inclusion of nonplanar structural defects in aromatic core molecular structures (π domains) induces spectral patterns typical of the phenomenon. We show that defects in model π domains modulate the electronic-vibration coupling that activates the delocalized π -electron contribution to aromatic vibrational modes. The modulation naturally disperses C =C stretch modes in band patterns that readily resemble the UIE bands in the elusive 6 - 9 μ m range. The electron-vibration interaction mechanics governing the defect-induced band patterns underscores the importance of π delocalization in the emergence of UIE bands. We discuss the global UIE band regularity of this range as compatible with an emission from the delocalized s p2 phase, as π domains, confined in disordered carbon mixed-phase aggregates.

  4. Miniature infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for airborne applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl


    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4 lenslet array on a 1024 x 1024 pixel element focal plane array which gives 16 spectral images of 256 x 256 pixel resolution each

  5. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  6. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.


    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  7. Progress on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) infrared photodetector : from MWIR to VLWIR spectral domains (United States)

    Christol, P.; Rodriguez, J.-B.


    Infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material has been given a lot of attention this past decade, in particular by U.S. laboratories. Among the advantages of this material system, one can cite the possibility to span a large Infrared (IR) range (3μm to 30 μm) by tailoring the band-gap independently from the lattice constant, allowing addressing many applications by the same fabrication process and the realization of multi-color IR sensors for high performance imaging systems. Recently, the maturity of the growth of the quantum structure by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and progress on the processing resulted in the demonstration of high-performance mega-pixel focal plane arrays (FPA) in both the mid-wavelength (MWIR) and the long-wavelength (LWIR) infrared spectral bands [1]. Consequently, InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetector can be now considered as a new infrared technology which can be complementary to InSb, MCT or QWIPs technologies. After some reminders on InAs/GaSb T2SL quantum structure properties, we present in this communication the results obtained by the IES laboratory, from Montpellier University, France, for photodiodes operating in the MWIR spectral domains. We then complete the paper by the main results reached by others laboratories for T2SL detectors operating from MWIR to VLWIR spectral ranges.

  8. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.


    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  9. Rotation and Noise Invariant Near-Infrared Face Recognition by means of Zernike Moments and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.; Khansari, M.; Jafari-Khouzani, K.


    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-11 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : face recognition * infrared imaging * image moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 and noise invariant near-infrared face recognition by means of zernike moments and spectral regression discriminant analysis.pdf

  10. A quantitative infrared spectral library of vapor phase chemicals: applications to environmental monitoring and homeland defense (United States)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.


    The utility of infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and early warning of accidental or deliberate chemical releases to the atmosphere is well documented. Regardless of the monitoring technique (open-path or extractive) or weather the spectrometer is passive or active (Fourier transform or lidar) a high quality, quantitative reference library is essential for meaningful interpretation of the data. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory through the support of the Department of Energy has been building a library of pure, vapor phase chemical species for the last 4 years. This infrared spectral library currently contains over 300 chemicals and is expected to grow to over 400 chemicals before completion. The library spectra are based on a statistical fit to many spectra at different concentrations, allowing for rigorous error analysis. The contents of the library are focused on atmospheric pollutants, naturally occurring chemicals, toxic industrial chemicals and chemicals specifically designed to do damage. Applications, limitations and technical details of the spectral library will be discussed.

  11. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl


    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  12. A hybrid spatial-spectral denoising method for infrared hyperspectral images using 2DPCA (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Ma, Yong; Mei, Xiaoguang; Fan, Fan


    The traditional noise reduction methods for 3-D infrared hyperspectral images typically operate independently in either the spatial or spectral domain, and such methods overlook the relationship between the two domains. To address this issue, we propose a hybrid spatial-spectral method in this paper to link both domains. First, principal component analysis and bivariate wavelet shrinkage are performed in the 2-D spatial domain. Second, 2-D principal component analysis transformation is conducted in the 1-D spectral domain to separate the basic components from detail ones. The energy distribution of noise is unaffected by orthogonal transformation; therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio of each component is used as a criterion to determine whether a component should be protected from over-denoising or denoised with certain 1-D denoising methods. This study implements the 1-D wavelet shrinking threshold method based on Stein's unbiased risk estimator, and the quantitative results on publicly available datasets demonstrate that our method can improve denoising performance more effectively than other state-of-the-art methods can.

  13. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  14. Near infrared spectral linearisation in quantifying soluble solids content of intact carambola. (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir


    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  15. Surface Compositional Units on Mercury from Spectral Reflectance at Ultraviolet to Near-infrared Wavelengths (United States)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Domingue, D. L.; McClintock, W. E.; Klima, R. L.; Blewett, D. T.; Helbert, J.; Head, J. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Vilas, F.; Solomon, S. C.


    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has been acquiring reflectance spectra of Mercury's surface for over 16 months. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph (VIRS) component of MASCS has accumulated a global data set of more than 2 million spectra over the wavelength range 300-1450 nm. We have derived a set of VIRS spectral units (VSUs) from the following spectral parameters: visible brightness (R575: reflectance at 575 nm); visible/near-infrared reflectance ratio (VISr: reflectance at 415 nm to that at 750 nm); and ultraviolet reflectance ratio (UVr: reflectance at 310 nm to that at 390 nm). Five broad, slightly overlapping VSUs may be distinguished from these parameters. "Average VSU" areas have spectral parameters close to mean global values. "Dark blue VSU" areas have spectra with low R575 and high UVr. "Red VSU" areas have spectra with low UVr and higher VISr and R575 than average. "Intermediate VSU" areas have spectra with higher VISr than VSU red, generally higher R575, and a wide range of UVr. "Bright VSU" areas have high R575 and VISr and intermediate UVr. Several units defined by morphological or multispectral criteria correspond to specific VSUs, including low-reflectance material (dark blue VSU), pyroclastic deposits (red VSU), and hollows (intermediate VSU), but these VSUs generally include other types of areas as well. VSU definitions are complementary to those obtained by unsupervised clustering analysis. The global distribution of VIRS spectral units provides new information on Mercury's geological evolution. Much of Mercury's northern volcanic plains show spectral properties ranging from those of average VSU to those of red VSU, as does a large region in the southern hemisphere centered near 50°S, 245°E. Dark blue VSU material is widely distributed, with concentrations south of the northern plains, around the Rembrandt and

  16. Identification of Spectral Regions for Quantification of Red Wine Tannins with Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S.


    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due...... to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included...... to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69−79 mg of CE/L; r = 0...

  17. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology


    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  18. Particle swarm optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization for infrared image enhancement (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan; Chen, Qian; Maldague, Xavier


    Infrared image enhancement plays a significant role in intelligent urban surveillance systems for smart city applications. Unlike existing methods only exaggerating the global contrast, we propose a particle swam optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization which involves the enhancement of both local details and fore-and background contrast. First of all, a novel local entropy weighted histogram depicting the distribution of detail information is calculated based on a modified hyperbolic tangent function. Then, the histogram is divided into two parts via a threshold maximizing the inter-class variance in order to improve the contrasts of foreground and background, respectively. To avoid over-enhancement and noise amplification, double plateau thresholds of the presented histogram are formulated by means of particle swarm optimization algorithm. Lastly, each sub-image is equalized independently according to the constrained sub-local entropy weighted histogram. Comparative experiments implemented on real infrared images prove that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of both visual and quantized evaluations.

  19. Simultaneous high-speed spectral and infrared imaging of engine combustion (United States)

    Jansons, Marcis


    A novel and unique diagnostic apparatus has been developed and applied to combustion gas mixtures in engine cylinders. The computer-controlled system integrates a modified Fastie-Ebert type spectrophotometer with four infrared CCD imagers, allowing the simultaneous acquisition of the spectrum and four spatial images, each at a discrete wavelength. Data buffering allows continuous imaging of the power stroke over consecutive engine cycles at framing rates of 1850 frames/second. Spectral resolution is 28nm with an uncertainty better than 58nm. The nominal response of the instrument is in the range 1.8--4.5mum, with a peak responsivity near the important 2.7mum bands of CO2 and H2O. The spectral range per scan is approximately 1.78mum. To interpret the measured data, a line-by-line radiation model was created utilizing the High-Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) database of molecular parameters, incorporating soot and wall emission effects. Although computationally more intensive, this model represents an improvement in accuracy over the NASA single-line-group (SLG) model which does not include the 'hot' CO2 lines of the 3.8mum region. Methane/air combustion mixture thermodynamic parameters are estimated by the iteration of model variables to yield a synthetic spectrum that, when corrected for wall effects, instrument function, responsivity, window and laboratory path transmissivity, correspond to the measured spectrum. The values of the model variables are used to interpret the corresponding spatial images. For the first time in the infrared an entire engine starting sequence has been observed over consecutive cycles. Preflame spectra measured during the compression stroke of a spark-ignition engine operating with various fuels correlate well with the synthetic spectra of the particular hydrocarbon reactants. The ability to determine concentration and spatial distribution of fuel in the engine cylinder prior to ignition has applications in stratified charge studies and

  20. Variable weight spectral amplitude coding for multiservice OCDMA networks (United States)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Rahimian, Farzad Pour; Glesk, Ivan; Kakaee, Majid H.


    The emergence of heterogeneous data traffic such as voice over IP, video streaming and online gaming have demanded networks with capability of supporting quality of service (QoS) at the physical layer with traffic prioritisation. This paper proposes a new variable-weight code based on spectral amplitude coding for optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks to support QoS differentiation. The proposed variable-weight multi-service (VW-MS) code relies on basic matrix construction. A mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of VW-MS OCDMA networks. It is shown that the proposed code provides an optimal code length with minimum cross-correlation value when compared to other codes. Numerical results for a VW-MS OCDMA network designed for triple-play services operating at 0.622 Gb/s, 1.25 Gb/s and 2.5 Gb/s are considered.

  1. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept (United States)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium


    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  2. Application of partial least squares near-infrared spectral classification in diabetic identification (United States)

    Yan, Wen-juan; Yang, Ming; He, Guo-quan; Qin, Lin; Li, Gang


    In order to identify the diabetic patients by using tongue near-infrared (NIR) spectrum - a spectral classification model of the NIR reflectivity of the tongue tip is proposed, based on the partial least square (PLS) method. 39sample data of tongue tip's NIR spectra are harvested from healthy people and diabetic patients , respectively. After pretreatment of the reflectivity, the spectral data are set as the independent variable matrix, and information of classification as the dependent variables matrix, Samples were divided into two groups - i.e. 53 samples as calibration set and 25 as prediction set - then the PLS is used to build the classification model The constructed modelfrom the 53 samples has the correlation of 0.9614 and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.1387.The predictions for the 25 samples have the correlation of 0.9146 and the RMSECV of 0.2122.The experimental result shows that the PLS method can achieve good classification on features of healthy people and diabetic patients.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopic imaging classification based on spatial-spectral features (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Xiukun; Zhong, Mingliang; Liu, Yao; Jing, Xiaojun; Yang, Qin


    The discrete fractional Brownian incremental random (DFBIR) field is used to describe the irregular, random, and highly complex shapes of natural objects such as coastlines and biological tissues, for which traditional Euclidean geometry cannot be used. In this paper, an anisotropic variable window (AVW) directional operator based on the DFBIR field model is proposed for extracting spatial characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopic imaging. Probabilistic principal component analysis first extracts spectral features, and then the spatial features of the proposed AVW directional operator are combined with the former to construct a spatial-spectral structure, which increases feature-related information and helps a support vector machine classifier to obtain more efficient distribution-related information. Compared to Haralick’s grey-level co-occurrence matrix, Gabor filters, and local binary patterns (e.g. uniform LBPs, rotation-invariant LBPs, uniform rotation-invariant LBPs), experiments on three FTIR spectroscopy microscopic imaging datasets show that the proposed AVW directional operator is more advantageous in terms of classification accuracy, particularly for low-dimensional spaces of spatial characteristics.

  4. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III


    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  5. Near infrared spectral polarization imaging of prostate cancer tissues using Cybesin: a receptor-targeted contrast agent (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, W. B.; Tang, G. C.; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, S.; Alfano, R. R.


    Cybesin, a smart contrast agent to target cancer cells, was investigated using a near infrared (NIR) spectral polarization imaging technique for prostate cancer detection. The approach relies on applying a contrast agent that can target cancer cells. Cybesin, as a small ICG-derivative dye-peptide, emit fluorescence between 750 nm and 900 nm, which is in the "tissue optical window". Cybesin was reported targeting the over-expressed bombesin receptors in cancer cells in animal model and the human prostate cancers over-expressing bombesin receptors. The NIR spectral polarization imaging study reported here demonstrated that Cybesin can be used as a smart optical biomarker and as a prostate cancer receptor targeted contrast agent.

  6. [Infrared spectral analysis for calcined borax]. (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Ren, Li-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Bo-Tao


    To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3(-3) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3(3-) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax.

  7. Transmission spectroscopy with the ACE-FTS infrared spectral atlas of Earth: A model validation and feasibility study (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Städt, Steffen; Hedelt, Pascal; Godolt, Mareike


    Infrared solar occultation measurements are well established for remote sensing of Earth's atmosphere, and the corresponding primary transit spectroscopy has turned out to be valuable for characterization of extrasolar planets. Our objective is an assessment of the detectability of molecular signatures in Earth's transit spectra. To this end, we take a limb sequence of representative cloud-free transmission spectra recorded by the space-borne ACE-FTS Earth observation mission (Hughes et al., ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere, JQSRT 2014) and combine these spectra to the effective height of the atmosphere. These data are compared to spectra modeled with an atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared code to study the impact of individual molecules, spectral resolution, the choice of auxiliary data, and numerical approximations. Moreover, the study serves as a validation of our infrared radiative transfer code. The largest impact is due to water, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, nitric acid, oxygen, and some chlorofluorocarbons (CFC11 and CFC12). The effect of further molecules considered in the modeling is either marginal or absent. The best matching model has a mean residuum of 0.4 km and a maximum difference of 2 km to the measured effective height. For a quantitative estimate of visibility and detectability we consider the maximum change of the residual spectrum, the relative change of the residual norm, the additional transit depth, and signal-to-noise ratios for a JWST setup. In conclusion, our study provides a list of molecules that are relevant for modeling transmission spectra of Earth-like exoplanets and discusses the feasibility of retrieval.

  8. Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography (United States)

    Brooksby, Ben; Pogue, Brian W.; Jiang, Shudong; Dehghani, Hamid; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Kogel, Christine; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weaver, John; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared spectral tomography was developed and used to image adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue of 11 normal female subjects, recruited under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Images of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water fraction, and subcellular scattering were reconstructed and show that fibroglandular fractions of both blood and water are higher than in adipose tissue. Variation in adipose and fibroglandular tissue composition between individuals was not significantly different across the scattered and dense breast categories. Combined MR and near-infrared tomography provides fundamental molecular information about these tissue types with resolution governed by MR T1 images. hemoglobin | magnetic resonance imaging | water | fat | oxygen saturation

  9. Infrared spectral histopathology using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained glass slides: a major step forward towards clinical translation. (United States)

    Pilling, Michael J; Henderson, Alex; Shanks, Jonathan H; Brown, Michael D; Clarke, Noel W; Gardner, Peter


    Infrared spectral histopathology has shown great promise as an important diagnostic tool, with the potential to complement current pathological methods. While promising, clinical translation has been hindered by the impracticalities of using infrared transmissive substrates which are both fragile and prohibitively very expensive. Recently, glass has been proposed as a potential replacement which, although largely opaque in the infrared, allows unrestricted access to the high wavenumber region (2500-3800 cm -1 ). Recent studies using unstained tissue on glass have shown that despite utilising only the amide A band, good discrimination between histological classes could be achieved, and suggest the potential of discriminating between normal and malignant tissue. However unstained tissue on glass has the potential to disrupt the pathologist workflow, since it needs to be stained following infrared chemical imaging. In light of this, we report on the very first infrared Spectral Histopathology SHP study utilising coverslipped H&E stained tissue on glass using samples as received from the pathologist. In this paper we present a rigorous study using results obtained from an extended patient sample set consisting of 182 prostate tissue cores obtained from 100 different patients, on 18 separate H&E slides. Utilising a Random Forest classification model we demonstrate that we can rapidly classify four classes of histology of an independent test set with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). We investigate different degrees of staining using nine separate prostate serial sections, and demonstrate that we discriminate on biomarkers rather than the presence of the stain. Finally, using a four-class model we show that we can discriminate normal epithelium, malignant epithelium, normal stroma and cancer associated stroma with classification accuracies over 95%.

  10. Research on visible and near infrared spectral-polarimetric properties of soil polluted by crude oil (United States)

    Shen, Hui-yan; Zhou, Pu-cheng; Pan, Bang-long


    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil can impose detrimental effects on forest health and quality of agricultural products. To manage such consequences, oil leak indicators should be detected quickly by monitoring systems. Remote sensing is one of the most suitable techniques for monitoring systems, especially for areas which are uninhabitable and difficulty to access. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. During the course of reflecting light-wave, the surface of soil polluted by crude oil will cause polarimetric properties which are related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the spectralpolarimetric properties for soil polluted by crude oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain multi-angle visible and near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of soil polluted by crude oil. And then, the change rule between polarimetric properties with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle, waveband of the detector as well as different grain size of soil were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for soil polluted by crude oil.

  11. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theocharous, Evangelos


    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar

  12. Mid-Infrared Interferometry on Spectral Lines. III. Ammonia and Silane around IRC +10216 and VY Canis Majoris (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Tuthill, P. G.; Townes, C. H.


    Using the University of California Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer with a radio frequency (RF) filter bank, the first interferometric observations of mid-infrared molecular absorption features of ammonia (NH3) and silane (SiH4) with very high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ~105) were made. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and uniform outflow, these new data permitted the molecular stratification around carbon star IRC +10216 and red supergiant VY CMa to be investigated. For IRC +10216, both ammonia and silane were found to form in the dusty outflow significantly beyond both the dust formation and gas acceleration zones. Specifically, ammonia was found to form before silane in a region of decaying gas turbulence (>~20R*), while the silane is produced in a region of relatively smooth gas flow much farther from the star (>~80R*). The depletion of gas-phase SiS onto grains soon after dust formation may fuel silane-producing reactions on the grain surfaces. For VY CMa, a combination of interferometric and spectral observations suggest that NH3 is forming near the termination of the gas acceleration phase in a region of high gas turbulence (~40R*).

  13. Design of an ultra-thin dual band infrared system (United States)

    Du, Ke; Cheng, Xuemin; Lv, Qichao; Hu, YiFei


    The ultra-thin imaging system using reflective multiple-fold structure has smaller volume and less weight while maintaining high resolution compared with conventional optical systems. The multi-folded approach can significantly extend focal distance within wide spectral range without incurring chromatic aberrations. In this paper, we present a dual infrared imaging system of four-folded reflection with two air-spaced concentric reflective surfaces. The dual brand IR system has 107mm effective focal length, 0.7NA, +/-4° FOV, and 50mm effective aperture with 80mm outer diameter into a 25mm total thickness, which spectral response is 3~12μm.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.


    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  16. Enhancing mid-infrared spectral response at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xin; Zhao, Kun; Xi, Jian-Feng; Xiang, Wen-Feng; Lu, Zhi-Qing; Sun, Qi; Wu, Shi-Xiang; Ni, Hao


    Many unexpected properties have been found in the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructure, but the interaction of the many ground states at its interface remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate an optical property of this n-type heterostructure where the mid-infrared spectral responsivity at the interface is enhanced by an external magnetic field. The field intensity ranged from 0.8 to 6 kOe at a low temperature (19 K) as measured with our spectral response measurement system. Two spectral peaks related to the spin-orbit coupling effect were also observed at wavelengths 2400 nm and 3700 nm. The intriguing phenomena relate to changes in the crystallographic structure and subband structure at the interface

  17. Spectral response, dark current, and noise analyses in resonant tunneling quantum dot infrared photodetectors. (United States)

    Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Mahmoodi, Ali; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas


    Reduction of dark current at high-temperature operation is a great challenge in conventional quantum dot infrared photodetectors, as the rate of thermal excitations resulting in the dark current increases exponentially with temperature. A resonant tunneling barrier is the best candidate for suppression of dark current, enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio, and selective extraction of different wavelength response. In this paper, we use a physical model developed by the authors recently to design a proper resonant tunneling barrier for quantum infrared photodetectors and to study and analyze the spectral response of these devices. The calculated transmission coefficient of electrons by this model and its dependency on bias voltage are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, based on the calculated transmission coefficient, the dark current of a quantum dot infrared photodetector with a resonant tunneling barrier is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The validity of our model is proven through this comparison. Theoretical dark current by our model shows better agreement with the experimental data and is more accurate than the previously developed model. Moreover, noise in the device is calculated. Finally, the effect of different parameters, such as temperature, size of quantum dots, and bias voltage, on the performance of the device is simulated and studied.

  18. Transfer of spectral weight in spectroscopies of correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg, M.J.; Kotliar, G.; Kajueter, H.


    We study the transfer of spectral weight in the photoemission and optical spectra of strongly correlated electron systems. Within the local impurity self-consistent approximation, that becomes exact in the limit of large lattice coordination, we consider and compare two models of correlated electrons, the Hubbard model and the periodic Anderson model. The results are discussed in regard to recent experiments. In the Hubbard model, we predict an anomalous enhancement optical spectral weight as a function of temperature in the correlated metallic state which is in qualitative agreement with optical measurements in V 2 O 3 . We argue that anomalies observed in the spectroscopy of the metal are connected to the proximity to a crossover region in the phase diagram of the model. In the insulating phase, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental data, and present a detailed discussion on the role of magnetic frustration by studying the k-resolved single-particle spectra. The results for the periodic Anderson model are discussed in connection to recent experimental data of the Kondo insulators Ce 3 Bi 4 Pt 3 and FeSi. The model can successfully explain the thermal filling of the optical gap and the corresponding changes in the photoemission density of states. The temperature dependence of the optical sum rule is obtained, and its relevance to the interpretation of the experimental data discussed. Finally, we argue that the large scattering rate measured in Kondo insulators cannot be described by the periodic Anderson model. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. A Weighted Spatial-Spectral Kernel RX Algorithm and Efficient Implementation on GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Zhao


    Full Text Available The kernel RX (KRX detector proposed by Kwon and Nasrabadi exploits a kernel function to obtain a better detection performance. However, it still has two limits that can be improved. On the one hand, reasonable integration of spatial-spectral information can be used to further improve its detection accuracy. On the other hand, parallel computing can be used to reduce the processing time in available KRX detectors. Accordingly, this paper presents a novel weighted spatial-spectral kernel RX (WSSKRX detector and its parallel implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs. The WSSKRX utilizes the spatial neighborhood resources to reconstruct the testing pixels by introducing a spectral factor and a spatial window, thereby effectively reducing the interference of background noise. Then, the kernel function is redesigned as a mapping trick in a KRX detector to implement the anomaly detection. In addition, a powerful architecture based on the GPU technique is designed to accelerate WSSKRX. To substantiate the performance of the proposed algorithm, both synthetic and real data are conducted for experiments.

  20. In-plane optical spectral weight redistribution in the optimally doped Ba0.6 K0.4Fe2As2 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bing; Dai Yao-Min; Xiao Hong; Qiu Xiang-Gang; Lobo, R. P. S. M.


    We performed detailed temperature-dependent optical measurements on optimally doped Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 single crystal. We examine the changes of the in-plane optical conductivity spectral weight in the normal state and the evolution of the superconducting condensate in the superconducting state. In the normal state, the low-frequency spectral weight shows a metallic response with an arctan (T) dependence, indicating a T-linear scattering rate behavior for the carriers. A high energy spectral weight transfer associated with the Hund's coupling occurs from the low frequencies below 4000 cm −1 ∼ 5000 cm −1 to higher frequencies up to at least 10 cm −1 . Its temperature dependence analysis suggests that the Hund's coupling strength is continuously enhanced as the temperature is reduced. In the superconducting state, the FGT sum rule is conserved according to the spectral weight estimation within the conduction bands, only about 40% of the conduction bands participates in the superconducting condensate indicating that Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 is in dirty limit. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. A correlational method to concurrently measure envelope and temporal fine structure weights: effects of age, cochlear pathology, and spectral shaping. (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E


    The speech signal may be divided into spectral frequency-bands, each band containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. This study measured the perceptual weights for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials in young normal-hearing listeners, older normal-hearing listeners, aided older hearing-impaired listeners, and spectrally matched young normal-hearing listeners. The availability of each acoustic property was independently varied through noisy signal extraction. Thus, the full speech stimulus was presented with noise used to mask six different auditory channels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener's performance with the signal-to-noise ratio of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrate that temporal fine structure perceptual weights remain stable across the four listener groups. However, a different weighting typography was observed across the listener groups for envelope cues. Results suggest that spectral shaping used to preserve the audibility of the speech stimulus may alter the allocation of perceptual resources. The relative perceptual weighting of envelope cues may also change with age. Concurrent testing of sentences repeated once on a previous day demonstrated that weighting strategies for all listener groups can change, suggesting an initial stabilization period or susceptibility to auditory training.

  2. Visible-infrared micro-spectrometer based on a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Peng, Jing-xiao; Ho, Ho-pui; Song, Chun-yuan; Huang, Xiao-li; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei


    By using a preaggregated silver nanoparticle monolayer film and an infrared sensor card, we demonstrate a miniature spectrometer design that covers a broad wavelength range from visible to infrared with high spectral resolution. The spectral contents of an incident probe beam are reconstructed by solving a matrix equation with a smoothing simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed spectrometer offers significant advantages over current instruments that are based on Fourier transform and grating dispersion, in terms of size, resolution, spectral range, cost and reliability. The spectrometer contains three components, which are used for dispersion, frequency conversion and detection. Disordered silver nanoparticles in dispersion component reduce the fabrication complexity. An infrared sensor card in the conversion component broaden the operational spectral range of the system into visible and infrared bands. Since the CCD used in the detection component provides very large number of intensity measurements, one can reconstruct the final spectrum with high resolution. An additional feature of our algorithm for solving the matrix equation, which is suitable for reconstructing both broadband and narrowband signals, we have adopted a smoothing step based on a simulated annealing algorithm. This algorithm improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction.

  3. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique]. (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia


    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  4. Infrared (United States)

    Vollmer, M.


    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  5. Technique of infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.


    Techniques of measuring of current and geometric parameters and evaluating of energy parameters of the ring bunch of relativistic low-energy electrons have been presented. They have been based on using the synchrotron radiation effect in its infrared spectral part. Fast infrared detectors have provided radiation detection in the spectral range Δλ ≅ 0.3-45 μm. The descriptions of some data monitoring and measuring systems developed in JINR for the realization of techniques of the infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics have been given. Infrared optics elements specially developed have been used in these systems

  6. Infrared emission from protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Shu, F.H.


    The emergent spectral energy distribution at infrared to radio wavelengths is calculated for the simplest theoretical construct of a low-mass protostar. It is shown that the emergent spectrum in the infrared is insensitive to the details assumed for the temperature profile as long as allowance is made for a transition from optically thick to optically thin conditions and luminosity conservation isenforced at the inner and outer shells. The radiation in the far infrared and submillimeter wavelengths depends on the exact assumptions made for grain opacities at low frequencies. An atlas of emergent spectral energy distributions is presented for a grid of values of the instantaneous mass of the protostar and the mass infall rate. The attenuated contribution of the accretion shock to the near-infrared radiation is considered. 50 references


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005, Santander (Spain); Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Spoon, Henrik W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santos, Tanio Díaz [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO18 1BJ (United Kingdom); González-Martín, Omaira [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA-UNAM), 3-72 (Xangari), 8701, Morelia (Mexico); Esquej, Pilar, E-mail: [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at

  8. Photoconductor arrays for a spectral-photometric far-infrared camera on SOFIA (United States)

    Wolf, Juergen; Driescher, Hans; Schubert, Josef; Rabanus, D.; Paul, E.; Roesner, K.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, is a joint US and German project and will start observations from altitudes up to 45,000 ft in late 2001. The 2.5 m telescope is being developed in Germany while the 747- aircraft modifications and preparation of the observatory's operations center is done by a US consortium. Several research institutions and universities of both countries have started to develop science instruments. The DLR Institute of Space Sensor Technology in Berlin plans on a spectral-photometric camera working in the 20 to 220 micrometers wavelength range, using doped silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductors in large, 2D arrays: silicon blocked-impurity band detectors, Ge:Ga and stressed Ge:Ga. While the silicon array will be commercially available, the germanium arrays have to be developed, including their cryogenic multiplexers. Partner institutions in Germany and the US will support the development of the instrument and its observations.

  9. Identification of spectral regions for the quantification of red wine tannins with fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob S; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S


    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included the development of a new variable selection tool, iterative backward elimination of changeable size intervals PLS. The spectral regions identified by the different variable selection methods were not identical, but all included two regions (1485-1425 and 1060-995 cm(-1)), which therefore were concluded to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69-79 mg of CE/L; r = 0.93-0.94) as compared to a calibration model developed using all variables (RMSEP = 115 mg of CE/L; r = 0.87). Only minor differences in the performance of the variable selection methods were observed.

  10. Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy based spectral-biomarker selection towards optimum diagnostic differentiation of oral leukoplakia and cancer. (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Pal, Mousumi; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu; Petibois, Cyril; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Giri, Amita; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy


    In search of specific label-free biomarkers for differentiation of two oral lesions, namely oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 47 human subjects (eight normal (NOM), 16 OLK, and 23 OSCC). Difference between mean spectra (DBMS), Mann-Whitney's U test, and forward feature selection (FFS) techniques were used for optimising spectral-marker selection. Classification of diseases was performed with linear and quadratic support vector machine (SVM) at 10-fold cross-validation, using different combinations of spectral features. It was observed that six features obtained through FFS enabled differentiation of NOM and OSCC tissue (1782, 1713, 1665, 1545, 1409, and 1161 cm(-1)) and were most significant, able to classify OLK and OSCC with 81.3 % sensitivity, 95.7 % specificity, and 89.7 % overall accuracy. The 43 spectral markers extracted through Mann-Whitney's U Test were the least significant when quadratic SVM was used. Considering the high sensitivity and specificity of the FFS technique, extracting only six spectral biomarkers was thus most useful for diagnosis of OLK and OSCC, and to overcome inter and intra-observer variability experienced in diagnostic best-practice histopathological procedure. By considering the biochemical assignment of these six spectral signatures, this work also revealed altered glycogen and keratin content in histological sections which could able to discriminate OLK and OSCC. The method was validated through spectral selection by the DBMS technique. Thus this method has potential for diagnostic cost minimisation for oral lesions by label-free biomarker identification.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The results of a medium resolution near-infrared spectral survey of 18 post-AGB candidate stars are presented. Most of the stars have near-infrared hydrogen lines in absorption, which is normal for their spectral types. Three stars, HD 101584, HD 179821 and HD 170756 have the CO first overtone bands

  12. Magnetorefractive effect in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 in the infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Granovskii, A. B.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Naumov, S. V.; Kostromitina, N. V.; Elokhina, L. V.; Gonzalez, J.


    The reflection and magnetic reflection spectra, magnetic resistance, electrical properties, and equatorial Kerr effect in La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 crystals have been complexly investigated. The measurements have been performed in wide temperature and spectral ranges in magnetic fields up to 3.5 kOe. It has been found that magnetic reflection is a high-frequency response in the infrared spectral range to the colossal magnetore-sistance near the Curie temperature. Correlation between the field and temperature dependences of the magnetic reflection and colossal magnetoresistance has been revealed. The previously developed theory of the magnetorefractive effect for metallic systems makes it possible to explain the experimental data at the qualitative level. Both demerits of the theory of the magnetorefractive effect in application to the magnets and possible additional mechanisms responsible for the magnetic reflection are discussed.

  13. Handbook of infrared standards II with spectral coverage between

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard


    This timely compilation of infrared standards has been developed for use by infrared researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, astrophysics, and laser and atmospheric sciences. Providing maps of closely spaced molecular spectra along with their measured wavenumbers between 1.4vm and 4vm, this handbook will complement the 1986 Handbook of Infrared Standards that included special coverage between 3 and 2600vm. It will serve as a necessary reference for all researchers conducting spectroscopic investigations in the near-infrared region.Key Features:- Provides all new spec

  14. Visible/near-infrared spectral diversity from in situ observations of the Bagnold Dune Field sands in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Achilles, Cherie; Bell, James F.; Bender, Steve; Cloutis, Edward; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fraeman, Abigail; Gasnault, Olivier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Pinet, Patrick; Thompson, Lucy; Wellington, Danika; Wiens, Roger C.


    As part of the Bagnold Dune campaign conducted by Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of dune sands were acquired using Mast Camera (Mastcam) multispectral imaging (445-1013 nm) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) passive point spectroscopy (400-840 nm). By comparing spectra from pristine and rover-disturbed ripple crests and troughs within the dune field, and through analysis of sieved grain size fractions, constraints on mineral segregation from grain sorting could be determined. In general, the dune areas exhibited low relative reflectance, a weak 530 nm absorption band, an absorption band near 620 nm, and a spectral downturn after 685 nm consistent with olivine-bearing sands. The finest grain size fractions occurred within ripple troughs and in the subsurface and typically exhibited the strongest 530 nm bands, highest relative reflectances, and weakest red/near-infrared ratios, consistent with a combination of crystalline and amorphous ferric materials. Coarser-grained samples were the darkest and bluest and exhibited weaker 530 nm bands, lower relative reflectances, and stronger downturns in the near-infrared, consistent with greater proportions of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. These grains were typically segregated along ripple crests and among the upper surfaces of grain flows in disturbed sands. Sieved dune sands exhibited progressive decreases in reflectance with increasing grain size, as observed in laboratory spectra of olivine size separates. The continuum of spectral features observed between the coarse- and fine-grained dune sands suggests that mafic grains, ferric materials, and air fall dust mix in variable proportions depending on aeolian activity and grain sorting.

  15. Temperature profile retrieval in axisymmetric combustion plumes using multilayer perceptron modeling and spectral feature selection in the infrared CO2 emission band. (United States)

    García-Cuesta, Esteban; de Castro, Antonio J; Galván, Inés M; López, Fernando


    In this work, a methodology based on the combined use of a multilayer perceptron model fed using selected spectral information is presented to invert the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and to recover the spatial temperature profile inside an axisymmetric flame. The spectral information is provided by the measurement of the infrared CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral region. A guided spectral feature selection was carried out using a joint criterion of principal component analysis and a priori physical knowledge of the radiative problem. After applying this guided feature selection, a subset of 17 wavenumbers was selected. The proposed methodology was applied over synthetic scenarios. Also, an experimental validation was carried out by measuring the spectral emission of the exhaust hot gas plume in a microjet engine with a Fourier transform-based spectroradiometer. Temperatures retrieved using the proposed methodology were compared with classical thermocouple measurements, showing a good agreement between them. Results obtained using the proposed methodology are very promising and can encourage the use of sensor systems based on the spectral measurement of the CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral window to monitor combustion processes in a nonintrusive way.

  16. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Validation of red and near infra-red marine reflectance relationships. (United States)

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G


    The present study provides an extensive overview of red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral relationships found in the literature and used to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in current atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms with the aim to improve water-leaving reflectance retrievals, ρw(λ), in turbid waters. However, most of these spectral relationships have been developed with restricted datasets and, subsequently, may not be globally valid, explaining the need of an accurate validation exercise. Spectral relationships are validated here with turbid in situ data for ρw(λ). Functions estimating ρw(λ) in the red were only valid for moderately turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbidity ranges presented in the in situ dataset. In the NIR region of the spectrum, the constant NIR reflectance ratio suggested by Ruddick et al. (2006) (Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179), was valid for moderately to very turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) > 10(-2)). The results of this study suggest to use the red bounding equations and the polynomial NIR function to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in AC processes with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where current AC algorithms fail.

  17. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.


    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  18. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.


    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.


    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  20. Magneto and spectral behaviour of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of n-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Agarwal, Himanshu; Sarin, R.K.


    A new series of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of N-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine (INH-SAL) with the general composition (Ln(INH-SAL) 4 )(ClO) 4 ) 3 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb or Dy) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, molecular weight, infrared and electronic spectral data. INH-SAL acts as a bidentate (N, O) chelating agents. The tentative coordination number eight has been assigned. Thermal behaviour of some representative chelates has also been investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  2. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder. (United States)

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang


    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS.

  3. Automated classification and visualization of healthy and pathological dental tissues based on near-infrared hyper-spectral imaging (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan


    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and technology, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of modern society. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals, commonly known as white spots which are difficult to diagnose. If detected early enough, such demineralization can be arrested and reversed by non-surgical means through well established dental treatments (fluoride therapy, anti-bacterial therapy, low intensity laser irradiation). Near-infrared (NIR) hyper-spectral imaging is a new promising technique for early detection of demineralization based on distinct spectral features of healthy and pathological dental tissues. In this study, we apply NIR hyper-spectral imaging to classify and visualize healthy and pathological dental tissues including enamel, dentin, calculus, dentin caries, enamel caries and demineralized areas. For this purpose, a standardized teeth database was constructed consisting of 12 extracted human teeth with different degrees of natural dental lesions imaged by NIR hyper-spectral system, X-ray and digital color camera. The color and X-ray images of teeth were presented to a clinical expert for localization and classification of the dental tissues, thereby obtaining the gold standard. Principal component analysis was used for multivariate local modeling of healthy and pathological dental tissues. Finally, the dental tissues were classified by employing multiple discriminant analysis. High agreement was observed between the resulting classification and the gold standard with the classification sensitivity and specificity exceeding 85 % and 97 %, respectively. This study demonstrates that NIR hyper-spectral imaging has considerable diagnostic potential for imaging hard dental tissues.

  4. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others


    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  5. Structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of the molten nylon 10/10 traced by time-resolved infrared spectral measurements and synchrotron SAXS/WAXD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Nishiyama, Asami; Tsuji, Sawako; Hashida, Tomoko; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Weiyu, Cao; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Ito, Kazuki


    The structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of nylon 10/10 from the melt has been clarified concretely on the basis of the time-resolved infrared spectral measurement as well as the synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Immediately after the temperature jump from the melt to the crystallization point, the isolated domains consisting of the hydrogen-bonded random coils were formed in the melt, as revealed by Guinier plot of SAXS data and the infrared spectral data. With the passage of time these domains approached each other with stronger correlation as analyzed by Debye-Bueche equation. These domains transformed finally to the stacked crystalline lamellae, in which the conformationally-regularized methylene segments of the CO sides were connected each other by stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the crystal lattice.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro


    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  7. Infrared spectral observation of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Kazuo; Kodaira, Keiichi; Tanaka, W.; Suemoto, Zenzaburo


    The atmosphere of fixed stars must be studied in a supplementary way with both observation and theory. In case of low-temperature stars, however, there are difficulties in both two aspects. Under the situation, the multi-color measurement of the near infrared region was performed with a balloon telescope BAT-1 (the aperture of 15 cm) on June 17 and 18, 1975. For the red supergiant αSco, the data of light measurement was able to be obtained. (mori, K.)

  8. [Analysis of sensitive spectral bands for burning status detection using hyper-spectral images of Tiangong-01]. (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Lin; Zhu, Xi; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Kai-Rui; Pang, Yong; Li, Zeng-Yuan; Li, Xu-Zhi; Zhang, Jiu-Xing


    To obtain the sensitive spectral bands for detection of information on 4 kinds of burning status, i. e. flaming, smoldering, smoke, and fire scar, with satellite data, analysis was conducted to identify suitable satellite spectral bands for detection of information on these 4 kinds of burning status by using hyper-spectrum images of Tiangong-01 (TG-01) and employing a method combining statistics and spectral analysis. The results show that: in the hyper-spectral images of TG-01, the spectral bands differ obviously for detection of these 4 kinds of burning status; in all hyper-spectral short-wave infrared channels, the reflectance of flaming is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status, and the reflectance of smoke is the lowest; the reflectance of smoke is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status in the channels corresponding to hyper-spectral visible near-infrared and panchromatic sensors. For spectral band selection, more suitable spectral bands for flaming detection are 1 000.0-1 956.0 and 2 020.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for identifying smoldering are 930.0-1 000.0 and 1 084.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for smoke detection is in 400.0-920.0 nm; for fire scar detection, it is suitable to select bands with central wavelengths of 900.0-930.0 and 1 300.0-2 400.0 nm, and then to combine them to construct a detection model.

  9. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik


    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  10. Research on infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark1200 high-temperature coating (United States)

    Song, Xuyao; Huan, Kewei; Dong, Wei; Wang, Jinghui; Zang, Yanzhe; Shi, Xiaoguang


    Pyromark 1200 (Tempil Co, USA), which is a type of high-temperature high-emissivity coating, is silicon-based with good thermal radiation performance. Its stably working condition is at the temperature range 589~922 K thus a wide range of applications in industrial, scientific research, aviation, aerospace and other fields. Infrared emissivity is one of the most important factors in infrared radiation characteristics. Data on infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 is in shortage, as well as the reports on its infrared radiation characteristics affected by its spray painting process, microstructure and thermal process. The results of this research show that: (1) The coating film critical thickness on the metal base is 10μm according to comparison among different types of spray painting process, coating film thickness, microstructure, which would influence the infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark 1200 coating. The infrared spectral emissivity will attenuate when the coating film thickness is lower or much higher than that. (2) Through measurements, the normal infrared radiation characteristics is analyzed within the range at the temperature range 573~873 K under normal atmospheric conditions, and the total infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 coating is higher than 0.93 in the 3~14 μm wavelength range. (3) The result of 72-hour aging test at the temperature 673 K which studied the effect of thermal processes on the infrared radiation characteristics of the coating shows that the infrared spectral emissivity variation range is approximately 0.01 indicating that Pyromark 1200 coating is with good stability. Compared with Nextel Velvet Coating (N-V-C) which is widely used in optics field, Pyromark 1200 high-temperature coating has a higher applicable temperature and is more suitable for spraying on the material surface which is in long-term operation under high temperature work conditions and requires high infrared spectral emissivity.

  11. Selection of side-chain carbons in a high-molecular-weight, hydrophobic peptide using solid-state spectral editing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Kristin K.; Niemczura, Walter P.; Kim, Minna S.; Sandberg, Lawrence B.


    Solid-state spectral editing techniques have been used by others to simplify 13 C CPMAS spectra of small organic molecules, synthetic organic polymers, and coals. One approach utilizes experiments such as cross-polarization-with-polarization-inversion and cross-polarization-with-depolarization to generate subspectra. This work shows that this particular methodology is also applicable to natural-abundance 13 C CPMAS NMR studies of high-molecular-weight biopolymers. The editing experiments are demonstrated first with model peptides and then with α-elastin, a high-molecular-weight peptidyl preparation obtained from the elastic fibers in mammalian tissue. The latter has a predominance of small, nonpolar residues, which is evident in the crowded aliphatic region of typical 13 C CPMAS spectra. Spectral editing is particularly useful for simplifying the aliphatic region of the NMR spectrum of this elastin preparation

  12. Application of new least-squares methods for the quantitative infrared analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.


    Improvements have been made in previous least-squares regression analyses of infrared spectra for the quantitative estimation of concentrations of multicomponent mixtures. Spectral baselines are fitted by least-squares methods, and overlapping spectral features are accounted for in the fitting procedure. Selection of peaks above a threshold value reduces computation time and data storage requirements. Four weighted least-squares methods incorporating different baseline assumptions were investigated using FT-IR spectra of the three pure xylene isomers and their mixtures. By fitting only regions of the spectra that follow Beer's Law, accurate results can be obtained using three of the fitting methods even when baselines are not corrected to zero. Accurate results can also be obtained using one of the fits even in the presence of Beer's Law deviations. This is a consequence of pooling the weighted results for each spectral peak such that the greatest weighting is automatically given to those peaks that adhere to Beer's Law. It has been shown with the xylene spectra that semiquantitative results can be obtained even when all the major components are not known or when expected components are not present. This improvement over previous methods greatly expands the utility of quantitative least-squares analyses

  13. Non-collinear upconversion of infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Hu, Qi; Høgstedt, Lasse


    Two dimensional mid-infrared upconversion imaging provides unique spectral and spatial information showing good potential for mid- infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. However, to extract spectral or spatial information from the upconverted images an elaborate model is needed, which...... includes non-collinear interaction. We derive here a general theory providing the far field of the upconverted light when two arbitrary fields interact inside a non linear crystal. Theoretical predictions are experimentally verified for incoherent radiation and subsequently applied to previously published...

  14. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques. (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja


    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures. (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo


    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of UV-A dose during this time period would be from 1.4 to 10.3 times more than the solar UV-A dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Magnelli, B.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de al Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, H.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lagache, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Bat 121, Universite de Paris XI, 91450 Orsay Cedex (France); Maiolino, R., E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); and others


    We combine Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) data from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program with Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 16 {mu}m photometry and ultra deep Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared spectra to measure the mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0.7 < z < 2.5 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main sequence (the redshift-dependent relation of star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass). Our very deep data confirm from individual far-infrared detections that z {approx} 2 SFRs are overestimated if based on 24 {mu}m fluxes and SED templates that are calibrated via local trends with luminosity. Galaxies with similar ratios of rest-frame {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8) to 8-1000 {mu}m infrared luminosity (LIR) tend to lie along lines of constant offset from the main sequence. We explore the relation between SED shape and offset in specific star formation rate (SSFR) from the redshift-dependent main sequence. Main-sequence galaxies tend to have a similar {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR regardless of LIR and redshift, up to z {approx} 2.5, and {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR decreases with increasing offset above the main sequence in a consistent way at the studied redshifts. We provide a redshift-independent calibration of SED templates in the range of 8-60 {mu}m as a function of {Delta}log(SSFR) offset from the main sequence. Redshift dependency enters only through the evolution of the main sequence with time. Ultra deep IRS spectra match these SED trends well and verify that they are mostly due to a change in ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to LIR rather than continua of hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Alternatively, we discuss the dependence of {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR on LIR. The same {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR is reached at increasingly higher LIR at higher redshift, with shifts relative to local by 0.5 and 0.8 dex in log(LIR) at redshifts z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2. Corresponding SED template calibrations

  18. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo


    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  19. Numerical Study on Similarity of Plume’s Infrared Radiation from Reduced Scaling Solid Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang


    Full Text Available Similarity of plume radiation between reduced scaling solid rocket models and full scale ones in ground conditions has been taken for investigation. Flow and radiation of plume from solid rockets with scaling ratio from 0.1 to 1 have been computed. The radiative transfer equation (RTE is solved by the finite volume method (FVM in infrared band 2~6 μm. The spectral characteristics of plume gases have been calculated with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gas (WSGG model, and those of the Al2O3 particles have been solved by the Mie scattering model. Our research shows that, with the decreasing scaling ratio of the rocket engine, the radiation intensity of the plume decreases with 1.5~2.5 power of the scaling ratio. The infrared radiation of the plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of the Al2O3 particles shows grey property. Spectral radiation intensity of the high temperature core of the solid rocket plume increases greatly in the peak absorption spectrum of plume gases. Al2O3 particle is the major radiation composition in the rocket plume, whose scattering coefficient is much larger than its absorption coefficient. There is good similarity between spectral variations of plumes from different scaling solid rockets. The directional plume radiation rises with the increasing azimuth angle.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)


    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  1. On the instability of a modified cup-burner flame in the infrared spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bitala


    Full Text Available This study describes the modification of a standardised cup-burner apparatus. The replacement of the original glass chimney is performed by shielding a nitrogen co-flow enabled measurement at a wavelength of 3.9 μm. This modification, together with a special arrangement of the measuring system (spectral filtering, data acquisition and post-processing, permitted the observation of various types of hydrodynamic instabilities, including transition states. The advantages of our arrangement are demonstrated with an ethylene non-premixed flame with high sooting tendency. Two known modes of hydrodynamic instability (varicose and sinuous that occur in buoyant flames were studied and described quantitatively. Based on the intensity of the infrared emissions, we identified and qualitatively described the modes of periodic hydrodynamic instability that are accompanied by flame tip opening, which has not been observed for this type of flame.

  2. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle


    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  3. High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data. (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Fernandez, Daniel C; Hewitt, Stephen M; Levin, Ira W


    Vibrational spectroscopy allows a visualization of tissue constituents based on intrinsic chemical composition and provides a potential route to obtaining diagnostic markers of diseases. Characterizations utilizing infrared vibrational spectroscopy, in particular, are conventionally low throughput in data acquisition, generally lacking in spatial resolution with the resulting data requiring intensive numerical computations to extract information. These factors impair the ability of infrared spectroscopic measurements to represent accurately the spatial heterogeneity in tissue, to incorporate robustly the diversity introduced by patient cohorts or preparative artifacts and to validate developed protocols in large population studies. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, tissue microarrays (TMAs) and fast numerical analysis as a paradigm for the rapid analysis, development and validation of high throughput spectroscopic characterization protocols. We provide an extended description of the data treatment algorithm and a discussion of various factors that may influence decision-making using this approach. Finally, a number of prostate tissue biopsies, arranged in an array modality, are employed to examine the efficacy of this approach in histologic recognition of epithelial cell polarization in patients displaying a variety of normal, malignant and hyperplastic conditions. An index of epithelial cell polarization, derived from a combined spectral and morphological analysis, is determined to be a potentially useful diagnostic marker.

  4. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  5. Multimode simulations of a wide field of view double-Fourier far-infrared spatio-spectral interferometer (United States)

    Bracken, Colm P.; Lightfoot, John; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Donohoe, Anthony; Savini, Giorgio; Juanola-Parramon, Roser; The Fisica Consortium, On Behalf Of


    In the absence of 50-m class space-based observatories, subarcsecond astronomy spanning the full far-infrared wavelength range will require space-based long-baseline interferometry. The long baselines of up to tens of meters are necessary to achieve subarcsecond resolution demanded by science goals. Also, practical observing times command a field of view toward an arcminute (1‧) or so, not achievable with a single on-axis coherent detector. This paper is concerned with an application of an end-to-end instrument simulator PyFIInS, developed as part of the FISICA project under funding from the European Commission's seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). Predicted results of wide field of view spatio-spectral interferometry through simulations of a long-baseline, double-Fourier, far-infrared interferometer concept are presented and analyzed. It is shown how such an interferometer, illuminated by a multimode detector can recover a large field of view at subarcsecond angular resolution, resulting in similar image quality as that achieved by illuminating the system with an array of coherent detectors. Through careful analysis, the importance of accounting for the correct number of higher-order optical modes is demonstrated, as well as accounting for both orthogonal polarizations. Given that it is very difficult to manufacture waveguide and feed structures at sub-mm wavelengths, the larger multimode design is recommended over the array of smaller single mode detectors. A brief note is provided in the conclusion of this paper addressing a more elegant solution to modeling far-infrared interferometers, which holds promise for improving the computational efficiency of the simulations presented here.

  6. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands (United States)

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.


    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  7. [State Recognition of Solid Fermentation Process Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Adaboost and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis]. (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liu, Guo-hai; Xia, Rong-sheng; Jiang, Hui


    In order to achieve the rapid monitoring of process state of solid state fermentation (SSF), this study attempted to qualitative identification of process state of SSF of feed protein by use of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy analysis technique. Even more specifically, the FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with Adaboost-SRDA-NN integrated learning algorithm as an ideal analysis tool was used to accurately and rapidly monitor chemical and physical changes in SSF of feed protein without the need for chemical analysis. Firstly, the raw spectra of all the 140 fermentation samples obtained were collected by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer (Antaris II), and the raw spectra obtained were preprocessed by use of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) spectral preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, the characteristic information of the preprocessed spectra was extracted by use of spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA). Finally, nearest neighbors (NN) algorithm as a basic classifier was selected and building state recognition model to identify different fermentation samples in the validation set. Experimental results showed as follows: the SRDA-NN model revealed its superior performance by compared with other two different NN models, which were developed by use of the feature information form principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and the correct recognition rate of SRDA-NN model achieved 94.28% in the validation set. In this work, in order to further improve the recognition accuracy of the final model, Adaboost-SRDA-NN ensemble learning algorithm was proposed by integrated the Adaboost and SRDA-NN methods, and the presented algorithm was used to construct the online monitoring model of process state of SSF of feed protein. Experimental results showed as follows: the prediction performance of SRDA-NN model has been further enhanced by use of Adaboost lifting algorithm, and the correct

  8. Precise Multi-Spectral Dermatological Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral dermatological images is proposed. The system is made up of an integrating sphere, light emitting diodes and a generic monochromatic camera. The system can collect up to 10 different spectral bands....... These spectral bands vary from ultraviolet to near infrared. The welldefined and diffuse illumination of the optically closed scene aims to avoid shadows and specular reflections. Furthermore, the system has been developed to guarantee the reproducibility of the collected images. This allows for comparative...

  9. Measured Polarized Spectral Responsivity of JPSS J1 VIIRS Using the NIST T-SIRCUS (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Young, James B.; Moyer, David; Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiaoxiong


    Recent pre-launch measurements performed on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) monochromatic source have provided wavelength dependent polarization sensitivity for select spectral bands and viewing conditions. Measurements were made at a number of input linear polarization states (twelve in total) and initially at thirteen wavelengths across the bandpass (later expanded to seventeen for some cases). Using the source radiance information collected by an external monitor, a spectral responsivity function was constructed for each input linear polarization state. Additionally, an unpolarized spectral responsivity function was derived from these polarized measurements. An investigation of how the centroid, bandwidth, and detector responsivity vary with polarization state was weighted by two model input spectra to simulate both ground measurements as well as expected on-orbit conditions. These measurements will enhance our understanding of VIIRS polarization sensitivity, improve the design for future flight models, and provide valuable data to enhance product quality in the post-launch phase.

  10. Development of an inverse distance weighted active infrared stealth scheme using the repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm. (United States)

    Han, Kuk-Il; Kim, Do-Hwi; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kuk


    Treatments for detection by infrared (IR) signals are higher than for other signals such as radar or sonar because an object detected by the IR sensor cannot easily recognize its detection status. Recently, research for actively reducing IR signal has been conducted to control the IR signal by adjusting the surface temperature of the object. In this paper, we propose an active IR stealth algorithm to synchronize IR signals from the object and the background around the object. The proposed method includes the repulsive particle swarm optimization statistical optimization algorithm to estimate the IR stealth surface temperature, which will result in a synchronization between the IR signals from the object and the surrounding background by setting the inverse distance weighted contrast radiant intensity (CRI) equal to zero. We tested the IR stealth performance in mid wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) bands for a test plate located at three different positions on a forest scene to verify the proposed method. Our results show that the inverse distance weighted active IR stealth technique proposed in this study is proved to be an effective method for reducing the contrast radiant intensity between the object and background up to 32% as compared to the previous method using the CRI determined as the simple signal difference between the object and the background.

  11. Novel search algorithms for a mid-infrared spectral library of cotton contaminants. (United States)

    Loudermilk, J Brian; Himmelsbach, David S; Barton, Franklin E; de Haseth, James A


    During harvest, a variety of plant based contaminants are collected along with cotton lint. The USDA previously created a mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection (ATR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral library of cotton contaminants for contaminant identification as the contaminants have negative impacts on yarn quality. This library has shown impressive identification rates for extremely similar cellulose based contaminants in cases where the library was representative of the samples searched. When spectra of contaminant samples from crops grown in different geographic locations, seasons, and conditions and measured with a different spectrometer and accessories were searched, identification rates for standard search algorithms decreased significantly. Six standard algorithms were examined: dot product, correlation, sum of absolute values of differences, sum of the square root of the absolute values of differences, sum of absolute values of differences of derivatives, and sum of squared differences of derivatives. Four categories of contaminants derived from cotton plants were considered: leaf, stem, seed coat, and hull. Experiments revealed that the performance of the standard search algorithms depended upon the category of sample being searched and that different algorithms provided complementary information about sample identity. These results indicated that choosing a single standard algorithm to search the library was not possible. Three voting scheme algorithms based on result frequency, result rank, category frequency, or a combination of these factors for the results returned by the standard algorithms were developed and tested for their capability to overcome the unpredictability of the standard algorithms' performances. The group voting scheme search was based on the number of spectra from each category of samples represented in the library returned in the top ten results of the standard algorithms. This group algorithm was able to identify

  12. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  13. Recent progress of push-broom infrared hyper-spectral imager in SITP (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Hu, Weida; Shu, Rong; Li, Chunlai; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu


    In the past decades, hyper-spectral imaging technologies were well developed in SITP, CAS. Many innovations for system design and key parts of hyper-spectral imager were finished. First airborne hyper-spectral imager operating from VNIR to TIR in the world was emerged in SITP. It is well known as OMIS(Operational Modular Imaging Spectrometer). Some new technologies were introduced to improve the performance of hyper-spectral imaging system in these years. A high spatial space-borne hyper-spectral imager aboard Tiangong-1 spacecraft was launched on Sep.29, 2011. Thanks for ground motion compensation and high optical efficiency prismatic spectrometer, a large amount of hyper-spectral imagery with high sensitivity and good quality were acquired in the past years. Some important phenomena were observed. To diminish spectral distortion and expand field of view, new type of prismatic imaging spectrometer based curved prism were proposed by SITP. A prototype of hyper-spectral imager based spherical fused silica prism were manufactured, which can operate from 400nm 2500nm. We also made progress in the development of LWIR hyper-spectral imaging technology. Compact and low F number LWIR imaging spectrometer was designed, manufactured and integrated. The spectrometer operated in a cryogenically-cooled vacuum box for background radiation restraint. The system performed well during flight experiment in an airborne platform. Thanks high sensitivity FPA and high performance optics, spatial resolution and spectral resolution and SNR of system are improved enormously. However, more work should be done for high radiometric accuracy in the future.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel


    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  15. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter


    .... The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra...

  16. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.


    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  17. Simulation and analysis of Au-MgF2 structure in plasmonic sensor in near infrared spectral region (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.


    Plasmonic sensor based on metal-dielectric combination of gold and MgF2 layers is studied in near infrared (NIR) spectral region. An emphasis is given on the effect of variable thickness of MgF2 layer in combination with operating wavelength and gold layer thickness on the sensor's performance in NIR. It is established that the variation in MgF2 thickness in connection with plasmon penetration depth leads to significant variation in sensor's performance. The analysis leads to a conclusion that taking smaller values of MgF2 layer thickness and operating at longer NIR wavelength leads to enhanced sensing performance. Also, fluoride glass can provide better sensing performance than chalcogenide glass and silicon substrate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Zhumashev


    Full Text Available Subject of Study. We consider spectral characteristics of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes with heterostructures based on InAs(Sb,P emitting at T=300 K in the wavelength range 3.4–4.1 micrometers. The aim of the study was to search for the ways of increasing the diode efficiency. Methods. The heterostructures were grown from metal-organic chemical compounds with the use of vapor-phase epitaxial technique. The spectra were recorded under pulse excitation with the use of computer-controlled installation employing MDR-23 grating monochromator and a lock-in amplifier. InSb photodiode was used as a detector. Comparative study of electroluminescence spectra of the diodes was carried out at the temperatures equal to 300 K and 77 K. We compared the obtained data with the calculation results of the band diagrams of the heterostructures. Main Results. As a result of comparative study of the electroluminescence spectra of the diodes recorded at 300 K and 77 K we have established that increasing of their efficiency is hindered by substantial influence of Auger recombination. For the first time at 77 К we have observed the effect of stimulated emission from InAsSb active layer in light-emitting structures made of InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP. For heterostructures with quantum wells InAs/(InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP we have found out that at 77 К the carrier recombination occurs outside quantum wells, which points out to the insufficient carrier localization in the active layer. Thus, we have shown that the efficiency of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes based on InAs(Sb,P can be increased via suppression of Auger-recombination and improvement of carrier localization in the active region. Practical Relevance. The results of the study can be used for development of heterostructures for mid-infrared light-emitting diodes.

  19. Infrared spectroscopic study of CaFe0.7Co0.3O3 (United States)

    Zhang, C. X.; Xia, H. L.; Dai, Y. M.; Qiu, Z. Y.; Sui, Q. T.; Long, Y. W.; Qiu, X. G.


    Temperature-dependent infrared spectroscopy has been investigated for CaFe0.7Co0.3O3 which undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at TC≈177 K . It is observed that the spectral weight is transferred from ˜4800 -14 000 cm-1 to ˜0 -4800 cm-1 as the temperature is lowered around TC. Such a large-range spectral weight transfer is attributed to the Hund's interaction. The phonons in CaFe0.7Co0.3O3 show minor asymmetric line shapes, implying relatively weak electron-phonon coupling compared with the parent compound CaFeO3. The optical conductivity also reveals a broad peak structure in the range of ˜700 -1500 cm-1. Fit by the model of single-polaron absorption, the broad peak is interpreted by the excitation of polarons. From the fitting parameters of the polaron peak, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant α ˜ 0.4 -0.5 , implying that CaFe0.7Co0.3O3 falls into the weak-coupling regime.

  20. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals. (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.


    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  1. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.


    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  2. Noncoherent Spectral Optical CDMA System Using 1D Active Weight Two-Code Keying Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Chyun Yeh


    Full Text Available We propose a new family of one-dimensional (1D active weight two-code keying (TCK in spectral amplitude coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA networks. We use encoding and decoding transfer functions to operate the 1D active weight TCK. The proposed structure includes an optical line terminal (OLT and optical network units (ONUs to produce the encoding and decoding codes of the proposed OLT and ONUs, respectively. The proposed ONU uses the modified cross-correlation to remove interferences from other simultaneous users, that is, the multiuser interference (MUI. When the phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN is the most important noise, the modified cross-correlation suppresses the PIIN. In the numerical results, we find that the bit error rate (BER for the proposed system using the 1D active weight TCK codes outperforms that for two other systems using the 1D M-Seq codes and 1D balanced incomplete block design (BIBD codes. The effective source power for the proposed system can achieve −10 dBm, which has less power than that for the other systems.

  3. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN


    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu


    Full Text Available Gaofen-5 carries six instruments aimed at various land and atmosphere applications, and it’s an important unit of China High-resolution Earth Observation System. As Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared payload is similar to that of ASTER, which is widely used in mineral exploration, application of Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared data is discussed regarding its capability in mineral classification and silica content estimation. First, spectra of silicate, carbonate, sulfate minerals from a spectral library are used to conduct spectral feature analysis on Gaofen-5’s thermal infrared emissivities. Spectral indices of band emissivities are proposed, and by setting thresholds of these spectral indices, it can classify three types of minerals mentioned above. This classification method is tested on a simulated Gaofen-5 emissivity image. With samples acquired from the study area, this method is proven to be feasible. Second, with band emissivities of silicate and their silica content from the same spectral library, correlation models have been tried to be built for silica content inversion. However, the highest correlation coefficient is merely 0.592, which is much lower than that of correlation model built on ASTER thermal infrared emissivity. It can be concluded that GF-5’s thermal infrared data can be utilized in mineral classification but not in silica content inversion.

  5. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson


    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  6. Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy of single cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Patel, Imran; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Palanisamy; Bertoncini, Andrea; Pagliari, Francesca; Tirinato, Luca; Laptenok, Sergey P.; Liberale, Carlo


    Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy is a next generation novel imaging technique allowing high resolution spectral imaging of cells. We show after spectral pre-processing, identification of different cancer cell populations within minutes.

  7. Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy of single cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Patel, Imran


    Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy is a next generation novel imaging technique allowing high resolution spectral imaging of cells. We show after spectral pre-processing, identification of different cancer cell populations within minutes.

  8. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.


    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  9. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  10. Far-infrared properties of optically selected quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.A.


    The far-infrared properties of 10, optically selected quasars were studied on the basis of pointed IRAS observations and ground-based near-infrared and radio measurements. Nine of these quasars were detected in at least three IRAS bands. The flat spectral energy distributions characterizing these optically selected quasars together with large 60-100-micron luminosities suggest that the infrared emission is dominated by nonthermal radiation. Seven of the nine quasars with far-infrared detections were found to have low-frequency turnovers. 12 references

  11. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez


    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  12. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E


    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  13. Scaling plant ultraviolet spectral responses from laboratory action spectra to field spectral weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.


    Biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF) play a key role in calculating the increase of biologically effective solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-BBE) due to ozone reduction, assessing current latitudinal gradients of UV-B BE . and comparing solar UV-B BE with that from lamps and filters in plant experiments. Plant UV action spectra (usually determined with monochromatic radiation in the laboratory with exposure periods on the order of hours) are often used as BSWF. The realism of such spectra for plants growing day after day in polychromatic solar radiation in the field is questionable. We tested the widely used generalized plant action spectrum since preliminary data from an action spectrum being developed with monochromatic radiation for a cultivated oat variety indicate reasonable agreement with the generalized spectrum. These tests involved exposing plants to polychromatic radiation either from a high-pressure xenon arc lamp in growth chambers or in the field under solar radiation with supplemental UV-B lamps. Different broad-spectrum combinations were achieved by truncating the spectrum at successively longer UV wavelengths with various filters. In the growth chamber experiments, the generalized plant spectrum appeared to predict plant growth responses at short (<310nm) wavelengths but not at longer wavelengths. The field experiment reinforced these conclusions, showing (in addition to the expected direct UV-B effects) both direct UV-A effects and UV-A mitigation of UV-B effects. (author)

  14. Upconversion based spectral imaging in 6 to 8 μm spectral regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    Spectral imaging in the 6 to 8μm range has great potential for medical diagnostics. Here a novel technique based on frequency upconversion of the infrared images to the near visible for subsequent acquisition using a Si-CCD camera is investigated. The upconversion unit consists of an AgGaS2 crystal...

  15. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  16. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, D.M.


    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Visible Near-infrared Spectral Evolution of Irradiated Mixed Ices and Application to Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans (United States)

    Poston, Michael J.; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Brown, Michael E.; Carlson, Robert W.; Eiler, John M.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Wong, Ian


    Understanding the history of Kuiper Belt Objects and Jupiter Trojans will help to constrain models of solar system formation and dynamical evolution. Laboratory simulations of a possible thermal and irradiation history of these bodies were conducted on ice mixtures while monitoring their spectral properties. These simulations tested the hypothesis that the presence or absence of sulfur explains the two distinct visible near-infrared spectral groups observed in each population and that Trojans and KBOs share a common formation location. Mixed ices consisting of water, methanol, and ammonia, in mixtures both with and without hydrogen sulfide, were deposited and irradiated with 10 keV electrons. Deposition and initial irradiation were performed at 50 K to simulate formation at 20 au in the early solar system, then heated to Trojan-like temperatures and irradiated further. Finally, irradiation was concluded and resulting samples were observed during heating to room temperature. Results indicated that the presence of sulfur resulted in steeper spectral slopes. Heating through the 140–200 K range decreased the slopes and total reflectance for both mixtures. In addition, absorption features at 410, 620, and 900 nm appeared under irradiation, but only in the H2S-containing mixture. These features were lost with heating once irradiation was concluded. While the results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis, additional work is needed to address uncertainties and to simulate conditions not included in the present work.

  18. Reconstruction of MODIS Spectral Reflectance under Cloudy-Sky Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao


    Full Text Available Clouds usually cause invalid observations for sensors aboard satellites, which corrupts the spatio-temporal continuity of land surface parameters retrieved from remote sensing data (e.g., MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and prevents the fusing of multi-source remote sensing data in the field of quantitative remote sensing. Based on the requirements of spatio-temporal continuity and the necessity of methods to restore bad pixels, primarily resulting from image processing, this study developed a novel method to derive the spectral reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels in the visual–near infrared (VIS–NIR spectral channel based on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF and multi-spatio-temporal observations. The proposed method first constructs the spatial distribution of land surface reflectance based on the corresponding BRDF and the solar-viewing geometry; then, a geographically weighted regression (GWR is introduced to individually derive the spectral surface reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels. A validation of the proposed method shows that a total root-mean-square error (RMSE of less than 6% and a total R2 of more than 90% are detected, which indicates considerably better precision than those exhibited by other existing methods. Further validation of the retrieved white-sky albedo based on the spectral reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels confirms an RMSE of 3.6% and a bias of 2.2%, demonstrating very high accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. In situ sensing of subsurface contamination--part I: near-infrared spectral characterization of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Klavarioti, Maria; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pourjabbar, Anahita; Ghandehari, Masoud


    There is an imperative need for a chemical sensor capable of remote, in situ, long-term monitoring of chemical species at sites containing toxic chemical spills, specifically at chemical waste dumps, landfills, and locations with underground storage tanks. In the current research, a series of experiments were conducted measuring the near-infrared optical absorption of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A spectral library was then developed to characterize the optical spectra of liquid hydrocarbons. Near-infrared analysis was chosen due to compatibility with optical fibers. The goal was to differentiate between classes of hydrocarbons and to also discriminate between compounds within a class of similar molecular structures. It was observed that unique absorption spectra can be obtained for each hydrocarbon, and this uniqueness can be used to discriminate between hydrocarbons from different families. Statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient (Spearman and Pearson methods), were attempted to match absorption spectra from an unknown hydrocarbon with the database with limited success. An algorithm was subsequently written to identify the characteristic peaks of each hydrocarbon that could be used to match data from an unknown chemical species with the database.

  20. Heavy carriers, non-drude optical conductivity and transfer of spectral weight in MnSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, F.P.; Damascelli, A.; Marel, D. van der; Fath, M.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.


    The optical properties of the weak magnetic metal MnSi were determined using reflectance at 80 deg. (2-800 meV) and ellipsometry (0.8-4.5 eV). At low frequencies in the magnetic phase we observe a departure of the optical conductivity from Drude behavior: m*(ω)/m is strongly frequency dependent and 1/τ(ω) is approximately linear in frequency. In fact, we show that σ(ω)/σ(0)=(1+iω/Γ) -0.5 . Moreover, in the magnetic phase, the plasma frequency shifts to the red indicating that spectral weight is transferred to high frequencies. This is opposite to the effect recently seen in other magnetic compounds

  1. Infrared characterization of environmental samples by pulsed photothermal spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, W.; Foerstendorf, H.; Heise, K.H.; Nicolai, R.; Schamlott, A.; Ortega, J.M.; Glotin, F.; Prazeres, R.


    Low concentration of toxic radioactive metals in environmental samples often limits the interpretation of results of infrared studies investigating the interaction processes between the metal ions and environmental compartments. For the first time, we could show that photothermal infrared spectroscopy performed with a pulsed free electron laser can provide reliable infrared spectra throughout a distinct spectral range of interest. In this model investigation, we provide vibrational absorption spectra of a rare earth metal salt dissolved in a KBr matrix and a natural calcite sample obtained by photothermal beam deflection (PTBD) technique and FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy, respectively. General agreement was found between all spectra of the different recording techniques. Spectral deviations were observed with samples containing low concentration of the rare earth metal salt indicating a lower detection limit of the photothermal method as compared to conventional FT-IR spectroscopy. (authors)

  2. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.


    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  3. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite. (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Frost, Ray L; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; He, Junkai


    The structure and thermal stability between typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) and Raman spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-700°C has been used to characterise the thermal decomposition of both kaolinite and halloysite. Halloysite is characterised by two bands in the water bending region at 1629 and 1648 cm(-1), attributed to structural water and coordinated water in the interlayer. Well defined hydroxyl stretching bands at around 3695, 3679, 3652 and 3625 cm(-1) are observed for both kaolinite and halloysite. The 550°C infrared emission spectrum of halloysite is similar to that of kaolinite in 650-1350 cm(-1) spectral region. The infrared emission spectra of halloysite were found to be considerably different to that of kaolinite at lower temperatures. These differences are attributed to the fundamental difference in the structure of the two minerals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectral detection of life in polar subsurface environments and its application to Mars exploration. (United States)

    Preston, Louisa J; Johnson, Diane; Cockell, Charles S; Grady, Monica M


    Cryptoendolithic lichen communities of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, survive in an extremely inhospitable environment, finding refuge in microscopic niches where conditions suitable for life exist. Such "within-rock" communities may have evolved on Mars when conditions for life on the surface deteriorated to such an extent that they could no longer survive. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of unprepared whole-rock Antarctic Beacon sandstones was used to vertically profile molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, and carboxylic acids created by endolithic communities. Spectral biosignatures were found localized to lichen-rich areas and were absent in crustal regions and the bulk rock substrate. These cryptoendolithic profiles will aid similar spectroscopic investigations of organic biosignatures during future Martian subsurface studies and will help in the identification of similar communities in other localities across the Earth.

  5. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.


    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  6. Data compressive paradigm for multispectral sensing using tunable DWELL mid-infrared detectors. (United States)

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Hayat, Majeed M; Godoy, Sebastián E; Bender, Steven C; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Krishna, Sanjay


    While quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) infrared photodetectors have the feature that their spectral responses can be shifted continuously by varying the applied bias, the width of the spectral response at any applied bias is not sufficiently narrow for use in multispectral sensing without the aid of spectral filters. To achieve higher spectral resolutions without using physical spectral filters, algorithms have been developed for post-processing the DWELL's bias-dependent photocurrents resulting from probing an object of interest repeatedly over a wide range of applied biases. At the heart of these algorithms is the ability to approximate an arbitrary spectral filter, which we desire the DWELL-algorithm combination to mimic, by forming a weighted superposition of the DWELL's non-orthogonal spectral responses over a range of applied biases. However, these algorithms assume availability of abundant DWELL data over a large number of applied biases (>30), leading to large overall acquisition times in proportion with the number of biases. This paper reports a new multispectral sensing algorithm to substantially compress the number of necessary bias values subject to a prescribed performance level across multiple sensing applications. The algorithm identifies a minimal set of biases to be used in sensing only the relevant spectral information for remote-sensing applications of interest. Experimental results on target spectrometry and classification demonstrate a reduction in the number of required biases by a factor of 7 (e.g., from 30 to 4). The tradeoff between performance and bias compression is thoroughly investigated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range under atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reichert


    Full Text Available We present a first quantification of the near-infrared (NIR water vapor continuum absorption from an atmospheric radiative closure experiment carried out at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.. Continuum quantification is achieved via radiative closure using radiometrically calibrated solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR absorption spectra covering the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range. The dry atmospheric conditions at the Zugspitze site (IWV 1.4 to 3.3 mm enable continuum quantification even within water vapor absorption bands, while upper limits for continuum absorption can be provided in the centers of window regions. Throughout 75 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range, the Zugspitze results agree within our estimated uncertainty with the widely used MT_CKD 2.5.2 model (Mlawer et al., 2012. In the wings of water vapor absorption bands, our measurements indicate about 2–5 times stronger continuum absorption than MT_CKD, namely in the 2800 to 3000 cm−1 and 4100 to 4200 cm−1 spectral ranges. The measurements are consistent with the laboratory measurements of Mondelain et al. (2015, which rely on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CDRS, and the calorimetric–interferometric measurements of Bicknell et al. (2006. Compared to the recent FTIR laboratory studies of Ptashnik et al. (2012, 2013, our measurements are consistent within the estimated errors throughout most of the spectral range. However, in the wings of water vapor absorption bands our measurements indicate typically 2–3 times weaker continuum absorption under atmospheric conditions, namely in the 3200 to 3400, 4050 to 4200, and 6950 to 7050 cm−1 spectral regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Mokoatsi


    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  9. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl


    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  10. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang


    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  11. Potential applications of near infrared auto-fluorescence spectral polarized imaging for assessment of food quality (United States)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun


    The current growing of food industry for low production costs and high efficiency needs for maintenance of high-quality standards and assurance of food safety while avoiding liability issues. Quality and safety of food depend on physical (texture, color, tenderness etc.), chemical (fat content, moisture, protein content, pH, etc.), and biological (total bacterial count etc.) features. There is a need for a rapid (less than a few minutes) and accurate detection system in order to optimize quality and assure safety of food. However, the fluorescence ranges for known fluorophores are limited to ultraviolet emission bands, which are not in the tissue near infrared (NIR) "optical window". Biological tissues excited by far-red or NIR light would exhibit strong emission in spectral range of 650-1,100 nm although no characteristic peaks show the emission from which known fluorophores. The characteristics of the auto-fluorescence emission of different types of tissues were found to be different between different tissue components such as fat, high quality muscle food. In this paper, NIR auto-fluorescence emission from different types of muscle food and fat was measured. The differences of fluorescence intensities of the different types of muscle food and fat emissions were observed. These can be explained by the change of the microscopic structure of physical, chemical, and biological features in meat. The difference of emission intensities of fat and lean meat tissues was applied to monitor food quality and safety using spectral polarized imaging, which can be detect deep depth fat under the muscle food up to several centimeter.

  12. SOCl 2 catalyzed cyclization of chalcones: Synthesis and spectral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aryl-aryl 1H pyrazoles have been synthesised by cyclization of aryl chalcones and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of SOCl2. The yields of the pyrazoles are more than 85%. These pyrazoles are characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The infrared, NMR spectral group frequencies of these ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Dullemond, C. P.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.


    The spectral region around 10 μm, showing prominent emission bands from various dust species is commonly used for the evaluation of the chemical composition of protoplanetary dust. Different methods of analysis have been proposed for this purpose, but so far, no comparative test has been performed to test the validity of their assumptions. In this paper, we evaluate how good the various methods are in deriving the chemical composition of dust grains from infrared spectroscopy. Synthetic spectra of disk models with different geometries and central sources were calculated, using a two-dimensional radiative transfer code. These spectra were then fitted in a blind test by four spectral decomposition methods. We studied the effect of disk structure (flared versus flat), inclination angle, size of an inner disk hole, and stellar luminosity on the fitted chemical composition. Our results show that the dust parameters obtained by all methods deviate systematically from the input data of the synthetic spectra. The dust composition fitted by the new two-layer temperature distribution method, described in this paper, differs the least from the input dust composition and the results show the weakest systematic effects. The reason for the deviations of the results given by the previously used methods lies in their simplifying assumptions. Due to the radial extent of the 10 μm emitting region there is dust at different temperatures contributing to the flux in the silicate feature. Therefore, the assumption of a single averaged grain temperature can be a strong limitation of the previously used methods. The continuum below the feature can consist of multiple components (e.g., star, inner rim, and disk midplane), which cannot simply be described by a Planck function at a single temperature. In addition, the optically thin emission of 'featureless' grains (e.g., carbon in the considered wavelength range) produces a degeneracy in the models with the optically thick emission of the


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.


    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among ∼900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L sun ≥ 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.


    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 μm spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 μm features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 μm silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 μm emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  16. The Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey (United States)

    Sick, J.; Courteau, S.; Cuillandre, J.-C.


    The Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey has mapped M31 in u* g' r' i' JKs wavelengths out to R = 40 kpc using the MegaCam and WIRCam wide-field cameras on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our survey is uniquely designed to simultaneously resolve stars while also carefully reproducing the surface brightness of M31, allowing us to study M31's global structure in the context of both resolved stellar populations and spectral energy distributions. We use the Elixir-LSB method to calibrate the optical u* g' r' i' images by building real-time maps of the sky background with sky-target nodding. These maps are stable to μg ≲ 28.5 mag arcsec-2 and reveal warps in the outer M31 disk in surface brightness. The equivalent WIRCam mapping in the near-infrared uses a combination of sky-target nodding and image-to-image sky offset optimization to produce stable surface brightnesses. This study enables a detailed analysis of the systematics of spectral energy distribution fitting with near-infrared bands where asymptotic giant branch stars impose a significant, but ill-constrained, contribution to the near-infrared light of a galaxy. Here we present panchromatic surface brightness maps and initial results from our near-infrared resolved stellar catalog.

  17. Dual-band infrared camera (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.


    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  18. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir


    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  19. The star formation history of the universe as viewed in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnelli, Benjamin


    This thesis is devoted to the estimation of the cosmic star formation history of the Universe through the study of spectral properties of galaxies observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-and-far- infrared. My work begins with the extraction of sources contained in the Spitzer images and with the creation of multi- wavelengths catalogs. Using those catalogs I study the spectral properties of infrared galaxies and their evolution with redshift. From the comparison of these properties with the predictions of standard spectral libraries, I show that galaxies situated beyond z∼1.3 present significant evolutions in their spectral properties. Based on these spectral properties, I estimate the cosmic star formation history of the Universe from z∼0 to z∼2.3. This history is characterized by a sharp increase of the star formation density of the Universe form z∼0 and z∼1, followed by a stabilisation phase up to z∼2. This star formation density is dominated between z∼0.8 and z∼2 by luminous infrared galaxies with high star formation rate. Finally, I study the presence of the 3.3 um PAH signature in the spectrum of distant galaxies (0.5 3. (author) [fr

  20. Spectral emissivity of surface blackbody calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik


    The normal spectral emissivity of commercial infrared calibrators is compared with measurements of anodized aluminum samples and grooved aluminum surfaces coated with Pyromark. Measurements performed by FTIR spectroscopy in the wavelength interval from 2 to 20 mu m and at temperatures between 5...

  1. Measurement of spectral sea ice albedo at Qaanaaq fjord in northwest Greenland (United States)

    Tanikawa, T.


    The spectral albedos of sea ice were measured at Qaanaaq fjord in northwest Greenland. Spectral measurements were conducted for sea ice covered with snow and sea ice without snow where snow was artificially removed around measurement point. Thickness of the sea ice was approximately 1.3 m with 5 cm of snow over the sea ice. The measurements show that the spectral albedos of the sea ice with snow were lower than those of natural pure snow especially in the visible regions though the spectral shapes were similar to each other. This is because the spectral albedos in the visible region have information of not only the snow but also the sea ice under the snow. The spectral albedos of the sea ice without the snow were approximately 0.4 - 0.5 in the visible region, 0.05-0.25 in the near-infrared region and almost constant of approximately 0.05 in the region of 1500 - 2500 nm. In the visible region, it would be due to multiple scattering by an air bubble within the sea ice. In contrast, in the near-infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths, surface reflection at the sea ice surface would be dominant. Since a light absorption by the ice in these regions is relatively strong comparing to the visible region, the light could not be penetrated deeply within the sea ice, resulting that surface reflection based on Fresnel reflection would be dominant. In this presentation we also show the results of comparison between the radiative transfer calculation and spectral measurement data.

  2. New experimental device for high-temperature normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnerová, Petra; Martan, Jiří; Kučera, Martin; Honner, Milan; Hameury, Jacques


    A new experimental device for normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings in the infrared spectral range from 1.38 μm to 26 μm and in the temperature range from 550 K to 1250 K is presented. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is used for the detection of sample and blackbody spectral radiation. Sample heating is achieved by a fiber laser with a scanning head. Surface temperature is measured by two methods. The first method uses an infrared camera and a reference coating with known effective emissivity, the second method is based on the combination of Christiansen wavelength with contact and noncontact surface temperature measurement. Application of the method is shown on the example of a high-temperature high-emissivity coating. Experimental results obtained with this apparatus are compared with the results performed by a direct method of Laboratoire National d’Essais (LNE) in France. The differences in the spectra are analyzed. (paper)

  3. SIBI: A compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Domel, Roland; Coudrain, Christophe; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; D'Almeida, Oscar; Bousquet, Marc; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé


    Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles have increased the demand for more and more compact optical systems. In order to bring solutions to this demand, several infrared systems are being developed at ONERA such as spectrometers, imaging devices, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems. In the field of compact infrared hyperspectral imaging devices, ONERA and Sagem Défense et Sécurité have collaborated to develop a prototype called SIBI, which stands for "Spectro-Imageur Birefringent Infrarouge". It is a static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer which operates in the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range and uses a birefringent lateral shearing interferometer. Up to now, birefringent interferometers have not been often used for hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared because of the lack of crystal manufacturers, contrary to the visible spectral domain where the production of uniaxial crystals like calcite are mastered for various optical applications. In the following, we will present the design and the realization of SIBI as well as the first experimental results.

  4. Spectral image reconstruction using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation. (United States)

    Urban, Philipp; Rosen, Mitchell R; Berns, Roy S


    Reconstruction of spectral images from camera responses is investigated using an edge preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation. A Wiener denoising filter and a spectral reconstruction Wiener filter are combined into a single spatio-spectral filter using local propagation of the noise covariance matrix. To preserve edges the local mean and covariance matrix of camera responses is estimated by bilateral weighting of neighboring pixels. We derive the edge-preserving spatio-spectral Wiener estimation by means of Bayesian inference and show that it fades into the standard Wiener reflectance estimation shifted by a constant reflectance in case of vanishing noise. Simulation experiments conducted on a six-channel camera system and on multispectral test images show the performance of the filter, especially for edge regions. A test implementation of the method is provided as a MATLAB script at the first author's website.

  5. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. Whi...... 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applications like gas analysis and medical diagnostics....

  6. Strong correlation effects on the d-wave superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C-P; Lee, T K; Ho, C-M


    We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-wave superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electron on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t - J model with moderate doped holes describing the high T c cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid state) spectroscopies. The contrast with the d-wave case without projection is alo presented.

  7. Similarity maps and hierarchical clustering for annotating FT-IR spectral images. (United States)

    Zhong, Qiaoyong; Yang, Chen; Großerüschkamp, Frederik; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Serocka, Peter; Gerwert, Klaus; Mosig, Axel


    Unsupervised segmentation of multi-spectral images plays an important role in annotating infrared microscopic images and is an essential step in label-free spectral histopathology. In this context, diverse clustering approaches have been utilized and evaluated in order to achieve segmentations of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopic images that agree with histopathological characterization. We introduce so-called interactive similarity maps as an alternative annotation strategy for annotating infrared microscopic images. We demonstrate that segmentations obtained from interactive similarity maps lead to similarly accurate segmentations as segmentations obtained from conventionally used hierarchical clustering approaches. In order to perform this comparison on quantitative grounds, we provide a scheme that allows to identify non-horizontal cuts in dendrograms. This yields a validation scheme for hierarchical clustering approaches commonly used in infrared microscopy. We demonstrate that interactive similarity maps may identify more accurate segmentations than hierarchical clustering based approaches, and thus are a viable and due to their interactive nature attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering. Our validation scheme furthermore shows that performance of hierarchical two-means is comparable to the traditionally used Ward's clustering. As the former is much more efficient in time and memory, our results suggest another less resource demanding alternative for annotating large spectral images.

  8. Bloodstain detection and discrimination impacted by spectral shift when using an interference filter-based visible and near-infrared multispectral crime scene imaging system (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Dube, Roger R.


    Bloodstain detection and discrimination from nonblood substances on various substrates are critical in forensic science as bloodstains are a critical source for confirmatory DNA tests. Conventional bloodstain detection methods often involve time-consuming sample preparation, a chance of harm to investigators, the possibility of destruction of blood samples, and acquisition of too little data at crime scenes either in the field or in the laboratory. An imaging method has the advantages of being nondestructive, noncontact, real-time, and covering a large field-of-view. The abundant spectral information provided by multispectral imaging makes it a potential presumptive bloodstain detection and discrimination method. This article proposes an interference filter (IF) based area scanning three-spectral-band crime scene imaging system used for forensic bloodstain detection and discrimination. The impact of large angle of views on the spectral shift of calibrated IFs is determined, for both detecting and discriminating bloodstains from visually similar substances on multiple substrates. Spectral features in the visible and near-infrared portion employed by the relative band depth method are used. This study shows that 1 ml bloodstain on black felt, gray felt, red felt, white cotton, white polyester, and raw wood can be detected. Bloodstains on the above substrates can be discriminated from cola, coffee, ketchup, orange juice, red wine, and green tea.

  9. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  10. Mineral Mapping Using Simulated Worldview-3 Short-Wave-Infrared Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Perry


    Full Text Available WorldView commercial imaging satellites comprise a constellation developed by DigitalGlobe Inc. (Longmont, CO, USA. Worldview-3 (WV-3, currently planned for launch in 2014, will have 8 spectral bands in the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR, and an additional 8 bands in the Short-Wave-Infrared (SWIR; the approximately 1.0–2.5 μm spectral range. WV-3 will be the first commercial system with both high spatial resolution and multispectral SWIR capability. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data collected at 3 m spatial resolution with 86 SWIR bands having 10 nm spectral resolution were used to simulate the new WV-3 SWIR data. AVIRIS data were converted to reflectance, geographically registered, and resized to the proposed 3.7 and 7.5 m spatial resolutions. WV-3 SWIR band pass functions were used to spectrally resample the data to the proposed 8 SWIR bands. Characteristic reflectance signatures extracted from the data for known mineral locations (endmembers were used to map spatial locations of specific minerals. The WV-3 results, when compared to spectral mapping using the full AVIRIS SWIR dataset, illustrate that the WV-3 spectral bands should permit identification and mapping of some key minerals, however, minerals with similar spectral features may be confused and will not be mapped with the same detail as using hyperspectral systems. The high spatial resolution should provide detailed mapping of complex alteration mineral patterns not achievable by current multispectral systems. The WV-3 simulation results are promising and indicate that this sensor will be a significant tool for geologic remote sensing.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Donley, J. L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Blaylock, M.; Marcillac, D.


    We show that measures of star formation rates (SFRs) for infrared galaxies using either single-band 24 μm or extinction-corrected Paα luminosities are consistent in the total infrared luminosity = L(TIR) ∼ 10 10 L sun range. MIPS 24 μm photometry can yield SFRs accurately from this luminosity upward: SFR(M sun yr -1 ) = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun ) from L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 L sun to 10 11 L sun and SFR = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun )(7.76 x 10 -11 L(24)) 0.048 for higher L(TIR). For galaxies with L(TIR) ≥ 10 10 L sun , these new expressions should provide SFRs to within 0.2 dex. For L(TIR) ≥ 10 11 L sun , we find that the SFR of infrared galaxies is significantly underestimated using extinction-corrected Paα (and presumably using any other optical or near-infrared recombination lines). As a part of this work, we constructed spectral energy distribution templates for eleven luminous and ultraluminous purely star forming infrared galaxies and over the spectral range 0.4 μm to 30 cm. We use these templates and the SINGS data to construct average templates from 5 μm to 30 cm for infrared galaxies with L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 to 10 13 L sun . All of these templates are made available online.

  12. Trojan Asteroids: Spectral Groups, Volatiles, and Rotational Variation (United States)

    Emery, J. P.; Takir, D.; Stamper, N. G.; Lucas, M. P.


    Trojan asteroids comprise a substantial population of primitive bodies confined to Jupiter's stable Lagrange regions. ecause they likely became trapped in these orbits at the end of the initial phase of planetary formation and subsequent migration, the compositions of Trojans provide unique perspectives on chemical and dynamical processes that shaped the Solar System. Ices and organics are of particular interest for understanding Trojan histories. Published near-infrared (0.7 to 4.0 mm) spectra of Trojans show no absorption bands due to H2O or organics. However, if the Trojan asteroids formed at or beyond their present heliocentric distance of 5.2 AU and never spent significant amounts of time closer to the Sun, they should contain H2O ice. Two VNIR spectral groups exist within the Trojans: 2/3 of large Trojans form a cluster with very red (D-type-like) spectral slopes, while the other 1/3 cluster around less-red (P-type-like) slopes. Visible colors of smaller Trojans suggest that the ratio of red to less-red Trojans decreases with decreasing size, from which Wong and Brown (2015; AJ 150:174) suggest that the interiors of all Trojans are represented by the less-red spectral group. In order to further test the hypothesis that Trojans contain H­2O ice and complex organics and to test the result from visible colors that the spectral group ratio changes with size, we have measured near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 μm) spectra of small ( 35 to 75 km) Trojans from both swarms using the SpeX spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We have also measured 2 - 4 μm spectra of several Trojans to search for spectral signatures of H2O and organics. We confirm that the two spectral groups persist to smaller sizes, and we still detect no absorption features that would be diagnostic of composition. The spectrum of two large Trojans show evidence of spectral slope variations with rotation, but spectra of several others do not. We will present the new spectra and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)


    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  14. TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia


    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.

  15. Prostate Cancer Detection Using Near Infrared Spectral Polarization Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R; Wang, W. B


    .... The technique is based on the spectral and polarization properties of light scattered, absorbed and emitted from prostate cancerous and normal tissues, and contrast agents targeted to the prostate cancers. Results of finding...

  16. Infra-Red Gas Analysers of Liquid Crystal Type for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov


    Full Text Available The paper reveals an opportunity to use infra-red gas analysers on the basis of the developed dichroic liquid crystal cells for investigation of absorption bands of various gases in the near infrared spectral region.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.W.; D'Aria, D.M.


    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 μm atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4%. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 μm window from 0.90 to 3.65%. In addition, the authors show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 μm region, because the very high absorption coefficient of water in this wavelength region prevents volume scattering in foam bubbles. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature. Thus, thermal infrared multispectral remote sensing appears to offer a simple and reliable technique for aircraft or satellite detection of oil slicks

  18. Adaptive infrared-reflecting systems inspired by cephalopods (United States)

    Xu, Chengyi; Stiubianu, George T.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.


    Materials and systems that statically reflect radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum underpin the performance of many entrenched technologies, including building insulation, energy-conserving windows, spacecraft components, electronics shielding, container packaging, protective clothing, and camouflage platforms. The development of their adaptive variants, in which the infrared-reflecting properties dynamically change in response to external stimuli, has emerged as an important unmet scientific challenge. By drawing inspiration from cephalopod skin, we developed adaptive infrared-reflecting platforms that feature a simple actuation mechanism, low working temperature, tunable spectral range, weak angular dependence, fast response, stability to repeated cycling, amenability to patterning and multiplexing, autonomous operation, robust mechanical properties, and straightforward manufacturability. Our findings may open opportunities for infrared camouflage and other technologies that regulate infrared radiation.

  19. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan


    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  20. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.


    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  1. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.


    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  2. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin


    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  3. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail:; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)


    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  4. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail:; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  5. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.


    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  6. Far-infrared spectral studies of magnesium and aluminum co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the occurrence of var- ... density of the products was found to be about 83% of the X-ray density. ..... [15] B D Cullity, Elements of X-ray diffraction (Addison-Wesley Press, Reading, ...

  7. Numerical evolutions of fields on the 2-sphere using a spectral method based on spin-weighted spherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Florian; Daszuta, Boris; Frauendiener, Jörg; Whale, Ben


    Many applications in science call for the numerical simulation of systems on manifolds with spherical topology. Through the use of integer spin-weighted spherical harmonics, we present a method which allows for the implementation of arbitrary tensorial evolution equations. Our method combines two numerical techniques that were originally developed with different applications in mind. The first is Huffenberger and Wandelt’s spectral decomposition algorithm to perform the mapping from physical to spectral space. The second is the application of Luscombe and Luban’s method, to convert numerically divergent linear recursions into stable nonlinear recursions, to the calculation of reduced Wigner d-functions. We give a detailed discussion of the theory and numerical implementation of our algorithm. The properties of our method are investigated by solving the scalar and vectorial advection equation on the sphere, as well as the 2 + 1 Maxwell equations on a deformed sphere. (paper)

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Low-resolution near-infrared stellar spectra from CIBER (Kim+, 2017) (United States)

    Kim, M. G.; Lee, H. M.; Arai, T.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Jeong, W.-S.; Kim, S. J.; Korngut, P.; Lanz, A.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, M. G.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Onishi, Y.; Shirahata, M.; Smidt, J.; Tsumura, K.; Yamamura, I.; Zemcov, M.


    We present flux-calibrated near-infrared spectra of 105 stars from 0.8{skin, we do not use the first flight data in this work. The star spectral types are determined by fitting known spectral templates to the measured LRS spectra. We use the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Pickles 1998 (Cat. J/PASP/110/863) templates for the SED fitting. The SpeX instrument installed on the IRTF observed stars using a medium-resolution spectrograph (R=2000). The template library contains spectra for 210 cool stars (F to M type) with wavelength coverage from 0.8 to 2.5μm (Cushing 2005ApJ...623.1115C; Rayner 2009ApJS..185..289R). The Pickles library is a synthetic spectral library that combines spectral data from various observations to achieve wavelength coverage from the UV (0.115μm) to the near-infrared (2.5μm). It contains 131 spectral templates for all star types (i.e., O to M type) with a uniform sampling interval of 5Å. (6 data files).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Paul N.; Tuthill, Peter G.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Sloan, G. C.; Hedman, Matthew M.


    We present the Cassini Atlas Of Stellar Spectra (CAOSS), comprised of near-infrared, low-resolution spectra of bright stars recovered from space-based observations by the Cassini spacecraft. The 65 stellar targets in the atlas are predominately M, K, and S giants. However, it also contains spectra of other bright nearby stars including carbon stars and main-sequence stars from A to F. The spectra presented are free of all spectral contamination caused by the Earth's atmosphere, including the detrimental telluric molecular bands which put parts of the near-infrared spectrum out of reach of terrestrial observations. With a single instrument, a spectro-photometric data set is recovered that spans the near-infrared from 0.8 to 5.1 μm with spectral resolution ranging from R = 53.5 to R = 325. Spectra have been calibrated into absolute flux units after careful characterization of the instrumental spectral efficiency. Spectral energy distributions for most stars match closely with literature values. All final data products have been made available online


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Paul N.; Tuthill, Peter G. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nicholson, Philip D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Cornell Center for Astrophyics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hedman, Matthew M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)


    We present the Cassini Atlas Of Stellar Spectra (CAOSS), comprised of near-infrared, low-resolution spectra of bright stars recovered from space-based observations by the Cassini spacecraft. The 65 stellar targets in the atlas are predominately M, K, and S giants. However, it also contains spectra of other bright nearby stars including carbon stars and main-sequence stars from A to F. The spectra presented are free of all spectral contamination caused by the Earth's atmosphere, including the detrimental telluric molecular bands which put parts of the near-infrared spectrum out of reach of terrestrial observations. With a single instrument, a spectro-photometric data set is recovered that spans the near-infrared from 0.8 to 5.1 μm with spectral resolution ranging from R = 53.5 to R = 325. Spectra have been calibrated into absolute flux units after careful characterization of the instrumental spectral efficiency. Spectral energy distributions for most stars match closely with literature values. All final data products have been made available online.

  11. Design of infrared imaging birefringent interferometers for small-UAVs and handheld scanning systems (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé


    Hyperspectral imaging from unmanned aerial vehicles arouses a growing interest, as well for agriculture management as pollution monitoring or security purposes. Most of current instruments are in the visible or near infrared spectral range, but the midwave or longwave infrared may also be interesting. Among the available solutions for compact imaging spectrometers in this spectral range, static imaging Fourier transform spectrometers are well adapted, thanks to the absence of moving part, a 2D snapshot imaging, which can be useful for image registration, and a high flux collection efficiency. To reach a high compactness compliant with small UAVs, birefringent interferometers are good candidates. Indeed, they can be roughly seen as a plate which comes in front of the camera lens. We propose here firstly to expose the design rules of such instruments in the midwave or longwave infrared. The first point is about the material: highly birefringent uniaxial crystals materials are not so common in this spectral domain. For MWIR spectral imagers, TeO2 or YVO4 can be used. For LWIR instruments, current materials, like ZnGeP2 or AgGaS2 are available, but their birefringence is not so high. Calomel is a promising way, but not still available. The second point consists in defining the type of interferometer, like Savart interferometer, Wollaston interferometer, or other designs. To help this choice, we have developed a software tool to calculate the propagation of plane waves in a stack of birefringent plates. This allows us to choose the optimal assembly of the plates to reach the required spectral resolution. We will then present experimental results obtained with a MWIR prototype. This prototype, called SIBI,, works in the [3.7µm-4.8µm] spectral domain (or [2050cm 1-2700cm 1]), with a spectral resolution about 13cm 1. A first ground campaign was led in June 2015, on Mount Etna (Italy). This campaign was useful to emphasize the assets and drawbacks of this instrument


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others


    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  13. Measurements of transition probabilities in the range from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza Fernandez, M.C.


    In this memory we describe the design, testing and calibration of different spectrometers to measure transition probabilities from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared spectral region. For the infrared measurements we have designed and performed a phase sensitive detection system, using an InGaAs photodiode like detector. With this system we have determined the transition probabilities of infrared lines of KrI and XeI. For these lines we haven't found previous measurements. In the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region we have designed a 3 m normal incidence monochromator where we have installed an optical multichannel analyzer. We have tested its accurate working, obtaining the absorption spectrum of KrI. In the visible region we have obtained the emission spectrum of Al using different spectral: hallow-cathode lamp and Nd: YAG laser produced Al plasma. With these spectra we have determined different atomic parameters like transition probabilities and electron temperatures.(author). 83 refs

  14. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Adzic, Aleksandar R.; Sullivan, Michael; Kovacs, Kevin; Miller, Lisa M.; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Chance, Mark R.


    A rapid mixer for the analysis of reactions in the millisecond and submillisecond time domains by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy has been constructed. The cell was tested by examination of cytochrome-c folding kinetics. The device allows collection of full infrared spectral data on millisecond and faster time scales subsequent to chemical jump reaction initiation. The data quality is sufficiently good such that spectral fitting techniques could be applied to analysis of the data. Thus, this method provides an advantage over kinetic measurements at single wavelengths using infrared laser or diode sources, particularly where band overlap exists

  15. Importance of Surface Texture to Infrared Remote Sensing Interpretations (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Adams, P. M.; Herr, K. C.; Salisbury, J. W.


    Thermal infrared remote sensing may be used to identify minerals present on the surface using diagnostic spectral bands. As band depth (spectral contrast) exhibited by the mineral increases, the mineral is easier to detect. In order to determine the expected spectral contrast, thermal infrared spectra of typical mineral endmembers are commonly measured in the laboratory. For example, for calcite, well-crystalline limestone is commonly studied. However, carbonates occur in several forms, including thin coatings, indurated carbonate (calcrete), and hot springs deposits. Different formation pathways may cause different microstructures and surface textures. This in turn can also affect the surface texture of the weathered material. Different surface textures can affect the measured band contrast, through roughness that causes a cavity (hohlraum) effect, and particle size and roughness on a scale that causes volume scattering. Thus since detection limits vary with the spectral contrast, surface texture can be an important variable in how detectable a mineral is. To study these issues, we have examined limestone and calcrete deposits at Mormon Mesa, Nevada that have two distinctly different microstructures and surface texture [Kirkland et al., 2001]. The limestone studied has larger grains and the grains frequently have flat, smooth surfaces on the order of 10-50 microns in cross-section length. The calcrete has smaller, more angular calcite grains, which exhibit almost no flat surfaces longer than 5 microns in cross-section length. We will show scanning electron microscope images to compare the different microstructures and surface textures of both the fresh and weathered surfaces, and we will show corresponding thermal infrared spectra to illustrate the different spectral signatures. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the microstructure of mineral deposits to accurately interpret infrared remote sensing data, especially for studies that lack ground

  16. Remote sensing of potential and actual daily transpiration of plant canopies based on spectral reflectance and infrared thermal measurements: Concept with preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J.Jr.


    A new concept for estimating potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate of vegetation canopies is presented along with results of an initial test. The method is based on a physical foundation of spectral radiation balance for a vegetation canopy, the key inputs to the model being the remotely sensed spectral reflectance and the surface temperature of the plant canopy. The radiation interception or absorptance is estimated more directly from remotely sensed spectral data than it is from the leaf area index. The potential daily transpiration is defined as a linear function of the absorbed solar radiation, which can be estimated using a linear relationship between the fraction absorptance of solar radiation and the remotely sensed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index for the canopy. The actual daily transpiration rate is estimated by combining this concept with the Jackson-Idso Crop Water Stress Index, which also can be calculated from remotely sensed plant leaf temperatures measured by infrared thermometry. An initial demonstration with data sets from an alfalfa crop and a rangeland suggests that the method may give reasonable estimates of potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate over diverse vegetation area based on simple remote sensing measurements and basic meteorological parameters

  17. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators. (United States)

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A


    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  18. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.


    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  19. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.


    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  20. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.


    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  1. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.


    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. Vieira; Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Gull, T. R.; Stahl, O.


    We present an analysis of the visible through near-infrared spectrum of Eta Carinae (η Car) and its ejecta obtained during the 'η Car Campaign with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)'. This is a part of larger effort to present a complete η Car spectrum, and extends the previously presented analyses with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) in the UV (1240-3159 A) to 10,430 A. The spectrum in the mid- and near-UV is characterized by the ejecta absorption. At longer wavelengths, stellar wind features from the central source and narrow-emission lines from the Weigelt condensations dominate the spectrum. However, narrow absorption lines from the circumstellar shells are present. This paper provides a description of the spectrum between 3060 and 10,430 A, including line identifications of the ejecta absorption spectrum, the emission spectrum from the Weigelt condensations and the P Cygni stellar wind features. The high spectral resolving power of VLT/UVES enables equivalent width measurements of atomic and molecular absorption lines for elements with no transitions at the shorter wavelengths. However, the ground-based seeing and contributions of nebular-scattered radiation prevent direct comparison of measured equivalent widths in the VLT/UVES and HST/STIS spectra. Fortunately, HST/STIS and VLT/UVES have a small overlap in wavelength coverage which allows us to compare and adjust for the difference in scattered radiation entering the instruments' apertures. This paper provides a complete online VLT/UVES spectrum with line identifications and a spectral comparison between HST/STIS and VLT/UVES between 3060 and 3160 A.

  3. Variability of HBV 475 in the near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.


    In the spectral range lambdalambda5800-8750, HBV 475 show important spectral variations between 1969 and 1974. Sometimes the ''hot component'' spectrum dominates (many emission lines), sometimes the ''cool component'' is preponderent (many molecular absorption TiO bands). On August 4 1974, June 6 1975 and August 9 1981, the author extended the observations up to 1.1μ. The spectra is presented and the emissions briefly discussed. These near infrared observations confirm the symbiotic nature of HBV 475 and allow specification of the spectral type of the cool component. (Auth.)

  4. Studying the effect of spectral variations intensity of the incident solar radiation on the Si solar cells performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsayed Ghitas


    Full Text Available Solar spectral variation is important in characterization of photovoltaic devices. We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic module. The investigation concentrate on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 1 min intervals on clear sky days. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage have been measured to describe the module electrical performance. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of the module. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effect of the spectral variation on the performance of the photovoltaic module is reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the radiation spectra account for the decreased current collection and hence power of the module.

  5. Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.


    The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

  6. Evaluation of different tissue de-paraffinization procedures for infrared spectral imaging. (United States)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Stone, Nicholas


    In infrared spectral histopathology, paraffin embedded tissues are often de-paraffinized using chemical agents such as xylene and hexane. These chemicals are known to be toxic and the routine de-waxing procedure is time consuming. A comparative study was carried out to identify alternate de-paraffinization methods by using paraffin oil and electronic de-paraffinization (using a mathematical computer algorithm) and their effectiveness was compared to xylene and hexane. Sixteen adjacent tissue sections obtained from a single block of a normal colon tissue were de-paraffinized using xylene, hexane and paraffin oil (+ hexane wash) at five different time points each for comparison. One section was reserved unprocessed for electronic de-paraffinization based on a modified extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). IR imaging was carried out on these tissue sections. Coefficients based on the fit of a pure paraffin model to the IR images were then calculated to estimate the amount of paraffin remaining after processing. Results indicate that on average xylene removes more paraffin in comparison to hexane and paraffin oil although the differences were small. This makes paraffin oil, followed by a hexane wash, an interesting and less toxic alternative method of de-paraffinization. However, none of the chemical methods removed paraffin completely from the tissues at any given time point. Moreover, paraffin was removed more easily from the glandular regions than the connective tissue regions indicating a form of differential paraffin retention based on the histology. In such cases, the use of electronic de-paraffinization to neutralize such variances across different tissue regions might be considered. Moreover it is faster, reduces scatter artefacts by index matching and enables samples to be easily stored for further analysis if required.

  7. Information theory, spectral geometry, and quantum gravity. (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Martin, Robert


    We show that there exists a deep link between the two disciplines of information theory and spectral geometry. This allows us to obtain new results on a well-known quantum gravity motivated natural ultraviolet cutoff which describes an upper bound on the spatial density of information. Concretely, we show that, together with an infrared cutoff, this natural ultraviolet cutoff beautifully reduces the path integral of quantum field theory on curved space to a finite number of ordinary integrations. We then show, in particular, that the subsequent removal of the infrared cutoff is safe.

  8. Ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of single extremely short pulses in the visible, uv-vuv, and middle infrared by high-order stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Herrmann, J.


    We present the results of a comprehensive analytical and numerical study of ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of isolated extremely short visible, uv-vuv and middle infrared (MIR) pulses by high-order stimulated Raman scattering in hollow waveguides. Spectral and temporal characteristics of the output pulses and the mechanism of pulse compression using dispersion of the gas filling and output glass window are investigated without the slowly varying envelope approximation. Physical limitations due to phase mismatch, velocity walk off, and pump-pulse depletion as well as improvements through the use of pump-pulse sequences and dispersion control are studied. It is shown that phase-locked pulses as short as ∼2 fs in the visible and uv-vuv, and 6.5 fs in the MIR can be generated by coherent scattering in impulsively excited Raman media without the necessity of external phase control. Using pump-pulse sequences, shortest durations in the range of about 1 fs for visible and uv-vuv probe pulses are predicted

  9. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo


    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  10. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.


    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  11. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Nader, Nima; Maser, Daniel L.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Kowligy, Abijith; Timmers, Henry; Chiles, Jeff; Fredrick, Connor; Westly, Daron A.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott


    Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm-6.2 μm). Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  12. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Nader


    Full Text Available Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm–6.2 μm. Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  13. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna. (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R


    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  14. Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)


    We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. (author)

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antifungal activity of Lanthanum(III) and Praseodymium(III) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Tripathi, Priti; Pandey, Om P.; Sengupta, Soumitra K.


    The new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula (LnCl(L)(H 2 O) 2 ) (Ln = La III or Pr III ; H 2 L = Schiff bases derived from 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin) have been prepared. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight by FAB-mass, thermogravimetry, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) data. The ligands and all prepared complexes were assayed for antifungal (Aspergillus niger and Helminthosporium oryzae) activities. The activities have been correlated with the structures of the complexes. (author)

  16. Opto-mechanical design of the MTG FCI spectral separation assembly (United States)

    Riguet, François; Brousse, Emmanuel; Carel, Jean-Louis; Cottenye, Justine; Harmann, David; Joncour, Marc; Makhlouf, Houssine; Mouricaud, Daniel; Oussalah, Meihdi; Rodolfo, Jacques


    The Spectral Separation Assembly is a key component of the Flexible Combined Imager, an instrument that will be on-board Meteosat Third Generation. It splits the input beam coming from the telescope into five spectral groups, for a total of 16 channels, from 0.4 to 13.3 μm. It comprises a set of four dichroics separators followed by four collimating optics for the infrared spectral groups, which feed the cold imaging optics. The visible spectral group is directly imaged on a detector. This paper presents the optical design of the assembly, the mechanical mounting of the optical components, and the coatings developed for the dichroics, mirrors and lenses.

  17. Infrared spectral studies of various metal polyacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCluskey, P.H.; Snyder, R.L.; Condrate, R.A. Sr.


    A new process for the production of high surface area, high reactivity ceramic oxide powders involves the bonding of metal cations to polymeric polyacrylate chains. This process results in the formation of a gelatinous metal polyacrylate precipitate which can be easily removed from the mother liquor, and then calcined to form a high density ceramic oxide. Using FTIR spectroscopy, the nature of the structural arrangements has been studied for metal complexes in the yttrium, lanthanum, aluminum, cerium, copper, and iron polyacrylates. Interpretation of the infrared spectra indicates that two types of metal complex formation occur in these precipitates, involving bidentate or bridging interactions. The type that is observed for a particular metal ion is dependent on its metal ion size

  18. Heterogeneous sharpness for cross-spectral face recognition (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.


    Matching images acquired in different electromagnetic bands remains a challenging problem. An example of this type of comparison is matching active or passive infrared (IR) against a gallery of visible face images, known as cross-spectral face recognition. Among many unsolved issues is the one of quality disparity of the heterogeneous images. Images acquired in different spectral bands are of unequal image quality due to distinct imaging mechanism, standoff distances, or imaging environment, etc. To reduce the effect of quality disparity on the recognition performance, one can manipulate images to either improve the quality of poor-quality images or to degrade the high-quality images to the level of the quality of their heterogeneous counterparts. To estimate the level of discrepancy in quality of two heterogeneous images a quality metric such as image sharpness is needed. It provides a guidance in how much quality improvement or degradation is appropriate. In this work we consider sharpness as a relative measure of heterogeneous image quality. We propose a generalized definition of sharpness by first achieving image quality parity and then finding and building a relationship between the image quality of two heterogeneous images. Therefore, the new sharpness metric is named heterogeneous sharpness. Image quality parity is achieved by experimentally finding the optimal cross-spectral face recognition performance where quality of the heterogeneous images is varied using a Gaussian smoothing function with different standard deviation. This relationship is established using two models; one of them involves a regression model and the other involves a neural network. To train, test and validate the model, we use composite operators developed in our lab to extract features from heterogeneous face images and use the sharpness metric to evaluate the face image quality within each band. Images from three different spectral bands visible light, near infrared, and short

  19. Photon-phonon-enhanced infrared rectification in a two-dimensional nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.


    The interplay of strong infrared photon-phonon coupling with electromagnetic confinement in nanoscale devices is demonstrated to have a large impact on ultrafast photon-assisted tunneling in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures. Infrared active optical phonon modes in polar oxides lead to strong dispersion and enhanced electric fields at material interfaces. We find that the infrared dispersion of SiO_2 near a longitudinal optical phonon mode can effectively impedance match a photonic surface mode into a nanoscale tunnel gap that results in large transverse-field confinement. An integrated 2D nanoantenna structure on a distributed large-area MOS tunnel-diode rectifier is designed and built to resonantly excite infrared surface modes and is shown to efficiently channel infrared radiation into nanometer-scale gaps in these MOS devices. This enhanced-gap transverse-electric field is converted to a rectified tunneling displacement current resulting in a dc photocurrent. We examine the angular and polarization-dependent spectral photocurrent response of these 2D nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diodes in the photon-enhanced tunneling spectral region. Lastly, our 2D nanoantenna-coupled infrared tunnel-diode rectifier promises to impact large-area thermal energy harvesting and infrared direct detectors.

  20. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert


    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  1. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, G.; Chakravarty, N.V.K.


    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  2. Multi-layer Far-Infrared Component Technology, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of a process to create multi-layer thin-film optics for the far-infrared/sub-millimeter wave spectral region. The...

  3. Uranyl soaps - thermal, electronic and infrared spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, A.K.; Bhandari, A.M.


    The electronic and infrared spectra and TGA thermogram of uranyl soaps (laurate, mystrate, palmitate and stearate) have been studied. The environment about the UO 2+ 2 ion would comprise two 'short bite' bidentate carboxylate groups and oxygen atoms bridging from adjacent carboxylic molecules. The uranyl soaps have UO 2+ 2 vibronic absorption (approx. equal to 22730 cm -1 ) in the range found for eight coordinate uranyl complexes. The greater resistance to thermal degradation (approx. equal to 300 0 C) of these soaps and their stepwise thermal degradation infer strong metal-ligand interaction. (orig.) [de

  4. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Chlorite Minerals


    Min Yang; Meifang Ye; Haihui Han; Guangli Ren; Ling Han; Zhuan Zhang


    The mineral chemistry of twenty chlorite samples from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) spectral library and two other regions, having a wide range of Fe and Mg contents and relatively constant Al and Si contents, was studied via infrared (IR) spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Five absorption features of the twenty samples near 4525, 4440, 4361, 4270, and 4182 cm−1 were observed, and two diagnostic features at 4440 and 4280 cm−1 we...

  5. Spectral Mining for Discriminating Blood Origins in the Presence of Substrate Interference via Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Postmortem or Antemortem Blood? (United States)

    Takamura, Ayari; Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Takeaki


    Often in criminal investigations, discrimination of types of body fluid evidence is crucially important to ascertain how a crime was committed. Compared to current methods using biochemical techniques, vibrational spectroscopic approaches can provide versatile applicability to identify various body fluid types without sample invasion. However, their applicability is limited to pure body fluid samples because important signals from body fluids incorporated in a substrate are affected strongly by interference from substrate signals. Herein, we describe a novel approach to recover body fluid signals that are embedded in strong substrate interferences using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and an innovative multivariate spectral processing. This technique supported detection of covert features of body fluid signals, and then identified origins of body fluid stains on substrates. We discriminated between ATR FT-IR spectra of postmortem blood (PB) and those of antemortem blood (AB) by creating a multivariate statistics model. From ATR FT-IR spectra of PB and AB stains on interfering substrates (polyester, cotton, and denim), blood-originated signals were extracted by a weighted linear regression approach we developed originally using principal components of both blood and substrate spectra. The blood-originated signals were finally classified by the discriminant model, demonstrating high discriminant accuracy. The present method can identify body fluid evidence independently of the substrate type, which is expected to promote the application of vibrational spectroscopic techniques in forensic body fluid analysis.

  6. Lessons Learned from Preparing OSIRIS-REx Spectral Analog Samples for Bennu (United States)

    Schrader, D. L.; McCoy, T. J.; Cody, G. D.; King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Russell, S. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Keller, L. P.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Bowles, N.; hide


    NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission launched on September 8th, 2016 to rendezvous with B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu in 2018. Type C and B asteroids have been linked to carbonaceous chondrites because of their similar visible - to - near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral properties [e.g., 1,2]. The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) will make spectroscopic observations of Bennu during the encounter. Constraining the presence or absence of hydrous minerals (e.g., Ca-carbonate, phyllosilicates) and organic molecules will be key to characterizing Bennu [3] prior to sample site selection. The goal of this study was to develop a suite of analog and meteorite samples and obtain their spectral properties over the wavelength ranges of OVIRS (0.4- 4.3 micrometer) and OTES (5.0-50 micrometer). These spectral data were used to validate the mission science-data processing system. We discuss the reasoning behind the study and share lessons learned.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Bahou, Mohammed; Lee, Yuan-Pern [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Sciences, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Wu, Yu-Jong [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Allamandola, Louis, E-mail:, E-mail: [The Astrophysics and Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    The mid-infrared emission from galactic objects, including reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, proto-planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, etc, as well as external galaxies, is dominated by the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands. Large protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (H{sup +}PAHs) were proposed as possible carriers, but no spectrum of an H{sup +}PAH has been shown to exactly match the UIR bands. Here, we report the IR spectrum of protonated ovalene (7-C{sub 32}H{sub 15} {sup +}) measured in a para -hydrogen ( p -H{sub 2}) matrix at 3.2 K, generated by bombarding a mixture of ovalene and p -H{sub 2} with electrons during matrix deposition. Spectral assignments were made based on the expected chemistry and on the spectra simulated with the wavenumbers and infrared intensities predicted with the B3PW91/6-311++G(2d,2p) method. The close resemblance of the observed spectral pattern to that of the UIR bands suggests that protonated ovalene may contribute to the UIR emission, particularly from objects that emit Class A spectra, such as the IRIS reflection nebula, NGC 7023.

  8. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  9. From UV Protection to Protection in the Whole Spectral Range of the Solar Radiation: New Aspects of Sunscreen Development. (United States)

    Zastrow, Leonhard; Meinke, Martina C; Albrecht, Stephanie; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Juergen


    Sunscreens have been constantly improving in the past few years. Today, they provide an efficient protection not only in the UVB but also in the UVA spectral region of the solar radiation. Recently it could be demonstrated that 50% of all free radicals induced in the skin due to solar radiation are formed in the visible and infrared spectral region. The good protective efficacy of sunscreens in the UV region prompts people to stay much longer in the sun than if they had left their skin unprotected. However, as no protection in the visible and infrared spectral region is provided, high amounts of free radicals are induced here that could easily exceed the critical radical concentration. This chapter describes how the effect of sunscreens can be extended to cover also the visible and infrared spectral region of the solar radiation by adding pigments and antioxidants with high radical protection factors to the sunscreen formulations.

  10. Quantitative mid-infrared spectra of allene and propyne from room to high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Farooq, Aamir


    Allene (a-C3H4; CH2CCH2) and propyne (p-C3H4; CH3C2H) have attracted much interest because of their relevance to the photochemistry in astrophysical environments as well as in combustion processes. Both allene and propyne have strong absorption in the infrared region. In the present work, infrared spectra of a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are measured in the gas phase at temperatures ranging from 296 to 510 K. The spectra are measured over the 580-3400 cm-1 spectral region at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.25 cm-1 using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Absolute integrated intensities of the main infrared bands are determined at room temperature and compared with values derived from literature for both molecules. Integrated band intensities are also determined as a function of temperature in various spectral regions.

  11. Quantitative mid-infrared spectra of allene and propyne from room to high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami


    Allene (a-C3H4; CH2CCH2) and propyne (p-C3H4; CH3C2H) have attracted much interest because of their relevance to the photochemistry in astrophysical environments as well as in combustion processes. Both allene and propyne have strong absorption in the infrared region. In the present work, infrared spectra of a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are measured in the gas phase at temperatures ranging from 296 to 510 K. The spectra are measured over the 580-3400 cm-1 spectral region at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.25 cm-1 using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Absolute integrated intensities of the main infrared bands are determined at room temperature and compared with values derived from literature for both molecules. Integrated band intensities are also determined as a function of temperature in various spectral regions.

  12. A comparison between weighted sum of gray and spectral CK radiation models for heat transfer calculations in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ammouri, F; Plessier, R; Till, M; Marie, B; Djavdan, E [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)


    Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.

  13. A comparison between weighted sum of gray and spectral CK radiation models for heat transfer calculations in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ammouri, F.; Plessier, R.; Till, M.; Marie, B.; Djavdan, E. [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)


    Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.

  14. Development of on-line sorting system for detection of infected seed potatoes using visible near-infrared transmittance spectral technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun Soon [Dept. of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, an online seed potato sorting system using a visible and near infrared (40 1100 nm) transmittance spectral technique and statistical model was evaluated for the nondestructive determination of infected and sound seed potatoes. Seed potatoes that had been artificially infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which is known to cause a soil borne disease infection, were prepared for the experiments. After acquiring transmittance spectra from sound and infected seed potatoes, a determination algorithm for detecting infected seed potatoes was developed using the partial least square discriminant analysis method. The coefficient of determination(R{sup 2}{sub p}) of the prediction model was 0.943, and the classification accuracy was above 99% (n = 80) for discriminating diseased seed potatoes from sound ones. This online sorting system has good potential for developing a technique to detect agricultural products that are infected and contaminated by pathogens.

  15. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.


    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  16. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi


    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  17. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.


    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  18. Multi-wavelength study of infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcillac, Delphine


    This thesis deals with a panchromatic study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) detected at 15 microns by ISOCAM (camera aboard ISO) and at 24 microns by MIPS (camera aboard the recently launched Spitzer satellite). These galaxies are today considered to be the Rosetta Stone of galaxy evolution since they are found to be far more numerous at high redshift and it is thought that a large part of stars seen in the local universe are born in such phases. The first part of this thesis presents a new study dedicated to dust emission of distant LIRGs in the mid-infrared range. Their dust emission has been compared to those of a local sample of LIRGs in addition to the prediction of several spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built on data available in the local universe. It has been shown that distant and local LIRGs present similar mid infrared spectral energy distribution: similar PAH bumps are detected in both local and distant LIRGs, however distant LIRGs show evidence of a stronger silicate absorption at 10 microns associated silicate grains. It also shows that distant LIRG mid infrared emission can be used together with local SEDs in order to estimate the total infrared luminosity. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the burst of star formation and to the recent star formation history of these galaxies, which is responsible for the dust emission. This study was done thanks to a combination of high resolution spectra (R=2000 in the rest frame) obtained at VLT/FORS2 and the stellar population synthesis models called GALAXEV (Bruzual and Charlot, 2003). It has been shown that the burst of star formation has a duration of about 0.1 Gyear. About 10 % of the stellar content is formed during this burst of star formation. (author) [fr

  19. Spectral Analysis of Moderately Charged Rare-Gas Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyna Almandos


    Full Text Available This article presents a review concerning the spectral analysis of several ions of neon, argon, krypton and xenon, with impact on laser studies and astrophysics that were mainly carried out in our collaborative groups between Argentina and Brazil during many years. The spectra were recorded from the vacuum ultraviolet to infrared regions using pulsed discharges. Semi-empirical approaches with relativistic Hartree–Fock and Dirac-Fock calculations were also included in these investigations. The spectral analysis produced new classified lines and energy levels. Lifetimes and oscillator strengths were also calculated.

  20. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang


    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infrared spectral studies reveal that the ligand HNAAPTS is coordinated in neutral tridentate (N,N,S) fashion. The coordination number of Th(IV) in these coordination compounds varies from 6, 8, 10 or 11; while for U(VI) the coordination number are 8, 9 or 10. Thermal stabilities of these complexes were investigated ...

  2. Spectral properties of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (United States)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; de Leon, J.; Boaca, I. L.; Gherase, R. M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; INT students, I. N. G.


    We studied the spectral distributions of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (NEACOs) in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among these objects. We present the spectral observations for 19 NEACOs obtained with Isaac Newton Telescope and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Although initially classified as asteroid, one of our targets - 2007 VA85 was confirmed to be active comet 333P/LINEAR on its 2016 appearance. We found that the NEACOs population is a mixing of different compositional classes.

  3. Wavelet-Based Visible and Infrared Image Fusion: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel D. Sappa


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR.

  4. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites. (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong


    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  5. Near-infrared light absorption by brown carbon in the ambient atmosphere (United States)

    Chung, C.; Hoffer, A.; Beres, N. D.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, C.; Green, M.; Kim, S. W.; Engelbrecht, J. P.; Gelencser, A.


    Organic aerosols have been assumed to have little-to-no absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation, even though a class of organic aerosols were shown to absorb significantly in these spectral regions. Here, we show that ambient atmospheric data from commonly-used 7-wavelength aethalometers contain evidence of abundant near-infrared light absorption by organic aerosol. This evidence comes from the absorption Ångström exponent over 880 950 nm, which often exceeds values explainable by fresh or coated black carbon, or mineral dust. This evidence is not due to an artifact from the instrument random errors or biases, either. The best explanation for these large 880/950 nm absorption Ångström exponent values in the aethalometer data is near-infrared light absorption by tar balls. Tar balls are among common particles from forest fire.

  6. Multivariate curve resolution using a combination of mid-infrared and near-infrared spectra for the analysis of isothermal epoxy curing reaction (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideki; Morita, Shigeaki


    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was applied to a hetero-spectrally combined dataset consisting of mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra collected during the isothermal curing reaction of an epoxy resin. An epoxy monomer, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and a hardening agent, 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM), were used for the reaction. The fundamental modes of the Nsbnd H and Osbnd H stretches were highly overlapped in the MIR region, while their first overtones could be independently identified in the NIR region. The concentration profiles obtained by MCR using the hetero-spectral combination showed good agreement with the results of calculations based on the Beer-Lambert law and the mass balance. The band assignments and absorption sites estimated by the analysis also showed good agreement with the results using two-dimensional (2D) hetero-correlation spectroscopy.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Armus, Lee; Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Bussmann, R. S.


    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ☉ ). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ☉ IR (8-1000 μm) 13.6 L ☉ . 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L ☉ . The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with 'power-law' SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar 'bump' in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC 6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR (8-1000 μm)/νL ν (8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 'infrared main sequence' of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up

  8. Visible and Mid-Infrared Gypsum Optical Constants for Modeling of Martian Deposits (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Esposito, Francesca; Rossmann, George R.; Colangeli, Luigi


    Introduction: Recent and on-going remote and in situ observations indicate that sulfates are present in significant abundances at various locations on Mars [1-7]. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaging spectrometer (CRISM) is returning hyperspectral data at higher spatial resolution [8] than the OMEGA instrument on the Mars Express Mission [3]. Data from both OMEGA and CRISM have provided spectral evidence for the presence of gypsum and various hydrated sulfates on the Martian surface [e.g. 3-7] Thus, the optical properties of sulfates, in general, are of interest to quantitative interpretation of this increasing volume of remotely sensed data. This is because optical constants describe how a material interacts with electromagnetic radiation and represent the fundamental values used in radiative transfer calculations describing a variety of physical environments. Such environments include atmospheres where aerosols are present, planetary and satellite regoliths, and circumstellar dust clouds. Here we focus upon gypsum because of its applicability due to its identification on Mars. Also, gypsum is a mineral that is readily available in samples sizes that are suitable for study using a variety of spectral measurements. In the infrared (>5 μm) several studies reporting the optical constants of gypsum can be used in evaluating the approach used here. Most importantly, there is a general lack of data regarding the optical constants for gypsum at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) that are being observed by OMEGA and CRISM. Background: In the infrared, there have been several studies focused at determining the optical constants of gypsum using classical dispersion models [9-11]. These have used a variety of samples including; crystals, compressed pellets of pure materials, and grains suspended in a KBr matrix. Spectral measurements of gypsum, and other sulfates, have existed for about 100 years at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) [e

  9. Comparison of stellar population model predictions using optical and infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Baldwin, C.; McDermid, R. M.; Kuntschner, H.; Maraston, C.; Conroy, C.


    We present Gemini/GNIRS cross-dispersed near-infrared spectra of 12 nearby early-type galaxies, with the aim of testing commonly used stellar population synthesis models. We select a subset of galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample which span a wide range of ages (single stellar population equivalent ages of 1-15 Gyr) at approximately solar metallicity. We derive star formation histories using four different stellar population synthesis models, namely those of Bruzual & Charlot, Conroy, Gunn & White, Maraston & Strömbäck and Vazdekis et al. We compare star formation histories derived from near-infrared spectra with those derived from optical spectra using the same models. We find that while all models agree in the optical, the derived star formation histories vary dramatically from model to model in the near-infrared. We find that this variation is largely driven by the choice of stellar spectral library, such that models including high-quality spectral libraries provide the best fits to the data, and are the most self-consistent when comparing optically derived properties with near-infrared ones. We also find the impact of age variation in the near-infrared to be subtle, and largely encoded in the shape of the continuum, meaning that the common approach of removing continuum information with a high-order polynomial greatly reduces our ability to constrain ages in the near-infrared.

  10. Mid-infrared beam splitter for ultrashort pulses. (United States)

    Somma, Carmine; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Kiel, Thomas; Busch, Kurt; Braun, Andreas; Matalla, Mathias; Ickert, Karina; Krüger, Olaf


    A design is presented for a beam splitter suitable for ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range consisting of a structured metal layer on a diamond substrate. Both the theory and experiment show that this beam splitter does not distort the temporal pulse shape.

  11. Infrared signature modelling of a rocket jet plume - comparison with flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rialland, V; Perez, P; Roblin, A; Guy, A; Gueyffier, D; Smithson, T


    The infrared signature modelling of rocket plumes is a challenging problem involving rocket geometry, propellant composition, combustion modelling, trajectory calculations, fluid mechanics, atmosphere modelling, calculation of gas and particles radiative properties and of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper presents ONERA simulation tools chained together to achieve infrared signature prediction, and the comparison of the estimated and measured signatures of an in-flight rocket plume. We consider the case of a solid rocket motor with aluminized propellant, the Black Brant sounding rocket. The calculation case reproduces the conditions of an experimental rocket launch, performed at White Sands in 1997, for which we obtained high quality infrared signature data sets from DRDC Valcartier. The jet plume is calculated using an in-house CFD software called CEDRE. The plume infrared signature is then computed on the spectral interval 1900-5000 cm -1 with a step of 5 cm -1 . The models and their hypotheses are presented and discussed. Then the resulting plume properties, radiance and spectra are detailed. Finally, the estimated infrared signature is compared with the spectral imaging measurements. The discrepancies are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  12. Ultrafast stimulated Raman spectroscopy in the near-infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Tomohisa


    A number of electronic transitions in the near-infrared wavelength region are associated with migration or delocalization of electrons in large molecules or molecular systems. Time-resolved near-infrared Raman spectroscopy will be a powerful tool for investigating the structural dynamic of samples with delocalized electrons. However, the sensitivity of near-infrared spontaneous Raman spectrometers is significantly low due to an extremely small probability of Raman scattering and a low sensitivity of near-infrared detectors. Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy is one of the techniques that can overcome the sensitivity problems and enable us to obtain time-resolved Raman spectra in resonance with near-IR transitions. In this article, the author introduces recent progress of ultrafast time-resolved near-infrared stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Optical setup, spectral and temporal resolution, and applications of the spectrometer are described. (author)

  13. Infrared spectral imaging as a novel approach for histopathological recognition in colon cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Gobinet, Cyril; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Untereiner, Valérie; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh Dhruvananda; Piot, Olivier


    Innovative diagnostic methods are the need of the hour that could complement conventional histopathology for cancer diagnosis. In this perspective, we propose a new concept based on spectral histopathology, using IR spectral micro-imaging, directly applied to paraffinized colon tissue array stabilized in an agarose matrix without any chemical pre-treatment. In order to correct spectral interferences from paraffin and agarose, a mathematical procedure is implemented. The corrected spectral images are then processed by a multivariate clustering method to automatically recover, on the basis of their intrinsic molecular composition, the main histological classes of the normal and the tumoral colon tissue. The spectral signatures from different histological classes of the colonic tissues are analyzed using statistical methods (Kruskal-Wallis test and principal component analysis) to identify the most discriminant IR features. These features allow characterizing some of the biomolecular alterations associated with malignancy. Thus, via a single analysis, in a label-free and nondestructive manner, main changes associated with nucleotide, carbohydrates, and collagen features can be identified simultaneously between the compared normal and the cancerous tissues. The present study demonstrates the potential of IR spectral imaging as a complementary modern tool, to conventional histopathology, for an objective cancer diagnosis directly from paraffin-embedded tissue arrays.

  14. Voyager infrared spectroscopy and radiometry investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, R; Conrath, B; Gautier, D; Gierasch, P; Kumar, S; Kunde, V; Lowman, P; Maguire, W; Pearl, J; Pirraglia, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center


    The infrared investigation on Voyager uses two interferometers covering the spectral ranges 60-600 cm/sup -1/ (17-170 and 1000-7000 cm/sup -1/ (1.4-10, and a radiometer covering the range 8000-25000 cm/sup -1/ (0.4-1.2 Two spectral resolutions (approximately 6.5 and 2.0 cm/sup -1/) are available for each of the interferometers. In the middle of the thermal channel (far infrared interferometer) the noise level is equivalent to the signal from a target at 50 K; in the middle of the reflected sunlight channel (near infrared interferometer) the noise level is equivalent to the signal from an object of albedo 0.2 at the distance of Uranus. For planets and satellites with substantial atmospheres, the data will be used to investigate cloud and gas composition (including isotopic ratios), haze scale height, atmospheric vertical thermal structure, local and planetary circulation and dynamics, and planetary energy balance. For satellites with tenuous atmospheres, data will be gathered on surface and atmospheric compositon, surface temperature and thermal properties, local and global phase functions, and surface structure. For Saturn's rings, the composition and radial structure, particle size and thermal characteristics will be investigated. Comparative studies of the planets and their satellite systems will be carried out.

  15. Analytically derived conversion of spectral band radiance to brightness temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 44th Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)], E-mail:


    Simple analytic expressions for brightness temperature have been derived in terms of band response function spectral moments. Accuracy measures are also derived. Application of these formulas to GOES-12 Sounder thermal infrared bands produces brightness temperature residuals between -5.0 and 2.5 mK for a 150-400 K temperature range. The magnitude of residuals for the five ASTER Radiometer thermal infrared bands over the same temperature range is less than 0.22 mK.

  16. Extraction and fusion of spectral parameters for face recognition (United States)

    Boisier, B.; Billiot, B.; Abdessalem, Z.; Gouton, P.; Hardeberg, J. Y.


    Many methods have been developed in image processing for face recognition, especially in recent years with the increase of biometric technologies. However, most of these techniques are used on grayscale images acquired in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The aims of our study are to improve existing tools and to develop new methods for face recognition. The techniques used take advantage of the different spectral ranges, the visible, optical infrared and thermal infrared, by either combining them or analyzing them separately in order to extract the most appropriate information for face recognition. We also verify the consistency of several keypoints extraction techniques in the Near Infrared (NIR) and in the Visible Spectrum.

  17. Spectral Kurtosis Entropy and Weighted SaE-ELM for Bogie Fault Diagnosis under Variable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Wang


    Full Text Available Bogies are crucial for the safe operation of rail transit systems and usually work under uncertain and variable operating conditions. However, the diagnosis of bogie faults under variable conditions has barely been discussed until now. Thus, it is valuable to develop effective methods to deal with variable conditions. Besides, considering that the normal data for training are much more than the faulty data in practice, there is another problem in that only a small amount of data is available that includes faults. Concerning these issues, this paper proposes two new algorithms: (1 A novel feature parameter named spectral kurtosis entropy (SKE is proposed based on the protrugram. The SKE not only avoids the manual post-processing of the protrugram but also has strong robustness to the operating conditions and parameter configurations, which have been validated by a simulation experiment in this paper. In this paper, the SKE, in conjunction with variational mode decomposition (VMD, is employed for feature extraction under variable conditions. (2 A new learning algorithm named weighted self-adaptive evolutionary extreme learning machine (WSaE-ELM is proposed. WSaE-ELM gives each sample an extra sample weight to rebalance the training data and optimizes these weights along with the parameters of hidden neurons by means of the self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm. Finally, the hybrid method based on VMD, SKE, and WSaE-ELM is verified by using the vibration signals gathered from real bogies with speed variations. It is demonstrated that the proposed method of bogie fault diagnosis outperforms the conventional methods by up to 4.42% and 6.22%, respectively, in percentages of accuracy under variable conditions.

  18. Spectral quality requirements for effluent identification (United States)

    Czerwinski, R. N.; Seeley, J. A.; Wack, E. C.


    We consider the problem of remotely identifying gaseous materials using passive sensing of long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral features at hyperspectral resolution. Gaseous materials are distinguishable in the LWIR because of their unique spectral fingerprints. A sensor degraded in capability by noise or limited spectral resolution, however, may be unable to positively identify contaminants, especially if they are present in low concentrations or if the spectral library used for comparisons includes materials with similar spectral signatures. This paper will quantify the relative importance of these parameters and express the relationships between them in a functional form which can be used as a rule of thumb in sensor design or in assessing sensor capability for a specific task. This paper describes the simulation of remote sensing datacontaining a gas cloud.In each simulation, the spectra are degraded in spectral resolution and through the addition of noise to simulate spectra collected by sensors of varying design and capability. We form a trade space by systematically varying the number of sensor spectral channels and signal-to-noise ratio over a range of values. For each scenario, we evaluate the capability of the sensor for gas identification by computing the ratio of the F-statistic for the truth gas tothe same statistic computed over the rest of the library.The effect of the scope of the library is investigated as well, by computing statistics on the variability of the identification capability as the library composition is varied randomly.

  19. [Relationship between PMI and fourier transform infrared spectral changes in muscle of rats after death caused by mechanical asphyxial]. (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Liu, Ning-guo; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping


    To observe the postmortem degradation process in rat myocardium and skeletal muscle using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and to provide a new method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI). Left ventricle and skeletal muscles of rats dying of mechanical asphyxiated were sampled at different PMIs. The changes of different chemical functional group in the myocardium and skeletal muscle samples were measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish six mathematical models. FTIR spectral absorption peak of rat myocardium and skeletal muscle showed three changes: increase, decrease and stable. The cubic model function showed the strongest correlation coefficient. The A1080/A1396 ratio of skeletal muscle showed the strongest correlation coefficient (r = 0.832) with more accurate determination of PMI. FYIR spectroscopy can be potentially used as an effective method for estimating PMI in forensic practice using myocardium and skeletal muscle.

  20. Spectral solar irradiance and some optical properties for various polluted atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, Constantinos P.; Asimakopoulos, Demosthenis N.; Steven, Michael D.


    Using ground-based spectroradiometric measurements taken over the Athens atmosphere during May 1995, the influence of gaseous pollutants and aerosol on the spectral radiant energy distribution was investigated. It was found that spectral measurements exhibited variations based on various polluted urban atmospheric conditions as determined via gaseous pollutants record analysis. The relative attenuations cause by gaseous pollutants and aerosol can exceed 27%, 17% and 16% in the global ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum respectively, as compared to 'background' values. In contrast, an enhancement of the near-infrared diffuse component by 66%, was observed, while in visible and ultraviolet bands the relative increases reached 54% and 21% respectively. Experimental total Rayleigh-corrected and spectral aerosol optical depths were retrieved, representing differences in polluted air over the Athens atmosphere. The diffuse component accounts for more than 80% of the total radiation field under high polluted atmosphere. The observed differences of solar radiation between the Athens center and at a nearby suburban site are a manifestation of contrasting air properties provided mainly by automotive traffic. (Author)

  1. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii (United States)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.


    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  2. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass (United States)

    Odle, W. C.


    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  3. The infrared retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Sanjay


    As infrared imaging systems have evolved from the first generation of linear devices to the second generation of small format staring arrays to the present 'third-gen' systems, there is an increased emphasis on large area focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multicolour operation and higher operating temperature. In this paper, we discuss how one needs to develop an increased functionality at the pixel level for these next generation FPAs. This functionality could manifest itself as spectral, polarization, phase or dynamic range signatures that could extract more information from a given scene. This leads to the concept of an infrared retina, which is an array that works similarly to the human eye that has a 'single' FPA but multiple cones, which are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that enable the perception of colour. These cones are then coupled with powerful signal processing techniques that allow us to process colour information from a scene, even with a limited basis of colour cones. Unlike present day multi or hyperspectral systems, which are bulky and expensive, the idea would be to build a poor man's 'infrared colour' camera. We use examples such as plasmonic tailoring of the resonance or bias dependent dynamic tuning based on quantum confined Stark effect or incorporation of avalanche gain to achieve embodiments of the infrared retina.

  4. Integrating two spectral imaging systems in an automated mineralogy application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, D


    Full Text Available is treated in batches, with trays of mono-layered material presented to various imaging systems. The identification of target grains is achieved by means of spectral imaging in two wavelength bands (Visible, and Long Wave Infrared). Target grains...

  5. Accurate and independent spectral response scale based on silicon trap detectors and spectrally invariant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Jarle


    The study aims to establish an independent high accuracy spectral response scale over a broad spectral range based on standard laboratory equipment at a moderate cost. This had to be done by a primary method, where the responsivity of the detector is linked to fundamental constants. Summary, conclusion and future directions: In this thesis it has been demonstrated that an independent spectral response scale from the visual to the IR based on simple relative measurements can be established. The accuracy obtained by the hybrid self-calibration method demonstrates that state of the art accuracy is obtained with self-calibration principles. A calculable silicon trap detector with low internal losses over a wide spectral range is needed to establish the scale, in addition to a linear, spectrally independent detector with a good signal to noise ratio. By fitting the parameters in the responsivity model to a purely relative measurement we express the spectral response in terms of fundamental constants with a known uncertainty This is therefore a primary method. By applying a digital filter on the relative measurements of the InGaAs detectors in the infrared reduces the standard deviation by 30 %. In addition, by optimising the necessary scaling constant converting the relative calibration to absolute values, we have managed to establish an accurate and cost efficient spectral response scale in the IR. The full covariance analysis, which takes into account the correlation in the absolute values of the silicon detector, the correlation caused by the filter and the scaling constant, shows that the spectral response scale established in the infrared with InGaAs detectors is done with high accuracy. A similar procedure can be used in the UV, though it has not been demonstrated here. In fig. 10 the responsitivities of the detectors (a) and their associated uncertainties (b) at the 1 sigma level of confidence is compared for the three publications. We see that the responsivity

  6. Connecting infrared spectra with plant traits to identify species (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.


    Plant traits are used to define species, but also to evaluate the health status of forests, plantations and crops. Conventional methods of measuring plant traits (e.g. wet chemistry), although accurate, are inefficient and costly when applied over large areas or with intensive sampling. Spectroscopic methods, as used in the food industry and mineralogy, are nowadays applied to identify plant traits, however, most studies analysed visible to near infrared, while infrared spectra of longer wavelengths have been little used for identifying the spectral differences between plant species. This study measured the infrared spectra (1.4-16.0 μm) on individual, fresh leaves of 19 species (from herbaceous to woody species), as well as 14 leaf traits for each leaf. The results describe at which wavelengths in the infrared the leaves' spectra can differentiate most effectively between these plant species. A Quadratic Discrimination Analysis (QDA) shows that using five bands in the SWIR or the LWIR is enough to accurately differentiate these species (Kappa: 0.93, 0.94 respectively), while the MWIR has a lower classification accuracy (Kappa: 0.84). This study also shows that in the infrared spectra of fresh leaves, the identified species-specific features are correlated with leaf traits as well as changes in their values. Spectral features in the SWIR (1.66, 1.89 and 2.00 μm) are common to all species and match the main features of pure cellulose and lignin spectra. The depth of these features varies with changes of cellulose and leaf water content and can be used to differentiate species in this region. In the MWIR and LWIR, the absorption spectra of leaves are formed by key species-specific traits including lignin, cellulose, water, nitrogen and leaf thickness. The connection found in this study between leaf traits, features and spectral signatures are novel tools to assist when identifying plant species by spectroscopy and remote sensing.

  7. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Infrared Emission From Inorganic and Organic Substances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, C.S; Brown, E; Hommerich, U; Trivedi, S. B; Snyder, A. P; Samuels, A. C


    .... The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis- NIR) spectral region exploited in conventional LIBS largely elucidates the elemental composition of the laser target by profiling these atomic lines...

  8. Infrared spectra in monitoring biochemical parameters of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S; Singh, R A; Jain, N


    Infrared spectroscopy is gaining recognition as a promising method. The infrared spectra of selected regions (2000-400cm -1 ) of blood tissue samples are reported. Present study related to the role of spectral peak fitting in the study of human blood and quantitative interpretations of infrared spectra based on chemometrics. The spectral variations are interpreted in terms of the biochemical and pathological processes involved. The mean RNA/DNA ratio of fitted intensities and analytical area as calculated from the transmittance peaks at 1121cm -1 /1020cm -1 is found to be 0.911A.U and 2.00A.U. respectively. The ratio of 1659cm -1 /1544cm -1 (amide-I/amide-II) bands is found to shed light on the change in the DNA content. The ratio of amide-I/amide-II is almost unity (≅1.054) for blood spectra. The deviation from unity is an indication of DNA absorption from the RBC cells. The total phosphate content has found to be 25.09A.U. The level for glycogen/phosphate ratio (areas under peaks 1030cm -1 /1082cm -1 ) is found to be 0.286A.U. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated carbonyl compounds (C=O) in blood samples is in form of esters and the analytical areas under the spectral peaks at 1740cm -1 and 1731cm -1 for unsaturated esters and saturated esters respectively found to be 0.618A.U.

  9. Development of a theory of the spectral reflectance of minerals, part 4 (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.


    A theory of the spectral reflectance or emittance of particulate minerals was developed. The theory is expected to prove invaluable in the interpretation of the remote infrared spectra of planetary surfaces.

  10. SDP_mharwit_1: Demonstration of HIFI Linear Polarization Analysis of Spectral Features (United States)

    Harwit, M.


    We propose to observe the polarization of the 621 GHz water vapor maser in VY Canis Majoris to demonstrate the capability of HIFI to make polarization observations of Far-Infrared/Submillimeter spectral lines. The proposed Demonstration Phase would: - Show that HIFI is capable of interesting linear polarization measurements of spectral lines; - Test out the highest spectral resolving power to sort out closely spaced Doppler components; - Determine whether the relative intensities predicted by Neufeld and Melnick are correct; - Record the degree and direction of linear polarization for the closely-Doppler shifted peaks.

  11. Infrared autofluorescence, short-wave autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the findings of infrared fundus autofluorescence (IR-AF and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in eyes with optic disc melanocytoma (ODM. METHODS: IR-AF findings and those of other ophthalmologic imaging examinations, including short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF, fluorescein angiography (FA, fundus color photography, and SD-OCT of 8 eyes of 8 consecutive cases with ODM were assessed. RESULTS: The ODMs in all cases (100% presented similar IR-AF, SW-AF, and FA findings. On IR-AF images, ODMs showed outstanding hyper-AF with well-defined outline. On SW-AF images, the area of ODMs presented as hypo-AF. FA images revealed the leaking retinal telangiectasia on the surface of the ODMs. On SD-OCT images in 8 cases (100%, the ODMs were sloped with highly reflective surface, which were disorganized retina and optic nerve layers. In 7 cases (87.5%, peripapillary choroids were involved. The melanocytomas of 8 cases (100% presented as optically empty spaces. Vitreous seeds were found in one case (12.5%. CONCLUSION: IR-AF imaging may provide a new modality to evaluate the pathologic features of ODMs, and together with SW-AF imaging, offers a new tool to study biological characteristics associated with ODMs. SD-OCT is a valuable tool in delimitating the tumor extension and providing morphological information about the adjacent retinal tissue.

  12. Multiple resonant absorber with prism-incorporated graphene and one-dimensional photonic crystals in the visible and near-infrared spectral range (United States)

    Zou, X. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.; Lai, M.


    A multi-band absorber constructed from prism-incorporated one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) containing graphene defects is achieved theoretically in the visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectral range. By means of the transfer matrix method (TMM), the effect of structural parameters on the optical response of the structure has been investigated. It is possible to achieve multi-peak and complete optical absorption. The simulations reveal that the light intensity is enhanced at the graphene plane, and the resonant wavelength and the absorption intensity can also be tuned by tilting the incidence angle of the impinging light. In particular, multiple graphene sheets are embedded in the arrays, without any demand of manufacture process to cut them into periodic patterns. The proposed concept can be extended to other two-dimensional (2D) materials and engineered for promising applications, including selective or multiplex filters, multiple channel sensors, and photodetectors.

  13. Infra-red process for colour fixation on fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.J.; Biau, D.


    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc ... They come from the electric IR specific advantages: energy direct transmission, emitter and product spectral coupling, possible selectivity. That is the case in the Textile Industry, where experiments showed that infra-red process heating could be efficient for colour fixation on fabrics. Shorter production cycles and energy saving are the main results

  14. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1890 and Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing 1833. Two cultures were grown in a chemically-defined media under photoautotrophic culture conditions isolated from eutrophic ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian


    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of ∼150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  16. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great interest because virtually all organic compounds display distinctive spectral fingerprints herein that reveal chemical information about them [1], and the mid-infrared region is therefore of key importance to many applications, including food quality...... control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4] . We have used a low-loss suspended core As 38 Se 62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μ m and a zero - dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μ m to generate mid-infrared supercontinuum by pumping with an optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses...... with a peak power of ~5.5 kW at a repetition rate of 21 MHz at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μ m . By pumping at 4.4 μ m with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μ m with an average output power of 15.6 mW was obtained. Figure 1 shows the results...

  17. Near-infrared spectral downshifting in Sr$_{(3−x)}$(VO$_4$)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    infrared (NIR) radiation in Sr 3 (VO 4 ) 2 :Nd 3 + phosphor is reported. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) properties along with steady state luminescence time decay curves ...

  18. Infrared detectors for Earth observation (United States)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.


    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  19. Spectral Band Characterization for Hyperspectral Monitoring of Water Quality (United States)

    Vermillion, Stephanie C.; Raqueno, Rolando; Simmons, Rulon


    A method for selecting the set of spectral characteristics that provides the smallest increase in prediction error is of interest to those using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to monitor water quality. The spectral characteristics of interest to these applications are spectral bandwidth and location. Three water quality constituents of interest that are detectable via remote sensing are chlorophyll (CHL), total suspended solids (TSS), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Hyperspectral data provides a rich source of information regarding the content and composition of these materials, but often provides more data than an analyst can manage. This study addresses the spectral characteristics need for water quality monitoring for two reasons. First, determination of the greatest contribution of these spectral characteristics would greatly improve computational ease and efficiency. Second, understanding the spectral capabilities of different spectral resolutions and specific regions is an essential part of future system development and characterization. As new systems are developed and tested, water quality managers will be asked to determine sensor specifications that provide the most accurate and efficient water quality measurements. We address these issues using data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and a set of models to predict constituent concentrations.

  20. Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb (United States)

    Maguire, William C.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Herath, Lawrence W.


    An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770-900/cm and 1100-1360/cm regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1 deg. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain about 0.03/cm resolution spectra. Two 10/cm extracts are presented here.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Jeppesen, Claus


    We employ a planar metamaterial structure composed of a splitring-resonator (SRR) and paired nano-rods to experimentally realize a spectral response at near-infrared frequencies resembling that of electromagnetically induced transparency. A narrow transparency window associated with low loss...

  2. The infrared properties of reusable surface insulations. (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.; Dillow, C. F.; Hughes, T. A.


    The total infrared scattering and absorption cross sections of both flexible and rigidized high temperature fibrous insulations have been measured. The methods for accomplishing these measurements are described. Infrared reflection and transmission spectra were obtained to study the dependence of the total cross sections on the spectral characteristics of the transported radiation. These results are applied to steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements via a four-flux model of radiative heat transfer to separate the radiative component and to calculate the effective thermal conductivity under transient heating conditions. Data for both silica and mullite fibers are presented.

  3. Blind deconvolution using the similarity of multiscales regularization for infrared spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhaoli; Liu, Sanyan; Liu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Tianxu


    Band overlap and random noise exist widely when the spectra are captured using an infrared spectrometer, especially since the aging of instruments has become a serious problem. In this paper, via introducing the similarity of multiscales, a blind spectral deconvolution method is proposed. Considering that there is a similarity between latent spectra at different scales, it is used as prior knowledge to constrain the estimated latent spectrum similar to pre-scale to reduce artifacts which are produced from deconvolution. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to obtain a better performance than state-of-the-art methods, and to obtain satisfying deconvolution results with fewer artifacts. The recovered infrared spectra can easily extract the spectral features and recognize unknown objects. (paper)

  4. Near-infrared photometric study of open star cluster IC 1805

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, R.; Yu, Q.Z.


    The JHK magnitudes of 29 stars in the region of open star cluster IC 1805 were measured. These, and the existing infrared and optical observations, indicate a normal interstellar extinction law in the direction of the cluster. Further, most of the early-type stars have near-infrared fluxes as expected from their spectral types. Patchy distribution of ionized gas and dust appears to be the cause of nonuniform extinction across the cluster face. 36 refs


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.


    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm –2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions

  7. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus (United States)

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.


    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  8. Infrared quantitative spectroscopy and planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Flaud, J.-M.


    Optical measurements of atmospheric minor constituents are carried out using spectrometers working in the UV-visible, infrared and microwave spectral ranges. In all cases the quality of the analysis and of the interpretation of the atmospheric spectra requires the best possible knowledge of the molecular parameters of the species of interest. To illustrate this point we will concentrate on recent laboratory studies of nitric acid, chlorine nitrate and formaldehyde. Nitric acid is one of the important minor constituent of the terrestrial atmosphere. Using new and accurate experimental results concerning the spectroscopic properties of the H14NO3 and H15NO3 molecules, as well as improved theoretical methods (Perrin et al., 2004), it has been possible to generate an improved set of line parameters for these molecules in the 11.2 μm spectral region. These line parameters were used to detect for the first time the H15NO3 molecule in the atmosphere analyzing atmospheric spectra recorded by the MIPAS experiment. The retrievals of chlorine nitrate profiles are usually performed using absorption cross sections (Birk and Wagner, 2003). Following a high resolution analysis of the ν3 and ν4bands of this species in the 12.8 μm region wepropose, as a possibility, to use line by line calculation simulating its ν4Q-branch for the atmospheric temperature and pressure ranges. For the measurement of atmospheric formaldehyde concentrations, mid-infrared and ultraviolet absorptions are both used by ground, air or satellite instruments. It is then of the utmost importance to have consistent spectral parameters in these various spectral domains. Consequently the aim of the study performed at LISA (Gratien et al., 2007) was to intercalibrate formaldehyde spectra in the infrared and ultraviolet regions acquiring simultaneously UV and IR spectra using a common optical cell. The results of the work will be presented. Also high resolution infrared data derived from Perrin et al., 2003

  9. Simultaneous optical and infrared polarization measurements of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Hyland, A.R.


    Measurements are presented of the polarization and flux of a sample of 28 blazars (21 BL Lacs and 7 OVV quasars) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, with repeated observations for some objects. For 20 objects, these are the first reported polarization measurements in either the optical or infrared, and for most of them the first simultaneous measurements at these wavelengths. Out of a total of 42 observations a spectral dependence of polarization level and position angle is found, although not necessarily occurring together, on 15 occasions. (author)

  10. New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geiser


    Full Text Available Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS has been well accepted as a preferred measurement technique for many industrial applications in recent years, especially for in situ applications. Previously, mainly near-infrared lasers have been used in TLAS sensors. The advent of compact mid-infrared light sources, like quantum cascade lasers and interband cascade lasers, has made it possible to detect gases with better sensitivity by utilizing fundamental absorption bands and to measure species that do not have any absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. This technological advancement has allowed developing new sensors for gases, such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide, for industrial applications. Detection limits of better than 1 ppm·m for nitric oxide and better than 10 ppm·m for sulfur dioxide are demonstrated in field experiments.

  11. Spectral-temporal composition matters when cascading supercontinua into the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian


    Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide fibers is a promising technology for broadband spatially coherent sources in the mid-infrared, but it suffers from discouraging commercial prospects, mainly due to a lack of suitable pump lasers. Here, a promising approach is experimentally demonstrated u...

  12. Potential of VIS-NIR-SWIR Spectroscopy from the Chinese Soil Spectral Library for Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilization Rates in the Paddy-Rice Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li


    Full Text Available To meet growing food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, soil testing and formulated fertilization methods have been widely adopted around the world. However, conventional technology for investigating nitrogen fertilization rates (NFR is time consuming and expensive. Here, we evaluated the use of visible near-infrared shortwave-infrared (VIS-NIR-SWIR: 400–2500 nm spectroscopy for the assessment of NFR to provide necessary information for fast, cost-effective and precise fertilization rating. Over 2000 samples were collected from paddy-rice fields in 10 Chinese provinces; samples were added to the Chinese Soil Spectral Library (CSSL. Two kinds of modeling strategies for NFR, quantitative estimation of soil N prior to classification and qualitative by classification, were employed using partial least squares regression (PLSR, locally weighted regression (LWR, and support vector machine discriminant analogy (SVMDA. Overall, both LWR and SVMDA had moderate accuracies with Cohen’s kappa coefficients of 0.47 and 0.48, respectively, while PLSR had fair accuracy (0.37. We conclude that VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy coupled with the CSSL appears to be a viable, rapid means for the assessment of NFR in paddy-rice soil. Based on qualitative classification of soil spectral data only, it is recommended that the SVMDA be adopted for rapid implementation.

  13. USGS Spectral Library Version 7 (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.


    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  14. Surface Composition of Trojan Asteroids from Thermal-Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Martin, A.; Emery, J. P.; Lindsay, S. S.


    Asteroid origins provide an effective means of constraining the events that dynamically shaped the solar system. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the extent of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and fall into two distinct spectral groups the near infrared (NIR). Though, featureless in this spectral region, NIR spectra of Trojans either exhibit a red or less-red slope. Typically, red-sloped spectra are associated with organics, but it has been shown that Trojans are not host to much, if any, organic material. Instead, the red slope is likely due to anhydrous silicates. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 µm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. We hypothesize that the two Trojan spectral groups have different compositions (silicate mineralogy). With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids, five red and six less-red. Preliminary results from analysis of the 10 µm region indicate red-sloped Trojans have a higher spectral contrast compared to less-red-sloped Trojans. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 µm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 µm and 12 µm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Further spectral analysis in the 10 µm, 18 µm, and 30 µm band region will be performed for a more robust analysis. If all Trojans come from the same region, it is expected that they share spectral and compositional characteristics. Therefore, if spectral analysis in the TIR reinforce the NIR spectral slope dichotomy, it is likely that Trojans were sourced from

  15. ISO observations of far-infrared rotational emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris


    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.


    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5 - 45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a spectral resolving power of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity ~ 25 solar luminosities. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the groun...

  16. TIRCIS: A Thermal Infrared, Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Small Satellite Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate how hyperspectral thermal infrared (TIR; 8-14 microns) image data, with a spectral resolution of up to 8 wavenumbers, can be acquired...

  17. Long-wave, infrared laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials. (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives sensing and has significant potential for real-time standoff detection and analysis. In this study, LIBS emissions were obtained in the mid-infrared (MIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions for potential applications in explosive material sensing. The IR spectroscopy region revealed vibrational and rotational signatures of functional groups in molecules and fragments thereof. The silicon-based detector for conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS operations was replaced with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector for MIR-LWIR spectral detection. The IR spectral signature region between 4 and 12 μm was mined for the appearance of MIR and LWIR-LIBS emissions directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as dissociated, and/or recombined sample molecular fragments. Distinct LWIR-LIBS emission signatures from dissociated-recombination sample molecular fragments between 4 and 12 μm are observed for the first time.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Von Hippel, Ted


    We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we find that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.

  19. Perceptual weights for loudness reflect central spectral processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt


    Weighting patterns for loudness obtained using the reverse correlation method are thought to reveal the relative contributions of different frequency regions to total loudness, the equivalent of specific loudness. Current models of loudness assume that specific loudness is determined by peripheral...... processes such as compression and masking. Here we test this hypothesis using 20-tone harmonic complexes (200Hz f0, 200 to 4000Hz, 250 ms, 65 dB/Component) added in opposite phase relationships (Schroeder positive and negative). Due to the varying degree of envelope modulations, these time-reversed harmonic...... processes and reflect a central frequency weighting template....

  20. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XVI. Improved Accuracy in the Infrared Spectra of the Secondary and Tertiary Standard Calibration Stars (United States)


    resolution ( AlA ). -, 400) spectroscopy obtained on infrared standard stars by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory with high...1995): 2.1-2.4 pm Strecker et al. (1979): 1.22-2.4 pm 6 See REFERENCES Alonso, A., Salaris, M., Arribas , S...Haddock, D. J., Arribas , S., Leggett, S. K., & Mountain, C. M. 1988, A&AS, 74, 127

  1. Detection of Black Plastics in the Middle Infrared Spectrum (MIR Using Photon Up-Conversion Technique for Polymer Recycling Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Becker


    Full Text Available The identification of black polymers which contain about 0.5 to 3 mass percent soot or black master batch is still an essential problem in recycling sorting processes. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of non-black polymers offers a reliable and fast identification, and is therefore suitable for industrial application. NIRS is consequently widely used in polymer sorting plants. However, this method cannot be used for black polymers because small amounts of carbon black or soot absorb all light in the NIR spectral region. Spectroscopy in the mid infrared spectral region (MIR offers a possibility to identify black polymers. MIR spectral measurements carried out with Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers (FTIR are not fast enough to meet economic requirements in sorting plants. By contrast, spectrometer systems based on the photon up-conversion technique are fast and sensitive enough and can be applied to sort black polymer parts. Such a system is able to measure several thousand spectra per second hence is suitable for industrial applications. The results of spectral measurements of black polymers are presented.

  2. Effect of Sampling Frequency for Real-Time Tablet Coating Monitoring Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Arai, Hiroaki; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A


    While the sampling of pharmaceutical products typically follows well-defined protocols, the parameterization of spectroscopic methods and their associated sampling frequency is not standard. Whereas, for blending, the sampling frequency is limited by the nature of the process, in other processes, such as tablet film coating, practitioners must determine the best approach to collecting spectral data. The present article studied how sampling practices affected the interpretation of the results provided by a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the monitoring of tablet moisture and coating weight gain during a pan-coating experiment. Several coating runs were monitored with different sampling frequencies (with or without co-adds (also known as sub-samples)) and with spectral averaging corresponding to processing cycles (1 to 15 pan rotations). Beyond integrating the sensor into the equipment, the present work demonstrated that it is necessary to have a good sense of the underlying phenomena that have the potential to affect the quality of the signal. The effects of co-adds and averaging was significant with respect to the quality of the spectral data. However, the type of output obtained from a sampling method dictated the type of information that one can gain on the dynamics of a process. Thus, different sampling frequencies may be needed at different stages of process development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Infrared variability of the BL lacertae object OJ287 since its outburst in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, W.K.; Robson, E.I.; Brown, L.M.J.


    In early 1983, OJ287 was seen to undergo an outburst in its optical and infrared emission. The authors have monitored the near-infrared emission since the outburst. The fluxes have fluctuated considerably, with the lowest recordings being an order of magnitude less than those measured during the outburst. An excellent correlation between infrared flux and spectral index has been found; as the source gets fainter the spectrum gets steeper, and vice versa. (author)

  4. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens


    . In this study, the optical properties of different types of surfaces to be cleaned and the dirt found in finishing pig units were investigated in the visual and the near infrared (VIS-NIR) optical range. Four types of commonly used materials in pig buildings, i.e. concrete, plastic, wood and steel were applied...... and after high-pressure water cleaning. The spectral signatures of the surface materials and dirt attached to the surfaces showed that it is possible to make discrimination and hence to classify areas that are visually clean. When spectral bands 450, 600, 700 and 800 nm are chosen, there are at least two...

  5. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer (United States)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber


    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  6. Compact blackbody calibration sources for in-flight calibration of spaceborne infrared instruments (United States)

    Scheiding, S.; Driescher, H.; Walter, I.; Hanbuch, K.; Paul, M.; Hartmann, M.; Scheiding, M.


    High-emissivity blackbodies are mandatory as calibration sources in infrared radiometers. Besides the requirements on the high spectral emissivity and low reflectance, constraints regarding energy consumption, installation space and mass must be considered during instrument design. Cavity radiators provide an outstanding spectral emissivity to the price of installation space and mass of the calibration source. Surface radiation sources are mainly limited by the spectral emissivity of the functional coating and the homogeneity of the temperature distribution. The effective emissivity of a "black" surface can be optimized, by structuring the substrate with the aim to enlarge the ratio of the surface to its projection. Based on the experiences of the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) calibration source MBB3, the results of the surface structuring on the effective emissivity are described analytically and compared to the experimental performance. Different geometries are analyzed and the production methods are discussed. The high-emissivity temperature calibration source features values of 0.99 for wavelength from 5 μm to 10 μm and emissivity larger than 0.95 for the spectral range from 10 μm to 40 μm.

  7. Use of spectral pre-processing methods to compensate for the presence of packaging film in visible–near infrared hyperspectral images of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gowen


    Full Text Available The presence of polymeric packaging film in images of food products may modify spectra obtained in hyperspectral imaging (HSI experiments, leading to undesirable image artefacts which may impede image classification. Some pre-processing of the image is typically required to reduce the presence of such artefacts. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of spectral pre-processing techniques to compensate for the presence of packaging film in hyperspectral images obtained in the visible–near infrared wavelength range (445–945 nm, with application in food quality assessment. A selection of commonly used pre-processing methods, used individually and in combination, were applied to hyperspectral images of flat homogeneous samples, imaged in the presence and absence of different packaging films (polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate. Effects of the selected pre-treatments on variation due to the film’s presence were examined in principal components score space. The results show that the combination of first derivative Savitzky–Golay followed by standard normal variate transformation was useful in reducing variations in spectral response caused by the presence of packaging film. Compared to other methods examined, this combination has the benefits of being computationally fast and not requiring a priori knowledge about the sample or film used.

  8. The importance of ultraviolet and near-infrared sensitivity for visual discrimination in two species of lacertid lizards. (United States)

    Martin, Mélissa; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine; Loew, Ellis R


    Male and female Lacertid lizards often display conspicuous coloration that is involved in intraspecific communication. However, visual systems of Lacertidae have rarely been studied and the spectral sensitivity of their retinal photoreceptors remains unknown. Here, we characterise the spectral sensitivity of two Lacertid species from contrasting habitats: the wall lizard Podarcis muralis and the common lizard Zootoca vivipara. Both species possess a pure-cone retina with one spectral class of double cones and four spectral classes of single cones. The two species differ in the spectral sensitivity of the LWS cones, the relative abundance of UVS single cones (potentially more abundant in Z. vivipara) and the coloration of oil droplets. Wall lizards have pure vitamin A1-based photopigments, whereas common lizards possess mixed vitamin A1 and A2 photopigments, extending spectral sensitivity into the near infrared, which is a rare feature in terrestrial vertebrates. We found that spectral sensitivity in the UV and near infrared improves discrimination of small variations in throat coloration among Z. vivipara. Thus, retinal specialisations optimise chromatic resolution in common lizards, indicating that the visual system and visual signals might co-evolve. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Novel mid-infrared imaging system based on single-mode quantum cascade laser illumination and upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomko, Jan; Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Compared to the visible or near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions, there is a lack of very high sensitivity detectors in the mid-infrared (MIR) that operate near room temperature. Upconversion of the MIR light to NIR light that is imaged using affordable, fast, and sensitive NIR detectors or camera...

  10. Variational Multi-Scale method with spectral approximation of the sub-scales.

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour


    A variational multi-scale method where the sub-grid scales are computed by spectral approximations is presented. It is based upon an extension of the spectral theorem to non necessarily self-adjoint elliptic operators that have an associated base of eigenfunctions which are orthonormal in weighted L2 spaces. We propose a feasible VMS-spectral method by truncation of this spectral expansion to a nite number of modes.

  11. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.


    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  12. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.


    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitte...

  13. Synchrotron radiation in the Far-Infrared: Adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, F.M.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Chabal, Y.J.


    Synchrotron radiation in the Far Infrared offers the potential for a broadband source of high brightness and intensity. Recent development of a Far-Infrared Beamline at the NSLS in Brookhaven provides an unique high intensity source in the FIR spectral range (800-10 cm -1 ). This talk reviews its application to surface vibrational spectroscopy of low frequency adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions on metal surfaces

  14. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.


    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  15. Spectral measurements of muzzle flash with multispectral and hyperspectral sensor (United States)

    Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Trzaskawka, P.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.


    The paper presents some practical aspects of the measurements of muzzle flash signatures. Selected signatures of sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. Signatures registered during all phases of muzzle flash were analyzed. High precision laboratory measurements were made in a special ballistic laboratory and as a result several flash patterns were registered. The field measurements of a muzzle flash were also performed. During the tests several infrared cameras were used, including the measurement class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were made in NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands simultaneously. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Some typical infrared shot signatures were presented. Beside the cameras, the LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory experiments and the field tests. The signatures collected by the HyperCam device were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of the muzzle flash, whereas the analysis of thermal images registered during the tests provided the data on temperature distribution in the flash area. As a result of the measurement session the signatures of several types handguns, machine guns and sniper rifles were obtained which will be used in the development of passive infrared systems for sniper detection.

  16. Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African savannahs (United States)

    Alistair M.S. Smith; Martin J. Wooster; Nick A. Drake; Frederick M. Dipotso; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak


    The remote sensing of fire severity is a noted goal in studies of forest and grassland wildfires. Experiments were conducted to discover and evaluate potential relationships between the characteristics of African savannah fires and post-fire surface spectral reflectance in the visible to shortwave infrared spectral region. Nine instrumented experimental fires were...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.


    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H 2 O and CH 4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51–054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f λ , so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH 3 . These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722–05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  18. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.


    Introduction We have assembled a digital reflectance spectral library that covers the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to far infrared along with sample documentation. The library includes samples of minerals, rocks, soils, physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures, plants, vegetation communities, microorganisms, and man-made materials. The samples and spectra collected were assembled for the purpose of using spectral features for the remote detection of these and similar materials. Analysis of spectroscopic data from laboratory, aircraft, and spacecraft instrumentation requires a knowledge base. The spectral library discussed here forms a knowledge base for the spectroscopy of minerals and related materials of importance to a variety of research programs being conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey. Much of this library grew out of the need for spectra to support imaging spectroscopy studies of the Earth and planets. Imaging spectrometers, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Visible/Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) or the NASA Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) which is currently orbiting Saturn, have narrow bandwidths in many contiguous spectral channels that permit accurate definition of absorption features in spectra from a variety of materials. Identification of materials from such data requires a comprehensive spectral library of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials, and other subjects in the scene. Our research involves the use of the spectral library to identify the components in a spectrum of an unknown. Therefore, the quality of the library must be very good. However, the quality required in a spectral library to successfully perform an investigation depends on the scientific questions to be answered and the type of algorithms to be used. For example, to map a mineral using imaging spectroscopy and the mapping algorithm of Clark and others (1990a, 2003b

  19. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter


    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  20. Hybrid active pixel sensors in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Gert; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Joerg; Moorwood, Alan


    Infrared astronomy is currently benefiting from three main technologies providing high-performance hybrid active pixel sensors. In the near infrared from 1 to 5 μm two technologies, both aiming for buttable 2Kx2K mosaics, are competing, namely InSb and HgCdTe grown by LPE or MBE on Al 2 O 3 , Si or CdZnTe substrates. Blocked impurity band Si:As arrays cover the mid infrared spectral range from 8 to 28 μm. Adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high-resolution spectrographs drive the requirements for the array format of infrared sensors used at ground-based infrared observatories. The pixel performance is now approaching fundamental limits. In view of this development, a detection limit for the photon flux of the ideal detector will be derived, depending only on the temperature and the impedance of the detector. It will be shown that this limit is approximated by state of the art infrared arrays for long on-chip integrations. Different detector materials are compared and strategies to populate large focal planes are discussed. The need for the development of small-format low noise sensors for adaptive optics and interferometry will be pointed out

  1. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications. (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J


    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  2. Predicting Soil Organic Carbon at Field Scale Using a National Soil Spectral Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Knadel, Maria; Gislum, René


    and the spectral library, 2718 samples) and (iii) three sub-sets selected from the spectral library. In an attempt to improve prediction accuracy, sub-sets of the soil spectral library were made using three different sample selection methods: those geographically closest (84 samples), those with the same landscape......Visible and near infrared diffuse reflectance (vis-NIR) spectroscopy is a low-cost, efficient and accurate soil analysis technique and is thus becoming increasingly popular. Soil spectral libraries are commonly constructed as the basis for estimating soil texture and properties. In this study......, partial least squares regression was used to develop models to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of 35 soil samples from one field using (i) the Danish soil spectral library (2688 samples), (ii) a spiked spectral library (a combination of 30 samples selected from the local area...

  3. Use of high-dimensional spectral data to evaluate organic matter, reflectance relationships in soils (United States)

    Henderson, T. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Coster, D. C.; Franzmeier, D. P.; Stott, D. E.


    Recent breakthroughs in remote sensing technology have led to the development of a spaceborne high spectral resolution imaging sensor, HIRIS, to be launched in the mid-1990s for observation of earth surface features. The effects of organic carbon content on soil reflectance over the spectral range of HIRIS, and to examine the contributions of humic and fulvic acid fractions to soil reflectance was evaluated. Organic matter from four Indiana agricultural soils was extracted, fractionated, and purified, and six individual components of each soil were isolated and prepared for spectral analysis. The four soils, ranging in organic carbon content from 0.99 percent, represented various combinations of genetic parameters such as parent material, age, drainage, and native vegetation. An experimental procedure was developed to measure reflectance of very small soil and organic component samples in the laboratory, simulating the spectral coverage and resolution of the HIRIS sensor. Reflectance in 210 narrow (10 nm) bands was measured using the CARY 17D spectrophotometer over the 400 to 2500 nm wavelength range. Reflectance data were analyzed statistically to determine the regions of the reflective spectrum which provided useful information about soil organic matter content and composition. Wavebands providing significant information about soil organic carbon content were located in all three major regions of the reflective spectrum: visible, near infrared, and middle infrared. The purified humic acid fractions of the four soils were separable in six bands in the 1600 to 2400 nm range, suggesting that longwave middle infrared reflectance may be useful as a non-destructive laboratory technique for humic acid characterization.

  4. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences


    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  5. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stuart L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices and interactions (edges that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors. Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from Source code is

  6. The infrared spectrum of Jupiter (United States)

    Ridgway, S. T.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.


    The principal characteristics of Jupiter's infrared spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on their significance for our understanding of the composition and temperature structure of the Jovian upper atmosphere. The spectral region from 1 to 40 microns divides naturally into three regimes: the reflecting region, thermal emission from below the cloud deck (5-micron hot spots), and thermal emission from above the clouds. Opaque parts of the Jovian atmosphere further subdivide these regions into windows, and each is discussed in the context of its past or potential contributions to our knowledge of the planet. Recent results are incorporated into a table of atmospheric composition and abundance which includes positively identified constituents as well as several which require verification. The limited available information about spatial variations of the infrared spectrum is presented

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Camouflage Effectiveness in the Thermal Infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.A.M.


    The detectability of a target ln the infrared spectral region ls determined by differences between the radiative stignatures of the target and the local background. This implies that both, the difference in surface temperature and emissivity ^T resp. ^€ and the distribution of these differences over

  8. Improving the spectral measurement accuracy based on temperature distribution and spectra-temperature relationship (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Feng, Jinchao; Liu, Pengyu; Sun, Zhonghua; Li, Gang; Jia, Kebin


    Temperature is usually considered as a fluctuation in near-infrared spectral measurement. Chemometric methods were extensively studied to correct the effect of temperature variations. However, temperature can be considered as a constructive parameter that provides detailed chemical information when systematically changed during the measurement. Our group has researched the relationship between temperature-induced spectral variation (TSVC) and normalized squared temperature. In this study, we focused on the influence of temperature distribution in calibration set. Multi-temperature calibration set selection (MTCS) method was proposed to improve the prediction accuracy by considering the temperature distribution of calibration samples. Furthermore, double-temperature calibration set selection (DTCS) method was proposed based on MTCS method and the relationship between TSVC and normalized squared temperature. We compare the prediction performance of PLS models based on random sampling method and proposed methods. The results from experimental studies showed that the prediction performance was improved by using proposed methods. Therefore, MTCS method and DTCS method will be the alternative methods to improve prediction accuracy in near-infrared spectral measurement.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy: a tool for determination of the degree of conversion in dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Gonçalves Palmeira Moraes


    Full Text Available Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most widely used techniques for measurement of conversion degree in dental composites. However, to obtain good quality spectra and quantitative analysis from spectral data, appropriate expertise and knowledge of the technique are mandatory. This paper presents important details to use infrared spectroscopy for determination of the conversion degree.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)


    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy


    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution

  12. Evaluation of the Subscapularis Tendon Tears on 3T Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of T1-Weighted Spectral Presaturation with Inversion-Recovery and T2-Weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences. (United States)

    Lee, Hoseok; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Yusuhn; Oh, Joo Han; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik


    To compare the T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences (T1 SPIR) with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences (T2 TSE) on 3T magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in the evaluation of the subscapularis (SSC) tendon tear with arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. This retrospective study included 120 consecutive patients who had undergone MRA within 3 months between April and December 2015. Two musculoskeletal radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic results evaluated T1 SPIR and T2 TSE images in separate sessions for the integrity of the SSC tendon, examining normal/articular-surface partial-thickness tear (PTTa)/full-thickness tear (FTT). Diagnostic performance of T1 SPIR and T2 TSE was calculated with arthroscopic results as the reference standard, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared using the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement was measured with kappa (κ) statistics. There were 74 SSC tendon tears (36 PTTa and 38 FTT) confirmed by arthroscopy. Significant differences were found in the sensitivity and accuracy between T1 SPIR and T2 TSE using the McNemar test, with respective rates of 95.9-94.6% vs. 71.6-75.7% and 90.8-91.7% vs. 79.2-83.3% for detecting tear; 55.3% vs. 31.6-34.2% and 85.8% vs. 78.3-79.2%, respectively, for FTT; and 91.7-97.2% vs. 58.3-61.1% and 89% vs. 78-79.3%, respectively, for PTTa. Interobserver agreement for T1 SPIR was almost perfect for T1 SPIR (κ = 0.839) and substantial for T2 TSE (κ = 0.769). T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences is more sensitive and accurate compared to T2 TSE in detecting SSC tendon tear on 3T MRA.

  13. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.


    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral

  14. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei


    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  15. Compensation of spectral artifacts in dual-modality intravascular optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Fard, Ali M.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Ughi, Giovanni J.; Hyun, Chulho; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution catheter-based imaging method that provides three-dimensional microscopic images of coronary artery in vivo, facilitating coronary artery disease treatment decisions based on detailed morphology. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be a powerful tool for identification of lipid-rich plaques inside the coronary walls. We have recently demonstrated a dual-modality intravascular imaging technology that integrates OCT and NIRS into one imaging catheter using a two-fiber arrangement and a custom-made dual-channel fiber rotary junction. It therefore enables simultaneous acquisition of microstructural and composition information at 100 frames/second for improved diagnosis of coronary lesions. The dual-modality OCT-NIRS system employs a single wavelength-swept light source for both OCT and NIRS modalities. It subsequently uses a high-speed photoreceiver to detect the NIRS spectrum in the time domain. Although use of one light source greatly simplifies the system configuration, such light source exhibits pulse-to-pulse wavelength and intensity variation due to mechanical scanning of the wavelength. This can be in particular problematic for NIRS modality and sacrifices the reliability of the acquired spectra. In order to address this challenge, here we developed a robust data acquisition and processing method that compensates for the spectral variations of the wavelength-swept light source. The proposed method extracts the properties of the light source, i.e., variation period and amplitude from a reference spectrum and subsequently calibrates the NIRS datasets. We have applied this method on datasets obtained from cadaver human coronary arteries using a polygon-scanning (1230-1350nm) OCT system, operating at 100,000 sweeps per second. The results suggest that our algorithm accurately and robustly compensates the spectral variations and visualizes the dual-modality OCT-NIRS images. These

  16. Canny Edge Detection in Cross-Spectral Fused Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez


    Full Text Available Considering that the images of different spectra provide an ample information that helps a lo in the process of identification and distinction of objects that have unique spectral signatures. In this paper, the use of cross-spectral images in the process of edge detection is evaluated. This study aims to assess the Canny edge detector with two variants. The first relates to the use of merged cross-spectral images and the second the inclusion of morphological filters. To ensure the quality of the data used in this study the GQM (Goal-Question- Metrics, framework, was applied to reduce noise and increase the entropy on images. The metrics obtained in the experiments confirm that the quantity and quality of the detected edges increases significantly after the inclusion of a morphological filter and a channel of near infrared spectrum in the merged images.

  17. Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics (United States)

    Grubsky, Victor; Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Jannson, Tomasz


    We propose a new imaging device for the long infrared spectral range, inspired by the natural eye of a lobster. Such a lobster-eye lens is composed of reflecting channels with a square cross section capable of wide angle of view and practically omni-directional imaging. As in large-aperture lenses, aberrations can significantly degrade the image. We show two methods of reducing aberrations: by selecting proper material for the mirrors and by making channels with absorbing sections.

  18. Prediction of meat spectral patterns based on optical properties and concentrations of the major constituents. (United States)

    ElMasry, Gamal; Nakauchi, Shigeki


    A simulation method for approximating spectral signatures of minced meat samples was developed depending on concentrations and optical properties of the major chemical constituents. Minced beef samples of different compositions scanned on a near-infrared spectroscopy and on a hyperspectral imaging system were examined. Chemical composition determined heuristically and optical properties collected from authenticated references were simulated to approximate samples' spectral signatures. In short-wave infrared range, the resulting spectrum equals the sum of the absorption of three individual absorbers, that is, water, protein, and fat. By assuming homogeneous distributions of the main chromophores in the mince samples, the obtained absorption spectra are found to be a linear combination of the absorption spectra of the major chromophores present in the sample. Results revealed that developed models were good enough to derive spectral signatures of minced meat samples with a reasonable level of robustness of a high agreement index value more than 0.90 and ratio of performance to deviation more than 1.4.

  19. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit. (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh


    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  20. On the gain properties of “thin” elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Bougrov, V. E. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Kurochkin, A. S.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Babichev, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Gadzhiev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Usikova, A. A., E-mail:; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Savelyev, A. V.; Nyapshaev, I. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation)


    The results of experimental studies of the gain properties of “thin” (3.2 nm thick) elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm are presented. The results of studying the threshold and gain characteristics of stripe laser diodes with active regions based on “thin” quantum wells with a lattice–substrate mismatch of +1.0% show that the quantum wells under study exhibit a high modal gain of 11 cm{sup –1} and a low transparency current density of 46 A/cm{sup 2} per quantum well.

  1. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  2. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  3. [Identification of Dendrobium varieties by infrared spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Yang, Chun-Yan; Jin, Hang


    The difference of Dendrobium varieties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of 206 stems from 30 Dendrobium varieties were obtained, and showed that polysaccharides, especially fiber, were the main components in Dendrobium plants. FTIR combined with Wilks' Lambda stepwise discriminative analysis was used to identify Dendrobium varieties. The effects of spectral range and number of training samples on the discrimination results were also analysed. Two hundred eighty seven variables in the spectral range of 1 800-1 250 cm(-1) were studied, and showed that the return discrimination is 100% correct when the training samples number of each species was 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, whereas for the remaining samples the correct rates of identification were equal to 79.4%, 91.3%, 93.0%, 98.2%, and 100%, respectively. The same discriminative analyses on five different training samples in the spectral range of 1 800-1 500, 1 500-1 250, 1 250-600, 1 250-950 and 950-650 cm(-1) were compared, which showed that the variables in the range of 1 800-1 250, 1 800-1 500 and 950-600 cm(-1) were more suitable for variety identification, and one can obtain the satisfactory result for discriminative analysis when the training sample is more than 3. Our results indicate that FTIR combined with stepwise discriminative analysis is an effective way to distinguish different Dendrobium varieties.

  4. Environmental Temperature Effect on the Far-Infrared Absorption Features of Aromatic-Based Titan's Aerosol Analogs (United States)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.


    Benzene detection has been reported in Titans atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titans atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500/cm, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared. In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titans stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  5. Highly doped semiconductor plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for polarization selective broadband surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of vanillin (United States)

    Barho, Franziska B.; Gonzalez-Posada, Fernando; Milla, Maria-Jose; Bomers, Mario; Cerutti, Laurent; Tournié, Eric; Taliercio, Thierry


    Tailored plasmonic nanoantennas are needed for diverse applications, among those sensing. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy using adapted nanoantenna substrates is an efficient technique for the selective detection of molecules by their vibrational spectra, even in small quantity. Highly doped semiconductors have been proposed as innovative materials for plasmonics, especially for more flexibility concerning the targeted spectral range. Here, we report on rectangular-shaped, highly Si-doped InAsSb nanoantennas sustaining polarization switchable longitudinal and transverse plasmonic resonances in the mid-infrared. For small array periodicities, the highest reflectance intensity is obtained. Large periodicities can be used to combine localized surface plasmon resonances (SPR) with array resonances, as shown in electromagnetic calculations. The nanoantenna arrays can be efficiently used for broadband SEIRA spectroscopy, exploiting the spectral overlap between the large longitudinal or transverse plasmonic resonances and narrow infrared active absorption features of an analyte molecule. We demonstrate an increase of the vibrational line intensity up to a factor of 5.7 of infrared-active absorption features of vanillin in the fingerprint spectral region, yielding enhancement factors of three to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, an optimized readout for SPR sensing is proposed based on slightly overlapping longitudinal and transverse localized SPR.

  6. Highly doped semiconductor plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for polarization selective broadband surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barho Franziska B.


    Full Text Available Tailored plasmonic nanoantennas are needed for diverse applications, among those sensing. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA spectroscopy using adapted nanoantenna substrates is an efficient technique for the selective detection of molecules by their vibrational spectra, even in small quantity. Highly doped semiconductors have been proposed as innovative materials for plasmonics, especially for more flexibility concerning the targeted spectral range. Here, we report on rectangular-shaped, highly Si-doped InAsSb nanoantennas sustaining polarization switchable longitudinal and transverse plasmonic resonances in the mid-infrared. For small array periodicities, the highest reflectance intensity is obtained. Large periodicities can be used to combine localized surface plasmon resonances (SPR with array resonances, as shown in electromagnetic calculations. The nanoantenna arrays can be efficiently used for broadband SEIRA spectroscopy, exploiting the spectral overlap between the large longitudinal or transverse plasmonic resonances and narrow infrared active absorption features of an analyte molecule. We demonstrate an increase of the vibrational line intensity up to a factor of 5.7 of infrared-active absorption features of vanillin in the fingerprint spectral region, yielding enhancement factors of three to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, an optimized readout for SPR sensing is proposed based on slightly overlapping longitudinal and transverse localized SPR.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna


    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  8. Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M S; Menegotto, T; Duarte, I; Da Silva, T Ferreira; Alves, L C; Alvarenga, A D; Almeida, G B; Couceiro, I B; Teixeira, R N


    This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer

  9. Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry of micrometer-sized SiO2 line gratings (United States)

    Walder, Cordula; Zellmeier, Matthias; Rappich, Jörg; Ketelsen, Helge; Hinrichs, Karsten


    For the design and process control of periodic nano-structured surfaces spectroscopic ellipsometry is already established in the UV-VIS spectral regime. The objective of this work is to show the feasibility of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the infrared, exemplarily, on micrometer-sized SiO2 line gratings grown on silicon wafers. The grating period ranges from 10 to about 34 μm. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings exhibit complex changes with structure variations. Especially in the spectral range of the oxide stretching modes, the presence of a Rayleigh singularity can lead to pronounced changes of the spectrum with the sample geometry. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings are well reproducible by calculations with the RCWA method (Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis). Therefore, infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry allows the quantitative characterization and process control of micrometer-sized structures.

  10. Passive thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantitative imaging of shale gas leaks (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Morton, Vince; Giroux, Jean; Chamberland, Martin


    There are many types of natural gas fields including shale formations that are common especially in the St-Lawrence Valley (Canada). Since methane (CH4), the major component of shale gas, is odorless, colorless and highly flammable, in addition to being a greenhouse gas, methane emanations and/or leaks are important to consider for both safety and environmental reasons. Telops recently launched on the market the Hyper-Cam Methane, a field-deployable thermal infrared hyperspectral camera specially tuned for detecting methane infrared spectral features under ambient conditions and over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of this novel research instrument for natural gas imaging, the instrument was brought on a site where shale gas leaks unexpectedly happened during a geological survey near the Enfant-Jesus hospital in Quebec City, Canada, during December 2014. Quantitative methane imaging was carried out based on methane's unique infrared spectral signature. Optical flow analysis was also carried out on the data to estimate the methane mass flow rate. The results show how this novel technique could be used for advanced research on shale gases.

  11. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswenger, Toya N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Gallagher, Neal B. [Eigenvector Research, Inc., Manson, WA, USA; Myers, Tanya L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Tonkyn, Russell G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Su, Yin-Fong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Lewallen, Tricia A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA


    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species, including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide the

  12. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele


    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  13. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.


    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  14. Impact of soil moisture and winter wheat height from the Loess Plateau in Northwest China on surface spectral albedo (United States)

    Li, Zhenchao; Yang, Jiaxi; Gao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Yu, Ye; Hou, Xuhong; Wei, Zhigang


    The understanding of surface spectral radiation and reflected radiation characteristics of different surfaces in different climate zones aids in the interpretation of regional surface energy transfers and the development of land surface models. This study analysed surface spectral radiation variations and corresponding surface albedo characteristics at different wavelengths as well as the relationship between 5-cm soil moisture and surface albedo on typical sunny days during the winter wheat growth period. The analysis was conducted using observational Loess Plateau winter wheat data from 2015. The results show that the ratio of atmospheric downward radiation to global radiation on typical sunny days is highest for near-infrared wavelengths, followed by visible wavelengths and ultraviolet wavelengths, with values of 57.3, 38.7 and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of reflected spectral radiation to global radiation varies based on land surface type. The visible radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces is far less than that reflected by bare ground, with surface albedos of 0.045 and 0.27, respectively. Thus, vegetated surfaces absorb more visible radiation than bare ground. The atmospheric downward spectral radiation to global radiation diurnal variation ratios vary for near-infrared wavelengths versus visible and ultraviolet wavelengths on typical sunny days. The near-infrared wavelengths ratio is higher in the morning and evening and lower at noon. The visible and ultraviolet wavelengths ratios are lower in the morning and evening and higher at noon. Visible and ultraviolet wavelength surface albedo is affected by 5-cm soil moisture, demonstrating a significant negative correlation. Excluding near-infrared wavelengths, correlations between surface albedo and 5-cm soil moisture pass the 99% confidence test at each wavelength. The correlation with 5-cm soil moisture is more significant at shorter wavelengths. However, this study obtained surface spectral radiation

  15. SOSPEX, an interactive tool to explore SOFIA spectral cubes (United States)

    Fadda, Dario; Chambers, Edward T.


    We present SOSPEX (SOFIA SPectral EXplorer), an interactive tool to visualize and analyze spectral cubes obtained with the FIFI-LS and GREAT instruments onboard the SOFIA Infrared Observatory. This software package is written in Python 3 and it is available either through Github or Anaconda.Through this GUI it is possible to explore directly the spectral cubes produced by the SOFIA pipeline and archived in the SOFIA Science Archive. Spectral cubes are visualized showing their spatial and spectral dimensions in two different windows. By selecting a part of the spectrum, the flux from the corresponding slice of the cube is visualized in the spatial window. On the other hand, it is possible to define apertures on the spatial window to show the corresponding spectral energy distribution in the spectral window.Flux isocontours can be overlapped to external images in the spatial window while line names, atmospheric transmission, or external spectra can be overplotted on the spectral window. Atmospheric models with specific parameters can be retrieved, compared to the spectra and applied to the uncorrected FIFI-LS cubes in the cases where the standard values give unsatisfactory results. Subcubes can be selected and saved as FITS files by cropping or cutting the original cubes. Lines and continuum can be fitted in the spectral window saving the results in Jyson files which can be reloaded later. Finally, in the case of spatially extended observations, it is possible to compute spectral momenta as a function of the position to obtain velocity dispersion maps or velocity diagrams.

  16. Spectral Learning for Supervised Topic Models. (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yining; Zhu, Jun


    Supervised topic models simultaneously model the latent topic structure of large collections of documents and a response variable associated with each document. Existing inference methods are based on variational approximation or Monte Carlo sampling, which often suffers from the local minimum defect. Spectral methods have been applied to learn unsupervised topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), with provable guarantees. This paper investigates the possibility of applying spectral methods to recover the parameters of supervised LDA (sLDA). We first present a two-stage spectral method, which recovers the parameters of LDA followed by a power update method to recover the regression model parameters. Then, we further present a single-phase spectral algorithm to jointly recover the topic distribution matrix as well as the regression weights. Our spectral algorithms are provably correct and computationally efficient. We prove a sample complexity bound for each algorithm and subsequently derive a sufficient condition for the identifiability of sLDA. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets verify the theory and demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the spectral algorithms. In fact, our results on a large-scale review rating dataset demonstrate that our single-phase spectral algorithm alone gets comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art methods, while previous work on spectral methods has rarely reported such promising performance.

  17. Mid-Infrared Frequency-Agile Dual-Comb Spectroscopy (United States)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Yan, Ming; Iwakuni, Kana; Millot, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie


    We demonstrate a new approach to mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy. It opens up new opportunities for accurate real-time spectroscopic diagnostics and it significantly simplifies the technique of dual-comb spectroscopy. Two mid-infrared frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span are generated in the 2800-3200 cm-1 region. The generators rely on electro-optic modulators, nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening and difference frequency generation and do not involve mode-locked lasers. Flat-top frequency combs span up to 10 cm-1 with a comb line spacing of 100 MHz (3×10-3 cm-1). The performance of the spectrometer without any phase-lock electronics or correction scheme is illustrated with spectra showing resolved comb lines and Doppler-limited spectra of methane. High precision on the spectroscopic parameter (line positions and intensities) determination is demonstrated for spectra measured on a millisecond time scale and it is validated with comparison with literature data. G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovannysyan, A. Bendahmane, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 10, 27-30 (2016).

  18. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation (United States)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.


    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.


    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  20. Infrared Imaging of Cotton Fiber Bundles Using a Focal Plane Array Detector and a Single Reflectance Accessory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santiago Cintrón


    Full Text Available Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report on the use of an infrared instrument equipped with a reflection accessory and an array detector system for the examination of cotton fiber bundles. Cotton vibrational spectra and chemical images were acquired by grouping pixels in the detector array. This technique reduced spectral noise and was employed to visualize cell wall development in cotton fibers bundles. Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal band changes in the C–O bending region that matched previous studies. Imaging studies were quick, relied on small amounts of sample and provided a distribution of the cotton fiber cell wall composition. Thus, imaging of cotton bundles with an infrared detector array has potential for use in cotton fiber examinations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Lupu, Roxana


    Brown dwarfs of a variety of spectral types have been observed to be photometrically variable. Previous studies have focused on objects at the L/T transition, where the iron and silicate clouds in L dwarfs break up or dissipate. However, objects outside of this transitional effective temperature regime also exhibit variability. Here, we present models for mid-late T dwarfs and Y dwarfs. We present models that include patchy salt and sulfide clouds as well as water clouds for the Y dwarfs. We find that for objects over 375 K, patchy cloud opacity would generate the largest amplitude variability within near-infrared spectral windows. For objects under 375 K, water clouds also become important and generate larger amplitude variability in the mid-infrared. We also present models in which we perturb the temperature structure at different pressure levels of the atmosphere to simulate hot spots. These models show the most variability in the absorption features between spectral windows. The variability is strongest at wavelengths that probe pressure levels at which the heating is the strongest. The most illustrative types of observations for understanding the physical processes underlying brown dwarf variability are simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations that probe both inside and outside of molecular absorption features

  2. Perturbation results for the Estrada index in weighted networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Yilun, E-mail: [Institute for Cyber Security, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)


    The logarithm of the Estrada index has been proposed recently as a spectral measure to character efficiently the robustness of complex networks. In this paper, we explore the Estrada index in weighted networks and develop various perturbation results based on spectral graph theory. It is shown that the robustness of a network may be enhanced even when some edge weights are reduced. This is of particular theoretical and practical significance to network design and optimization.

  3. Perturbation results for the Estrada index in weighted networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yilun


    The logarithm of the Estrada index has been proposed recently as a spectral measure to character efficiently the robustness of complex networks. In this paper, we explore the Estrada index in weighted networks and develop various perturbation results based on spectral graph theory. It is shown that the robustness of a network may be enhanced even when some edge weights are reduced. This is of particular theoretical and practical significance to network design and optimization.

  4. Homogeneity and internal defects detect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass (United States)

    Li, Zupana; Wu, Ligang; Lin, Changgui; Song, Bao'an; Wang, Xunsi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixunb


    Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses is a kind of excellent infrared optical material, which has been enviromental friendly and widely used in infrared thermal imaging systems. However, due to the opaque feature of Se-based glasses in visible spectral region, it's difficult to measure their homogeneity and internal defect as the common oxide ones. In this study, a measurement was proposed to observe the homogeneity and internal defect of these glasses based on near-IR imaging technique and an effective measurement system was also constructed. The testing result indicated the method can gives the information of homogeneity and internal defect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass clearly and intuitionally.

  5. Application of linear discriminant analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy for diagnosis of colon cancer. (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Bagheri Garmarudi, Amir; Samani, Simin; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Ashuri, Ahmad


    Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was applied for detection of colon cancer according to the spectral features of colon tissues. Supervised classification models can be trained to identify the tissue type based on the spectroscopic fingerprint. A total of 78 colon tissues were used in spectroscopy studies. Major spectral differences were observed in 1,740-900 cm(-1) spectral region. Several chemometric methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis (CA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) were applied for classification of IR spectra. Utilizing the chemometric techniques, clear and reproducible differences were observed between the spectra of normal and cancer cases, suggesting that infrared microspectroscopy in conjunction with spectral data processing would be useful for diagnostic classification. Using LDA technique, the spectra were classified into cancer and normal tissue classes with an accuracy of 95.8%. The sensitivity and specificity was 100 and 93.1%, respectively.

  6. Infrared spectrophotometry and radiative transfer in optically thick circumstellar dust envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, K.M.


    The Two-Micron Sky Survey of Neugebauer and Leighton and, more recently, the AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey of Walker and Price have detected numerous compact, isolated, bright infrared sources which are not identified with previously cataloged stars. Observations of many such objects suggest that extensive circumstellar dust envelopes modify the flux from a central source. The present investigations employ broad bandpass photometry at lambda lambda 1.65 μm to 12.5 μm and narrow bandpass spectrophotometry (Δ lambda/lambda approximately 0.015) at lambda lambda 2-4 μm and lambda lambda 8-13 μm to determine the properties of a large sample of such infrared sources. Infrared spectrophotometry can clearly differentiate between normal stars of spectral types M(''oxygen-rich'') and C (''carbon-rich'') on the basis of characteristic absorption bands arising in cool stellar atmospheres. Most of the 2 μ Sky Survey and many of the AFCRL Sky Survey sources appear to be stars of spectral types M and C which are differentiated from normal cool comparison stars only by the presence of extensive circumstellar dust envelopes. Due to the large optical depth of the envelopes, the flux from the star and from the dust cannot be simply separated. Hence solutions of radiative transfer through spherically symmetric envelopes of arbitrary optical depth were generated by a generalized computer code which employed opacities of real dust

  7. ASTER spectral sensitivity of carbonate rocks - Study in Sultanate of Oman (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi


    in carbonatites apart the influence of major carbonate minerals that occurred predominantly in these rocks. The study of ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) spectral bands distinguished the marls have low emissivity of energy due to the presence of hydroxyl bearing alumina-silicate minerals from the other rocks such as limestones, listwaenites and carbonatites which have high emissivity due to the absence of hydroxyl bearing alumina-silicate minerals and the presence of carbonate minerals and carbonates. Further, the study demonstrates and confirms the spectral sensitivity of marls and carbonatites. Marls have high reflectivity in ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands and low emissivity of energy in ASTER TIR spectral bands due to the presence of hydroxyl bearing alumina-silicate minerals. Carbonatites have low reflectivity in ASTER VNIR-SWIR spectral bands and high emissivity in ASTER TIR spectral bands due to the absence of hydroxyl bearing alumina-silicate minerals and the presence of the carbonate minerals and carbonates. These have been discussed by providing the grey scale color image of 14 ASTER spectral bands of the study sites. The study is based on the interpretation of image spectra of multispectral image conducted to map such economic valuable carbonate rocks. It provides a simple methods and basic knowledge, which are of great help to the geology and exploration communities. It is recommended to the geologists, industrialists, exploration communities of carbonates and mine owners to take up the knowledge for economic exploration of such deposits. Further, the study has proved that the technique is time and cost effective in mapping of such deposits and can be used to the areas which have extremely rugged topography occurred in similar arid region, where difficult to do exhaustive sampling and not reachable for conventional geological mapping.

  8. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer


    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien


    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inne...

  9. High Resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer to Study the Zodiacal Light Spectrum (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R.; Rapchun, D.


    We are developing a near infrared spectrometer for measuring solar absorption lines in the zodiacal light in the near infrared region. R. Reynolds at el. (2004, ApJ 612, 1206) demonstrated that observing single Fraunhofer line can be a powerful tool for extracting zodiacal light parameters based on their measurements of the profile of the Mg I line at 5184 A. We are extending this technique to the near infrared with the primary goal of measuring the absolute intensity of the zodiacal light. This measurement will provide the crucial information needed to accurately subtract zodiacal emission from the DIRBE measurements to get a much higher quality measurement of the extragalactic IR background. The instrument design is based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometer with a narrow band filter. Its double etalon design allows to achieve high spectral contrast to reject the bright out of band telluric OH emission. High spectral contrast is absolutely necessary to achieve detection limits needed to accurately measure the intensity of the absorption line. We present the design, estimated performance of the instrument with the expected results of the observing program. The project is supported by NASA ROSES-APRA grant.

  10. Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.


    The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.

  11. [Development of a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water based on MEMS linear sensor array]. (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-fan; Zeng, Li-bo; Shi, Lei; Li, Kai; Yang, Yuan-zhou; Wu, Qiong-shui


    Aiming at the existing problems such as weak environmental adaptability, low analytic efficiency and poor measuring repeatability in the traditional spectral oil analyzers, the present paper designed a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water. To reduce the volume of the instrument, the non-symmetrical folding M-type Czerny-Turner optical structure was adopted in the core optical path. With a periodically rotating chopper, controlled by digital PID algorithm, applied for infrared light modulation, the modulating accuracy reached ±0.5%. Different from traditional grating-scanning spectrophotometers, this instrument used a fixed grating for light dispersion and avoided rotating error in the course of the measuring procedures. A new-type MEMS infrared linear sensor array was applied for modulated spectral signals detection, which improved the measuring efficiency remarkably. Optical simulation and experimental results indicate that the spectral range is 2 800 - 3 200 cm(-1), the spectral resolution is 6 cm(-1) (@3 130 cm(-1)), and the signal to noise ratio is up to 5 200 : 1. The acquisition time is 13 milliseconds per spectrogram, and the standard deviation of absorbance is less than 3 x 10(-3). These performances meet the standards of oil concentration measurements perfectly. Compared with traditional infrared spectral analyzers for oil concentration, the instrument demonstrated in this paper has many advantages such as smaller size, more efficiency, higher precision, and stronger vibration & moisture isolation. In addition, the proposed instrument is especially suitable for the environmental monitoring departments to implement real-time measurements in the field for oil concentration in water, hence it has broad prospects of application in the field of water quality monitoring.

  12. Multi-layer composite structure covered polytetrafluoroethylene for visible-infrared-radar spectral Compatibility (United States)

    Qi, Dong; Cheng, Yongzhi; Wang, Xian; Wang, Fang; Li, Bowen; Gong, Rongzhou


    In this paper, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) top-covered multi-layer composite structure PTFE/H s/(Ge/ZnS)3 (H s represents the surface layer ZnS with various thicknesses) for spectral compatibility is proposed and investigated theoretically and experimentally. A substantial decline of glossiness from over 200 Gs to 74.2 Gs could be realized, due to high roughness and interface reflection of the 800 nm PTFE protection layer. In addition, similar to the structure of H s/(Ge/ZnS)3, the designed structure with a certain color exhibits ultra-low emissivity of average 0.196 at 8-14 µm and highly transparent performance of 96.45% in the radar frequency range of 2-18 GHz. Our design will provide an important reference for the practical applications of the spectral compatible multilayer films.

  13. Multi-octave spectral beam combiner on ultra-broadband photonic integrated circuit platform. (United States)

    Stanton, Eric J; Heck, Martijn J R; Bovington, Jock; Spott, Alexander; Bowers, John E


    We present the design of a novel platform that is able to combine optical frequency bands spanning 4.2 octaves from ultraviolet to mid-wave infrared into a single, low M2 output waveguide. We present the design and realization of a key component in this platform that combines the wavelength bands of 350 nm - 1500 nm and 1500 nm - 6500 nm with demonstrated efficiency greater than 90% in near-infrared and mid-wave infrared. The multi-octave spectral beam combiner concept is realized using an integrated platform with silicon nitride waveguides and silicon waveguides. Simulated bandwidth is shown to be over four octaves, and measured bandwidth is shown over two octaves, limited by the availability of sources.

  14. Temporal and spectral interaction in loudness perception (United States)

    Pedersen, Benjamin; Ellermeier, Wolfgang


    An experiment was conducted to investigate how changes in spectral content influence loudness judgments. Six listeners were asked to discriminate sounds, which were of one second duration and changing in level every 0.1 s. In one condition the first half of the sound was low-pass filtered and the second half high-pass filtered. In a second condition the opposite order was used. In a third condition no filtering was applied and the frequency spectrum was simply white noise. The results were analyzed using a statistical method, which assigns relative weights to the ten temporal segments. In this way individual weighting curves were obtained for each condition. Listeners tended to emphasize the beginning of the sound in their loudness judgments. When the frequency spectrum changed in the middle of the sound, however, the weighting of the onset of the new spectral content was emphasized as well. This outcome is inconsistent with overall temporal integration, and argues for a cognitive mechanism allocating attention to changes in an event sequence.

  15. A System for Compressive Spectral and Polarization Imaging at Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Wavelengths (United States)


    UV -­‐ VIS -­‐IR   60mm   Apo   Macro  lens   Jenoptik-­‐Inc   $5,817.36   IR... VIS /NIR Compressive Spectral Imager”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP ’15), Quebec City, Canada, (September...imaging   system   will   lead   to   a   wide-­‐band   VIS -­‐NIR-­‐SWIR   compressive  spectral  and  polarimetric

  16. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances (United States)

    Pap, Judit


    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  17. The Effect of Epidermal Structures on Leaf Spectral Signatures of Ice Plants (Aizoaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hans-Jürgen Heim


    Full Text Available Epidermal structures (ES of leaves are known to affect the functional properties and spectral responses. Spectral studies focused mostly on the effect of hairs or wax layers only. We studied a wider range of different ES and their impact on spectral properties. Additionally, we identified spectral regions that allow distinguishing different ES. We used a field spectrometer to measure ex situ leaf spectral responses from 350 nm–2500 nm. A spectral library for 25 species of the succulent family Aizoaceae was assembled. Five functional types were defined based on ES: flat epidermal cell surface, convex to papillary epidermal cell surface, bladder cells, hairs and wax cover. We tested the separability of ES using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on the spectral data. Subsequently, variable importance (VIP was calculated to identify spectral regions relevant for discriminating our functional types (classes. Classification performance was high, with a kappa value of 0.9 indicating well-separable spectral classes. VIP calculations identified six spectral regions of increased importance for the classification. We confirmed and extended previous findings regarding the visible-near-infrared spectral region. Our experiments also confirmed that epidermal leaf traits can be classified due to clearly distinguishable spectral signatures across species and genera within the Aizoaceae.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy used to predict soybean seed germination and vigor (United States)

    The potential of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiating levels in germination, vigor, and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds was investigated. For the 243 spectral data collected using the Perten DA7200, stratified sampling was used to obtain three calibration sets consisti...

  19. Design of a compact athermalized infrared seeker (United States)

    Gao, Qing-jia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang


    In order to meet the application requirement of a certain long wavelength infrared (LWIR) seeker, a small volume, light weight and passively athermalized infrared (IR) objective is designed in this paper. The two-lens telephoto structure is adopted by merely using aluminum alloy as the housing material. By balancing the thermo-optical coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of materials, an athermalized IR seeker with effective focal length of 90 mm and F number of 1.2 is achieved. The whole optical length is 75 mm, and the weight is only 234 g. The objective can remain fine imaging quality under temperature range from -40 °C to 60 °C, which is beneficial to the lightweight design of IR seekers.

  20. Broadband X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Double-nucleus Luminous Infrared Galaxy Mrk 463 (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Oda, Saeko; Tanimoto, Atsushi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terashima, Yuichi; Ricci, Claudio


    We present a broadband (0.4–70 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) system Mrk 463 observed with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton, which contains double active galactic nuclei (AGNs; Mrk 463E and Mrk 463W) with a separation of ∼3.8 kpc. Detecting their transmitted hard X-ray >10 keV continua with NuSTAR, we confirm that Mrk 463E and Mrk 463W have AGNs with intrinsic luminosities of (1.6–2.2) × 1043 and (0.5–0.6) × 1043 erg s‑1 (2–10 keV) obscured by hydrogen column densities of 8 × 1023 and 3 × 1023 cm‑2, respectively. Both nuclei show strong reflection components from cold matter. The luminosity ratio between X-ray (2–10 keV) and [O IV] 25.89 μm of Mrk 463E is ∼5 times smaller than those of normal Seyfert galaxies, suggesting that the intrinsic SED is X-ray weak relative to the UV luminosity. In fact, the bolometric AGN luminosity of Mrk 463E estimated from L‧-band (3.8 μm), [O IV] 25.89 μm, and [Ne V] 14.32 μm lines indicate a large bolometric-to-X-ray luminosity ratio, κ 2–10 keV ≈ 110–410, and a high Eddington ratio, λ Edd ∼ 0.4–0.8. We suggest that the merger triggered a rapid growth of the black hole in Mrk 463E, which is not yet deeply “buried” by circumnuclear dust. By contrast, the L‧-band luminosity of Mrk 463W is unusually small relative to the X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the Eddington ratio is low (activity.

  1. Modified lead titanate thin films for pyroelectric infrared detectors on gold electrodes (United States)

    Ahmed, Moinuddin; Butler, Donald P.


    Pyroelectric infrared detectors provide the advantage of both a wide spectral response and dynamic range, which also has enabled systems to be developed with reduced size, weight and power consumption. This paper demonstrates the deposition of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and lead calcium titanate (PCT) thin films for uncooled pyroelectric detectors with the utilization of gold electrodes. The modified lead titanate thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on gold electrodes. The PZT and PCT thins films deposited and annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and 550 °C respectively demonstrated the best pyroelectric performance in this work. The thin films displayed a pyroelectric effect that increased with temperature. Poling of the thin films was carried out for a fixed time periods and fixed dc bias voltages at elevated temperature in order to increase the pyroelectric coefficient by establishing a spontaneous polarization of the thin films. Poling caused the pyroelectric current to increase one order of magnitude.

  2. On the energy scale involved in the metal to insulator transition of quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12: infrared spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations. (United States)

    Brière, B; Kalinko, A; Yamada, I; Roy, P; Brubach, J B; Sopracase, R; Zaghrioui, M; Phuoc, V Ta


    Optical measurements were carried out by infrared spectroscopy on AA'3B4O12 A-site ordered quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12 (microscopic sample) as function of temperature. At 240 K (=TMI), EuCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a very abrupt metal to insulator transition, a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition and an isostructural transformation with an abrupt large volume expansion. Above TMI, optical conductivity reveals a bad metal behavior and below TMI, an insulating phase with an optical gap of 125 meV is observed. As temperature is decreased, a large and abrupt spectral weight transfer toward an energy scale larger than 1 eV is detected. Concurrently, electronic structure calculations for both high and low temperature phases were compared to the optical conductivity results giving a precise pattern of the transition. Density of states and computed optical conductivity analysis identified Cu3dxy, Fe3d and O2p orbitals as principal actors of the spectral weight transfer. The present work constitutes a first step to shed light on EuCu3Fe4O12 electronic properties with optical measurements and ab-initio calculations.

  3. Infrared, Raman and laser fluorescence studies on large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Sugandhi


    In the present thesis, infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on large molecules, molecular assemblies and crystalline solids, as a function of temperature, pressure and added materials have been carried out. Spectral changes observed in our studies are interpreted in terms of intermolecular interaction, phase transition and conformational changes taking place in the molecules studied

  4. Exploring the Role of the Spatial Characteristics of Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance in Predicting Soil Organic Carbon Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Guo


    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon stock plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and the precision agriculture. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS can directly reflect the internal physical construction and chemical substances of soil. The partial least squares regression (PLSR is a classical and highly commonly used model in constructing soil spectral models and predicting soil properties. Nevertheless, using PLSR alone may not consider soil as characterized by strong spatial heterogeneity and dependence. However, considering the spatial characteristics of soil can offer valuable spatial information to guarantee the prediction accuracy of soil spectral models. Thus, this study aims to construct a rapid and accurate soil spectral model in predicting soil organic carbon density (SOCD with the aid of the spatial autocorrelation of soil spectral reflectance. A total of 231 topsoil samples (0–30 cm were collected from the Jianghan Plain, Wuhan, China. The spectral reflectance (350–2500 nm was used as auxiliary variable. A geographically-weighted regression (GWR model was used to evaluate the potential improvement of SOCD prediction when the spatial information of the spectral features was considered. Results showed that: (1 The principal components extracted from PLSR have a strong relationship with the regression coefficients at the average sampling distance (300 m based on the Moran’s I values. (2 The eigenvectors of the principal components exhibited strong relationships with the absorption spectral features, and the regression coefficients of GWR varied with the geographical locations. (3 GWR displayed a higher accuracy than that of PLSR in predicting the SOCD by VNIRS. This study aimed to help people realize the importance of the spatial characteristics of soil properties and their spectra. This work also introduced guidelines for the application of GWR in predicting soil properties by VNIRS.

  5. Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Yiming [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Xie, Qiong, E-mail: [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Zhao, Yuhui [School of Economics and Business, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, 066000 Qinhuangdao City (China); Li, Changwen [Food Research Institute of Tianjin Tasly Group, 300410 Tianjin (China)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications.

  6. Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yiming; Xie, Qiong; Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Changwen


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications

  7. An implicit spectral formula for generalized linear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, A.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena Gil, Jose Juan


    We generalize the semiclassical Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule to an exact, implicit spectral formula for linear, generalized Schroedinger equations admitting a discrete spectrum. Special cases include the position-dependent mass Schroedinger equation or the Schroedinger equation for weighted energy. Requiring knowledge of the potential and the solution associated with the lowest spectral value, our formula predicts the complete spectrum in its exact form. (author)

  8. Recursive estimation techniques for detection of small objects in infrared image data (United States)

    Zeidler, J. R.; Soni, T.; Ku, W. H.


    This paper describes a recursive detection scheme for point targets in infrared (IR) images. Estimation of the background noise is done using a weighted autocorrelation matrix update method and the detection statistic is calculated using a recursive technique. A weighting factor allows the algorithm to have finite memory and deal with nonstationary noise characteristics. The detection statistic is created by using a matched filter for colored noise, using the estimated noise autocorrelation matrix. The relationship between the weighting factor, the nonstationarity of the noise and the probability of detection is described. Some results on one- and two-dimensional infrared images are presented.

  9. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.


    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  10. Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.


    The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.

  11. [Applications of spectral analysis technique to monitoring grasshoppers]. (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Han, Jian-guo; Zhang, Lu-da


    Grasshopper monitoring is of great significance in protecting environment and reducing economic loss. However, how to predict grasshoppers accurately and effectively is a difficult problem for a long time. In the present paper, the importance of forecasting grasshoppers and its habitat is expounded, and the development in monitoring grasshopper populations and the common arithmetic of spectral analysis technique are illustrated. Meanwhile, the traditional methods are compared with the spectral technology. Remote sensing has been applied in monitoring the living, growing and breeding habitats of grasshopper population, and can be used to develop a forecast model combined with GIS. The NDVI values can be analyzed throughout the remote sensing data and be used in grasshopper forecasting. Hyper-spectra remote sensing technique which can be used to monitor grasshoppers more exactly has advantages in measuring the damage degree and classifying damage areas of grasshoppers, so it can be adopted to monitor the spatial distribution dynamic of rangeland grasshopper population. Differentialsmoothing can be used to reflect the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and leaf area index (LAI), and indicate the intensity of grasshopper damage. The technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been employed in judging grasshopper species, examining species occurrences and monitoring hatching places by measuring humidity and nutrient of soil, and can be used to investigate and observe grasshoppers in sample research. According to this paper, it is concluded that the spectral analysis technique could be used as a quick and exact tool in monitoring and forecasting the infestation of grasshoppers, and will become an important means in such kind of research for their advantages in determining spatial orientation, information extracting and processing. With the rapid development of spectral analysis methodology, the goal of sustainable monitoring

  12. Variable selection in near infrared spectroscopy for quantitative models of homologous analogs of cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chun Feng


    Full Text Available Two universal spectral ranges (4550–4100 cm-1 and 6190–5510 cm-1 for construction of quantitative models of homologous analogs of cephalosporins were proposed by evaluating the performance of five spectral ranges and their combinations, using three data sets of cephalosporins for injection, i.e., cefuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone sodium and cefoperazone sodium. Subsequently, the proposed ranges were validated by using eight calibration sets of other homologous analogs of cephalosporins for injection, namely cefmenoxime hydrochloride, ceftezole sodium, cefmetazole, cefoxitin sodium, cefotaxime sodium, cefradine, cephazolin sodium and ceftizoxime sodium. All the constructed quantitative models for the eight kinds of cephalosporins using these universal ranges could fulfill the requirements for quick quantification. After that, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS algorithm and infrared (IR–near infrared (NIR two-dimensional (2D correlation spectral analysis were used to determine the scientific basis of these two spectral ranges as the universal regions for the construction of quantitative models of cephalosporins. The CARS algorithm demonstrated that the ranges of 4550–4100 cm-1 and 6190–5510 cm-1 included some key wavenumbers which could be attributed to content changes of cephalosporins. The IR–NIR 2D spectral analysis showed that certain wavenumbers in these two regions have strong correlations to the structures of those cephalosporins that were easy to degrade.

  13. Level 0 to 1 processing of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleinert


    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer that is capable of operating on various high-altitude research aircraft. It measures the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared spectral region in limb and nadir geometry. GLORIA consists of a classical Michelson interferometer combined with an infrared camera. The infrared detector has a usable area of 128 × 128 pixels, measuring up to 16 384 interferograms simultaneously. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers impose a number of challenges with respect to instrument calibration and algorithm development. The optical setup with extremely high optical throughput requires the development of new methods and algorithms for spectral and radiometric calibration. Due to the vast amount of data there is a high demand for scientifically intelligent optimisation of the data processing. This paper outlines the characterisation and processing steps required for the generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra. Methods for performance optimisation of the processing algorithm are presented. The performance of the data processing and the quality of the calibrated spectra are demonstrated for measurements collected during the first deployments of GLORIA on aircraft.

  14. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM

    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The

  15. Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hongtao; Hu, Juejun; Li, Mo


    Besides being the foundational material for microelectronics, crystalline silicon has long been used for the production of infrared lenses and mirrors. More recently, silicon has become the key material to achieve large-scale integration of photonic devices for on-chip optical interconnect and signal processing. For optics, silicon has significant advantages: it offers a very high refractive index and is highly transparent in the spectral range from 1.2 to 8 μm. To fully exploit silicon’s superior performance in a remarkably broad range and to enable new optoelectronic functionalities, here we describe a general method to integrate silicon photonic devices on arbitrary foreign substrates. In particular, we apply the technique to integrate silicon microring resonators on mid-infrared compatible substrates for operation in the mid-infrared. These high-performance mid-infrared optical resonators are utilized to demonstrate, for the first time, on-chip cavity-enhanced mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic chemicals with a limit of detection of less than 0.1 ng.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Er, A.; Güzelçimen, F.; Başar, Gö.; Öztürk, I. K. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Istanbul University, TR-34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R. [Laser Centre, The University of Latvia, Rainis Boulevard 19, LV-1586 Riga (Latvia); Kröger, S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Wilhelminenhofstrasse 75A, D-12459 Berlin (Germany)


    In this study, a Fourier Transform spectrum of Niobium (Nb) is investigated in the near-infrared spectral range from 6000 to 12,000 cm{sup −1} (830–1660 nm). The Nb spectrum is produced using a hollow cathode discharge lamp in an argon atmosphere. Both Nb and Ar spectral lines are visible in the spectrum. A total of 110 spectral lines are assigned to the element Nb. Of these lines, 90 could be classified as transitions between known levels of atomic Nb. From these classified Nb i transitions, 27 have not been listed in literature previously. Additionally, 8 lines are classified for the first time.

  17. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towett, Erick Kibet


    Many of today's most pressing problems facing developing countries, such as food security, climate change, and environmental protection, require large area data on soil functional capacity. Conventional assessments (methods and measurements) of soil capacity to perform specific agricultural and environmental functions are time consuming and expensive. In addition, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of conventional soil analytical data are major challenges. New, rapid methods to quantify soil properties are needed, especially in developing countries where reliable data on soil properties is sparse, and to take advantage of new opportunities for digital soil mapping. Mid infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) has already shown promise as a rapid analytical tool and there are new opportunities to include other high-throughput techniques, such as total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. In this study TXRF and XRD were tested in conjunction with IR to provide powerful diagnostic capabilities for the direct prediction of key soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications especially for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) soils. Optimal combinations of spectral methods for use in pedotransfer functions for low cost, rapid prediction of chemical and physical properties of African soils as well as prediction models for soil organic carbon and soil fertility properties (soil extractable nutrients, pH and exchangeable acidity) were tested in this study. This study has developed and tested a method for the use of TXRF for direct quantification of total element concentrations in soils using a TXRF (S2 PICOFOX trademark) spectrometer and demonstrated that TXRF could be used as a rapid screening tool for total element concentrations in soils assuming sufficient calibration measures are followed. The results of the current study have shown that TXRF can provide efficient chemical fingerprinting which could be further

  18. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towett, Erick Kibet


    Many of today's most pressing problems facing developing countries, such as food security, climate change, and environmental protection, require large area data on soil functional capacity. Conventional assessments (methods and measurements) of soil capacity to perform specific agricultural and environmental functions are time consuming and expensive. In addition, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of conventional soil analytical data are major challenges. New, rapid methods to quantify soil properties are needed, especially in developing countries where reliable data on soil properties is sparse, and to take advantage of new opportunities for digital soil mapping. Mid infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) has already shown promise as a rapid analytical tool and there are new opportunities to include other high-throughput techniques, such as total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. In this study TXRF and XRD were tested in conjunction with IR to provide powerful diagnostic capabilities for the direct prediction of key soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications especially for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) soils. Optimal combinations of spectral methods for use in pedotransfer functions for low cost, rapid prediction of chemical and physical properties of African soils as well as prediction models for soil organic carbon and soil fertility properties (soil extractable nutrients, pH and exchangeable acidity) were tested in this study. This study has developed and tested a method for the use of TXRF for direct quantification of total element concentrations in soils using a TXRF (S2 PICOFOX trademark) spectrometer and demonstrated that TXRF could be used as a rapid screening tool for total element concentrations in soils assuming sufficient calibration measures are followed. The results of the current study have shown that TXRF can provide efficient chemical fingerprinting which could be further

  19. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)


    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  20. Towards strong light-matter coupling at the single-resonator level with sub-wavelength mid-infrared nano-antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malerba, M.; De Angelis, F., E-mail: [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Ongarello, T.; Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Colombelli, R., E-mail: [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N Orsay), CNRS UMR9001, Univ. Paris Sud, Univ. Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)


    We report a crucial step towards single-object cavity electrodynamics in the mid-infrared spectral range using resonators that borrow functionalities from antennas. Room-temperature strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated in the mid-infrared between an intersubband transition and an extremely reduced number of sub-wavelength resonators. By exploiting 3D plasmonic nano-antennas featuring an out-of-plane geometry, we observed strong light-matter coupling in a very low number of resonators: only 16, more than 100 times better than what reported to date in this spectral range. The modal volume addressed by each nano-antenna is sub-wavelength-sized and it encompasses only ≈4400 electrons.

  1. [Research on Spectral Polarization Imaging System Based on Static Modulation]. (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Li, Huan; Lin, Xu-ling; Wang, Zheng


    The main disadvantages of traditional spectral polarization imaging system are: complex structure, with moving parts, low throughput. A novel method of spectral polarization imaging system is discussed, which is based on static polarization intensity modulation combined with Savart polariscope interference imaging. The imaging system can obtain real-time information of spectral and four Stokes polarization messages. Compared with the conventional methods, the advantages of the imaging system are compactness, low mass and no moving parts, no electrical control, no slit and big throughput. The system structure and the basic theory are introduced. The experimental system is established in the laboratory. The experimental system consists of reimaging optics, polarization intensity module, interference imaging module, and CCD data collecting and processing module. The spectral range is visible and near-infrared (480-950 nm). The white board and the plane toy are imaged by using the experimental system. The ability of obtaining spectral polarization imaging information is verified. The calibration system of static polarization modulation is set up. The statistical error of polarization degree detection is less than 5%. The validity and feasibility of the basic principle is proved by the experimental result. The spectral polarization data captured by the system can be applied to object identification, object classification and remote sensing detection.

  2. Theory of infrared microspectroscopy for intact fibers. (United States)

    Davis, Brynmor J; Carney, P Scott; Bhargava, Rohit


    Infrared microspectroscopy is widely used for the chemical analysis of small samples. In particular, spectral properties of small cylindrical samples are important in forensic analysis, understanding relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties in fibers or fiber composites, and development of cosmetics and drugs for hair. The diameters of the constituent cylinders are typically of the order of the central wavelength of light used to probe the sample. Hence, structure and material spectral response are coupled and recorded spectra are usually distorted to the extent of becoming useless for molecular identification. In this paper, we apply rigorous optical theory to predict the spectral distortions observed in IR microspectroscopic data of fibers. The theory is used, first, to compute the changes that are observed for cylinders of various dimensions under different instrument configurations when compared to the bulk spectrum from the same material. We provide a method to recover intrinsic material spectral response from fibers by correcting for distortion introduced by the cylindrical structure. The theory reported here should enable the routine use of IR microspectroscopy and imaging for the molecular analysis of cylindrical domains in complex materials.

  3. High-Resolution Spectral Measurement of High Temperature CO2 and H2O. (United States)


    a major constituent which critically controls the infrared radiative transfer in the telluric atmosphere. Their absorption bands are distributed over... movement to prevent cracking. Also, the continuous Q = s/) spectrum spectral coverage filament ceramic fiber, brand AB-312 manufactured by resolution the 3M

  4. Spectral intensities and bonding parameters for some praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with benzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, P C; Ojha, C K; Mittal, S; Joshi, G K


    The electronic spectral intensity parameters (Judd-Ofelt; Tsub(lambda)) calculated from absorption spectral data for the complexes of praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) nitrates with benzimidazole and 2-methyl-, 2-ethyl- and 2-n-propyl-benzimidazoles are reported. The conductance of these derivatives in dimethylformamide suggests 1:1 electrolytic nature. The infrared spectral data indicate the presence of Csub(2v) as well Dsub(2h)-nitrate ions in the complexes. The correlation of the intensity of hypersensitive transitions with bonding (nephelauxetic ratio and degree of covalency) parameters are also reported. (author). 13 refs., 2 tables.

  5. Benefit of infrared images in visibility appreciation for fog conditions (United States)

    Boucher, V.; Dumoulin, J.; Marchetti, M.


    Fog situations induce an increase in both accident probability and severity. They constitue a significant part in accident rate. There is very few means to forecast fog, nor to appreciate its density, and its associated visibility decrease. An approach consists in developing on-board tools to qualify and to quantify the fog, and to improve the visibility within each vehicle. Infrared technology is now more common, so solutions based on this specific spectral band could be considered. LW infrared has demonstrated its value in the case of passenger cars. Its use could be discussed too, in particular in the case of obstacles detection. The study presented here deals mainly with the extraction of a visbility distance from LW thermal images in the presence of fog. A French facility in Clermont-Ferrand allows the generation of fog. It can be generated in day or night conditions. The facility is 30 m long, for a 220 m3 volume. The fog is generated spraying water micro droplets, which size is controlled and measured. Experimental conditions could be adapted through water pressure, water nature as an example. Visibility is appreciated with a device measuring light transmission. In the case of infrared, visibility is obtained through the definition of contrast of an object on a given background. On such a basis, infrared spectral band provides a factor 2 benefit on a conventional roadsign, and of a factor 4 in the case of a heated one, with meteorological visibilty of 20 m. Some theoritical aspects will be described, along with a description of the whole experimental setup.

  6. Remote Sensing of Rock Type in the Visible and Near-Infrared, (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks have been measured and evaluated in terms of remote sensing applications. The authors...difficult or impossible to use in a generalized remote sensing effort in which the composition of all rocks is to be mapped. Instead, this spectral

  7. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau


    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Johnson, B. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Elbaz, D., E-mail: [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.

  9. The use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions. (United States)

    Paul, Nigel D; Jacobson, Rob J; Taylor, Anna; Wargent, Jason J; Moore, Jason P


    Plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. This can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. We have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of UV compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of UV or (c) increased the ratio of red (R) : far-red (FR) radiation. Both the UV-transparent and R : FR increasing films reduced leaf area and biomass, offering potential alternatives to chemical growth regulators. The UV-opaque film increased growth, but while this may be useful in some crops, there were trade-offs with elements of quality, such as pigmentation and taste. UV manipulation may also influence disease control. Increasing UV inhibited not only the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea but also the disease biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Unlike B. cinerea, T. harzianum was highly sensitive to UV-A radiation. These fungal responses and those for plant growth in the growth room and the field under different plastics are analyzed in terms of alternative biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF). The role of BSWF in assessing general patterns of response to UV modification in horticulture is also discussed.

  10. Meeting the Cool Neighbors. XII. An Optically Anchored Analysis of the Near-infrared Spectra of L Dwarfs (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle L.; Núñez, Alejandro; Burgasser, Adam J.; Abrahams, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Reid, I. Neill; Looper, Dagny


    Discrepancies between competing optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectral typing systems for L dwarfs have motivated us to search for a classification scheme that ties the optical and NIR schemes together, and addresses complexities in the spectral morphology. We use new and extant optical and NIR spectra to compile a sample of 171 L dwarfs, including 27 low-gravity β and γ objects, with spectral coverage from 0.6–2.4 μm. We present 155 new low-resolution NIR spectra and 19 new optical spectra. We utilize a method for analyzing NIR spectra that partially removes the broad-band spectral slope and reveals similarities in the absorption features between objects of the same optical spectral type. Using the optical spectra as an anchor, we generate near-infrared spectral average templates for L0–L8, L0–L4γ, and L0–L1β type dwarfs. These templates reveal that NIR spectral morphologies are correlated with the optical types. They also show the range of spectral morphologies spanned by each spectral type. We compare low-gravity and field-gravity templates to provide recommendations on the minimum required observations for credibly classifying low-gravity spectra using low-resolution NIR data. We use the templates to evaluate the existing NIR spectral standards and propose new ones where appropriate. Finally, we build on the work of Kirkpatrick et al. to provide a spectral typing method that is tied to the optical and can be used when only H or K band data are available. The methods we present here provide resolutions to several long-standing issues with classifying L dwarf spectra and could also be the foundation for a spectral classification scheme for cloudy exoplanets.

  11. Near-infrared (JHK) spectroscopy of young stellar and substellar objects in orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, P.; Albert, L.; Doyon, R.; Artigau, E.


    We performed low-resolution (R ∼ 40) near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) multi-object spectroscopy of 240 isolated point sources having apparent H-band magnitudes between 9 and 18 in the central 5' × 6' of the Orion Trapezium cluster. The observations were performed over four nights at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope using the visiting instrument SIMON, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph. We present the spectra of 104 objects with accurately derived spectral types including 7 new objects having masses below the hydrogen-burning limit, and 6 objects with masses below the deuterium-burning limit. The spectral classification is performed by fitting previously classified spectral templates of dwarf stars (K4-M3) and optically classified young stellar and substellar objects (M4-L0), to the entire 0.9-2.4 μm spectral energy distribution in order to assign a spectral type and visual extinction for each object. Of the 104 objects studied, 44 have been previously classified spectroscopically using various techniques. We perform a rigorous comparison between the previous classifications and our own and find them to be in good agreement. Using the dereddened H-band magnitudes, the classified objects are used to create an Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the cluster. We find that the previous age estimates of ∼1 Myr to be consistent with our results. Consistent with previous studies, numerous objects are observed to have luminosities several magnitudes above the 1 Myr isochrone. Numerous objects exhibiting emission features in the J band are also reported

  12. Multi-channel near infrared spectroradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, G.B.; Biddles, B.J.; D'silva, R.A.; Picot, A.J.; Ackerman, M.J.


    A multichannel spectroradiometer has been developed by Sira Ltd. for the study of rapidly varying events in the near infrared. The instrument is being used in the examination of gun flashes, rocket motor exhaust efflux analysis and ordnance or pyrotechnic flash studies. The spectral range of about 1.4 to 5.2 microns is covered in two bands with the first order dispersion from a pair of ruled blazed gratings being imaged onto a pair of detector arrays. Data may be logged at a rate of 1000 complete spectra per second

  13. Spectral Index Properties of millijansky Radio Sources in ATLAS (United States)

    Randall, Kate; Hopkins, A. M.; Norris, R. P.; Zinn, P.; Middelberg, E.; Mao, M. Y.; Sharp, R. G.


    At the faintest radio flux densities (S1.4GHz 10 mJy) is well studied and is predominantly comprised of AGN. At fainter flux densities, particularly into the microJansky regime, star-forming galaxies begin to dominate the radio source population. Understanding these faint radio source populations is essential for understanding galaxy evolution, and the link between AGN and star formation. Conflicting results have recently arisen regarding whether there is a flattening of the average spectral index between a low radio frequency (325 or 610 MHz) and 1.4 GHz at these faint flux densities. To explore this issue, we have investigated the spectral index properties of a new catalogue of 843 MHz radio sources in the ELAIS-S1 (the European Large Area ISO Survey - South 1 Region) field. Our results support previous work showing a tendency towards flatter radio spectra at fainter flux densities. This catalogue is cross-matched to the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), the widest deep radio survey to date at 1.4 GHz, with complementary 2.3 GHz, optical and infrared Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic data. The variation of spectral index properties have been explored as a function of redshift, luminosity and flux density. [These new measurements have been used to identify a population of faint Compact Steep Spectrum sources, thought to be one of the earliest stages of the AGN life-cycle. Exploring this population will aid us in understanding the evolution of AGN as a whole.

  14. New indicator for optimal preprocessing and wavelength selection of near-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E. T. S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Witte, D. T.; Smilde, A. K.


    Preprocessing of near-infrared spectra to remove unwanted, i.e., non-related spectral variation and selection of informative wavelengths is considered to be a crucial step prior to the construction of a quantitative calibration model. The standard methodology when comparing various preprocessing

  15. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.


    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  16. A new network of faint calibration stars from the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) on the IRTS (United States)

    Freund, Minoru M.; Matsuura, Mikako; Murakami, Hiroshi; Cohen, Martin; Noda, Manabu; Matsuura, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio


    The point source extraction and calibration of the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) onboard the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is described. About 7 percent of the sky was observed during a one month mission in the range of 1.4 micrometers to 4 micrometers. The accuracy of the spectral shape and absolute values of calibration stars provided by the NIRS/IRTS were validated.

  17. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Gaustad, Krista L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Long, Charles N.; Delamere, Jennifer


    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  18. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility (United States)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Gaustad, K. L.; Mlawer, E. J.; Long, C. N.; Delamere, J.


    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  19. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delamere


    Full Text Available We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs, four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  20. A Bayesian approach to spectral quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, A; Kaipio, J P; Tarvainen, T; Cox, B T; Arridge, S R


    A Bayesian approach to the optical reconstruction problem associated with spectral quantitative photoacoustic tomography is presented. The approach is derived for commonly used spectral tissue models of optical absorption and scattering: the absorption is described as a weighted sum of absorption spectra of known chromophores (spatially dependent chromophore concentrations), while the scattering is described using Mie scattering theory, with the proportionality constant and spectral power law parameter both spatially-dependent. It is validated using two-dimensional test problems composed of three biologically relevant chromophores: fat, oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood. Using this approach it is possible to estimate the Grüneisen parameter, the absolute chromophore concentrations, and the Mie scattering parameters associated with spectral photoacoustic tomography problems. In addition, the direct estimation of the spectral parameters is compared to estimates obtained by fitting the spectral parameters to estimates of absorption, scattering and Grüneisen parameter at the investigated wavelengths. It is shown with numerical examples that the direct estimation results in better accuracy of the estimated parameters. (papers)

  1. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes. (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua


    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral

  2. Quasiparticles and phonon satellites in spectral functions of semiconductors and insulators: Cumulants applied to the full first-principles theory and the Fröhlich polaron (United States)

    Nery, Jean Paul; Allen, Philip B.; Antonius, Gabriel; Reining, Lucia; Miglio, Anna; Gonze, Xavier


    The electron-phonon interaction causes thermal and zero-point motion shifts of electron quasiparticle (QP) energies ɛk(T ) . Other consequences of interactions, visible in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments, are broadening of QP peaks and appearance of sidebands, contained in the electron spectral function A (k ,ω ) =-ℑ m GR(k ,ω ) /π , where GR is the retarded Green's function. Electronic structure codes (e.g., using density-functional theory) are now available that compute the shifts and start to address broadening and sidebands. Here we consider MgO and LiF, and determine their nonadiabatic Migdal self-energy. The spectral function obtained from the Dyson equation makes errors in the weight and energy of the QP peak and the position and weight of the phonon-induced sidebands. Only one phonon satellite appears, with an unphysically large energy difference (larger than the highest phonon energy) with respect to the QP peak. By contrast, the spectral function from a cumulant treatment of the same self-energy is physically better, giving a quite accurate QP energy and several satellites approximately spaced by the LO phonon energy. In particular, the positions of the QP peak and first satellite agree closely with those found for the Fröhlich Hamiltonian by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6317 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.6317] using diagrammatic Monte Carlo. We provide a detailed comparison between the first-principles MgO and LiF results and those of the Fröhlich Hamiltonian. Such an analysis applies widely to materials with infrared(IR)-active phonons.

  3. Insights on diagnosis of oral cavity pathologies by infrared spectroscopy: A review (United States)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Balercia, Paolo; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Sabbatini, Simona; Rubini, Corrado; Tosi, Giorgio


    Fourier-Transform Infrared microspectroscopy, a largely used spectroscopic technique in basic and industrial researches, offers the possibility to analyze the vibrational features of molecular groups within a variety of environments. In the bioclinical field, and, in particular, in the study of cells, tissues and biofluids, it could be considered a supporting objective technique able to characterize the biochemical processes involved in relevant pathologies, such as tumoral diseases, highlighting specific spectral markers associable with the principal biocomponents (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates). In this article, we review the applications of infrared spectroscopy to the study of tumoral diseases of oral cavity compartments with the aim to improve understanding of biological processes involved during the onset of these lesions and to afford to an early diagnosis. Spectral studies on mouth, salivary glands and oral cystic lesions, objectively discriminate normal from dysplastic and cancer states characterizing also the grading.

  4. Feasibility study of a novel miniaturized spectral imaging system architecture in UAV surveillance (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong; Cui, Hushan; Huang, Chengjun


    The spectral imaging technology is able to analysis the spectral and spatial geometric character of the target at the same time. To break through the limitation brought by the size, weight and cost of the traditional spectral imaging instrument, a miniaturized novel spectral imaging based on CMOS processing has been introduced in the market. This technology has enabled the possibility of applying spectral imaging in the UAV platform. In this paper, the relevant technology and the related possible applications have been presented to implement a quick, flexible and more detailed remote sensing system.

  5. Radiative characteristics of a thin solid fuel at discrete levels of pyrolysis: Angular, spectral, and thermal dependencies (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard Dale

    Numerical models of solid fuel combustion rely on accurate radiative property values to properly account for radiative heat transfer to and from the surface. The spectral properties can change significantly over the temperature range from ambient to burnout temperature. The variations of these properties are due to mass loss (as the sample pyrolyzes), chemical changes, and surface finish changes. In addition, band-integrated properties can vary due to the shift in the peak of the Planck curve as the temperature increases, which results in differing weightings of the spectral values. These effects were quantified for a thin cellulosic fuel commonly used in microgravity combustion studies (KimWipesRTM). Pyrolytic effects were simulated by heat-treating the samples in a constant temperature oven for varying times. Spectral data was acquired using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, along with an integrating sphere. Data was acquired at different incidence angles by mounting the samples at different angles inside the sphere. Comparisons of samples of similar area density created using different heat-treatment regimens showed that thermal history of the samples was irrelevant in virtually all spectral regions, with overall results correlating well with changes in area density. Spectral, angular, and thermal dependencies were determined for a representative data set, showing that the spectral absorptance decreases as the temperature increases, and decreases as the incidence angle varies from normal. Changes in absorptance are primarily offset by corresponding changes in transmittances, with reflectance values shown to be low over the tested spectral region of 2.50 mum to 24.93 mum. Band-integrated values were calculated as a function of temperature for the entire tested spectral region, as well as limited bands relevant for thermal imaging applications. This data was used to demonstrate the significant error that is likely if incorrect emittance values are

  6. Far infrared photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leotin, J.; Meny, C.


    This paper presents the development of far infrared photoconductors for the focal plane of a spaceborne instrument named SAFIRE. SAFIRE (Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission) belongs to the EOS program (Earth Observing System) and is now in the definition phase. It is a joint effort by scientists from the United States, Great Britain, Italy and France for a new generation of atmosphere sensor. The overall goal of the SAFIRE experiment is to improve the understanding of the ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere by conducting global scale measurements of the important chemical, radiative and dynamical processes which influence its changes. This will be accomplished by the measurement of the far infrared thermal limb emission in seven spectral channels covering the range 80 to 400 cm -1 with a maximum resolution of 0.004 cm -1 . For example key gases like OH, O, HO 2 , N 2 O 5 will be probed for the first time. Achievement of the required detector sensitivity in the far-infrared imposes the choice of photoconductive detectors operating at liquid helium temperatures. Germanium doped with gallium is selected for six channels whereas germanium doped with beryllium is suitable for the N 2 O 5 channel. Both photoconductors Ge:Ga and Ge:Be benefit from a well established material technology. A better wavelength coverage of channel 1 is achieved by applying a small uniaxial stress of the order of 0.1 GPa on the Ge:Ga photoconductors. The channel 6B wavelength coverage could be improved by using zinc-doped-germanium (Ge:Zn) or, much better, by using a Blocked Impurity band silicon detector doped with antimony (BIB Si:Sb). The later is developed as an optional basis

  7. Spectral downshifting in MBO{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} (M=Y, La) phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanwar, S.K.; Sawala, N.S. [Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Department of Physics, Amravati, MH (India)


    The spectral downshifting (DS) from ultra-violet (UV)/visible (VIS) light to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in Nd{sup 3+} doped YBO{sub 3} and LaBO{sub 3} phosphors is reported. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) properties along with time-decay curves were studied which confirmed the spectral DS from VIS to NIR radiation. This can be employed to overcome the spectral mismatch of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell with solar spectrum. The prepared Nd{sup 3+} doped as prepared phosphors provide NIR emission (1052 nm) at excitation of 586 nm where response of c-Si solar cell was optimum. Thus spectral modification by mentioned phosphor can be utilized to improve solar cells performance. Hence these phosphors have potential application for photovoltaic (PV) technology. (orig.)

  8. Bilayered near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles based on low molecular weight PEI for tumor-targeted in vivo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ke [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology (China); Xu, Liang [The University of Kansas, Department of Molecular Biosciences (United States); Wu, Daocheng, E-mail: [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology (China)


    To improve the tumor fluorescent imaging results in vivo, bilayered nanoparticles encapsulating a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindotri-carbocyanine iodide (DiR) were prepared using low molecular weight stearic acid-grafted polyethyleneimine and hyaluronic acid (DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles), which were investigated as a novel NIR fluorescent nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted optical imaging. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared (IR) spectra, UV-visual absorption, and fluorescent emission spectra. Their cytotoxicity in vitro and hepatotoxicity in vivo were tested by MTT assay and histological study, respectively. In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging of the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was performed using a Carestream imaging system. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles were sphere shaped with a diameter of approximately 50 nm according to the TEM images. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles had a low cytotoxicity in vitro according to the MTT assay and low hepatotoxicity in vivo as determined in histological studies. The fluorescent emission of DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was stable in pH values of 5–9 in solution, with only slight blue-shifts of the emission maxima at the basic pH range. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles exhibited a substantial tumor-targeting ability in the optical imaging with the use of tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrated that the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticle is an excellent biocompatible nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted NIR fluorescence imaging with a potential for clinical applications.

  9. Bilayered near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles based on low molecular weight PEI for tumor-targeted in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ke; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng


    To improve the tumor fluorescent imaging results in vivo, bilayered nanoparticles encapsulating a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindotri-carbocyanine iodide (DiR) were prepared using low molecular weight stearic acid-grafted polyethyleneimine and hyaluronic acid (DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles), which were investigated as a novel NIR fluorescent nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted optical imaging. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared (IR) spectra, UV-visual absorption, and fluorescent emission spectra. Their cytotoxicity in vitro and hepatotoxicity in vivo were tested by MTT assay and histological study, respectively. In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging of the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was performed using a Carestream imaging system. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles were sphere shaped with a diameter of approximately 50 nm according to the TEM images. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles had a low cytotoxicity in vitro according to the MTT assay and low hepatotoxicity in vivo as determined in histological studies. The fluorescent emission of DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was stable in pH values of 5–9 in solution, with only slight blue-shifts of the emission maxima at the basic pH range. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles exhibited a substantial tumor-targeting ability in the optical imaging with the use of tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrated that the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticle is an excellent biocompatible nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted NIR fluorescence imaging with a potential for clinical applications

  10. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro


    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)


    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  12. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; hide


    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.

  13. Iron variation within a granitic pluton as determined by near-infrared reflectance (United States)

    Baird, A. K.


    One-hundred fifty-one previously chemically analyzed samples of tonalite from the Lakeview Mountains pluton, southern California batholith, were analyzed for their iron content using near-infrared spectrophotometry. Compared to the earlier analyses of the same sample set by X-ray fluorescence spectrography, the infrared data have higher analytical variance but clearly define patterns of compositional zonation in the pluton which are closely similar to those patterns obtained from X-ray data; petrogenetic interpretations for the pluton would be the same from either data set. Infrared spectral data can be obtained directly in the field with relatively simple instruments and field measurements can be made to average local heterogeneities that often mask significant plutonic variations.

  14. Infrared Astrophysics in the SOFIA Era - An Overview (United States)

    Yorke, Harold W.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) provides the international astronomical community access to a broad range of instrumentation that covers wavelengths spanning the near to far infrared. The high spectral resolution of many of these instruments in several wavelength bands is unmatched by any existing or near future planned facility. The far infrared polarization capabilities of one of its instruments, HAWC+, is also unique. Moreover, SOFIA allows for additional instrument augmentations, as new state-of-the-art photometric, spectrometric, and polarimetric capabilities have been added and are being further improved. The fact that SOFIA provides ample mass, power, computing capabilities as well as 4K cooling eases the constraints on future instrument design, technical readiness, and the instrument build to an extent not possible for space-borne missions. We will review SOFIA's current and future planned capabilities and highlight specific science areas for which the stratospheric observatory will be able to significantly advance Origins science topics.

  15. The far-infrared spectrum of the OH radical (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Schubert, J. E.; Evenson, K. M.; Radford, H. E.


    It is thought likely that the study of spectral lines in the far-infrared might provide at least as much information about the physics and chemistry of the interstellar environment as radioastronomy. However, by comparison with the microwave region, the far-infrared is largely unexplored. There is a pressing need for good laboratory data to aid searches and assignments of spectra from the interstellar clouds and nebulae. Brown et al. (1981) have conducted a study of the laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectrum of the OH radical in its ground state at far-infrared wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with the computation of the frequencies of individual hyperfine transitions involving all rotational levels up to J = 4 1/2. The results of the calculation are presented in a table. The results are summarized in a diagram which shows the low-lying energy levels of OH. The frequencies of transitions between levels studied directly in the LMR spectrum are quite reliable.

  16. One-Year Observations of Jupiter by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper on Juno (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S.; Becker, H. N.; Bagenal, F.; Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Valek, P. W.


    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) [1] on board the Juno [2,3] spacecraft, is equipped with an infrared camera and a spectrometer working in the spectral range 2-5 μm. JIRAM was built to study the infrared aurora of Jupiter as well as to map the planet's atmosphere in the 5 µm spectral region. The spectroscopic observations are used for studying clouds and measuring the abundance of some chemical species that have importance in the atmosphere's chemistry, microphysics and dynamics like water, ammonia and phosphine. During 2017 the instrument will operate during all 7 of Juno's Jupiter flybys. JIRAM has performed several observations of the polar regions of the planet addressing the aurora and the atmosphere. Unprecedented views of the aurora and the polar atmospheric structures have been obtained. We present a survey of the most significant observations that the instrument has performed during the current year. [1] Adriani A. et al., JIRAM, the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper. Space Sci. Rew., DOI 10.1007/s11214-014-0094-y, 2014. [2] Bolton S.J. et al., Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft. Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2108, 2017. [3] Connerney J. E.P. et al., Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits. Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5928, 2017.

  17. Magnetorefractive effect in manganites with a colossal magnetoresistance in the visible spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Granovsky, A. B.; Gan’shina, E. A.; Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Herranz, G.; Caicedo, J. M.; Yurasov, A. N.; Bessonov, V. D.; Kaul’, A. R.; Gorbenko, O. Yu.; Korsakov, I. E.


    The magnetotransmission, magnetoreflection, and magnetoresistance of the La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 and La 0.9 Ag 0.1 MnO 3 epitaxial films have been investigated. It has been found that the films exhibit a significant magnetorefractive effect in the case of reflection and transmission of light in the fundamental absorption region both in the vicinity of the Curie temperature and at low temperatures. It has been shown that the magnetorefractive effect in the infrared spectral region of the manganites is determined by a high-frequency response to magnetoresistance, whereas the magnetorefractive effect in the visible spectral region of these materials is associated with a change in the electronic structure in response to a magnetic field, which, in turn, leads to a change in the electron density of states, the probability of interband optical transitions, and the shift of light absorption bands. The obtained values of the magnetotransmittance and magnetoreflectance in the visible spectral region are less than those observed in the infrared region of the spectrum, but they are several times greater than the linear magneto-optical effects. As a result, the magnetorefractive effect, which is a nongyrotropic phenomenon, makes it possible to avoid the use of light analyzers and polarizers in optical circuits.

  18. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wegrzecka, I


    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  19. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wegrzecki, Maciej


    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  20. Spectral Interpolation on 3 x 3 Stencils for Prediction and Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J


    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show through several applications that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  1. Using spectral imaging for the analysis of abnormalities for colorectal cancer: When is it helpful? (United States)

    Awan, Ruqayya; Al-Maadeed, Somaya; Al-Saady, Rafif


    The spectral imaging technique has been shown to provide more discriminative information than the RGB images and has been proposed for a range of problems. There are many studies demonstrating its potential for the analysis of histopathology images for abnormality detection but there have been discrepancies among previous studies as well. Many multispectral based methods have been proposed for histopathology images but the significance of the use of whole multispectral cube versus a subset of bands or a single band is still arguable. We performed comprehensive analysis using individual bands and different subsets of bands to determine the effectiveness of spectral information for determining the anomaly in colorectal images. Our multispectral colorectal dataset consists of four classes, each represented by infra-red spectrum bands in addition to the visual spectrum bands. We performed our analysis of spectral imaging by stratifying the abnormalities using both spatial and spectral information. For our experiments, we used a combination of texture descriptors with an ensemble classification approach that performed best on our dataset. We applied our method to another dataset and got comparable results with those obtained using the state-of-the-art method and convolutional neural network based method. Moreover, we explored the relationship of the number of bands with the problem complexity and found that higher number of bands is required for a complex task to achieve improved performance. Our results demonstrate a synergy between infra-red and visual spectrum by improving the classification accuracy (by 6%) on incorporating the infra-red representation. We also highlight the importance of how the dataset should be divided into training and testing set for evaluating the histopathology image-based approaches, which has not been considered in previous studies on multispectral histopathology images.

  2. The origin of infrared emission from the nucleus of NGC 1068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.W.; Stein, W.A.


    Recent infrared observational results for the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 are reviewed and analyzed in terms consistent with information available at other wavelengths. It is concluded that the infrared and optical data imply that approximately-greater-than85 percent of the infrared emission at 10μ is radiation from dust grains in the nucleus. Observed reddening of spectral lines implies geometrical optical depths at visual wavelengths approx.7--15 if the nuclear dust cloud is approximately spherically symmetric. The dust grains emitting the infrared radiation could be silicates with a 10-μ optical depth near unity, but this identification is not uniquely established. The grains are heated radiatively by an underlying source or sources of radiation also responsible for ionizing the emission-line-producing gas. The underlying source could be nonthermal, or it could be a hot plasma. Physical constraints on each of these models are derived

  3. Spectral design of temperature-invariant narrow bandpass filters for the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Hawkins, Gary J.


    The ability of narrow bandpass filters to discriminatewavelengths between closely-separated gas absorption lines is crucial inmany areas of infrared spectroscopy. As improvements to the sensitivity ofinfrared detectors enables operation in uncontrolled high-temperature environments, this imposes ...... presents the results of an investigation into the interdependence between multilayer bandpass designand optical materials together with a review on invariance at elevated temperatures....

  4. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter. (United States)

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto


    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.

  5. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichegkuev, M S


    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator K:l α p (Z,X)→l α p (Z......athscrKx)(n)=Bx(n−1),  n∈Z,  x∈l α p (Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that K acts in the weighted space l α p (Z,X), 1≤p≤∞, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum σ(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces are given. Bibliography: 23 titles

  6. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G


    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p EKF method.

  7. Mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) with Nf=8 using the spectral density method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suorsa, Joni M.; Leino, Viljami; Rantaharju, Jarno


    SU(2) with Nf=8 is believed to have an infrared conformal fixed point. We use the spectral density method to evaluate the coupling constant dependence of the mass anomalous dimension for massless HEX smeared, clover improved Wilson fermions with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions....

  8. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  9. Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies


    Hochstrasser, Robin M.


    This Perspective on multidimensional spectroscopy in the optical and infrared spectral regions focuses on the principles and the scientific and technical challenges facing these new fields. The methods hold great promise for advances in the visualization of time-dependent structural changes in complex systems ranging from liquids to biological assemblies, new materials, and fundamental physical processes. The papers in this special feature on multidimensional spectroscopy in chemistry, physic...

  10. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder


    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  11. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan


    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  12. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian


    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.


    Golshahi, Azadeh; Bornfeld, Norbert; Weinitz, Silke; Kellner, Ulrich


    To investigate the advantage of near-infrared autofluorescence (787 nm) for the detection of melanocytic lesions in a patient with bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation in association with esophageal carcinoma complicated by most likely unilateral choroidal metastasis. In this retrospective case report, a 55-year-old woman referred for the evaluation of sudden visual loss underwent normal ophthalmological evaluation and, in addition, was examined with near-infrared reflectance, near-infrared autofluorescence, fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph II [HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering]), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis OCT; Heidelberg Engineering), and multifocal electroretinography (RetiScan; Roland Consult). The patient had been diagnosed with esophageal carcinoma 3 months before the onset of visual symptoms. The visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral patchy melanocytic proliferation was detected on ophthalmoscopy. The extent of lesions was best detected with near-infrared reflectance and near-infrared autofluorescence, whereas fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography did not reveal alterations of the outer retina or retinal pigment epithelium in this early stage of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. The right eye showed in addition to the findings on the left eye choroidal folds in the fovea and an elevated lesion inferotemporal of the fovea suspicious of a choroidal metastasis. In the B-scan ultrasonography, a homogenous lesion was seen. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated a mild accumulation of subretinal fluid adjacent to and over the choroidal metastasis. Transretinal biopsy of this elevated lesion revealed a low differentiated carcinoma of squamous epithelium, compatible with choroidal metastasis of the esophageal carcinoma. The choroidal metastasis increased within 3 months after the first visit. The

  14. Remote sensing of species diversity using Landsat 8 spectral variables (United States)

    Madonsela, Sabelo; Cho, Moses Azong; Ramoelo, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo


    The application of remote sensing in biodiversity estimation has largely relied on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The NDVI exploits spectral information from red and near infrared bands of Landsat images and it does not consider canopy background conditions hence it is affected by soil brightness which lowers its sensitivity to vegetation. As such NDVI may be insufficient in explaining tree species diversity. Meanwhile, the Landsat program also collects essential spectral information in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region which is related to plant properties. The study was intended to: (i) explore the utility of spectral information across Landsat-8 spectrum using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and estimate alpha diversity (α-diversity) in the savannah woodland in southern Africa, and (ii) define the species diversity index (Shannon (H‧), Simpson (D2) and species richness (S) - defined as number of species in a community) that best relates to spectral variability on the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager dataset. We designed 90 m × 90 m field plots (n = 71) and identified all trees with a diameter at breast height (DbH) above 10 cm. H‧, D2 and S were used to quantify tree species diversity within each plot and the corresponding spectral information on all Landsat-8 bands were extracted from each field plot. A stepwise linear regression was applied to determine the relationship between species diversity indices (H‧, D2 and S) and Principal Components (PCs), vegetation indices and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture layers with calibration (n = 46) and test (n = 23) datasets. The results of regression analysis showed that the Simple Ratio Index derivative had a higher relationship with H‧, D2 and S (r2= 0.36; r2= 0.41; r2= 0.24 respectively) compared to NDVI, EVI, SAVI or their derivatives. Moreover the Landsat-8 derived PCs also had a higher relationship with H‧ and D2 (r2 of 0.36 and 0.35 respectively) than the

  15. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang


    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  16. The infrared spectrum of γ Velorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.; Allen, D.A.


    We report infrared spectral observations of the Wolf-Rayet system γ Velorum. These show an extremely rich emission line spectrum in which permitted lines of helium and carbon and forbidden lines of neon and sulphur appear. Some of these lines have not hitherto been observed in any object. The data lead to estimates of the relative abundance of He I/He II and C/He (Hummer, Barlow and Storey 1982) and we present lower limits to the Ne/He and S/He abundance ratios. (author)

  17. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.


    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen


    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs

  19. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.


    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  20. Multi-channel up-conversion infrared spectrometer and method of detecting a spectral distribution of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A multi-channel infrared spectrometer for detecting an infrared spectrum of light received from an object. The spectrometer comprises a wavelength converter system comprising a nonlinear material and having an input side and an output side. The wavelength converter system comprises at least a first...... on the first side into light in a second output wavelength range output on the second side. The spectrometer further comprises a demultiplexer configured for demultiplexing light in the first up-conversion channel and light in the second up-conversion channel. The demultiplexer is located on the first side...