WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared limb observing

  1. Using far-infrared limb brightening to probe isolated dark globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.M.; O'brien, E.V.; Dubisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of radiation transport in dark globules with or without internal heat source, immersed in an isotropic incident interstellar radiation field, is solved. The phenomenon of infrared limb brightening, its dependence on cloud properties, and its observational implications are addressed. Numerical results regarding the dependence of limb brightening on total cloud opacity, luminosity of internal heat source, grain type, dust density distribution, and wavelength of emitted radiation are discussed. Observational implications concerning the use of limb brightening to place an upper limit on the luminosity of an embedded protostar and to determine the grain emissivity law in the far-infrared are examined. For sufficiently large optical depth, the limb-brightening ratio (LBR) is found to be related to the optical depth by a power-law relation in the 140-300 micron wavelength range, where thermal emission from grains peaks. By observing the LBR in this range, this power-law relationship can be exploited to determine the emissivity law of the dust grain in the far-infrared. Both the LBR and the longest wavelength for which limb brightening still occurs are related linearly to the luminosity of the central source. 37 references

  2. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Luz, V.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H − . In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H − , and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  3. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Luz, V. [Conacyt—SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica, Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia, Michoacán, 58190, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-10

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H{sup −}. In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H{sup −}, and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  4. LTE modeling of inhomogeneous chromospheric structure using high-resolution limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses considerations relevant to LTE modeling of rough atmospheres. Particular attention is given to the application of recent high-resolution observations of the solar limb in the far-infrared and radio continuum to the modeling of chromospheric spicules. It is explained how the continuum limb observations can be combined with morphological knowledge of spicule structure to model the physical conditions in chromospheric spicules. This discussion forms the basis for a chromospheric model presented in a parallel publication based on observations ranging from 100 microns to 2.6 mm.

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric volumes from infrared limb-imager measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungermann, Joern

    2011-08-12

    State-of-the art nadir and limb-sounders, but also in situ measurements, do not offer the capability to highly resolve the atmosphere in all three dimensions. This leaves an observational gap with respect to small-scale structures that arise frequently in the atmosphere and that still lack a quantitative understanding. For instance, filaments and tropopause folds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are crucial for its composition and variability. One way to achieve a highly resolved three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the atmosphere is the tomographic evaluation of limb-imager measurements. This thesis presents a methodology for the tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric constituents. To be able to deal with the large increase of observations and unknowns compared to conventional retrievals, great care is taken to reduce memory consumption and processing time. This method is used to evaluate the performance of two upcoming infrared limb-imager instruments and to prepare their missions. The first examined instrument is the infrared limb-imager on board of PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetrewave Emitted Radiation), one of three remaining candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission. Scientific goals of PREMIER are, among others, the examination of gravity waves and the quantification of processes controlling atmospheric composition in the UTLS, a region of particular importance for climate change. Simulations based on the performance requirements of this instrument deliver a vertical resolution that is slightly better than its vertical field-of-view (about 0.75 km) and a horizontal resolution of {approx}25km x 70 km. Non-linear end-to-end simulations for various gravity wave patterns demonstrate that the high 3-D resolution of PREMIER considerably extends the range of detectable gravity waves in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength compared to previous observations. The second examined

  6. Tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric volumes from infrared limb-imager measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungermann, Joern

    2011-08-12

    State-of-the art nadir and limb-sounders, but also in situ measurements, do not offer the capability to highly resolve the atmosphere in all three dimensions. This leaves an observational gap with respect to small-scale structures that arise frequently in the atmosphere and that still lack a quantitative understanding. For instance, filaments and tropopause folds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are crucial for its composition and variability. One way to achieve a highly resolved three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the atmosphere is the tomographic evaluation of limb-imager measurements. This thesis presents a methodology for the tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric constituents. To be able to deal with the large increase of observations and unknowns compared to conventional retrievals, great care is taken to reduce memory consumption and processing time. This method is used to evaluate the performance of two upcoming infrared limb-imager instruments and to prepare their missions. The first examined instrument is the infrared limb-imager on board of PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetrewave Emitted Radiation), one of three remaining candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission. Scientific goals of PREMIER are, among others, the examination of gravity waves and the quantification of processes controlling atmospheric composition in the UTLS, a region of particular importance for climate change. Simulations based on the performance requirements of this instrument deliver a vertical resolution that is slightly better than its vertical field-of-view (about 0.75 km) and a horizontal resolution of {approx}25km x 70 km. Non-linear end-to-end simulations for various gravity wave patterns demonstrate that the high 3-D resolution of PREMIER considerably extends the range of detectable gravity waves in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength compared to previous observations. The second examined instrument

  7. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    OpenAIRE

    G. Heinemann; P. Preusse; R. Spang; S. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI) mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tr...

  8. Vertical Distribution of Aersols and Water Vapor Using CRISM Limb Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb allows the vertical distribution of both dust and ice aerosols to be retrieved. These data serve as an important supplement to the aerosol profiling provided by the MRO/MCS instrument allowing independent validation and giving additional information on particle physical and scattering properties through multi-wavelength studies. A total of at least ten CRISM limb observations have been taken so far covering a full Martian year. Each set of limb observations nominally contains about four dozen scans across the limb giving pole-to-pole coverage for two orbits at roughly 100 and 290 W longitude over the Tharsis and Syrtis/Hellas regions, respectively. At each longitude, limb scans are spaced roughly 10 degrees apart in latitude, with a vertical spatial resolution on the limb of roughly 800 m. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations. We compute synthetic CRISM limb spectra using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code that accounts for multiple scattering from aerosols and accounts for spherical geometry of the limb observations by integrating the source functions along curved paths in that coordinate system. Retrieved are 14-point vertical profiles for dust and water ice aerosols with resolution of 0.4 scale heights between one and six scale heights above the surface. After the aerosol retrieval is completed, the abundances of C02 (or surface pressure) and H20 gas are retrieved by matching the depth of absorption bands at 2000 nm for carbon dioxide and at 2600 run for water vapor. In addition to the column abundance of water vapor, limited information on its vertical structure can also be retrieved depending on the signal

  9. The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. M.; Gille, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere is used to obtain vertical profiles and maps of temperature and the concentration of ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid for the region of the stratosphere bounded by the upper troposphere and the lower mesosphere.

  10. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heinemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tropospheric coverage can be improved in comparison to limb sounding using a fixed field of view with the size of the super-pixels, as in conventional limb sounders. The study is based on cloud topographies derived from (a IR brightness temperatures (BT of geostationary weather satellites in conjunction with ECMWF temperature profiles and (b ice and liquid water content data of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling-Europe (COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service. Limb cloud images are simulated by matching the cloud topography with the limb sounding line of sight (LOS. The analysis of the BT data shows that the reduction of the spatial sampling along the track has hardly any effect on the gain in information. The comparison between BT and COSMO-EU data identifies the strength of both data sets, which are the representation of the horizontal cloud extent for the BT data and the reproduction of the cloud amount for the COSMO-EU data. The results of the analysis of both data sets show the great advantage of the cloud imager. However, because both cloud data sets do not present the complete fine structure of the real cloud fields in the atmosphere it is assumed that the results tend to underestimate the increase in information. In conclusion, real measurements by such an instrument may result in an even higher benefit for tropospheric limb retrievals.

  11. Vertical Distribution of Dust and Water Ice Aerosols from CRISM Limb-geometry Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael Doyle; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, Todd; Kleinbohl, Armin; Murchie, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb enables the vertical distribution of both dust and water ice aerosols to be retrieved. More than a dozen sets of CRISM limb observations have been taken so far providing pole-to-pole cross sections, spanning more than a full Martian year. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations taking into account multiple scattering from aerosols and the spherical geometry of the limb observations. Both dust and water ice vertical profiles often show a significant vertical structure for nearly all seasons and latitudes that is not consistent with the well-mixed or Conrath-v assumptions that have often been used in the past for describing aerosol vertical profiles for retrieval and modeling purposes. Significant variations are seen in the retrieved vertical profiles of dust and water ice aerosol as a function of season. Dust typically extends to higher altitudes (approx. 40-50km) during the perihelion season than during the aphelion season (water ice clouds are common, and water ice aerosols are observed to cap the dust layer in all seasons.

  12. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 duricrust. Finally, we evaluate the influence of reflectance geometrical effects on the multispectral and spectroscopic data of the martian surface.

  13. A comparative analysis of UV nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dragani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative assessment of ultraviolet nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone profile assimilation. The Meteorological Operational Satellite A (MetOp-A Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 nadir and the ENVISAT Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS limb profiles, generated by the ozone consortium of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA O3-CCI, were individually added to a reference set of ozone observations and assimilated in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF data assimilation system (DAS. The two sets of resulting analyses were compared with that from a control experiment, only constrained by the reference dataset, and independent, unassimilated observations. Comparisons with independent observations show that both datasets improve the stratospheric ozone distribution. The changes inferred by the limb-based observations are more localized and, in places, more important than those implied by the nadir profiles, albeit they have a much lower number of observations. A small degradation (up to 0.25 mg kg−1 for GOME-2 and 0.5 mg kg−1 for MIPAS in the mass mixing ratio is found in the tropics between 20 and 30 hPa. In the lowermost troposphere below its vertical coverage, the limb data are found to be able to modify the ozone distribution with changes as large as 60 %. Comparisons of the ozone analyses with sonde data show that at those levels the assimilation of GOME-2 leads to about 1 Dobson Unit (DU smaller root mean square error (RMSE than that of MIPAS. However, the assimilation of MIPAS can still improve the quality of the ozone analyses and – with a reduction in the RMSE of up to about 2 DU – outperform the control experiment thanks to its synergistic assimilation with total-column ozone data within the DAS. High vertical resolution ozone profile observations are essential to accurately monitor and

  14. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  15. HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzon, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Buenzli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. Accurate scattering and polarization parameters have been provided by the in situ measurements of the Cassini-Huygens landing probe. For Earth-bound observations Titan can only be observed at a backscattering situation, where the disk-integrated polarization is close to zero. However, with resolved imaging polarimetry a second order polarization signal along the entire limb of Titan can be measured. Aims: We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Methods: Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented, which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. Results: In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2 μm a strong limb polarization of about 2 - 7% is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 μm. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The comparison of our data with model calculations and the literature shows that the detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of

  16. Analysis of auroral infrared emissions observed during the ELIAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Caledonia

    Full Text Available The ELIAS (Earth Limb Infrared Atmospheric Structure experiment was flown from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska in 1983 and successfully monitored visible and infrared emissions from an IBC III+ aurora. Measurements were performed in both staring and scanning modes over several hundred seconds. The data for short- and mid-wave infrared regions have been analyzed in terms of auroral excitation of the NO and NO+ vibrational bands. Auroral excitation efficiencies and kinetic implications are presented.

  17. Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Luis F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). MIPAS acts as a proxy for typical infrared limb emission sounders, while MLS acts as a proxy for microwave limb sounders. These biases were calculated for temperature and several trace gases by interpolating model fields to real sampling patterns and, additionally, screening those locations as directed by their corresponding quality criteria. Both instruments have dense uniform sampling patterns typical of limb emission sounders, producing almost identical sampling biases. However, there is a substantial difference between the number of locations discarded. MIPAS, as a mid-infrared instrument, is very sensitive to clouds, and measurements affected by them are thus rejected from the analysis. For example, in the tropics, the MIPAS yield is strongly affected by clouds, while MLS is mostly unaffected. The results show that upper-tropospheric sampling biases in zonally averaged data, for both instruments, can be up to 10 to 30 %, depending on the species, and up to 3 K for temperature. For MIPAS, the sampling reduction due to quality screening worsens the biases, leading to values as large as 30 to 100 % for the trace gases and expanding the 3 K bias region for temperature. This type of sampling bias is largely induced by the geophysical origins of the screening (e.g. clouds). Further, analysis of long-term time series reveals that these additional quality screening biases may affect the ability to accurately detect upper-tropospheric long-term changes using such data. In contrast, MLS data quality screening removes sufficiently few points that no additional bias is introduced, although its penetration is limited to the upper troposphere, while MIPAS may cover well into the mid-troposphere in cloud-free scenarios. We emphasize that the

  18. Infrared radiation from dark globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.; Leung, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed by which to study the infrared emission from dark globules heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). The effects of cloud parameters (grain type, optical depth, and density inhomogeneity) on the emergent spectrum and infrared surface brightnesses are studied. Compared with clouds which have internal heat sources, the emergent flux for globules is found to be at least a factor of 10 smaller and to peak at wavelengths 100 μm< or =lambda< or =130 μm for graphite clouds and 310 μm< or =lambda< or =550 μm for silicate clouds. Either limb brightening or limb darkening in the infrared can occur, which depends sensitively on the optical depth. For globules of moderate extinction (greater than approx.10 in the visible), significant infrared limb brightening occurs at wavelengths of grain emission (20 μm< or =lambda< or =600 μm). A physical interpretation of these results is presented. To help remove ambiguities from interpretations of future observations, the observable effects of a grain mixture, variation of the ISRF, as well as beam dilution are examined in detail. The presence of a second grain component alters the emergent spectrum significantly. For a variation of the ISRF within wide limits, the ratio of surface to central temperature (T/sub s//T/sub c/) of an optically thick cloud remains fairly constant (3< or approx. =T/sub s//T/sub c/< or approx. =4). Infrared limb brightening may be smoothed out by beam dilution as well as by density inhomogeneities. Finally, the expected flux densities in the infrared of a typical globule are presented for different beam sizes. The predicted fluxes are within the detection threshold of currently available infrared detectors, using either ground-based or balloon-borne telescopes

  19. Vertical distribution of Martian aerosols from SPICAM/Mars-Express limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, A.; Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Rodin, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.

    Limb spectroscopic observations provide invaluable information about vertical distribution of main atmospheric components in the Martian atmosphere, in particular vertical distribution and structure of aerosols, which play an important role in the heat balance of the planet. Only limited set of successful limb spectroscopic observations have been carried out on Mars so far, including those by MGS/TES spectrometer and Thermoscan and Auguste experiments of Phobos mission. Currently SPICAM instrument onboard Mars-Express spacecraft has accomplished several sequences of limb observations. First analysis of limb sounding data received by SPICAM IR and UV channels, which imply the presence of fine, deep, optically thin aerosol fraction extended over broad range of altitudes, is presented.

  20. Medical infrared imaging and orthostatic analysis to determine lameness in the pelvic limbs of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fernanda V. Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtle lameness makes it difficult to ascertain which is the affected limb. A study was conducted to investigate a change in the thermal pattern and temperature of the thermal image of the paw print in a lame pelvic limb compared to a non-lame pelvic limb of dogs confirmed by orthostatic analysis. Fourteen client owned dogs with a unilateral pelvic limb lameness and 14 healthy employee dogs were examined and the pelvic limbs radiographed. Thermal images of the paw print were taken after each dog was kept in a static position on a foam mat for 30 seconds. Average temperatures and thermographic patterns were analyzed. Analysis was performed in a static position. The asymmetry index for each stance variable and optimal cutoff point for the peak vertical force and thermal image temperatures were calculated. Image pattern analysis revealed 88% success in differentiating the lame group, and 100% in identifying the same thermal pattern in the healthy group. The mean of the peak vertical force revealed a 10.0% difference between the left and right pelvic limb in healthy dogs and a 72.4% between the lame and non-lame limb in the lame dog group. Asymmetry index analysis revealed 5% in the healthy group and 36.2% in the lame group. The optimal cutoff point for the peak vertical force to determine lameness was 41.77% (AUC = 0.93 and for MII 0.943% (AUC = 0.72. The results of this study highlight the change in the thermal pattern of the paw print in the lame pelvic limb compared to a non-lame pelvic limb in the lame group and the healthy group. Medical infrared imaging of the paw prints can be utilized to screen for the lame limb in dogs.

  1. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  2. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  3. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  4. Observation of galactic far-infrared ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Oda, Naoki; Okuda, Haruyuki; Sugiyama, Takuya; Sakai, Kiyomi.

    1978-01-01

    Galactic far-infrared was observed to study the spatial distribution of interstellar dust. Far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust distributing throughout the galactic plane. The observation of far-infrared is very important to study the overall structure of the galaxy, that is the structure of the galactic arm and gas distribution. The balloon experiment was conducted on May 25, 1978. The detector was a germanium bolometer cooled by liquid helium. The size of the detector is 1.6 mm in diameter. The geometrical factor was 4 x 10 3 cm 2 sr. The result showed that the longitude distribution of far-infrared at 150 μm correlated with H 166 α recombination line. This indicates that the observed far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust heated by photons of Lyman continuum. (Yoshimori, M.)

  5. Interventional treatment of diabetic ischemic diseases of lower limb:a therapeutic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoyang; Liu Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical effects of endovascular interventional treatment for diabetic ischemic diseases of lower limb. Methods: Endovascular interventional management was performed in 47 patients with diabetic ischemic diseases of lower limb. The ankle-to-brachial index and the diameter of lower limb vessel were estimated both before the treatment and 3, 30 days after the treatment. The results were compared and analyzed. Results: Obvious improvement in ankle-to-brachial index and the diameter of lower limb vessel were observed after the treatment. Conclusion: Endovascular interventional treatment is very effective and reliable for diabetic ischemic diseases of lower limb. (authors)

  6. Infrared observations of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, G.S.; Baines, K.H.; Bergstralh, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research in to obtain infrared data on planetary atmospheres which provide information on several aspects of structure and composition. Observations include direct mission real-time support as well as baseline monitoring preceding mission encounters. Besides providing a broader information context for spacecraft experiment data analysis, observations will provide the quantitative data base required for designing optimum remote sensing sequences and evaluating competing science priorities. In the past year, thermal images of Jupiter and Saturn were made near their oppositions in order to monitor long-term changes in their atmospheres. Infrared images of the Jovian polar stratospheric hot spots were made with IUE observations of auroral emissions. An exploratory 5-micrometer spectrum of Uranus was reduced and accepted for publication. An analysis of time-variability of temperature and cloud properties of the Jovian atomsphere was made. Development of geometric reduction programs for imaging data was initiated for the sun workstation. Near-infrared imaging observations of Jupiter were reduced and a preliminary analysis of cloud properties made. The first images of the full disk of Jupiter with a near-infrared array camera were acquired. Narrow-band (10/cm) images of Jupiter and Saturn were obtained with acousto-optical filters

  7. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  8. Infrared investigation of the temperature structure of the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Narrow-band continuum limb darkening observations of the sun were taken with the Infrared Spectrometer and the West Auxiliary of the McMath Solar Telescope during the first half of 1974. The infrared limb darkening measures were used with a few absolute intensity and limb darkening measures of other investigators to develop a series of empirical solar models. The temperatures in most of the solar models were adjusted until the predictions of the model atmosphere program matched the observational measures as well as possible. Limb darkening residuals were calculated by subtracting the observational measures of the limb darkening from the limb darkening measures that were computed from the program. Experiments with several models indicated that a steep temperature gradient was needed to fit the observations at short wavelengths while a rather low temperature gradient was needed at long wavelengths. Non-LTE effects and errors in the H - opacity were ruled out as possible sources of this discrepancy. An excellent fit to the observations was ultimately achieved with a two-component LTE solar model. The hot component of this model represents the half of the solar surface that is above the median temperature at each depth; while the cool component represents the half of the solar surface that is below the median temperature. Most of the observations are fitted to within the expected errors by this model. Discrepancies below 4500 A are probably due to line blanketing. The splitting between the hot and cool components of the model is consistent with current estimates of the rms intensity fluctuations in the solar atmosphere. The model also resembles several theoretical two-component models that have recently appeared in the literature

  9. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  10. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W. M.; Werner, M. W.; Hatchett, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents infrared photometry of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 microns) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 microns) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 microns) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 microns). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of color-color diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. In AR Lac, the combined light of a G5-K0 subgiant and either a late F dwarf or an early F subgiant can account for the observed visual and infrared light curves. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. This result is simply understood: dust grains would not be expected to form in the physical conditions surrounding the subgiant, and the corona and chromosphere (whose properties have been deduced from spectroscopic X-ray observations) should not produce appreciable infrared emission.

  11. Cerebral and lower limb near-infrared spectroscopy in adults on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua K; Smith, Thomas N; Pitcher, Harrison T; Hirose, Hitoshi; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Percutaneous femoral venoarterial (VA) or jugular venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can result in delivery of hypoxic blood to the brain, coronaries, and upper extremities. Additionally, VA-ECMO by percutaneous femoral artery cannulation may compromise perfusion to the lower limbs. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detects regional ischemia and warns of impending hypoxic damage. We report the first known series with standardized monitoring of this parameter in adults on ECMO. This is an institutional review board-approved single institution retrospective review of patients with NIRS monitoring on ECMO from July 2010 until June 2011. Patients were analyzed for drops in NIRS tracings below 40 or >25% from baseline. VA-ECMO and VV-ECMO were initiated by percutaneous cannulation of the femoral vessels and the internal jugular vein, respectively. Sensors were placed on the patients' foreheads and on the lower limbs. NIRS tracings were recorded, analyzed, and correlated with clinical events. Twenty patients were analyzed (median age: 47.5 years): 17 patients were placed on VA-ECMO, and three patients on VV-ECMO. The median duration on ECMO was 7 days (range 2-26). One hundred percent of patients had a significant drop in bilateral cerebral oximetry tracings resulting in hemodynamic interventions, which involved increasing pressure, oxygenation, and/or ECMO flow. In 16 patients (80%), these interventions corrected the underlying ischemia. Four patients (20%) required further diagnostic intervention for persistent decreased bilateral and/or unilateral cerebral oximetry tracings, and were found to have a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Six (30%) patients had persistent unilateral lower limb oximetry events, which resolved upon placement or replacement of a distal perfusion cannula. No patient was found to have either lower limb ischemia or a CVA with normal NIRS tracings. Use of NIRS with ECMO is important in detecting ischemic cerebral and

  12. Characterization of model errors in the calculation of tangent heights for atmospheric infrared limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the main factors driving the calculation of the tangent height of spaceborne limb measurements: the ray-tracing method, the refractive index model and the assumed atmosphere. We find that commonly used ray tracing and refraction models are very accurate, at least in the mid-infrared. The factor with largest effect in the tangent height calculation is the assumed atmosphere. Using a climatological model in place of the real atmosphere may cause tangent height errors up to ± 200 m. Depending on the adopted retrieval scheme, these errors may have a significant impact on the derived profiles.

  13. Titan's aerosol optical properties with VIMS observations at the limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, Pascal; Seignovert, Benoit; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The study of Titan properties with remote sensing relies on a good knowledge of the atmosphere properties. The in-situ observations made by Huygens combined with recent advances in the definition of methane properties enable to model and interpret observations with a very good accuracy. Thanks to these progresses, we can analyze in this work the observations made at the limb of Titan in order to retrieve information on the haze properties as its vertical profiles but also the spectral behaviour between 0.88 and 5.2 µm. To study the haze layer and more generally the source of opacities in the stratosphere, we use some observation made at the limb of Titan by the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini. We used a model in spherical geometry and in single scattering, and we accounted for the multiple scattering with a parallel plane model that evaluate the multiple scattering source function at the plane of the limb. Our scope is to retrieve informations about the vertical distribution of the haze, its spectral properties, but also to obtain details about the shape of the methane windows to desantangle the role of the methane and of the aerosols. We started our study at the latitude of 55°N, with a image taken in 2006 with a relatively high spatial resolution (for VIMS). Our preliminary results shows the spectral properties of the aerosols are the same whatever the altitude. This is a consequence of the large scale mixing. From limb profile between 0.9 and 5.2 µm, we can probe the haze layer from about 500 km (at 0.9 µm) to the ground (at 5.2 µm). We find that the vertical profile of the haze layer shows three distinct scale heights with transitions around 250 km and 350 km. We also clearly a transition around 70-90 km that may be due to the top of a condensation layer.

  14. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  15. Far-infrared observations of globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of far-infrared emission from nine globules are presented. The intensity and uniformity of the emission confirm that the heat source is the interstellar radiation field. Spectra of B133 and B335 are presented; they are consistent with optically thin thermal emission from dust with temperature 13--16 K. The emissivity of the grains must fall as fast as lambda -2 for lambda>500 μm. The temperature and intensity of B335 are used to calculate the ratio of visual extinction to far-infrared emission frequency

  16. Near-infrared observations of the far-infrared source V region in NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Joyce, R.R.; Simon, M.; Simon, T.

    1982-01-01

    We have observed a very red near-infrared source at the center of NGC 6334 FIRS V, a far-infrared source suspected of variability by McBreen et al. The near-infrared source has deep ice and silicate absorption bands, and its half-power size at 20 μm is approx.15'' x 10''. Over the past 2 years we have observed no variability in the near-infrared flux. We have also detected an extended source of H 2 line emission in this region. The total luminosity in the H 2 v-1--0 S(1) line, uncorrected for extinction along the line of sight, is 0.3 L/sub sun/. Detection of emission in high-velocity wings of the J = 1--0 12 CO line suggests that the H 2 emission is associated with a supersonic gas flow

  17. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb based on eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1982-05-01

    The absolute distributions of integral and surface brightness of the photospheric continuum (lambdaroughly-equal5870 A) and in faculae at the very limb are obtained from slitless spectrograms of the total solar eclipse of July 10, 1972. Several possible reasons for the brightness increase toward the limb in the distribution of photospheric surface brightness are discussed. The faculae showed high contrasts, up to 1.76 at a height of 200 km from the limb. A comparison of the times of local contacts observed and calculated with allowance for lunar relief showed that the active regions are at about 300 km above the photosphere. A schematic model of a facula is proposed.

  18. Infrared Observations of FS CMa Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Grady, C. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Beerman, L. C.; Day, A. N.; Huelsman, D.; Rudy, R. J.; Brafford, S. M.; Halbedel, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    A subset of non-supergiant B[e] stars has recently been recognized as forming a fairly unique class of objects with very strong emission lines, infrared excesses, and locations not associated with star formation. The exact evolutionary state of these stars, named for the prototype FS CMa, is uncertain, and they have often been classified as isolated Herbig AeBe stars. We present infrared observations of two of these stars, HD 45677 (FS CMa), HD 50138 (MWC 158), and the candidate FS CMa star HD 190073 (V1295 Aql) that span over a decade in time. All three exhibit an emission band at 10 microns due to amorphous silicates, confirming that much (if not all) of the infrared excess is due to dust. HD 50138 is found to exhibit 20% variability between 3-13 microns that resembles that found in pre-main sequence systems (HD 163296 and HD 31648). HD 45677, despite large changes at visual wavelengths, has remained relatively stable in the infrared. To date, no significant changes have been observed in HD 190073. This work is supported in part by NASA Origins of Solar Systems grant NAG5-9475, NASA Astrophysics Data Program contract NNH05CD30C, and the Independent Research and Development program at The Aerospace Corporation.

  19. Near IR observations of Quiet Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi; Deng, N.; Tejamoortula, U.; Penn, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    We have carried out the observations of quiet solar limb during April 29 to May 1, 2008, March 9-13, 2009 using the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The solar limb was mostly featureless during the observations. The New Infrared Array (NAC) at the exit port of the spectrograph has been used to record the limb spectrum at HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen beta at 1281.8 nm and Brackett gamma 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024 x 1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of about 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. In this presentation, we shall compare the line parameters of these lines around the solar disk. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NSF under grant ATM 05-48952 and by NASA under grant NNX08AQ32G.

  20. Far infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.

    1977-01-01

    Maps of a region 10' in diameter around the galactic center made simultaneously in three wavelength bands at 30 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm with approximately 1' resolution are presented, and the distribution of far infrared luminosity and color temperature across this region is derived. The position of highest far infrared surface brightness coincides with the peak of the late-type stellar distribution and with the H II region Sgr A West. The high spatial and temperature resolution of the data is used to identify features of the far infrared maps with known sources of near infrared, radio continuum, and molecular emission. The emission mechanism and energy sources for the far infrared radiation are anslyzed qualitatively, and it is concluded that all of the observed far infrared radiation from the galactic center region can be attributed to thermal emission from dust heated both by the late-type stars and by the ultraviolet sources which ionize the H II regions. A self-consistent model for the far infrared emission from the galactic center region is presented. It is found that the visual extinction across the central 10 pc of the galaxy is only about 3 magnitudes, and that the dust density is fairly uniform in this region. An upper limit of 10 7 L/sub mass/ is set on the luminosity of any presently unidentified source of 0.1 to 1 μm radiation at the galactic center. Additional maps in the vicinity of the source Sgr B2 and observations of Sgr C bring the total number of H II regions within 1 0 of the galactic center studied by the present experiment to nine. The far infrared luminosity, color temperature and optical depth of these regions and the ratio of infrared flux to radio continuum flux lie in the range characteristic of spiral arm H II regions. The far infrared results are therefore consistent with the data that the galactic center H II regions are ionized by luminous, early type stars

  1. Infrared observations of gravitational-wave sources in Advanced LIGO's second observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound Singer, Leo; Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cenko, Bradley; Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced LIGO observed gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in its first observing run (O1) in September 2015. It is anticipated that LIGO and Virgo will soon detect the first binary neutron star mergers. The most promising electromagnetic counterparts to such events are kilonovae: fast, faint transients powered by the radioactive decay of the r-process ejecta. Joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of such transients hold the key to many longstanding problems, from the nature of short GRBS to the cosmic production sites of the r-process elements to "standard siren" cosmology. Due to the large LIGO/Virgo error regions of 100 deg2, synoptic survey telescopes have dominated the search for LIGO counterparts. Due to the paucity of infrared instruments with multi-deg2 fields of view, infrared observations have been lacking. Near-infrared emission should not only be a more robust signature of kilonovae than optical emission (independent of viewing angle), but should also be several magnitudes brighter and be detectable for much longer, weeks after merger rather than days. In Advanced LIGO's second observing run, we used the FLAMINGOS-2 instrument on Gemini-South to hunt for the near-infrared emission from GW sources by targeted imaging of the most massive galaxies in the LIGO/Virgo localization volumes. We present the results of this campaign, rates, and interpretation of our near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. We show that leveraging large-scale structure and targeted imaging of the most massive ~10 galaxies in a LIGO/Virgo localization volume may be a surprisingly effective strategy to find the electromagnetic counterpart.

  2. First 3D measurements of temperature fluctuations induced by gravity wave with the infrared limb imager GLORIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are one of the most important coupling mechanisms in the atmosphere. They couple different compartments of the atmosphere. The GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle) project aims on studying the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of gravity waves. An aircraft campaign has been performed in winter 2015/2016, during which the first 3D tomographic measurements of GWs were performed with the infrared limb imager GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere). GLORIA combines a classical Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a 2D detector array. The capability to image the atmosphere and thereby take several thousand spectra simultaneously improves the spatial sampling compared to conventional limb sounders by an order of magnitude. Furthermore GLORIA is able to pan the horizontal viewing direction and therefore measure the same volume of air under different angles. Due to these properties tomographic methods can be used to derive 3D temperature and tracer fields with spatial resolutions of better than 30km x 30km x 250m from measurements taken during circular flight patterns. Temperature distributions measured during a strong GW event on the 25.01.2016 during the GW-LCycle campaign over Iceland will be presented and analyzed for gravity waves. The three dimensional nature of the GLORIA measurements allows for the determination of the gravity wave momentum flux, including its horizontal direction. The calculated momentum fluxes rank this event under one of the strongest 1% observed in that latitude range in January 2016. The three dimensional wave vectors determined from the GLORIA measurements can be used for a ray tracing study with the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT). Here 1D ray tracing, meaning solely vertical column propagation, as used by standard parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models is compared to 4D ray tracing (spatially three dimensional with time varying

  3. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  4. Detection of organic compound signatures in infra-red, limb emission spectra observed by the MIPAS-B2 balloon instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Remedios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds play a central role in troposphere chemistry and increasingly are a viable target for remote sensing observations. In this paper, infra-red spectral features of three organic compounds are investigated in thermal emission spectra recorded on a flight on 8 May 1998 near Aire sur l'Adour by a balloon-borne instrument, MIPAS-B2, operating at high spectral resolution. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that PAN and acetone can be detected in infra-red remote sensing spectra of the upper troposphere; detection results are presented at tangent altitudes of 10.4 km and 7.5 km (not acetone. In addition, the results provide the first observation of spectral features of formic acid in thermal emission, as opposed to solar occultation, and confirm that concentrations of this gas are measurable in the mid-latitude upper troposphere, given accurate spectroscopic data. For PAN, two bands are observed centred at 794 cm−1 and 1163 cm−1. For acetone and formic acid, one band has been detected for each so far with band centres at 1218 cm−1 and 1105 cm−1 respectively. Mixing ratios inferred at 10.4 km tangent altitude are 180 pptv and 530 pptv for PAN and acetone respectively, and 200 pptv for formic acid with HITRAN 2000 spectroscopy. Accuracies are on the order of 15 to 40%. The detection technique applied here is verified by examining weak but known signatures of CFC-12 and HCFC-22 in the same spectral regions as those of the organic compounds, with results confirming the quality of both the instrument and the radiative transfer model. The results suggest the possibility of global sensing of the organic compounds studied here which would be a major step forward in verifying and interpreting global tropospheric model calculations.

  5. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  6. Global oscillations of the Sun: observed as oscillations in the apparent solar limb darkening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.; Caudell, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the 1973 solar oblateness observations made at SCLERA has indicated that most of the oscillatory power found in observations of the apparent solar diameter is statistically significant and that it is produced by fluctuations in the limb darkening function rather than by a simple displacement of the solar limb. The differential refractive effects in the Earth's atmosphere may be ruled out as operative mechanisms for generating the observed oscillations. Solar and non-solar mechanisms for producing changes in the apparent limb darkening function are considered as possible sources of the observed oscillatory effects; it is concluded that acoustic and gravity modes of oscillation are the only viable mechanisms capable of producing these phenomena. This interpretation necessitates the imposition of certain constraints on modelling of the solar interior and on solar pulsation theory. The conclusion that the oscillations are detected through changes in the limb darkening function leads to a new constraint on the photospheric boundary conditions used in pulsation theory. The identification of two of the oscillations as being high-order gravity modes also necessitates the formulation of a new constraint on the Brunt-Vaisalai frequency in the solar interior and, in addition, may place a constraint depth on the convection zone. Application of the constraint on the Brunt-Vaisalai frequency permits discrimination between current models while the first constraint, if correct, may further complicate studies of the outer envelope of the Sun. (author)

  7. Retrieval of ozone profiles from OMPS limb scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Carlo; Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; von Clarmann, Thomas; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    This study describes a retrieval algorithm developed at the University of Bremen to obtain vertical profiles of ozone from limb observations performed by the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS). This algorithm is based on the technique originally developed for use with data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument. As both instruments make limb measurements of the scattered solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) spectral ranges, an underlying objective of the study is to obtain consolidated and consistent ozone profiles from the two satellites and to produce a combined data set. The retrieval algorithm uses radiances in the UV and Vis wavelength ranges normalized to the radiance at an upper tangent height to obtain ozone concentrations in the altitude range of 12-60 km. Measurements at altitudes contaminated by clouds in the instrument field of view are identified and filtered out. An independent aerosol retrieval is performed beforehand and its results are used to account for the stratospheric aerosol load in the ozone inversion. The typical vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles varies from ˜ 2.5 km at lower altitudes ( passive satellite observations or measured in situ by balloon-borne sondes. Between 20 and 60 km, OMPS ozone profiles typically agree with data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) v4.2 within 5-10 %, whereas in the lower altitude range the bias becomes larger, especially in the tropics. The comparison of OMPS profiles with ozonesonde measurements shows differences within ±5 % between 13 and 30 km at northern middle and high latitudes. At southern middle and high latitudes, an agreement within 5-7 % is also achieved in the same altitude range. An unexpected bias of approximately 10-20 % is detected in the lower tropical stratosphere. The processing of the 2013 data set using the same retrieval settings and its validation against ozonesondes reveals a much

  8. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb according to eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P. (Khar' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR). Astronomicheskaya Observatoriya)

    The absolute integrated and surface brightness distributions of the photospheric continuum (lambda approximately 5870 A) and faculae at the extreme limb are obtained from July 10, 1972 solar eclipse slitless spectrograms. Some possible reasons of the limb brightening in the surface brightness distributions of the photosphere are discussed. It is detected that facular contrasts have the high values, up to 1.76 for the height about 200 km. This fact shows that radiation and matter density changes depending on height in the upper atmosphere in a facula more quickly than outside the facula. The comparison of the observed moments of local contacts with the theoretical ones, based on the lunar limb relief data, has shown that the active regions are approximately 300 km higher than the photosphere. The schematic model of the photospheric faculae is given.

  9. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb according to eclipse observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute integrated and surface brightness distributions of the photospheric continuum (lambda approximately 5870 A) and faculae at the extreme limb are obtained from July 10, 1972 solar eclipse slitless spectrograms. Some possible reasons of the limb brightening in the surface brightness distributions of the photosphere are discussed. It is detected that facular contrasts have the high values, up to 1.76 for the height about 200 km. This fact shows that radiation and matter density changes depending on height in the upper atmosphere in a facula more quickly than outside the facula. The comparison of the observed moments of local contacts with the theoretical ones, based on the lunar limb relief data, has shown that the active regions are approximately 300 km higher than the photosphere. The schematic model of the photospheric faculae is given

  10. On the Physical Significance of Infra-red Corrections to Inflationary Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Pietroni, M; Riotto, Antonio; Seery, D

    2008-01-01

    Inflationary observables, like the power spectrum, computed at one- and higher-order loop level seem to be plagued by large infra-red corrections. In this short note, we point out that these large infra-red corrections appear only in quantities which are not directly observable. This is in agreement with general expectations concerning infra-red effects.

  11. High spectral resolution infrared observations of V1057 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared spectra of V1057 Cygni obtained in 1986 with the KPNO 4-m Fourier transform spectrometer provide support for a previously proposed accretion disk model. The model predicts that the observed rotational broadening of spectral lines should be smaller in the infrared than in the optical. The present observations show that V1057 Cyg rotates more slowly at 2.3 microns than at 6000 A by an amount quantitatively consistent with the simple disk models. The absence of any radial velocity variations in either the infrared or optical spectral regions supports the suggestion that the accreted material arises from a remnant disk of protostellar material. 19 references

  12. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF DISK AVERAGED OBSERVATIONS OF EARTH WITH AIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  13. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  14. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Science Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Eastes, R.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A. G.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S.; Eparvier, F. G.; Evans, J. S.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) is a NASA mission of opportunity that will image the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will investigate how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation, and upward propagating tides and how the structure of the equatorial ionosphere influences the formation and evolution of equatorial plasma density irregularities. GOLD consists of a pair of identical imaging spectrographs that will measure airglow emissions at far-ultraviolet wavelengths from 132 to 162 nm. On the disk, temperature and composition will be determined during the day using emissions from molecular nitrogen Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band and atomic oxygen 135.6 nm, and electron density will be derived at night from 135.6 nm emission. On the limb, exospheric temperature will be derived from LBH emission profiles, and molecular oxygen density will be measured using stellar occultations. This presentation describes the GOLD mission science implementation including the as-built instrument performance and the planned observing scenario. It also describes the results of simulations performed by the GOLD team to validate that the measured instrument performance and observing plan will return adequate data to address the science objectives of the mission.

  15. STS-39 Earth observation of Earth's limb at sunset shows atmospheric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the Earth's limb at sunset with numerous atmospheric scattering layers highlighted. The layers consist of fine particles suspended in very stable layers of the atmosphere. The layers act as a prism for the sunlight.

  16. High-resolution far-infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, P.M.; Campbell, M.F.; Hoffmann, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    A map at 53 μ with 17'' resolution and three-color observations at 53 μ, 100 μ, and 175 μ with approx.30'' beams of Sgr A are presented. Sagittarius A is resolved into two main sources, one associated with the cluster of strong 10 μ sources and another approx.45'' to the southwest coincident with a weak 10 μ source. The dust temperature peaks near the strong 10 μ sources, but the 100 μ and 175 μ fluxes and the far-infrared optical depth are greatest near the southwest source. The amount of dust required to explain the far-infrared emission is comparable to that observed in absorption in the near-infrared

  17. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  18. Two-dimensional radiative transfer for the retrieval of limb emission measurements in the martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinböhl, Armin; Friedson, A. James; Schofield, John T.

    2017-01-01

    The remote sounding of infrared emission from planetary atmospheres using limb-viewing geometry is a powerful technique for deriving vertical profiles of structure and composition on a global scale. Compared with nadir viewing, limb geometry provides enhanced vertical resolution and greater sensitivity to atmospheric constituents. However, standard limb profile retrieval techniques assume spherical symmetry and are vulnerable to biases produced by horizontal gradients in atmospheric parameters. We present a scheme for the correction of horizontal gradients in profile retrievals from limb observations of the martian atmosphere. It characterizes horizontal gradients in temperature, pressure, and aerosol extinction along the line-of-sight of a limb view through neighboring measurements, and represents these gradients by means of two-dimensional radiative transfer in the forward model of the retrieval. The scheme is applied to limb emission measurements from the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Retrieval simulations using data from numerical models indicate that biases of up to 10 K in the winter polar region, obtained with standard retrievals using spherical symmetry, are reduced to about 2 K in most locations by the retrieval with two-dimensional radiative transfer. Retrievals from Mars atmospheric measurements suggest that the two-dimensional radiative transfer greatly reduces biases in temperature and aerosol opacity caused by observational geometry, predominantly in the polar winter regions.

  19. Limb-Nadir Matching Using Non-Coincident NO2 Observations: Proof of Concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS Prototype Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cristen; Normand, Elise N.; Mclinden, Chris A.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Rivas, Maria Belmonte; Boersma, K. Folkert; Eskes, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical boxmodel. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product - referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO) - was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60 deg S to 60 deg N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 x 10(exp 15) molecules per sq cm over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.

  20. A method for combining passive microwave and infrared rainfall observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Christian; Giglio, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Because passive microwave instruments are confined to polar-orbiting satellites, rainfall estimates must interpolate across long time periods, during which no measurements are available. In this paper the authors discuss a technique that allows one to partially overcome the sampling limitations by using frequent infrared observations from geosynchronous platforms. To accomplish this, the technique compares all coincident microwave and infrared observations. From each coincident pair, the infrared temperature threshold is selected that corresponds to an area equal to the raining area observed in the microwave image. The mean conditional rainfall rate as determined from the microwave image is then assigned to pixels in the infrared image that are colder than the selected threshold. The calibration is also applied to a fixed threshold of 235 K for comparison with established infrared techniques. Once a calibration is determined, it is applied to all infrared images. Monthly accumulations for both methods are then obtained by summing rainfall from all available infrared images. Two examples are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. The first consists of a one-month period (February 1988) over Darwin, Australia, where good validation data are available from radar and rain gauges. For this case it was found that the technique approximately doubled the rain inferred by the microwave method alone and produced exceptional agreement with the validation data. The second example involved comparisons with atoll rain gauges in the western Pacific for June 1989. Results here are overshadowed by the fact that the hourly infrared estimates from established techniques, by themselves, produced very good correlations with the rain gauges. The calibration technique was not able to improve upon these results.

  1. Effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global oxygen consumption in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A-A; Wickramasinghe, Y A; Spencer, S A

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate peripheral oxygen consumption (VO(2)) measurements using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with arterial occlusion in healthy term neonates by studying the effect of limb cooling on peripheral and global VO(2). Twenty two healthy term neonates were studied. Peripheral VO(2) was measured by NIRS using arterial occlusion and measurement of the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO(2)) decrement slope. Global VO(2) was measured by open circuit calorimetry. Global and peripheral VO(2) was measured in each neonate before and after limb cooling. In 10 neonates, a fall in forearm temperature of 2.2 degrees C (mild cooling) decreased forearm VO(2) by 19.6% (p forearm temperature of 4 degrees C (moderate cooling) decreased forearm VO(2) by 34.7% (p cooling. The changes are more pronounced with moderate limb cooling when a concomitant rise in global VO(2) is observed. Change in peripheral temperature must be taken into consideration in the interpretation of peripheral VO(2) measurements in neonates.

  2. IRIS Observations of Spicules and Structures Near the Solar Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Vial, J.-C.; Koukras, A.; Buchlin, E.; Chane-Yook, M.

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectral and slit-jaw observations of a quiet region near the South Pole. In this article we present an overview of the observations, the corrections, and the absolute calibration of the intensity. We focus on the average profiles of strong (Mg ii h and k, C ii and Si iv), as well as of weak spectral lines in the near ultraviolet (NUV) and the far ultraviolet (FUV), including the Mg ii triplet, thus probing the solar atmosphere from the low chromosphere to the transition region. We give the radial variation of bulk spectral parameters as well as line ratios and turbulent velocities. We present measurements of the formation height in lines and in the NUV continuum from which we find a linear relationship between the position of the limb and the intensity scale height. We also find that low forming lines, such as the Mg ii triplet, show no temporal variations above the limb associated with spicules, suggesting that such lines are formed in a homogeneous atmospheric layer and, possibly, that spicules are formed above the height of 2''. We discuss the spatio-temporal structure of the atmosphere near the limb from images of intensity as a function of position and time. In these images, we identify p-mode oscillations in the cores of lines formed at low heights above the photosphere, slow-moving bright features in O i and fast-moving bright features in C ii. Finally, we compare the Mg ii k and h line profiles, together with intensity values of the Balmer lines from the literature, with computations from the PROM57Mg non-LTE model, developed at the Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, and estimated values of the physical parameters. We obtain electron temperatures in the range of {˜} 8000 K at small heights to {˜} 20 000 K at large heights, electron densities from 1.1× 10^{11} to 4× 10^{10} cm^{-3} and a turbulent velocity of {˜} 24 km s^{-1}.

  3. Analysis of euv limb-brightening observations from ATM. I. Model for the transition layer and the corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariska, J T; Withbroe, G L [Harvard Coll. Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1975-09-01

    Limb-brightening curves for euv resonance lines of O VI and Mg X have been constructed from spectroheliograms (5 sec resolution) of quiet limb regions observed with the Harvard experiment on Skylab. The observations are interpreted with a simple model for the transition layer and the corona. A comparison of theoretical and observed limb-brightening curves indicates that the lower boundary of the corona, where T/sub e/ = 10/sup 6/K, is at a height of about 8000 km in typical quiet areas. For 1.01 R(sun) approximately = to or < r < 1.25(sun), the corona can be represented by a homogeneous model in hydrostatic equilibrium with a temperature of 10/sup 6/K for 1.01 R(sun) approximately = to or < r < 1.1 R(sun) and 1.1x10/sup 6/K for r > approximately = to 1.1 R(sun). The model for the transition layer is inhomogeneous, with the temperature gradient a factor of 3 shallower in the network than in the intranetwork regions. It appears that spicules should be included in the model in order to account for the penetration into the corona of cool (T/sub e/ < 10/sup 6/K) euv-emitting material to heights up to 20000 km above the limb.

  4. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  5. Far-infrared observations of Sagittarius B2 - reconsideration of source structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI)

    1986-01-01

    New moderate-angular-resolution far-infrared observations of the Sagittarius B2 star-forming region are presented, discussed, and compared with recent radio molecular and continuum observations of this source. In contrast to previous analyses, its far-infrared spectrum is interpreted as the result of a massive frigid cloud overlying a more-or-less normal infrared source, a natural explanation for the object's previously-noted peculiarities. The characteristics derived for the obscuring cloud are similar to those found for the W51 MAIN object. Both sources have high sub-millimeter surface brightness, a high ratio of sub-millimeter to far-infrared flux, and numerous regions of molecular maser emission. 28 references

  6. Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances measured by different remote sensing instruments are inter-compared: (1 Line-of-sight absorptions and vertical profiles inferred from solar spectra in the ultra-violet (UV, visible and infrared (IR wavelength ranges measured by the LPMA/DOAS (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere/Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloon payload during balloon ascent/descent and solar occultation are examined with respect to internal consistency. (2 The balloon borne stratospheric profiles of O3 and NO2 are compared to collocated space-borne skylight limb observations of the Envisat/SCIAMACHY satellite instrument. The trace gas profiles are retrieved from SCIAMACHY spectra using different algorithms developed at the Universities of Bremen and Heidelberg and at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. A comparison scheme is used that accounts for the spatial and temporal mismatch as well as differing photochemical conditions between the balloon and satellite borne measurements. It is found that the balloon borne measurements internally agree to within ±10% and ±20% for O3 and NO2, respectively, whereas the agreement with the satellite is ±20% for both gases in the 20 km to 30 km altitude range and in general worse below 20 km.

  7. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ern

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs and chemistry climate models (CCMs usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE. GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER. Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  8. Limb darkening in Venus night-side disk as viewed from Akatsuki IR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takehiko; Nakakushi, Takashi; Sato, Takao M.; Hashimoto, George L.

    2017-10-01

    Night-side hemisphere of Venus exhibits dark and bright regions as a result of spatially inhomogeneous cloud opacity which is illuminated by infrared radiation from deeper atmosphere. The 2-μm camera (IR2) onboard Akatsuki, Japan's Venus Climate Orbiter, is equipped with three narrow-band filters (1.735, 2.26, and 2.32 μm) to image Venus night-side disk in well-known transparency windows of CO2 atmosphere (Allen and Crawford 1984). In general, a cloud feature appears brightest when it is in the disk center and becomes darker as the zenith angle of emergent light increases. Such limb darkening was observed with Galileo/NIMS and mathematically approximated (Carlson et al., 1993). Limb-darkening correction helps to identify branches, in a 1.74-μm vs. 2.3-μm radiances scatter plot, each of which corresponds to a group of aerosols with similar properties. We analyzed Akatsuki/IR2 images to characterize the limb darkening for three night-side filters.There is, however, contamination from the intense day-side disk blurred by IR2's point spread function (PSF). It is found that infrared light can be multiplly reflected within the Si substrate of IR2 detector (1024x1024 pixels PtSi array), causing elongated tail in the actual PSF. We treated this in two different ways. One is to mathematically approximate the PSF (with a combination of modified Lorentz functions) and another is to differentiate 2.26-μm image from 2.32-μm image so that the blurred light pattern can directly be obtained. By comparing results from these two methods, we are able to reasonablly clean up the night-side images and limb darkening is extracted. Physical interpretation of limb darkening, as well as "true" time variations of cloud brightness will be presented/discussed.

  9. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  10. Infrared spectral observation of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Kazuo; Kodaira, Keiichi; Tanaka, W.; Suemoto, Zenzaburo

    1976-01-01

    The atmosphere of fixed stars must be studied in a supplementary way with both observation and theory. In case of low-temperature stars, however, there are difficulties in both two aspects. Under the situation, the multi-color measurement of the near infrared region was performed with a balloon telescope BAT-1 (the aperture of 15 cm) on June 17 and 18, 1975. For the red supergiant αSco, the data of light measurement was able to be obtained. (mori, K.)

  11. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  12. Atmospheric limb sounding with imaging FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Riese, Martin; Preusse, Peter; Oelhaf, Hermann; Fischer, Herbert

    Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared are a promising new class of sensors for atmospheric science. The availability of fast and sensitive large focal plane arrays with appropriate spectral coverage in the infrared region allows the conception and construction of innovative sensors for Nadir and Limb geometry. Instruments in Nadir geometry have already reached prototype status (e.g. Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer / U. Wisconsin and NASA) or are in Phase A study (infrared sounding mission on Meteosat third generation / ESA and EUMETSAT). The first application of the new technical possibilities to atmospheric limb sounding from space, the Imaging Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (IMIPAS), is currently studied by industry in the context of preparatory work for the next set of ESA earth explorers. The scientific focus of the instrument is on the processes controlling the composition of the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The instrument concept of IMIPAS has been conceived at the research centres Karlsruhe and J¨lich. The development of a precursor instrument (GLORIA-AB) at these research institutions u started already in 2005. The instrument will be able to fly on board of various airborne platforms. First scientific missions are planned for the second half of the year 2009 on board the new German research aircraft HALO. This airborne sensor serves its own scientific purpose, but it also provides a test bed to learn about this new instrument class and its peculiarities and to learn to exploit and interpret the wealth of information provided by a limb imaging IR Fourier transform spectrometer. The presentation will discuss design considerations and challenges for GLORIA-AB and put them in the context of the planned satellite application. It will describe the solutions found, present first laboratory figures of merit for the prototype instrument and outline the new scientific

  13. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  14. Far-infared spectroscopic observations with a Balloon-Borne infrared telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Takami, Hideki; Mizutani, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The first observations of far-infrared celestial objects using the 50-cm Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope were made in Alice Springs, Australia. Far-infrared spectrophotometric data between 45 and 115 μm were taken for the Orion-KL region, Saturn and a southern H II region RCW 38. The data including high excitation transition lines of CO for Orion-KL, O III lines for RCW 38 and a PH 3 absorption feature of Saturn will be presented. (author)

  15. Visual appearance of a virtual upper limb modulates the temperature of the real hand: a thermal imaging study in Immersive Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieri, Gaetano; Gioia, Annamaria; Scandola, Michele; Pavone, Enea F; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2017-05-01

    To explore the link between Sense of Embodiment (SoE) over a virtual hand and physiological regulation of skin temperature, 24 healthy participants were immersed in virtual reality through a Head Mounted Display and had their real limb temperature recorded by means of a high-sensitivity infrared camera. Participants observed a virtual right upper limb (appearing either normally, or with the hand detached from the forearm) or limb-shaped non-corporeal control objects (continuous or discontinuous wooden blocks) from a first-person perspective. Subjective ratings of SoE were collected in each observation condition, as well as temperatures of the right and left hand, wrist and forearm. The observation of these complex, body and body-related virtual scenes resulted in increased real hand temperature when compared to a baseline condition in which a 3d virtual ball was presented. Crucially, observation of non-natural appearances of the virtual limb (discontinuous limb) and limb-shaped non-corporeal objects elicited high increase in real hand temperature and low SoE. In contrast, observation of the full virtual limb caused high SoE and low temperature changes in the real hand with respect to the other conditions. Interestingly, the temperature difference across the different conditions occurred according to a topographic rule that included both hands. Our study sheds new light on the role of an external hand's visual appearance and suggests a tight link between higher-order bodily self-representations and topographic regulation of skin temperature. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Preusse, Peter; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Riese, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE). GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps) of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments) and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  17. MIRIS observation of near-infrared diffuse Galactic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yosuke; Sano, Kei; Matsuura, Shuji; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Jong; Seo, Hyun Jong; Han, Wonyong; Lee, DaeHee; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Wonkee; Park, Younsik; Kim, MinGyu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsumura, Kohji; Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Ienaka, Nobuyuki

    2018-06-01

    We report near-infrared (IR) observations of high Galactic latitude clouds to investigate diffuse Galactic light (DGL), which is starlight scattered by interstellar dust grains. The observations were performed at 1.1 and 1.6 μm with a wide-field camera instrument, the Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) onboard the Korean satellite STSAT-3. The DGL brightness is measured by correlating the near-IR images with a far-IR 100 μm map of interstellar dust thermal emission. The wide-field observation of DGL provides the most accurate DGL measurement achieved to-date. We also find a linear correlation between optical and near-IR DGL in the MBM32 field. To study interstellar dust properties in MBM32, we adopt recent dust models with and without μm-sized very large grains and predict the DGL spectra, taking into account the reddening effect of the interstellar radiation field. The result shows that the observed color of the near-IR DGL is closer to the model spectra without very large grains. This may imply that dust growth in the observed MBM32 field is not active owing to the low density of its interstellar medium.

  18. Retrieval of ozone profiles from OMPS limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arosio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a retrieval algorithm developed at the University of Bremen to obtain vertical profiles of ozone from limb observations performed by the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS. This algorithm is based on the technique originally developed for use with data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument. As both instruments make limb measurements of the scattered solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV and visible (Vis spectral ranges, an underlying objective of the study is to obtain consolidated and consistent ozone profiles from the two satellites and to produce a combined data set. The retrieval algorithm uses radiances in the UV and Vis wavelength ranges normalized to the radiance at an upper tangent height to obtain ozone concentrations in the altitude range of 12–60 km. Measurements at altitudes contaminated by clouds in the instrument field of view are identified and filtered out. An independent aerosol retrieval is performed beforehand and its results are used to account for the stratospheric aerosol load in the ozone inversion. The typical vertical resolution of the retrieved profiles varies from  ∼  2.5 km at lower altitudes ( < 30 km to  ∼  1.5 km (about 45 km and becomes coarser at upper altitudes. The retrieval errors resulting from the measurement noise are estimated to be 1–4 % above 25 km, increasing to 10–30 % in the upper troposphere. OMPS data are processed for the whole of 2016. The results are compared with the NASA product and validated against profiles derived from passive satellite observations or measured in situ by balloon-borne sondes. Between 20 and 60 km, OMPS ozone profiles typically agree with data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS v4.2 within 5–10 %, whereas in the lower altitude range the bias becomes larger, especially in the tropics. The comparison of OMPS profiles with ozonesonde

  19. Extreme-ultraviolet limb spectra of a prominence observed from SKYLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariska, J.T.; Doschek, G.A.; Feldman, U.

    1979-01-01

    Line profiles of extreme ultraviolet emission lines observed in a solar prominence at positions above the white-light limb with the NRL slit spectrograph on Skylab are discussed. Absolute line intensities and full widths at half-maximum are presented for lines formed over the temperature range approx.1 x 10 4 to 2.2 x 10 5 K. The volume emission measures calculated using resonance line intensities are greater than quiet-Sun emission measures at the same height above the limb and indicate a somewhat different distribution of material with temperature in the prominence compared to the quiet-Sun emission measure at +8''. Electron densities in the prominence determined using the calculated emission measures and the intensities of density-sensitive intersystem lines are between the quiet-Sun electron density and half the quiet-Sun electron density. Random mass-motion velocities calculated from the measured full widths at half-maximum show a range of velocities. For T/sub e/> or approx. =4 x 10 4 K, the nonthermal velocity decreases with increasing height in the prominence. For T/sub e/ 4 K, the calculated mass motions are near zero. From the He II 1640 A line profile we derive an average temperature of 27,000 K for the region in which He II is emitted

  20. Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, J.R.; Bowman, K.W.; Jones, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    Limb sounders measure atmospheric radiation that is dependent on atmospheric temperature and constituents that have a radial and angular distribution in Earth-centered coordinates. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of a limb retrieval to radial and angular distributions of trace gas concentrations, we perform and characterize one-dimensional (vertical) and two-dimensional (radial and angular) atmospheric profile retrievals. Our simulated atmosphere for these retrievals is a distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), which represents a plume off the coast of south-east Asia. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) limb retrievals are characterized by evaluating their averaging kernels and error covariances on a radial and angular grid that spans the plume. We apply this 2D characterization of a limb retrieval to a comparison of the 2D retrieval with the 1D (vertical) retrieval. By characterizing a limb retrieval in two dimensions the location of the air mass where the retrievals are most sensitive can be determined. For this test case the retrievals are most sensitive to the CO concentrations about 2 deg.latitude in front of the tangent point locations. We find the information content for the 2D retrieval is an order of magnitude larger and the degrees of freedom is about a factor of two larger than that of the 1D retrieval primarily because the 2D retrieval can estimate angular distributions of CO concentrations. This 2D characterization allows the radial and angular resolution as well as the degrees of freedom and information content to be computed for these limb retrievals. We also use the 2D averaging kernel to develop a strategy for validation of a limb retrieval with an in situ measurement

  1. Combined Ulysses Solar Wind and SOHO Coronal Observations of Several West Limb Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Forsyth, R. J.; Howard, R. A.; Schwenn, R.

    2001-01-01

    From October 1996 to January 1997, Ulysses was situated roughly above the west limb of the Sun as observed from Earth at a heliocentric distance of about 4.6 AU and a latitude of about 25 deg. This presents the first opportunity to compare Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) limb observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directly with their solar wind counterparts far from the Sun using the Ulysses data. During this interval, large eruptive events were observed above the west limb of the Sun by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on SOHO on October 5, November 28, and December 21-25, 1996. Using the combined plasma and magnetic field data from Ulysses, the October 5 event was clearly identified by several distinguishing signatures as a CME. The November 28 event was also identified as a CME that trailed fast ambient solar wind, although it was identified only by an extended interval of counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The December 21 event was apparently characterized by a six-day interval of nearly radial field and a plasma rarefaction. For the numerous eruptive events observed by the LASCO coronagraph during December 23-25, Ulysses showed no distinct, CMEs, perhaps because of intermingling of two or more of the eruptive events. By mapping the Ulysses observations back in time to the Sun assuming a constant flow speed, we have identified intervals of plasma that were accelerated or decelerated between the LASCO and Ulysses observations.

  2. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  3. Detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds using limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Savigny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based measurements of Visible/NIR limb-scattered solar radiation are well suited for the detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. This publication describes a method to detect PCSs from limb scattering observations with the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY on the European Space Agency's Envisat spacecraft. The method is based on a color-index approach and requires a priori knowledge of the stratospheric background aerosol loading in order to avoid false PSC identifications by stratospheric background aerosol. The method is applied to a sample data set including the 2003 PSC season in the Southern Hemisphere. The PSCs are correlated with coincident UKMO model temperature data, and with very few exceptions, the detected PSCs occur at temperatures below 195–198 K. Monthly averaged PSC descent rates are about 1.5 km/month for the −50° S to −75° S latitude range and assume a maximum between August and September with a value of about 2.5 km/month. The main cause of the PSC descent is the slow descent of the lower stratospheric temperature minimum.

  4. Observation of the exhaust plume from the space shuttle main engines using the microwave limb sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Pumphrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A space shuttle launch deposits 700 tonnes of water in the atmosphere. Some of this water is released into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere where it may be directly detected by a limb sounding satellite instrument. We report measurements of water vapour plumes from shuttle launches made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite. Approximately 50%–65% of shuttle launches are detected by MLS. The signal appears at a similar level across the upper 10 km of the MLS limb scan, suggesting that the bulk of the observed water is above the top of the scan. Only a small fraction at best of smaller launches (Ariane 5, Proton are detected. We conclude that the sensitivity of MLS is only just great enough to detect a shuttle sized launch, but that a suitably designed instrument of the same general type could detect the exhausts from a large proportion of heavy-lift launches.

  5. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  6. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  7. Observation of runaway electrons by infrared camera in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, R. H.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Huang, D. W.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    When the energy of confined runaway electrons approaches several tens of MeV, the runaway electrons can emit synchrotron radiation in the range of infrared wavelength. An infrared camera working in the wavelength of 3-5 μm has been developed to study the runaway electrons in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The camera is located in the equatorial plane looking tangentially into the direction of electron approach. The runaway electron beam inside the plasma has been observed at the flattop phase. With a fast acquisition of the camera, the behavior of runaway electron beam has been observed directly during the runaway current plateau following the massive gas injection triggered disruptions.

  8. New infrared observations of IRS 1, IRS 3, and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelton, Y.; Werner, M.; Dinerstein, H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports show that near infrared reflection nebulae are often observed around embedded protostellar objects. New observations are here reported of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2). It has been determined that the asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is in fact another infrared reflection nebula. Observations of near infrared polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility October 1982 and January 1983. (author)

  9. Contribution of infrared observations to the study of supernovae remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvion, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of dust in young supernovae remnants observed in middle infrared, mainly by means of the ISOCAM instrument installed on the ISO satellite. The author first presents the supernovae physics and the studied young remnants, describes dusts and the main sites of formation and destruction, and outlines the difficulties and benefits of observations performed in the middle infrared. Then, the author reports acquired evidences related to the formation of dusts in supernovae, and the search for a millimetre emission by cold dust contained in regions which are not yet excited by the shock, in order to better assess the overall quantities created by supernovae. He reports the use of observations of dust and neon in Cassiopeia A to perform a diagnosis on the mixture of elements during the supernovae explosion [fr

  10. Radioisotopic and thermographic imaging of the lower limbs oedema - comparison diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Nowak, E.; Kulka, J.; Gielzycki, J.; Kraft, O.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, authors achieved comparison between lymphoscintigraphy and thermography in patients with limbs oedema. It allow to determinate current role of lymphoscintigraphy and verify useful of thermography in limbs oedema diagnosis. Analysis included 60 patients with the lower limbs oedema. Each patients Doppler duplex scan and thermographic study was performed. Additionally, 10 patients were classified to the lymphoscintigraphy. Thermography: In studies camera ThermaCAM S60 (FLIR SYSTEM) were used. Infrared radiation detector was 320 x 240 uncooled microbolometers with thermal resolution - 0.08 o C (for 30 o C). Lymphoscintigraphy: Each patient received subcutaneous, in the second web space, Nanosis (schering) labeled 99m Tc. Dynamic data acquisition has been started immediately after injection the radiotracer to the both extremities using digital gamma camera X Ring (Mediso). Static study of whole body was performed after 1.5 hour. Thermal disorders were observed in 58 patients. On the base ultrasound and clinical examinations 10 patients were classified to lymphoscintigraphy. In this group in 5 cases traits lymphatic insufficient were observed. Thermographic study in group of patients with scintigraphic disorders was showed regional hypothermia, with small regions of hypothermia in tissues included oedema. Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful and indispensable tool in oedema diagnosis. In patients with insufficient of lymphatic system, thermography comparison to lymphoscintigraphy, in clinical diagnosis did not influence on the future diagnosis and therapeutics proceedings. Regional hyperthermic disorders in patients with limbs oedema, who had negative results of examinations (Doppler duplex scan and lymphoscintigraphy), could indicate on inflammatory complications. In cases of venous insufficient thermography allow to visualize specific venous disorders. (author)

  11. Infrared observations of extragalactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinmann, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The available balloon-borne and airborne infrared data on extragalactic sources, in particular M 82, NGC 1068 and NGC 253, is reviewed and discussed in the context of the extensive groundbased work. The data is examined for the clues they provide on the nature of the ultimate source of the energy radiated and on the mechanism(s) by which it is radiated. Since the discovery of unexpectedly powerful infrared radiation from extragalactic objects - a discovery now about 10 years old - the outstanding problems in this field have been to determine (1) the mechanism by which prodigious amounts of energy are released in the infrared, and (2) the nature of the underlying energy source. (Auth.)

  12. Observing the Peripheral Burning of Cigarettes by an Infrared Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern infrared camera was used to observe the peripheral burning of cigarettes during puffing and smouldering. The computer-controlled infrared system captured thermal images with recording rates up to 50 Hz at 8-bit (256-colour resolution. The response time was less than 0.04 s at ca. 780 °C. The overall performance of the system was superior to most infrared systems used in previously reported investigations. The combined capacity allowed us to capture some faster, smaller high-temperature burning events on the periphery of a cigarette during puffing, which was first described by Egertion et al. in 1963 using an X-ray method. These transient burning events were caused by tobacco shreds near the coal surface experiencing the maximum air influx. The temperature of these transient burning events could be ca. 200 to 250 °C higher than the average peripheral temperature of the cigarette. The likelihood of these high-temperature burning events occurring during smouldering was significantly less. Some other details of the cigarette's combustion were also observed with improved simplicity and clarity.

  13. The large scale infrared emission in the galactic plane - observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared radiation is deeply involved in a variety of matters and processes in the galaxy. Near infrared radiation is predominantly emitted by late type stars which include the major part of the mass in the Galaxy and hence govern its dynamics. Short wavelength radiation (UV and visible) emitted from early type stars is easily absorbed by dust around the stars themselves or by interstellar dust, and reemitted in middle or far infrared regions. A variety of emission lines, fine structure lines of neutral and ionized heavy elements, as well as many molecular lines are also clustered in the middle and far infrared regions. Since their line intensities are generally very weak, and, moreover, spectroscopic observations demand relatively difficult techniques in their detection, the surveys so far done have been limited mostly to continuum emission. This article compiles them and discusses briefly their implications to the structure of the Galaxy in its inner region. (Auth.)

  14. Far-infrared and CO observations of NGC 6357 and regions surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Jaffe, D.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have surveyed two 1.7 square degree sections of the galactic plane at 70 μm with one-arcminute resolution. The scanned areas included the giant southern H II region complexes NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Nineteen far-infrared sources were observed. The sources range in luminosity from 1.6 x 10 4 to 5.5 x 10 5 L/sub sun/ . We present far-infrared continuum and CO line observations of NGC 6357. Four far-infrared sources were found in this complex and for one of these sources the exciting stars are identified. We present far-infrared and CO observations of sources in the field surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. The far-infrared sources coincide frequently with CO line temperature peaks. The CO clouds which surround the far-infrared sources have similar 13 CO column densities. Two of the far-infrared sources in the field have associated OH and H 2 O maser emission and compact H II regions

  15. Observational retrospective study on the effectiveness of sequential graduated intermittent pneumatic compression therapy of lower limbs edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Toma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of sequential graduated intermittent pneumatic compression (SGIPC therapy of lower limbs edema, regardless of its etiology. A retrospective observational study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of a regimen of sequential gradient SGIPC in treating edema of lower limbs. The study is carried out on 90 patients affected by different stages of edema and evaluated at a Wound Care Clinic for one month. Medical records data have been collected after the first, the third, and the fifth hour-long treatment session. The inclusion criteria are: (1 presence of edema to one limb, at least, regardless of etiology, (2 presence of both pain and feeling of heaviness (or tiredness of the limb, (3 non-use of bandages or elastic stocking/knee socks, and (4 availability of complete data about the edema size monitoring. The exclusion criteria are: (1 presence of infected wounds, (2 severe arteriosclerosis or other ischemic vascular diseases, (3 severe congestive cardiac failure, (4 known or suspected acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT, (5 thrombophlebitis or Pulmonary Embolism (PE, and (6 hypertension (Systolic Pressure greater than 170mmHg. The following parameters are considered as grade of improvement: the decrease of the limb circumference in at least two measurement points between the foot, ankle, and calf; the disappearance of at least one of the symptoms of pain and feeling of heaviness of the limb; improved mobility. A Flowtron ACS 900 system is used, for the treatment, consisting of a pump, connected to two (calf and thigh brace with individual tubes, applying a pneumatic compression, graduated in the air chamber, with sequential cycle in three compartments (one at the calf level and two at the thigh level, at a pressure of 45mmHg, with inflation cycles intermittent alternating. Inflation time 12s, time of deflation 48s. In addition, braces corresponding to limb size have been used

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.

  17. Energetic molecular outflow near AFGL 961: millimeter-wave and infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.; Gautier, T.N. III

    1982-01-01

    We report detailed millimeter-wave and near-infrared spectroscopy of the dynamically active region around the infrared source AFGL 961, near the Rosette nebula. Millimeter-wave 12 CO observations are used to study the high-velocity molecular flow around AFGL 961. These observations show that the high-velocity flow has a maximum extent of at least 6' or 2.9 pc at the distance of AFGL 961. The flow is found to be anisotropic, with redshifted high-velocity emission considerably more extended than blueshifted high-velocity emission. However, the flow does not appear to be as highly collimated as some other sources of high-velocity bipolar outflow. We also find the emission profiles to be asymmetric in velocity such that the integrated intensity of the redshifted high-velocity emission is on average 2.5 times greater than that of the blueshifted emission. The mass of the gas involved in the flow is determined to be approximately 19 M/sub sun/, and the kinetic energy of this gas is estimated to be about 8 x 10 46 ergs. These observations are interpreted as evidence that an energetic bipolar outflow of molecular gas is occurring near AFGL 961. The momentum of the outflowing molecular gas is large, and it is shown that this places strong constraints on possible physical mechanisms which may be driving the outflow. The near-infrared spectrum of AFGL 961 from 1.4-2.4 μm was obtained in order to study the conditions immediately around the infrared source which may be driving the molecular outflow

  18. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.

  19. Near-Infrared Keck Interferometer and IOTA Closure Phase Observations of Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, J.; Wallace, D.; Barry, R.; Richardson, L. J.; Traub, W.; Danchi, W. C.

    We present first results from observations of a small sample of IR-bright Wolf-Rayet stars with the Keck Interferometer in the near-infrared, and with the IONIC beam three-telescope beam combiner at the Infrared and Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) observatory. The former results were obtained as part of shared-risk observations in commissioning the Keck Interferometer and form a subset of a high-resolution study of dust around Wolf-Rayet stars using multiple interferometers in progress in our group. The latter results are the first closure phase observations of these stars in the near-infrared in a separated telescope interferometer. Earlier aperture-masking observations with the Keck-I telescope provide strong evidence that dust-formation in late-type WC stars are a result of wind-wind collision in short-period binaries.Our program with the Keck interferometer seeks to further examine this paradigm at much higher resolution. We have spatially resolved the binary in the prototypical dusty WC type star WR 140. WR 137, another episodic dust-producing star, has been partially resolved for the first time, providing the first direct clue to its possible binary nature.We also include WN stars in our sample to investigate circumstellar dust in this other main sub-type of WRs. We have been unable to resolve any of these, indicating a lack of extended dust.Complementary observations using the MIDI instrument on the VLTI in the mid-infrared are presented in another contribution to this workshop.

  20. One-Year Observations of Jupiter by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper on Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S.; Becker, H. N.; Bagenal, F.; Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) [1] on board the Juno [2,3] spacecraft, is equipped with an infrared camera and a spectrometer working in the spectral range 2-5 μm. JIRAM was built to study the infrared aurora of Jupiter as well as to map the planet's atmosphere in the 5 µm spectral region. The spectroscopic observations are used for studying clouds and measuring the abundance of some chemical species that have importance in the atmosphere's chemistry, microphysics and dynamics like water, ammonia and phosphine. During 2017 the instrument will operate during all 7 of Juno's Jupiter flybys. JIRAM has performed several observations of the polar regions of the planet addressing the aurora and the atmosphere. Unprecedented views of the aurora and the polar atmospheric structures have been obtained. We present a survey of the most significant observations that the instrument has performed during the current year. [1] Adriani A. et al., JIRAM, the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper. Space Sci. Rew., DOI 10.1007/s11214-014-0094-y, 2014. [2] Bolton S.J. et al., Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft. Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2108, 2017. [3] Connerney J. E.P. et al., Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits. Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5928, 2017.

  1. Synchronous photoelectrical observations of flare stars in the visible and near infrared ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruevich, V.V.; Kilyachkov, N.N.; Shevchenko, V.S.; Burnashov, V.I.; Grinin, V.P.; Koryshev, V.V.; Shakhovskaya, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of synchronous photoelectrical observations of the AD Leo and EV Lac flare stars made in 1975 in the Crimea in B-filter and in the near infrared region (i-band, lambdasub(ef) approximately 0.85 μm) and the observations of the UV Cet and EV Lac stars made in 1976 in the Astronomical Institute Uzbek SSR in three passbands: U, isub(TiO)(lambdasub(ef)=0.71 μ) and isub(C)(lambdasub(ef)=0.80μm) are given. Practically all strong flares in the visible spectral range were followed by the IR-flares. In about 70% of the cases the predicted infrared negative preflares were observed. The amplitudes (in erg/s) of the negative flares are comparable with the amplitude of the optical flares. The analysis of the observed data shows that: a) the amplitudes and the energies of the positive IR flares are in average the larger the stronger is the optical flare; b) the amplitudes of the negative IR preflares are on the contrary the smaller the stronger is the optical flare; c) there are infrared flares the main energy out of which takes place in the infrared range of wavelengths; d) The U-i color shows a positive correlation with the amplitude of the flare in U: the stronger is the flare the bluer is its radiation

  2. Radio and infrared observations of the faint nebula GM24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F; Roth, M; Tapia, M; Canto, J; Persi, P; Ferrari-Toniolo, M

    1986-02-01

    The faint nebulosity GM24=PP85 listed by Parsamian and Petrosian (1979) was observed at infrared (1-10 ..mu..m) and radio (6 cm and CO line) wavelengths in the vicinity of the CO hot spot reported by Torrelles et al. (1983). The radio continuum (6 cm) emission from a spherically symmetrical HII region was detected with the Very Large Array. Its position coincides with the brightest part of the visible nebulosity and a 1-4 ..mu..m emission peak. Their infrared maps made at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir, show two additional (1-10 ..mu..m) peaks located at distances approx. 30 arc sec from the compact HII region, all surrounded by extended near infrared (1-4 ..mu..m) emission. A detailed CO (J=1 ..-->.. 0) map of the whole molecular cloud was also obtained with the University of Texas Millimeter - Wave Telescope. Their results are interpreted in terms of the recent formation of three massive stars, one of which, having developed an HII region, is at a slightly later phase of its evolution. The extended near infrared emission may arise in a reflection nebula similar to NGC 7538-Irs 9. 4 references.

  3. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W.M.; Werner, M.W.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared photometry is presented of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 μm) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 μm) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 μm) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 μm). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of colour-colour diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. (author)

  4. Lower-Limb Wearable Exoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, J.L.; Moreno, J.C.; Brunetti, F.J.; Rocon, E.

    2007-01-01

    The differences found in the patients' kinematic gait patterns during the application of functional compensation on the lower limb showed significant differences regarding the subjects' usual gait. In both patients rapid adaptations were observed and new motor commands were learnt necessary for managing the exoskeleton with the constraints imposed on the limb. The benefits of the correct release of the knee in both instances is clear evidence of approximating their gait patterns to the normal...

  5. Genomic features of human limb specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Amina, Bibi; Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Parveen, Nazia; Nawaz, Uzma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate important cellular and molecular interactions that regulate patterning and skeletal development, vertebrate limbs served as a model organ. A growing body of evidence from detailed studies on a subset of limb regulators like the HOXD cluster or SHH, reveals the importance of enhancers in limb related developmental and disease processes. Exploiting the recent genome-wide availability of functionally confirmed enhancer dataset, this study establishes regulatory interactions for dozens of human limb developmental genes. From these data, it appears that the long-range regulatory interactions are fairly common during limb development. This observation highlights the significance of chromosomal breaks/translocations in human limb deformities. Transcriptional factor (TF) analysis predicts that the differentiation of early nascent limb-bud into future territories entail distinct TF interaction networks. Conclusively, an important motivation for annotating the human limb specific regulatory networks is to pave way for the systematic exploration of their role in disease and evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Far infrared photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leotin, J.; Meny, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the development of far infrared photoconductors for the focal plane of a spaceborne instrument named SAFIRE. SAFIRE (Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission) belongs to the EOS program (Earth Observing System) and is now in the definition phase. It is a joint effort by scientists from the United States, Great Britain, Italy and France for a new generation of atmosphere sensor. The overall goal of the SAFIRE experiment is to improve the understanding of the ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere by conducting global scale measurements of the important chemical, radiative and dynamical processes which influence its changes. This will be accomplished by the measurement of the far infrared thermal limb emission in seven spectral channels covering the range 80 to 400 cm -1 with a maximum resolution of 0.004 cm -1 . For example key gases like OH, O, HO 2 , N 2 O 5 will be probed for the first time. Achievement of the required detector sensitivity in the far-infrared imposes the choice of photoconductive detectors operating at liquid helium temperatures. Germanium doped with gallium is selected for six channels whereas germanium doped with beryllium is suitable for the N 2 O 5 channel. Both photoconductors Ge:Ga and Ge:Be benefit from a well established material technology. A better wavelength coverage of channel 1 is achieved by applying a small uniaxial stress of the order of 0.1 GPa on the Ge:Ga photoconductors. The channel 6B wavelength coverage could be improved by using zinc-doped-germanium (Ge:Zn) or, much better, by using a Blocked Impurity band silicon detector doped with antimony (BIB Si:Sb). The later is developed as an optional basis

  7. Fermi -LAT Observations of High-energy Behind-the-limb Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Allafort, A.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Costanza, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cecchi, C., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); and others

    2017-02-01

    We report on the Fermi -LAT detection of high-energy emission from the behind-the-limb (BTL) solar flares that occurred on 2013 October 11, and 2014 January 6 and September 1. The Fermi -LAT observations are associated with flares from active regions originating behind both the eastern and western limbs, as determined by STEREO . All three flares are associated with very fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and strong solar energetic particle events. We present updated localizations of the >100 MeV photon emission, hard X-ray (HXR) and EUV images, and broadband spectra from 10 keV to 10 GeV, as well as microwave spectra. We also provide a comparison of the BTL flares detected by Fermi -LAT with three on-disk flares and present a study of some of the significant quantities of these flares as an attempt to better understand the acceleration mechanisms at work during these occulted flares. We interpret the HXR emission to be due to electron bremsstrahlung from a coronal thin-target loop top with the accelerated electron spectra steepening at semirelativistic energies. The >100 MeV gamma-rays are best described by a pion-decay model resulting from the interaction of protons (and other ions) in a thick-target photospheric source. The protons are believed to have been accelerated (to energies >10 GeV) in the CME environment and precipitate down to the photosphere from the downstream side of the CME shock and landed on the front side of the Sun, away from the original flare site and the HXR emission.

  8. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  9. Far infrared extinction coefficients of minerals of interest for astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared extinction coefficients of mineral grains of interest for astronomical observations have been measured. The measured mineral species are: amorphous carbon, high temperature magnesium silicates, hydrous silicates, iron oxides, and amorphous silicates. (author)

  10. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  11. Off-limb EUV observations of the solar corona and transients with the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope-coronagraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Slemzin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The SPIRIT telescope aboard the CORONAS-F satellite (in orbit from 26 July 2001 to 5 December 2005, observed the off-limb solar corona in the 175 Å (Fe IX, X and XI lines and 304 Å (He II and Si XI lines bands. In the coronagraphic mode the mirror was tilted to image the corona at the distance of 1.1...5 Rsun from the solar center, the outer occulter blocked the disk radiation and the detector sensitivity was enhanced. This intermediate region between the fields of view of ordinary extreme-ultraviolet (EUV telescopes and most of the white-light (WL coronagraphs is responsible for forming the streamer belt, acceleration of ejected matter and emergence of slow and fast solar wind. We present here the results of continuous coronagraphic EUV observations of the solar corona carried out during two weeks in June and December 2002. The images showed a "diffuse" (unresolved component of the corona seen in both bands, and non-radial, ray-like structures seen only in the 175 Å band, which can be associated with a streamer base. The correlations between latitudinal distributions of the EUV brightness in the corona and at the limb were found to be high in 304 Å at all distances and in 175 Å only below 1.5 Rsun. The temporal correlation of the coronal brightness along the west radial line, with the brightness at the underlying limb region was significant in both bands, independent of the distance. On 2 February 2003 SPIRIT observed an expansion of a transient associated with a prominence eruption seen only in the 304 Å band. The SPIRIT data have been compared with the corresponding data of the SOHO LASCO, EIT and UVCS instruments.

  12. Infrared galaxies evolution. From cosmological observations with ISO to a mid-infrared to sub-millimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, Herve

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 μm with the Infrared Space Observatory whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modelling of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45 mJy. I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 μm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non-negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developed a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 μm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10"1"1 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are

  13. Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranage, Simone; Banwell, Helen; Williams, Cylie M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric gait and lower limb assessments are frequently undertaken in podiatry and physiotherapy clinical practice and this is a growing area of expertise within Australia. No concise paediatric standardised recording proforma exists to assist clinicians in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a gait and lower limb standardised recording proforma guided by the literature and consensus, for assessment of the paediatric foot and lower limb in children aged 0-18 years. Expert Australian podiatrists and physiotherapists were invited to participate in a three round Delphi survey panel using the online Qualtrics(©) survey platform. The first round of the survey consisted of open-ended questions on paediatric gait and lower limb assessment developed from existing templates and a literature search of standardised lower limb assessment methods. Rounds two and three consisted of statements developed from the first round responses. Questions and statements were included in the final proforma if 70 % or more of the participants indicated consensus or agreement with the assessment method and if there was support within the literature for paediatric age-specific normative data with acceptable reliability of outcome measures. There were 17 of the 21 (81 %) participants who completed three rounds of the survey. Consensus was achieved for 41 statements in Round one, 54 statements achieved agreement in two subsequent rounds. Participants agreed on 95 statements relating to birth history, developmental history, hip measurement, rotation of the lower limb, ankle range of motion, foot posture, balance and gait. Assessments with acceptable validity and reliability were included within the final Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP) proforma. The GALLOP proforma is a consensus based, systematic and standardised way to collect information and outcome measures in paediatric lower limb assessment. This standardised recording proforma will assist

  14. Infrared thermography applied to lower limb muscles in elite soccer players with functional ankle equinus and non-equinus condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius-soleus equinus (GSE is a foot-ankle complaint in which the extensibility of the gastrocnemius (G and soleus muscles (triceps surae and ankle are limited to a dorsiflexion beyond a neutral ankle position. The asymmetric forces of leg muscles and the associated asymmetric loading forces might promote major activation of the triceps surae, tibialis anterior, transverses abdominal and multifidus muscles. Here, we made infrared recordings of 21 sportsmen (elite professional soccer players before activity and after 30 min of running. These recordings were used to assess temperature modifications on the gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and Achilles tendon in GSE and non-GSE participants. We identified significant temperature modifications among GSE and non-GSE participants for the tibialis anterior muscle (mean, minimum, and maximum temperature values. The cutaneous temperature increased as a direct consequence of muscle activity in GSE participants. IR imaging capture was reliable to muscle pattern activation for lower limb. Based on our findings, we propose that non-invasive IR evaluation is suitable for clinical evaluation of the status of these muscles.

  15. Using multimodal imaging techniques to monitor limb ischemia: a rapid noninvasive method for assessing extremity wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rajiv; Caruso, Joseph D.; Radowsky, Jason S.; Rodriguez, Maricela; Forsberg, Jonathan; Elster, Eric A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2013-03-01

    Over 70% of military casualties resulting from the current conflicts sustain major extremity injuries. Of these the majority are caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices. The resulting injuries include traumatic amputations, open fractures, crush injuries, and acute vascular disruption. Critical tissue ischemia—the point at which ischemic tissues lose the capacity to recover—is therefore a major concern, as lack of blood flow to tissues rapidly leads to tissue deoxygenation and necrosis. If left undetected or unaddressed, a potentially salvageable limb may require more extensive debridement or, more commonly, amputation. Predicting wound outcome during the initial management of blast wounds remains a significant challenge, as wounds continue to "evolve" during the debridement process and our ability to assess wound viability remains subjectively based. Better means of identifying critical ischemia are needed. We developed a swine limb ischemia model in which two imaging modalities were combined to produce an objective and quantitative assessment of wound perfusion and tissue viability. By using 3 Charge-Coupled Device (3CCD) and Infrared (IR) cameras, both surface tissue oxygenation as well as overall limb perfusion could be depicted. We observed a change in mean 3CCD and IR values at peak ischemia and during reperfusion correlate well with clinically observed indicators for limb function and vitality. After correcting for baseline mean R-B values, the 3CCD values correlate with surface tissue oxygenation and the IR values with changes in perfusion. This study aims to not only increase fundamental understanding of the processes involved with limb ischemia and reperfusion, but also to develop tools to monitor overall limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting. A rapid and objective diagnostic for extent of ischemic damage and overall limb viability could provide surgeons with a more accurate indication of tissue viability. This may

  16. Near infrared measurements of SPICAM AOTF spectrometer on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Fedorova, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Stepanov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Dimarellis, E.; Kalinnikov, Yu. K.

    The Near-Infrared channel of SPICAM, a lightweight (800 g) acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) spectrometer observes the atmosphere and the surface of Mars from Mars Express orbiter. The spectrometer covers the spectral range between 1000 and 1700 nm with the resolving power λ /Δ λ superior to 1300. Signal-to noise ratio in individual Mars spectra varies from 30 to 100 and more depending on observation conditions. The total column abundance of water vapour is measured in nadir at 1380 nm simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV channel of SPICAM. Moreover, the O21Δ g emission at 1270 nm produced by photodissociation of ozone above 15-20km is systematically observed in nadir at the background of bright disk constraining (with the UV measurements of total ozone) its vertical distribution. Airmass reference is provided self-consistently from carbon dioxide measurements at 1430 and 1580 nm. At LS≈ 280 clear spectral signatures of CO2 and H2O ices has been detected at the permanent South Polar Cap (simultaneously with OMEGA and PFS findings) and above 55N. Limb measurements show that at the time when TES/MGS measurements indicate very clear atmosphere, the dust at the limb is observed up to 50-60km. We will present description of the spectrometer and its characterization, and describe the collected data, including nadir, limb and solar occultation measurements. Spectro-polarimetry capabilities of the AOTF will be discussed. This is the first experience of AOTF use in deep space, and we believe that a 800-g instrument capable to measure water vapour and much more on Mars should become a routine climate/environment tool on future missions.

  17. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  18. Infrared and optical observations of Nova Mus 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.; Carter, B.S.; Feast, M.W.; Glass, I.S.; Laney, D.; Menzies, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive optical (UBVRI) and infrared (JHKL) photometry of Nova Mus 1983 obtained over a period of 300 days is tabulated. Infrared and optical spectra are described. Although by classical definition this was a fast nova its later development was slower than for typical objects of this class. Surprisingly the development of infrared thermal dust emission did not occur. Throughout the period covered, the infrared emission was characteristic of a bound-free plus free-free plasma continuum with emission lines. (author)

  19. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  20. Jupiter: His limb darkening and the magnitude of his internal energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, L.M.; Wildey, R.L.

    1970-01-01

    The most accurate infrared photometric observations (8 to 14 microns) to date of the average limb darkening of Jupiter have been combined with the most refined deduction of jovian model atmospheres in which flux constancy has been closely maintained in the upper regime of radiative equilibrium and a much more accurate approximation of the 10- and 16-micron vibration-rotation bands of ammonia has been incorporated. The theoretically predicted emergent specific intensity has been multiplied by the spectral response function and folded (mathematically convolved - intersmeared) with the spatial response function of the atmosphere-telescope-photometer combination. The resulting comparison indicates that Jupiter is radiating from three to four times as much power as the planet is receiving from the sun.

  1. Developmental origin of limb size variation in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M; Skewes, Sable A

    2017-05-01

    In many respects, reptile hatchlings are fully functional, albeit miniature, adults. This means that the adult morphology must emerge during embryonic development. This insight emphasizes the connection between the mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation during embryonic development and the action of selection on post-hatching individuals. To determine when species-specific differences in limb and tail lengths emerge during embryonic development, we compared allometric patterns of early limb growth of four distantly related species of lizards. The major questions addressed were whether early embryonic limb and tail growth is characterized by the gradual (continuous allometry) or by the abrupt emergence (transpositional allometry) of size differences among species. Our observations supported transpositional allometry of both limbs and tails. Species-specific differences in limb and tail length were exhibited when limb and tail buds first protruded from the body wall. Genes known to be associated with early limb development of tetrapods are obvious targets for studies on the genetic mechanisms that determine interspecific differences in relative limb length. Broadly comparative studies of gene regulation would facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive variation in limb size, including limb reduction and loss, of squamate reptiles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Circumstellar envelopes seen in radio (OH masers) and in the infrared observations (IRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Pedro-Correia-de-Matos

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars, namely from one to nine solar masses, eject mass into the surrounding interstellar medium at high rates (up to 1/10000 solar masses per year) in their late stages of evolution on the so called asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Indeed, the presence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) composed of dust and gas is one of the principal features of the objects on the AGB. Because of the high opacity at visible wavelength of the CSE, most of these objects can only be observed at infrared and radio frequencies. This study was undertaken using infrared and radio data from a large sample of CSE sources. The infrared data was obtained from the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) data base. For a selection of IRAS objects, radio observations were made of the OH maser at 1612 and 1667 MHz at the Nancay radio telescope, France. This work consists in two parts, one is theoretical in nature, the other observational. The theoretical part is concerned with the modeling of IRAS low resolution spectra (LRS catalog) and IRAS photometry through the use of a radiative transfer code. Confrontation between models and data has yielded such results as a better definition of the grain optical properties and the behavior of the CSE as it evolves. A model of a shock wave (a possible lifting engine of the CSE) propagating in the atmosphere of Mira stars (AGB) is described. On the observational side, a large number of objects has been surveyed for the presence of OH masers at 1612 and 1667 MHz. A statistical analysis has established more clearly the evolutionary status of CSE and the OH maser characteristics. A compiling of detection rates for the occurrence of masers, average location of these masing CSEs in the Galaxy, and OH maser characteristics is reported for use in future work. (author) [fr

  3. The nature of cometary dust as determined from infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. Krishna; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Bregman, Jesse D.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared measurements of comets, the compositional information available from interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and the recent results of flybys to Comet Halley can help in restricting the nature and composition of cometary dust models (c.f., Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on Exploration of Halley's Comet, 1986). Researchers tried to incorporate some of these results into a coherent model to account for the observed cometary infrared emission. The presence of 10 and 3.4 micron features in Comet Halley (c.f. Bregman et al. 1987; Wickramasinghe and Allen 1986) indicated the presence of at least two components in the grain material, namely silicates and some form of amorphous carbon. These two components could reside in separate grains or may be parts of composite particles. Both these cases have been considered (see Krishna Swamy el a. 1988a, 1988b). In the absence of refractive index data for cometary analogs, the authors used the optical constants of olivine-rich lunar material 12009.48 (Perry et al. 1972) for the infrared region and that of alpha:C-H film for amorphous carbon (angus et al. 1986). For the visible region, a value of m = 1.38-0.39i was used for the silicates, and values published by Arakawa et al. (1985) were used for the amorphous carbon. These materials should give a representative behavior of the expected results. The model results were compared to observational data. The strength of the 3.4 micron and 10 micron features relative to the adjacent continuum, as well as the slope of the continuum between 2500 and 1250 cm(exp -1) (4 to 8 microns), were used as criteria for comparison. Model calculations with alpha approx. equals -3.5, and also the size distribution function inferred for Comet Halley, with a mass fraction (X) of silicate to amorphous carbon grains of about 40 to 1 can fit the data. A good match is obtained for the infrared spectra of Comets Halley and West from a 40 to 1 mixture of silicate and amorphous carbon grains

  4. Exploring the fine structure at the limb in coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Magarita; Blundell, Solon F.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1994-01-01

    The fine structure of the solar limb in coronal holes is explored at temperatures ranging from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) K. An image enhancement algorithm orignally developed for solar eclipse observations is applied to a number of simultaneous multiwavelength observations made with the Harvard Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment on Skylab. The enhanced images reveal the presence of filamentary structures above the limb with a characteristic separation of approximately 10 to 15 sec . Some of the structures extend from the solar limb into the corona to at least 4 min above the solar limb. The brightness of these structures changes as a function of height above the limb. The brightest emission is associated with spiculelike structures in the proximity of the limb. The emission characteristic of high-temperature plasma is not cospatial with the emission at lower temperatures, indicating the presence of different temperature plasmas in the field of view.

  5. Limb darkening laws for two exoplanet host stars derived from 3D stellar model atmospheres. Comparison with 1D models and HST light curve observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, W.; Sing, D.; Pont, F.; Asplund, M.

    2012-03-01

    We compare limb darkening laws derived from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres and 1D hydrostatic MARCS models for the host stars of two well-studied transiting exoplanet systems, the late-type dwarfs HD 209458 and HD 189733. The surface brightness distribution of the stellar disks is calculated for a wide spectral range using 3D LTE spectrum formation and opacity sampling⋆. We test our theoretical predictions using least-squares fits of model light curves to wavelength-integrated primary eclipses that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The limb darkening law derived from the 3D model of HD 209458 in the spectral region between 2900 Å and 5700 Å produces significantly better fits to the HST data, removing systematic residuals that were previously observed for model light curves based on 1D limb darkening predictions. This difference arises mainly from the shallower mean temperature structure of the 3D model, which is a consequence of the explicit simulation of stellar surface granulation where 1D models need to rely on simplified recipes. In the case of HD 189733, the model atmospheres produce practically equivalent limb darkening curves between 2900 Å and 5700 Å, partly due to obstruction by spectral lines, and the data are not sufficient to distinguish between the light curves. We also analyze HST observations between 5350 Å and 10 500 Å for this star; the 3D model leads to a better fit compared to 1D limb darkening predictions. The significant improvement of fit quality for the HD 209458 system demonstrates the higher degree of realism of 3D hydrodynamical models and the importance of surface granulation for the formation of the atmospheric radiation field of late-type stars. This result agrees well with recent investigations of limb darkening in the solar continuum and other observational tests of the 3D models. The case of HD 189733 is no contradiction as the model light curves are less sensitive to the temperature stratification of

  6. A Cognitive Overview of Limb Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Ham, Heidi Stieglitz

    2016-08-01

    Since the first studies on limb apraxia carried out by Hugo Liepmann more than a century ago, research interests focused on the way humans process manual gestures by assessing gesture production after patients suffered neurologic deficits. Recent reviews centered their attention on deficits in gesture imitation or processing object-related gestures, namely pantomimes and transitive gestures, thereby neglecting communicative/intransitive gestures. This review will attempt to reconcile limb apraxia in its entirety. To this end, the existing cognitive models of praxis processing that have been designed to account for the complexity of this disorder will be taken into account, with an attempt to integrate in these models the latest findings in the studies of limb apraxia, in particular on meaningful gestures. Finally, this overview questions the very nature of limb apraxia when other cognitive deficits are observed.

  7. A comparison of synthetic and measured solar continuum intensities and limb darkening coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute continuum intensities and wavelength-dependent low-order polynomial fits to optical and infrared continuum limb darkening provide useful discriminants among single-component models of the solar photosphere. The thermal structure in best quantitative agreement with the recent center-limb measurements by Pierce and Slaughter (1977) and by Pierce et.al. (1977) is the semi-empirical model by Vernazza, Avrett and Loeser (VAL). However, the VAL model M temperatures must be scaled upward by a factor of 1.015+-0.005 to be consistent with the Labs and Neckel absolute calibration of continuum high points in the optical region 0.40-0.65 μm. (Auth.)

  8. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semi-annual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapor are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) and the stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and the polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  9. On the facular contrast near the solar limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.; Marchenko, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    The photographic observations of facular contrasts in the continuum (λ ∼ 5400 A) for the interval of cos Θ ∼ 0.45-0.1, where Θ is the angular distance from the disk center are presented. It is obtained that the facular contrast function is not the same for faint and strong active regions. The mean contrast of faculae increases toward the limb. Previous observations of facular limb darkening are discussed

  10. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

    2016-05-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  11. Infrared observations and mass loss of the binary system V861 Sco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Maraschi, L.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    V 861 Sco (HD 152667) is a well known single line binary. The proposed association with a variable X-ray source has triggered renewed interest in the system. Here the authors report on a series of photometric observations in the infrared (from 1.25 to 4.8 μ) taken at various orbital phases which improve and extend previous measurements by Tanzi et al. The results give evidence of a phase modulated infrared excess which can be interpreted in terms of a non isotropic mass flow in the system or, alternately, of a contribution from a colder secondary component. (Auth.)

  12. Features of surgical tactics in traumatic amputations of limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ponomarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of traumatic amputations is constantly growing, which is associated with the development of transport and modern technology, military conflicts. Aim: To improve the results of treatment of patients with wound and functional defects after injury by developing a comprehensive program of surgical treatment to restore the shape and function of the trunk and limbs. Materials and methods. From 2010 to 2016 52 patients were observed in the clinic. Traumatic amputations at the hip level were observed in 14 patients, at the level of the upper third of the tibia – in 7 patients, at the level of the lower third of the tibia – 3, foot – 6. Simultaneous amputation of two lower limbs was observed in 2 patients. Amputation of upper limbs at shoulder level was observed in 3 patients, hand – 2, fingers – 15 patients. Among the reasons of limb amputations road traffic injuries occupied the leading position – 77.8 %. Combined injury (mechanical and thermal was observed in 1 case – there was a burn of amputated limb. In 31 cases (59.6 % there was complete amputation of a limb, incomplete – in 21 cases (40.4 %. Results. As a result of these tactics, only in 3 cases we had to do limb reamputation due to the inconsistency of the stump. In 22 patients for the conservation of sufficient length and the optimum shape of the stump the imposition of primary sutures was not made. At the stage of recovery of tissue covering the stump in 16 cases the closure of wound defects with simple split skin graft was fulfilled, 3 – with plastic by local tissues, 4 – islet flap on the peripheral stalk, 1 – plastic flat bridging flap, 20 operations were performed with tubular migratory classic flap. There were no complications in the postoperative period. Conclusions. The main principles in establishing the indications for reconstruction of large limb segments should be both critical attitude to the operation and strict individual approach to each

  13. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  14. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  15. Decameter Type IV Burst Associated with a Behind-the-limb CME Observed on 7 November 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Shevchuk, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the results of observations of a type IV burst made by the Ukrainian Radio interferometer of the Academy of Sciences (URAN-2) in the frequency range 22 - 33 MHz. The burst is associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) initiated by a behind-the-limb active region (N05E151) and was also observed by the Nançay Decameter Array (NDA) radio telescope in the frequency band 30 - 60 MHz. The purpose of the article is the determination of the source of this type IV burst. After analysis of the observational data obtained with the URAN-2, the NDA, the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) A and B spacecraft, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, we come to the conclusion that the source of the burst is the core of a behind-the-limb CME. We conclude that the radio emission can escape the center of the CME core at a frequency of 60 MHz and originates from the periphery of the core at a frequency of 30 MHz that is due to occultation by the solar corona at the corresponding frequencies. We find plasma densities in these regions assuming the plasma mechanism of radio emission. We show that the frequency drift of the start of the type IV burst is governed by an expansion of the CME core. The type III bursts that were observed against this type IV burst are shown to be generated by fast electrons propagating through the CME core plasma. A type II burst was registered at frequencies of 44 - 64 MHz and 3 - 16 MHz and was radiated by a shock with velocities of about 1000 km s^{-1} and 800 km s^{-1}, respectively.

  16. Cross-limb interference during motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Lauber

    Full Text Available It is well known that following skill learning, improvements in motor performance may transfer to the untrained contralateral limb. It is also well known that retention of a newly learned task A can be degraded when learning a competing task B that takes place directly after learning A. Here we investigate if this interference effect can also be observed in the limb contralateral to the trained one. Therefore, five different groups practiced a ballistic finger flexion task followed by an interfering visuomotor accuracy task with the same limb. Performance in the ballistic task was tested before the training, after the training and in an immediate retention test after the practice of the interference task for both the trained and the untrained hand. After training, subjects showed not only significant learning and interference effects for the trained limb but also for the contralateral untrained limb. Importantly, the interference effect in the untrained limb was dependent on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. These behavioural results of the untrained limb were accompanied by training specific changes in corticospinal excitability, which increased for the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand following ballistic training and decreased during accuracy training of the ipsilateral hand. The results demonstrate that contralateral interference effects may occur, and that interference depends on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. This finding might be particularly relevant for rehabilitation.

  17. Observations of far-infrared molecular emission lines from the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscuso, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula has been the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Far-infrared (FIR) molecular line observations of CO in the shock region surrounding the infrared source IRc2 have suggested that the molecular hydrogen density in the shocked and post-shock gas is roughly 3 x 10 6 cm -3 . The temperature of this gas is on the order of 750-2000K. IRc2, like other nearby infrared sources within the Nebula, is thought to be a site of recent star formation. This object is apparently at the center of a massive bipolar molecular outflow of gas, which is producing a shock front where it meets the ambient molecular cloud surrounding IRc2. Study of such regions is important for the understanding of the chemical and physical processes that are involved in the formation of stars from molecular clouds. Recently, several far-infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH have been observed toward IRc2. OH is thought to be abundant, and it plays an important role in the chemical evolution of the shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions is performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the author determines the temperature of the OH-emitting region to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO

  18. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Flaherty, Kevin [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Natinal Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Juhasz, Attila [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Marton, Gabor, E-mail: balog@mpia.de [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege 15-17, 1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  19. From fins to limbs to fins: limb evolution in fossil marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W

    2002-10-15

    Limb osteology and ontogenetic patterns of limb ossification are reviewed for extinct lineages of aquatically adapted diapsid reptiles. Phylogenies including these fossil taxa show that paddle-like limbs were independently derived, and that the varied limb morphologies were produced by evolutionary modifications to different aspects of the limb skeleton. Ancient marine reptiles modify the limb by reducing the relative size of the epipodials, modifying the perichondral and periosteal surface of elements distal to the propodials, and evolving extremes of hyperphalangy and hyperdactyly. Developmental genetic models illuminate gene systems that may have controlled limb evolution in these animals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Water Vapor on Titan: The Stratospheric Vertical Profile from Cassini/CIRS Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; deKok, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in Titan's middle atmosphere has previously been detected only by disk-average observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al., 1998). We report here the successful detection of stratospheric water vapor using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al., 2004) following an earlier null result (de Kok et al., 2007a). CIRS senses water emissions in the far-infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer and inversion codes (NEMESIS, Irwin et al 2008 and ART, Coustenis et al., 2010). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of (0.14 plus or minus 0.05) ppb at 100 km, corresponding to a column abundance of approximately (3.7 plus or minus 1.3) x 10(exp 14) moles per square centimeter. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of (0.13 plus or minus 0.04) ppb at 125 km and (0.45 plus or minus 0.15) ppb at 225 km of altitude, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. In the latitude range (80 deg. S - 30 deg. N) we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars.

  1. The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastes, R. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Burns, A. G.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Codrescu, M.; Correira, J. T.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S. L.; Evans, J. S.; Harvey, J.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Solomon, S. C.; Strickland, D. J.; Woods, T. N.; Aksnes, A.; Budzien, S. A.; Dymond, K. F.; Eparvier, F. G.; Martinis, C. R.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere constitute a dynamic system that varies daily in response to energy inputs from above and from below. This system can exhibit a significant response within an hour to changes in those inputs, as plasma and fluid processes compete to control its temperature, composition, and structure. Within this system, short wavelength solar radiation and charged particles from the magnetosphere deposit energy, and waves propagating from the lower atmosphere dissipate. Understanding the global-scale response of the thermosphere-ionosphere ( T-I) system to these drivers is essential to advancing our physical understanding of coupling between the space environment and the Earth's atmosphere. Previous missions have successfully determined how the "climate" of the T-I system responds. The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will determine how the "weather" of the T-I responds, taking the next step in understanding the coupling between the space environment and the Earth's atmosphere. Operating in geostationary orbit, the GOLD imaging spectrograph will measure the Earth's emissions from 132 to 162 nm. These measurements will be used image two critical variables—thermospheric temperature and composition, near 160 km—on the dayside disk at half-hour time scales. At night they will be used to image the evolution of the low latitude ionosphere in the same regions that were observed earlier during the day. Due to the geostationary orbit being used the mission observes the same hemisphere repeatedly, allowing the unambiguous separation of spatial and temporal variability over the Americas.

  2. Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, William C.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Herath, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770-900/cm and 1100-1360/cm regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1 deg. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain about 0.03/cm resolution spectra. Two 10/cm extracts are presented here.

  3. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  4. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  5. Microwave solar limb brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I A; Kundu, M R [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)

    1981-02-01

    Previous models of microwave limb brightening have omitted the alignment of spicules along supergranule boundaries, have neglected the high temperature sheath around spicules, and have assumed an interspicular medium which was averaged over chromospheric network and non-network regions. We present a model which includes these factors. By constraining the model to conform to results from earlier UV and optical studies we are effectively left with two free parameters: the temperature at the core of the spicules, Tsub(c)sub(o)sub(r)sub(e), and (at solar minimum), the interspicular chromospheric network density model of the lower transition zone. The absence of limb brightening at the short millimeter wavelengths implies Tsub(c)sub(o)sub(r)sub(e) approx. < 6000 k. Differences between the model and certain deconvolved observations near 9 mm are expected as a consequence of an extension of emission beyond the optical limb, predicted by the model, which affects the accuracy of the deconvolution technique. Unlike models which assume homogeous spicules in a random distribution, ours does not require an abnormally high spicule area.

  6. A review of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.

  7. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  8. Ultraviolet and infrared emission from lightning discharges observed at Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Bogomolov, V.; Garipov, G.; Panasyuk, M.; Svertilov, S.; Saleev, K.

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet and infrared optical sensors previously used at RELEC space missions were installed at the high altitude research station Aragats at 3200 m above the sea level. The spectral composition and temporal structure of the recorded optical signals and measurements of the electrostatic field and atmospheric discharges obtained by “fast” and “slow” field sensors have been compared. Measurements of lightning and related to them phenomena observed at the mountain altitude and on board of orbiting satellites are compared. (author)

  9. [Epidemiological analysis of selected congenital limb malformations in Hengyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na-Na; Yuan, Yu-Mei; Liu, Yong; Dai, Li; Deng, Chang-Fei; Nie, Xing-Hui; Zheng, Xiang-Chi; Hu, Yan-Zhen; Liu, Yun-Rong

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of selected congenital limb malformations (CLM) in newborns of Hengyang. During the period of 2008-2010, cluster sampling survey was adopted to investigate the congenital limb malformations of neonates born to women resident in Hengyang, including Nanyue District, Zhuhui District, Changning City and Hengshan County. Each newborn was examined for the screening of CLM after birth. Limb malformations were grouped into the isolated (ILM) and the syndromic (SLM) form, depending on associated malformations of the affected. Prevalence rates, CLM spectrum and clinical manifestations were analyzed. A total of 170 CLM cases were identified among 52,307 newborns during the study period, resulting overall rate of 32.50/10(4). The rates for isolated and syndromic CLM were 28.29 and 4.21 per 10 000 births respectively. The rates for polydactyly, congenital talipes equinovarus, syndactyly and limb reduction defects were 13.00/10(4), 9.56/10(4), 5.16/10(4) and 3.63/10(4), respectively. No significant difference in rates of overall CLM or specified CLM was observed across urban-rural, gender and maternal age groups. Of the cases affected by polydactyly, syndactyly and limb reduction defects, malformation involved upper limbs, lower limbs and the both accounted for 68.14%, 14.16% and 17.70%. Preterm birth, low birth-weight, still birth and neonatal death were observed more frequently in syndromic cases than in isolated patients. The high CLM prevalence rate and fatality rate in Hengyang suggest that effective measures should be taken to prevent malformations and to improve survival of the affected.

  10. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  11. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  12. Thermal infrared sounding observations of lower atmospheric variances at Mars and their implications for gravity wave activity: a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  13. In vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob; Biewener

    1999-05-01

    Limb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. This study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (Iguana iguana) and crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previously unsampled phylogenetic lineages with non-parasagittal limb posture and kinematics. Principal strain orientations and shear strain magnitudes indicate that the limb bones of these species experience considerable torsion during locomotion. This contrasts with patterns commonly observed in mammals, but matches predictions from kinematic observations of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously calculated for mammals and birds. Limb bone safety factors in shear (3.9-5.4) for Alligator and Iguana are also moderately higher than safety factors to yield in bending for birds and mammals. Finally, correlations between limb posture and strain magnitudes in Alligator show that at some recording locations limb bone strains can increase during upright locomotion, in contrast to expectations based on size-correlated changes in posture among mammals that limb bone strains should decrease with the use of an upright posture. These data suggest that, in some lineages, strain magnitudes may not have been maintained at constant levels through the evolution of a non-sprawling posture unless the postural change was accompanied by a shift to parasagittal kinematics or by an evolutionary decrease in body size.

  14. Development of infrared Echelle spectrograph and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer on a small telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii for planetary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kagitani, Masato; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kuhn, Jeff; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of infrared Echelle spectrograph covering 1 - 4 micron and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer around 10 micron installed on the 60-cm telescope at the summit of Haleakala, Hawaii (alt.=3000m). It is essential to carry out continuous measurement of planetary atmosphere, such as the Jovian infrared aurora and the volcanoes on Jovian satellite Io, to understand its time and spatial variations. A compact and easy-to-use high resolution infrared spectrometer provide the good opportunity to investigate these objects continuously. We are developing an Echelle spectrograph called ESPRIT: Echelle Spectrograph for Planetary Research In Tohoku university. The main target of ESPRIT is to measure the Jovian H3+ fundamental line at 3.9 micron, and H2 nu=1 at 2.1 micron. The 256x256 pixel CRC463 InSb array is used. An appropriate Echelle grating is selected to optimize at 3.9 micron and 2.1 micron for the Jovian infrared auroral observations. The pixel scale corresponds to the atmospheric seeing (0.3 arcsec/pixel). This spectrograph is characterized by a long slit field-of-view of ~ 50 arcsec with a spectral resolution is over 20,000. In addition, we recently developed a heterodyne spectrometer called MILAHI on the 60 cm telescope. MILAHI is characterized by super high-resolving power (more than 1,500,000) covering from 7 - 13 microns. Its sensitivity is 2400 K at 9.6 micron with a MCT photo diode detector of which bandwidth of 3000 MHz. ESPRIT and MILAHI is planned to be installed on 60 cm telescope is planned in 2014.

  15. Adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    Background: Positive adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb play important roles in the rehabilitation process. Objectives: To study the different facets of adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees and to assess the possible role of different background and

  16. Optical, infrared and radio astronomy from techniques to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

  17. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Bennell, Kim L; Hunt, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement, such as the ......, such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated....

  18. Observation of Tidal Effects on LWIR Radiance Above the Mesopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An examination of CO2 infrared limb radiance, directly measured by the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite, reveals unusual structure in the region just above the mesopause, at tangent heights...

  19. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  20. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  1. The impact of clustering and angular resolution on far-infrared and millimeter continuum observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wu, Hao-Yi; Lagache, Guilaine; Davidzon, Iary; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Cousin, Morgane; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Daddi, Emanuele; Lapi, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Follow-up observations at high-angular resolution of bright submillimeter galaxies selected from deep extragalactic surveys have shown that the single-dish sources are comprised of a blend of several galaxies. Consequently, number counts derived from low- and high-angular-resolution observations are in tension. This demonstrates the importance of resolution effects at these wavelengths and the need for realistic simulations to explore them. We built a new 2 deg2 simulation of the extragalactic sky from the far-infrared to the submillimeter. It is based on an updated version of the 2SFM (two star-formation modes) galaxy evolution model. Using global galaxy properties generated by this model, we used an abundance-matching technique to populate a dark-matter lightcone and thus simulate the clustering. We produced maps from this simulation and extracted the sources, and we show that the limited angular resolution of single-dish instruments has a strong impact on (sub)millimeter continuum observations. Taking into account these resolution effects, we are reproducing a large set of observables, as number counts and their evolution with redshift and cosmic infrared background power spectra. Our simulation consistently describes the number counts from single-dish telescopes and interferometers. In particular, at 350 and 500 μm, we find that the number counts measured by Herschel between 5 and 50 mJy are biased towards high values by a factor 2, and that the redshift distributions are biased towards low redshifts. We also show that the clustering has an important impact on the Herschel pixel histogram used to derive number counts from P(D) analysis. We find that the brightest galaxy in the beam of a 500 μm Herschel source contributes on average to only 60% of the Herschel flux density, but that this number will rise to 95% for future millimeter surveys on 30 m-class telescopes (e.g., NIKA2 at IRAM). Finally, we show that the large number density of red Herschel sources

  2. The solar-flare infrared continuum: observational techniques and upper limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory observations at 20μ and 350 μ have determined detection thresholds for solar flares in these wavelengths. In the 20μ range solar atmospheric fluctuations (the 'temperature field') set the basic limits on flare detectability at approximately 5K; at 350μ the extinction in the Earth's atmosphere provides the basic limitation of approximately 30 K. These thresholds are low enough for the successful detection of several infrared-emitting components of large flares. Limited observing time and lack of solar activity have prevented observations of large flares up to the present, but the techniques promise to be extremely useful in the future. The upper limits obtained thus far, for subflares, indicate that the thickness of the Hα flare region does not exceed approximately 10 km. This result confirms the conclusion of Suemoto and Hiei (1959) regarding the small effective thickness of the Hα-emitting regions in solar flares. (Auth.)

  3. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  4. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 μm, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 μm) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 μm), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 ± 0.23 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 μm and at least 0.47 ± 0.14 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.02% at 18 μm. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2σ error into account.

  5. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: Two-Dimensional Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Didier F.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth's limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. Measurements are made every 19 seconds along the orbit track, which corresponds to a distance of about 150km. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. All the existing retrieval algorithms rely on a spherical symmetry assumption for the atmosphere structure. While this assumption is reasonable in most of the stratosphere, it is no longer valid in regions of prime scientific interest, such as polar vortex and UTLS regions. The paper will describe a two-dimensional retrieval algorithm whereby the ozone distribution is simultaneously retrieved vertically and horizontally for a whole orbit. The retrieval code relies on (1) a forward 2D Radiative Transfer code (to model limb

  6. Data on chemical activation of Wnt/β-catenin during axolotl limb regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Wischin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limb amputation in axolotls was performed to obtain data demonstrating that a chemical agonist of Wnt (int-related protein/β-catenin signalling can have a role in axolotl limb regeneration (Wischin et al., 2017 [1]. The data revealed that active β-catenin protein was present during limb regeneration in some Leydig cells in the epithelium; after the chemical treatment, it was observed in more Leydig cells. In addition, the chemical agonist of Wnt generated distinct limb malformation.

  7. Far-infrared and CO observations of Cep F: Implications for star formation in Cepheus OB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, A.I.; van Duinen, R.J.; Nordh, H.L.; Fridlund, C.V.M.; Aalders, J.W.G.; Beintema, D.

    1983-01-01

    Observations at 80-μm and 130-μm have revealed a source of far-infrared emission in the Cep F portion of the Cepheus OB3 molecular cloud. Molecular line measurements of this region, at the CO J = 1-0 line frequency, have led to the discovery of two CO maxima. One of these coincides with the new far-infrared source. The other is at least as intense as Cep B, until now considered to be the hottest part of the cloud. There is some evidence to suggest that a second far-infrared source is associated with this hotspot. If the far-infrared emission results from the presence of embedded protostars, their location, relative to the OB association stars and to the other active region, Cep A, requires a reexamination of how stars form in the Cepheus OB3 association

  8. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  9. Limb anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    of limb development has been conserved for more than 300 millions years, with all the necessary adaptive modifications occurring throughout evolution, we also take into consideration the evolutionary aspects of limb development in terms of genetic repertoire, molecular pathways, and morphogenetic events....

  10. Infrared observations of the dark matter lens candidate Q2345+007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Brian; Rieke, Marcia; Weedman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Deep K-band observations are presented of the double image quasar Q2345+007. This has the largest separation (7.1 sec) of any quasar image pair considered as gravitationally lensed, so the required lens is massive (10(exp 13) solar masses). No lens has been detected in previous deep images at visible wavelengths, and we find no lens to limiting K magnitude 20.0 in the infrared image. This constrains any lens to being much less luminous than brightest cluster galaxies, while the lens must be much more massive than such galaxies to produce the observed separation. Because spectral data indicate exceptional intrinsic similarity in the quasar image components, this pair remains as the most intriguing example of an observed configuration requiring the presence of massive, concentrated dark matter acting as a gravitational lens.

  11. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Albury, Alexander W; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2017-07-01

    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial ( n  = 5) and transfemoral ( n  = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls ( n  = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function.

  12. Observation of near and intermediate infrared galactic radiation by the rocket K-10-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Matsumoto, Toshio; Mizuno, Tomohisa; Murakami, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    The spatial and the energy spectra of near and intermediate infrared radiation were observed by using a detector system loaded on a rocket. The detector system is a He-cooled infrared telescope, and consists of an optical system, a cryostat, an electronic system, and a star sensor. The system was loaded on the rocket K-10-14, and the observation was made for about 400 second on August 27, 1980. For the radiation with wavelength of 2.4 mu m and 4.6 mu m, the intensity of galactic light around 338, 9, 15 and 12 degree of galactic longitude was observed. For the wavelength of 7.6, 10.1 and 14.7 mu m, the data around 340 and 10 degree of galactic longitude were obtained. The latitudinal distribution of radiation of 2.4 and 4.6 mu m was measured. After the correction for interstellar absorption, it can be said that the galactic radiation of wavelength between 2.4 mu m and 7.6 mu m was mainly composed of the radiation from light balls of late type stars. (Kato, T.)

  13. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  14. Far-infrared observations of Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.W.; Becklin, E.E.; Gatley, I.; Ellis, M.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Robinson, G.; Thomas, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Far-infrared emission has been measured from four Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions: the 30 Doradus nebula, MC75, MC76 and MC77. The far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust heated by starlight. The results show that the LMC H II regions, like H II regions in the Galaxy, have far-infrared luminosities comparable to the total luminosity of their exciting stars. (author)

  15. Effects of postural changes of the upper limb on reflex transmission in the lower limb. Cervicolumbar reflex interactions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, P J; Figiel, C; Richelle, C

    1977-06-01

    The influence of passive changes in upper limb position on the excitability of three myotatic arc reflexes (soleus, quadriceps, and biceps femoris) of the lower limb has been explored on 42 volunteers. The results indicate that the excitability of the three myotatic arcs can be influenced at a distance by postural modifications of the upper limb. When the ipsilateral upper limb is forwards or the contralateral backwards, a facilitation of both soleus and quadriceps tendon reflexes is observed while the biceps femoris reflexes are reduced. This pattern of facilitation and inhibition is reversed when the ipsilateral upper limb is backwards or the contralateral forwards. The facilitations as well as inhibitions of proximal myotatic arc reflexes are quantitatively more marked than that of the soleus reflex. Facilitation and inhibition are not linearly related to the angle of the arm with the trunk. Effects begin at a considerable angle, become maximal at 45 degrees, and progressively disappear for greater values. It is suggested that the distinct pattern of facilitation and inhibition which is exerted in reciprocal fashion on extensor and flexor motor nuclei might depend on the long propriospinal neurones connecting cervical and lumbar enlargements.

  16. Analysis of the 1980 November 18 limb flare observed by the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer (HXIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, P.; Haug, E.; Elwert, G.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray images of the 18 November 1980 limb flare taken by the HXIS instrument aboard SMM were analysed. The hard X-rays originated from three spots on the SW limb of the solar disk with different altitudes and time evolution. The locations of the brightest spots in hard and soft X-rays are compared

  17. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images taken at the mid-infrared wavelengths of 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm. Venus at a solar phase angle of ∼90°, with the morning terminator in view, was observed by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope, during the period October 25-29, 2007. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures for the observation period are ∼230 K and ∼238 K at 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm, respectively. The obtained images with good signal-to-noise ratio and with high spatial resolution (∼200 km at the sub-observer point) provide several important findings. First, we present observational evidence, for the first time, of the possibility that the westward rotation of the polar features (the hot polar spots and the surrounding cold collars) is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. Second, after high-pass filtering, the images reveal that streaks and mottled and patchy patterns are distributed over the entire disk, with typical amplitudes of ∼0.5 K, and vary from day to day. The detected features, some of which are similar to those seen in past UV images, result from inhomogeneities of both the temperature and the cloud top altitude. Third, the equatorial center-to-limb variations of brightness temperatures have a systematic day-night asymmetry, except those on October 25, that the dayside brightness temperatures are higher than the nightside brightness temperatures by 0-4 K under the same viewing geometry. Such asymmetry would be caused by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal tide. Finally, by applying the lapse rates deduced from previous studies, we demonstrate that the equatorial center-to-limb curves in the two spectral channels give access to two parameters: the cloud scale height H and the cloud top altitude zc. The acceptable models for data on October 25 are obtained at H = 2.4-4.3 km and zc = 66-69 km; this supports

  18. Abnormal 201Tl limb scan due to unilateral tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, M.; Schelstraete, K.; Bratzlavsky, M.

    1982-01-01

    A abnormal intra- and interextremity distribution pattern on 201 Tl was observed on the limb scan of a patient with a unilateral tremor. This is ascribed to the increased blood flow in the muscles responsible for the tremor. The suggestion is made that the existence of tremor should be considered as a possible explanation for unexpected abnormalities on 201 Tl limb scintigrams

  19. Observation of Tidal Effects on LWIR Radiance Above the Mesopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An examination of CO2 infrared limb radiance, directly measured by the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite, reveals unusual structure in the region just above the mesopause, at tangent heights of -95-110 km...

  20. Observations of the 1980 April 30 limb flare by the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodgate, B.W.; Shine, R.A.; Brandt, J.C.; Chapman, R.D.; Michalitsianos, A.G.; Kenny, P.J.; Bruner, E.C.; Rehse, R.A.; Schoolman, S.A.; Cheng, C.C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Athay, R.G.; Beckers, J.M.; Gurman, J.B.; Henze, W.; Hyder, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the M2 limb flare of 1980 April 30 by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter in the C IV 1548 A line are described and compared with observations from other SMM instruments and with ground-based Hα data. Events observed during the 18 minutes leading up to the flare impulsive phase include the filling of a small loop with material moving at about 20 km s -1 , followed by a rapid brightening in C IV, Hα, and hard X-rays, with a subsequent brightening of a higher set of loops. The rapid brightening appears to be at the junction of the small loop with the overlying magnetic structures, which suggests the flare may be caused by their interaction

  1. Observations of the 1980 April 30 limb flare by the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kenny, P. J.; Bruner, E. C.; Rehse, R. A.; Schoolman, S. A.; Cheng, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the M2 limb flare of 1980 April 30 by the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter in the C IV 1548 A line are described and compared with observations from other SMM instruments and with ground-based H-alpha data. Events observed during the 18 minutes leading up to the flare impulsive phase include the filling of a small loop with material moving at about 20 km/s, followed by a rapid brightening in C IV, H-alpha, and hard X-rays, with a subsequent brightening of a higher set of loops. The rapid brightening appears to be at the junction of the small loop with the overlying magnetic structures, which suggests the flare may be caused by their interaction.

  2. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  3. Energy flow analysis of amputee walking shows a proximally-directed transfer of energy in intact limbs, compared to a distally-directed transfer in prosthetic limbs at push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, R A; Howard, D; Twiste, M; Jarvis, H L; Bennett, A N; Baker, R J

    2017-01-01

    Reduced capacity and increased metabolic cost of walking occurs in amputees, despite advances in prosthetic componentry. Joint powers can quantify deficiencies in prosthetic gait, but do not reveal how energy is exchanged between limb segments. This study aimed to quantify these energy exchanges during amputee walking. Optical motion and forceplate data collected during walking at a self-selected speed for cohorts of 10 controls, 10 unilateral trans-tibial, 10 unilateral trans-femoral and 10 bilateral trans-femoral amputees were used to determine the energy exchanges between lower limb segments. At push-off, consistent thigh and shank segment powers were observed between amputee groups (1.12W/kg vs. 1.05W/kg for intact limbs and 0.97W/kg vs. 0.99W/kg for prosthetic limbs), and reduced prosthetic ankle power, particularly in trans-femoral amputees (3.12W/kg vs. 0.87W/kg). Proximally-directed energy exchange was observed in the intact limbs of amputees and controls, while prosthetic limbs displayed distally-directed energy exchanges at the knee and hip. This study used energy flow analysis to show a reversal in the direction in which energy is exchanged between prosthetic limb segments at push-off. This reversal was required to provide sufficient energy to propel the limb segments and is likely a direct result of the lack of push-off power at the prosthetic ankle, particularly in trans-femoral amputees, and leads to their increased metabolic cost of walking. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05

  5. Impacts of field of view configuration of Cross-track Infrared Sounder on clear-sky observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likun; Chen, Yong; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Hyperspectral infrared radiance measurements from satellite sensors contain valuable information on atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and greenhouse gases, and therefore are directly assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as inputs for weather forecasting. However, data assimilations in current operational NWP models still mainly rely on cloud-free observations due to the challenge of simulating cloud-contaminated radiances when using hyperspectral radiances. The limited spatial coverage of the 3×3 field of views (FOVs) in one field of regard (FOR) (i.e., spatial gap among FOVs) as well as relatively large footprint size (14 km) in current Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments limits the amount of clear-sky observations. This study explores the potential impacts of future CrIS FOV configuration (including FOV size and spatial coverage) on the amount of clear-sky observations by simulation experiments. The radiance measurements and cloud mask products (VCM) from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to simulate CrIS clear-sky observation under different FOV configurations. The results indicate that, given the same FOV coverage (e.g., 3×3), the percentage of clear-sky FOVs and the percentage of clear-sky FORs (that contain at least one clear-sky FOV) both increase as the FOV size decreases. In particular, if the CrIS FOV size were reduced from 14 km to 7 km, the percentage of clear-sky FOVs increases from 9.02% to 13.51% and the percentage of clear-sky FORs increases from 18.24% to 27.51%. Given the same FOV size but with increasing FOV coverage in each FOR, the clear-sky FOV observations increases proportionally with the increasing sampling FOVs. Both reducing FOV size and increasing FOV coverage can result in more clear-sky FORs, which benefit data utilization of NWP data assimilation.

  6. Ultrasound-guided lateral infraclavicular block evaluated by infrared thermography and distal skin temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Bjerregaard, Lars Stryhn

    2014-01-01

    of the 2nd and 5th digits. METHODS: We performed an ultrasound-guided lateral infraclavicular block in 45 patients undergoing upper limb surgery. The contralateral hand served as control and we obtained infrared thermographic images of both hands before the block and during the following 30 min. We defined...

  7. The Dependence of Solar Flare Limb Darkening on Emission Peak Formation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward; Epp, Luke; Eparvier, Francis; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2017-08-01

    Solar limb effects are local brightening or darkening of an emission that depend on where in the Sun's atmosphere it forms. Near the solar limb, optically thick (thin) emissions will darken (brighten) as the column of absorbers (emitters) along the line-of-sight increases. Note that in limb brightening, emission sources are re-arranged whereas in limb darkening they are obscured. Thus, only limb darkening is expected to occur in disk integrated observations. Limb darkening also results in center-to-limb variations of disk-integrated solar flare spectra, with important consequences for how planetary atmospheres are affected by flares. Flares are typically characterized by their flux in the optically thin 0.1-0.8 nm band measured by the X-ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). On the other hand, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) line emissions can limb darken because they are sensitive to resonant scattering, resulting in a flare's location on the solar disk controlling the amount of ionizing radiation that reaches a planet. For example, an X-class flare originating from disk center may significantly heat a planet's thermosphere, whereas the same flare originating near the limb may have no effect because much of the effective emissions are scattered in the solar corona.To advance the relatively poor understanding of flare limb darkening, we use over 300 M-class or larger flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to characterize limb darkening as a function of emission peak formation temperature, Tf. For hot coronal emissions (Tf>2 MK), these results show a linear relationship between the degree of limb darkening and Tf where lines with Tf=2 MK darken approximately 7 times more than lines with Tf=16 MK. Because the extent of limb darkening is dependent on the height of the source plasma, we use simple Beer-Lambert radiative transfer analysis to interpret these results

  8. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results from optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory over the first seven months since core collapse are reviewed. Around 130 days after outburst, the bolometric light curve began to smoothly decline at a rate of ∼ 0.01 mag day-1, providing dramatic confirmation of the prediction that radioactivity had powered the optical display after the first month./ the peculiar color changes are kinks observed beginning on the 25th day probably signaled the initial release of trapped energy from mass 56 material. The bolometric luminosity of SN 1987A was unusually low at first, but reached a value more typical of other type II supernovae by the time that the final exponential decline had begun. Over much of the period covered by these observations, the optical and infrared spectra were characterized by strong absorption lines of Ba II and Sr II. Comparison with the spectra of other type II supernovae at similar stages of evolution supports the suggestion that s-processed elements were enriched in the hydrogen envelope of the progenitor, Sanduleak - 69 degrees 202

  9. Impulsive and gradual phases of a solar limb flare as observed from the solar maximum mission satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poland, A.I.; Frost, K.J.; Woodgate, B.E.; Shine, R.A.; Kenny, P.J. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Lab. for Astronomy and Solar Physics); Machado, M.E. (Observatorio Nacional de Fisica Cosmica, San Miguel (Argentina)); Wolfson, C.J.; Bruner, E.C. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Labs., CA (USA)); Cheng, C.C. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA)); Tandberg-Hanssen, E.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (USA). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center)

    1982-06-01

    Simultaneous observations of a solar limb flare in the X-ray and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum are presented. Temporal and spectral X-ray observations were obtained for the 25-300 keV range while temporal, spectral, and spatial X-ray observations were obtained for the 30-0.3 keV range. The ultraviolet observations were images with a 10'' spatial resolution in the lines of O v (Tsub(e) approx. equal to 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ K) and Fe XXI (Tsub(e) approx. equal to 1.1 x 10/sup 7/ K). The hard X-ray and O v data indicate that the impulsive phase began in the photosphere or chromosphere and continued for several minutes as material was ejected into the corona. Impulsive excitation was observed up to 30,000 km above the solar surface at specific points in the flare loop. The Fe XXI observations indicate a preheating before the impulsive phase and showed the formation of hot post-flare loops. This later formation was confirmed by soft X-ray observations. These observations provide limitations for current flare models and will provide the data needed for initial conditions in modeling the concurrent coronal transient.

  10. Cut your losses: self-amputation of injured limbs increases survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberts, Zachary; Miller, Christine W; Kiehl, Daniel; St Mary, Colette M

    2017-01-01

    Autotomy, self-induced limb loss, is an extreme trait observed throughout the animal kingdom; lizards drop their tails, crickets release their legs, and crabs drop their claws. These repeated evolutionary origins suggest that autotomy is adaptive. Yet, we do not have a firm understanding of the selective pressures that promote and maintain this extreme trait. Although multiple adaptive hypotheses exist, research has generally focused on autotomy's adaptive value as a form of predator escape. However, autotomy could also be selected to reduce the cost of an injured limb, which we investigate here. Previously, this alternative hypothesis has been challenging to directly test because when an injury occurs on an autotomizable limb, that limb is almost always dropped (i.e., autotomy is behaviorally fixed within populations). Recently, however, we have identified a species, Narnia femorata (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coreidae), where some individuals autotomize limbs in response to injury, but some do not. This natural variation allowed us to investigate both the survival costs of retaining an injured limb and the benefits of autotomizing it. In this study, we find a positive association between autotomizing injured limbs and survival, thereby quantifying a new and likely widespread benefit of autotomy-reducing the cost of injury.

  11. Radiation transport in dense interstellar dust clouds. II. Infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the distribution of grain temperature (T/sub d/) and infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions (with embedded O: B stars). The effects of the following parameters on the temperature structure and the emergent spectrum are studied: grain type (graphite, silicate, and core-mantle grains), optical depth, density inhomogeneity, cloud size, anisotropic scattering, radiation field anisotropy, and characteristics of central heat source. T/sub d/ varies from approximately-greater-than100 K to approximately-less-than20 K throughout the major portion of a cloud, and dielectric grains attain lower temperatures. Due to an inward increase in T/sub d/, the radiation field is strongly forward-peaking, thereby producing a pronounced limb-darkening in the surface brightness. Important features of the computed emission spectra from typical models are compared with available observations, and the importance of beam dilution is emphasized. Theoretical surface brightnesses at selected infrared wavelengths are also presented. The outward radiation pressure on the dust grains is found to exceed the self-gravitational force of the gas over a large portion of a cloud, thus possibly causing the gas in the inner region to expand. Assumptions commonly used in the analysis of infrared observations are examined. Finally, observational methods of deriving the temperature structure (from color and brightness temperatures in the far-infrared), density distribution (from surface brightness at lambdaapproximately-greater-than1 mm), and optical depth (from multiaperture photometry) for the dust component in simple sources are discussed

  12. Energetic benefits and adaptations in mammalian limbs: Scale effects and selective pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2015-06-01

    Differences in limb size and shape are fundamental to mammalian morphological diversity; however, their relevance to locomotor costs has long been subject to debate. In particular, it remains unknown if scale effects in whole limb morphology could partially underlie decreasing mass-specific locomotor costs with increasing limb length. Whole fore- and hindlimb inertial properties reflecting limb size and shape-moment of inertia (MOI), mass, mass distribution, and natural frequency-were regressed against limb length for 44 species of quadrupedal mammals. Limb mass, MOI, and center of mass position are negatively allometric, having a strong potential for lowering mass-specific locomotor costs in large terrestrial mammals. Negative allometry of limb MOI results in a 40% reduction in MOI relative to isometry's prediction for our largest sampled taxa. However, fitting regression residuals to adaptive diversification models reveals that codiversification of limb mass, limb length, and body mass likely results from selection for differing locomotor modes of running, climbing, digging, and swimming. The observed allometric scaling does not result from selection for energetically beneficial whole limb morphology with increasing size. Instead, our data suggest that it is a consequence of differing morphological adaptations and body size distributions among quadrupedal mammals, highlighting the role of differing limb functions in mammalian evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. The impulsive and gradual phases of a solar limb flare as observed from the solar maximum mission satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, A.I.; Frost, K.J.; Woodgate, B.E.; Shine, R.A.; Kenny, P.J.; Wolfson, C.J.; Bruner, E.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of a solar limb flare in the X-ray and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum are presented. Temporal and spectral X-ray observations were obtained for the 25-300 keV range while temporal, spectral, and spatial X-ray observations were obtained for the 30-0.3 keV range. The ultraviolet observations were images with a 10'' spatial resolution in the lines of O v (Tsub(e) approx. equal to 2.5 x 10 5 K) and Fe XXI (Tsub(e) approx. equal to 1.1 x 10 7 K). The hard X-ray and O v data indicate that the impulsive phase began in the photosphere or chromosphere and continued for several minutes as material was ejected into the corona. Impulsive excitation was observed up to 30,000 km above the solar surface at specific points in the flare loop. The Fe XXI observations indicate a preheating before the impulsive phase and showed the formation of hot post-flare loops. This later formation was confirmed by soft X-ray observations. These observations provide limitations for current flare models and will provide the data needed for initial conditions in modeling the concurrent coronal transient. (orig.)

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  15. Infrared observations of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eales, S.A.; Becklin, E.E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    We have taken 2.2-μm images, over the entire range of orbital phase, of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20. We show that the 2.2-μm flux from the pulsar system is variable, and that the infrared light curve is similar to the optical light curve. Four additional images at 1.2 μm show that there is a possible infrared excess from the system. (author)

  16. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  18. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  19. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy of human muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrone, R.; Currà, A.; Cardillo, A.; Bonifazi, G.; Serranti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool in research and industrial applications. Its properties of being rapid, non-invasive and not destructive make it a promising technique for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in medicine. Recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques provided portable, performant, sensing spectrometers readily operated by user-friendly cabled or wireless systems. We used such a system to test whether infrared spectroscopy techniques, currently utilized in many areas as primary/secondary raw materials sector, cultural heritage, agricultural/food industry, environmental remote and proximal sensing, pharmaceutical industry, etc., could be applied in living humans to categorize muscles. We acquired muscles infrared spectra in the Vis-SWIR regions (350-2500 nm), utilizing an ASD FieldSpec 4 Standard-Res Spectroradiometer with a spectral sampling capability of 1.4 nm at 350-1000 nm and 1.1 nm at 1001-2500 nm. After a preliminary spectra pre-processing (i.e. signal scattering reduction), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify similar spectral features presence and to realize their further grouping. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to implement discrimination/prediction models. We studied 22 healthy subjects (age 25-89 years, 11 females), by acquiring Vis-SWIR spectra from the upper limb muscles (i.e. biceps, a forearm flexor, and triceps, a forearm extensor). Spectroscopy was performed in fixed limb postures (elbow angle approximately 90‡). We found that optical spectroscopy can be applied to study human tissues in vivo. Vis-SWIR spectra acquired from the arm detect muscles, distinguish flexors from extensors.

  1. Sex Differences in Limb and Joint Stiffness in Recreational Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners are known to be at greater risk from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact mechanisms are often poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine if female recreational runners exhibit distinct limb and joint stiffness characteristics in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s-1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated as a function of limb length and joint moments divided by the extent of limb and joint excursion. All stiffness and joint moment parameters were normalized to body mass. Sex differences in normalized limb and knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that normalized limb (male = 0.18 ± 0.07, female = 0.37 ± 0.10 kN · kg · m-1 and knee stiffness (male = 5.59 ± 2.02, female = 7.34 ± 1.78 Nm · kg · rad-1 were significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. On the basis that normalized knee and limb stiffness were shown to be significantly greater in female runners, the findings from the current investigation may provide further insight into the aetiology of the distinct injury patterns observed between sexes.

  2. CO concentration in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere of Titan from VIMS dayside limb observations at 4.7 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, F.; López Puertas, M.; Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Funke, B.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Ridolfi, M.; Dinelli, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    During the last 30 years, many works have focused on the determination of the CO abundance in Titan's atmosphere, but no measurement above 300 km has been done yet due to the faint signal of CO. Nevertheless, such measurements are particularly awaited as a confirmation of photochemical models predictions that CO is uniformly mixed in the whole atmosphere. Moreover, since CO is the main atmospheric reservoir of oxygen, its actual abundance has implications on the origins of Titan's atmosphere. In this work, we analyse a set of Cassini VIMS daytime limb observations of Titan at 4.7 μm, which is dominated by solar-pumped non-LTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) emission of CO ro-vibrational bands. In order to retrieve the CO abundance from these observations, we developed a non-LTE model for the CO vibrational levels. The retrieval of the CO concentration is performed following a bayesian approach and using the calculated non-LTE populations. The data set analysed consists of 47 limb scanning sequences -about 1500 spectra- acquired by VIMS in 2006 and 2007. CO relative abundance profiles from 200 to 500 km are obtained, for each set analysed. The mean result shows no significant variations with altitude and is consistent with the prediction of a well-mixed vertical profile. However, if compared with Earth-based mm measurements, a small vertical gradient is plausible.

  3. Hyperinnervation improves Xenopus laevis limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2018-01-15

    Xenopus laevis (an anuran amphibian) shows limb regeneration ability between that of urodele amphibians and that of amniotes. Xenopus frogs can initiate limb regeneration but fail to form patterned limbs. Regenerated limbs mainly consist of cone-shaped cartilage without any joints or branches. These pattern defects are thought to be caused by loss of proper expressions of patterning-related genes. This study shows that hyperinnervation surgery resulted in the induction of a branching regenerate. The hyperinnervated blastema allows the identification and functional analysis of the molecules controlling this patterning of limb regeneration. This paper focuses on the nerve affects to improve Xenopus limb patterning ability during regeneration. The nerve molecules, which regulate limb patterning, were also investigated. Blastemas grown in a hyperinnervated forelimb upregulate limb patterning-related genes (shh, lmx1b, and hoxa13). Nerves projecting their axons to limbs express some growth factors (bmp7, fgf2, fgf8, and shh). Inputs of these factors to a blastema upregulated some limb patterning-related genes and resulted in changes in the cartilage patterns in the regenerates. These results indicate that additional nerve factors enhance Xenopus limb patterning-related gene expressions and limb regeneration ability, and that bmp, fgf, and shh are candidate nerve substitute factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  5. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear mass density. Fragmentation of filaments due to the sausage instability might be the dominant mode of star formation in the Universe.

  6. Orion star-forming region - far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Bally, J.; Dragovan, M.; Mozurkewich, D.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; ATandT Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ; Chicago Uni., IL; E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC)

    1986-01-01

    New J = 1-0 CO and far-infrared maps of the Orion star-forming region are presented and discussed. The total infrared luminosity of the Orion star-forming ridge is 250,000 solar luminosities. The material that is emitting strongly at 60 microns is traced and found to be highly centrally concentrated. However, the majority of the extended emission from this region comes from dust that is ultimately heated by the visible Trapezium cluster stars. The luminosity of IRc 2, the most luminous member of the infrared cluster, is estimated to be 40,000-50,000 solar luminosities. A schematic drawing of the Ori MC 1 region is presented. 30 references

  7. Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Patterson, W. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Bowles, N. E.; Paige, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Thompson, C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, few thermal infrared measurements exist of fine particulate (samples (e.g. minerals, mineral mixtures, rocks, meteorites, and lunar soils) measured under simulated lunar conditions. Such measurements are fundamental for interpreting thermal infrared (TIR) observations by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as future TIR observations of the Moon and other airless bodies. In this work, we present thermal infrared emissivity measurements of a suite of well-characterized Apollo lunar soils and a fine particulate (sample as we systematically vary parameters that control the near-surface environment in our vacuum chamber (atmospheric pressure, incident solar-like radiation, and sample cup temperature). The atmospheric pressure is varied between ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (radiation is varied between 52 and 146 mW/cm2, and the sample cup temperature is varied between 325 and 405 K. Spectral changes are characterized as each parameter is varied, which highlight the sensitivity of thermal infrared emissivity spectra to the atmospheric pressure and the incident solar-like radiation. Finally spectral measurements of Apollo 15 and 16 bulk lunar soils are compared with Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Apollo 15 and 16 sampling sites. This comparison allows us to constrain the temperature and pressure conditions that best simulate the near-surface environment of the Moon for future laboratory measurements and to better interpret lunar surface compositions as observed by Diviner.

  8. Limb salvage surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2013-05-01

    The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  9. Management of the multiple limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J H; Jones, L E; Cornet, J; Cittarelli, T

    2002-09-10

    Multiple limb amputations involving at least one upper extremity are very uncommon. The amputation of both an upper and lower limb is even more uncommon. Due to the rarity of these amputations therapists are uncertain regarding the most appropriate treatment methods. While the majority of the protocols used for single limb amputations are appropriate for these multiple limb amputees, there are differences. Loss of multiple limbs creates a problem of overheating for the individual. Loss of an arm and leg results in difficulty donning the prostheses and difficulty using crutches and parallel bars during mobilization. A review is given of 16 multiple limb amputees seen in our rehabilitation centre in the last 15 years. Return to work was seen in one third and was not related to the number of the amputations. A higher proportion of these multiple limb amputations occur through alcoholism or attempted suicide behaviour than occurs with either single upper limb amputations or lower limb amputations. This existing behaviour can create a management problem for the rehabilitation team during rehabilitation. Guidelines as to appropriate prosthetic and preprosthetic care are provided to assist the practitioner who has the acute and long term care of these patients. All multiple limb amputees should be referred to a specialized rehabilitation centre to discuss prosthetic options and long term rehabilitation requirements. This paper does not discuss bilateral lower limb amputations when not combined with an upper limb amputation.

  10. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  11. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.

  12. A Brief History of Limb Lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    In the last 35 years, orthopaedic surgeons have witnessed 3 major advances in the technique of limb lengthening: "distraction osteogenesis" facilitated by Gavriil Ilizarov method and infinitely-adaptable circular fixator with fine-wire bone fragment fixation; the introduction of the "6-strut" computer program-assisted circular fixators to effect complex deformity correction simultaneously; and the development of motorized intramedullary lengthening nails. However, the principles and associated complications of these techniques are on the basis of observations by Codivilla, Putti, and Abbott from as much as 110 years ago. This review notes the contribution of these pioneers in limb lengthening, and the contribution of Thor Heyerdahl principles of tolerance and diversity to the dissemination of Ilizarov principles to the Western world.

  13. MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUST-FORMING CLASSICAL NOVA V2676 OPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nagashima, Masayoshi, E-mail: kawakthd@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C{sub 2} and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μ m was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μ m originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph.

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN CHAMAELEON I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Herbst, William [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); DeMarchi, Lindsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ∼80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]–[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ∼0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  15. Early regulation of axolotl limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Amphibian limb regeneration has been studied for a long time. In amphibian limb regeneration, an undifferentiated blastema is formed around the region damaged by amputation. The induction process of blastema formation has remained largely unknown because it is difficult to study the induction of limb regeneration. The recently developed accessory limb model (ALM) allows the investigation of limb induction and reveals early events of amphibian limb regeneration. The interaction between nerves and wound epidermis/epithelium is an important aspect of limb regeneration. During early limb regeneration, neurotrophic factors act on wound epithelium, leading to development of a functional epidermis/epithelium called the apical epithelial cap (AEC). AEC and nerves create a specific environment that inhibits wound healing and induces regeneration through blastema formation. It is suggested that FGF-signaling and MMP activities participate in creating a regenerative environment. To understand why urodele amphibians can create such a regenerative environment and humans cannot, it is necessary to identify the similarities and differences between regenerative and nonregenerative animals. Here we focus on ALM to consider limb regeneration from a new perspective and we also reported that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Src signaling controlled fibroblasts migration in axolotl limb regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Primary lower limb lymphoedema. Classification with non-contrast MR lymphography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrive, Lionel; Derhy, S.; El Mouhadi, S.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Menu, Y. [Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Dahan, B. [Cochin Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Paris (France); Becker, C. [HEGP, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Paris (France)

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the performance of non-contrast MR lymphography for the classification of primary lower limb lymphoedema in 121 consecutive patients with 187 primary lower limb lymphoedemas. 121 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed primary lower limb lymphoedema underwent non-contrast MR lymphography with a free-breathing 3D fast spin-echo sequence with a very long TR/TE (4000/884 ms). MR examinations were retrospectively reviewed for severity of lymphoedema (absent, mild, moderate, severe) and characteristics of inguinal lymph nodes and iliac and inguinal lymphatic trunks graded as aplasic (no lymph nodes or lymphatic trunks), hypoplasic (less lymph nodes or lymphatic trunks), normal and hyperplasic (more lymph nodes or more and/or dilated trunks). There was an excellent correlation between clinical stage and severity of lymphoedema (Cramer's V of 0,73 (p < 0.001)). Differentiation was feasible between inguinal lymphatic vessel aplasia (21%), hypoplasia (15%), normal pattern (53%) and hyperplasia (11%). Severe lymphoedema was observed in 46% of aplasic patterns and in 37% of hyperplasic patterns, but in only 15% of hypoplasic patterns and never observed in normal patterns (p < 0.001). Non-contrast MR lymphography is able to classify primary lower limb lymphoedemas into hyperplasic, aplasic, hypoplasic and normal patterns. (orig.)

  17. Limb salvage surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  18. Is Atherectomy the Best First-Line Therapy for Limb Salvage in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Gabriel; Skelly, Christopher L.; Wahlgren, Carl-Magnus; Bassiouny, Hisham S.; Piano, Giancarlo; Shaalan, Wael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of atherectomy for limb salvage compared with open bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia. Methods Ninety-nine consecutive bypass and atherectomy procedures performed for critical limb ischemia between January 2003 and October 2006 were reviewed. Results A total of 99 cases involving TASC C (n = 43, 44%) and D (n = 56, 56%) lesions were treated with surgical bypass in 59 patients and atherectomy in 33 patients. Bypass and atherectomy achieved similar 1-year primary patency (64% vs 63%; P = .2). However, the 1-year limb salvage rate was greater in the bypass group (87% vs 69%; P = .004). In the tissue loss subgroup, there was a greater limb salvage rate for bypass patients versus atherectomy (79% vs 60%; P = .04). Conclusions Patients with critical limb ischemia may do better with open bypass compared with atherectomy as first-line therapy for limb salvage. PMID:19640919

  19. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie

    1991-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  20. High spatial resolution observations of the T Tau system - II. Interferometry in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzka, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Each time the resolution was improved, observations of the young low-mass star T Tau led to new insights. Initially classified as the prototype of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, measurements with high resolution techniques in the near-infrared revealed the existence of a deeply embedded companion only 0.7 arcsec to the south. Later on, this companion itself has been resolved into two sources with a separation of only about 50 mas. We investigated both the optically bright northern component and the embedded southern binary with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI). The resulting visibilities of the northern component decrease with wavelength, independent of the baseline's position angle. This is a clear sign of the large face-on circumstellar disc. With a simultaneous fit of a radiative transfer model to both the interferometric results and the spectral energy distribution, the properties of this disc can be determined without the high degeneracy of fits to the spectral energy distribution alone. Since the visibilities of the southern binary are clearly dominated by the typical sinusoidal binary signal, we could for the first time in the mid-infrared derive separate spectra for both components together with a very precise relative position. This position is in excellent agreement with the orbit found from a fit to the near-infrared adaptive optics measurements. The orbit with its small periastron distance indicates tidally truncated discs, which are consistent with the interferometric measurements. The peculiar properties of the infrared companion can be explained by the model of an intermediate mass star extincted by an almost edge-on disc.

  1. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  2. b-dipole transitions in trans-HOCO observed by far infrared laser magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, T.J.; Radford, H.E.; Moore, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to measure components of 12 rotational transitions in the ground state of the HOCO radical. The transitions are all b-dipole in character in contrast to the a-dipole rotational spectrum previously reported [Radford, Wei, and Sears, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 3989 (1992)]. The new data determine the A rotational constant to high precision and allow the determination of several centrifugal distortion constants for the first time. The hyperfine coupling in the radical leads to observable splittings in several of the observed transitions and these are used to estimate two of the four expected nonzero hyperfine parameters in the radical

  3. A new MesosphEO dataset of temperature profiles from 35 to 85 km using Rayleigh scattering at limb from GOMOS/ENVISAT daytime observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Blanot, L.; Wing, R., Jr.; Keckhut, P.; Khaykin, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The scattering of sunlight by the Earth atmosphere above the top of the stratospheric layer, about 30-35 km altitude, is only due to Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric molecules. Its intensity is then directly proportional to the atmospheric density. It is then possible to retrieve a temperature profile in absolute value using the hydrostatic equation and the perfect gas law, assuming that the temperature is known from a climatological model at the top of the density profile. This technique is applied to Rayleigh lidar observations since more than 35 years (Hauchecorne and Chanin, 1980). The GOMOS star occultation spectrometer observed the sunlight scattering at limb during daytime to remove it from the star spectrum. In the frame of the ESA funded MesosphEO project, GOMOS Rayleigh scattering profiles in the spectral range 400-460 nm have been used to retrieve temperature profiles from 35 to 85 km with a 2-km vertical resolution. A dataset of more than 310 thousands profiles from 2002 to 2012 is available for climatology and atmospheric dynamics studies. The validation of this dataset using NDACC Rayleigh lidars and MLS-AURA and SABER-TIMED will be presented. Preliminary results on the variability of the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere will be shown. We propose to apply this technique in the future to ALTIUS observations. The Rayleigh scattering technique can be applied to any sounder observing the day-time limb on the near-UV and visible spectrum.

  4. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the lower limb: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical history over centuries includes description of a wide variety of malformations involving the lower limbs. This article offers an organized review of these diverse abnormalities, including new understanding of mechanisms through recent discoveries in genetics and molecular biology. In 19th century Europe, a number of unique anomalies were reported, as well as evidence of foot amputations occurring in ancient Peruvian culture. Embryologically, the limbs develop early, with the lower limb being recognizable for the first time at stage 13 of development. By stage 23, the toes are clearly defined and by birth, although the legs appear bowed, the tibia and fibula are straight. Removal of the apical ectodermal ridge results in cessation of limb development, conversely, a second apical ectodermal ridge results in duplication of distal structures. Supernumerary limbs have been documented to occur as part of a teratoma with unique morphology and accompanying blood supply. Additionally, many examples of polydactyly occur in the foot postulating that deletion of chromosome 22q11 is involved in postaxial polydactyly. Such deletions occur near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2 (i.e., on the long arm of one of the pair of chromosomes 22) and this syndrome is also referred to as DiGeorge syndrome, which has a prevalence estimated at 1:4,000. Absence of the lower limbs has also been noted, with hypoplasia of the fibula being the most common manifestation of congenital bone absences in the lower limb. In addition to fibular aplasia, cases of tibial aplasia have been reported. This article is important for surgeons attempting correctional repair of lower limb anomalies, as well as providing analysis of the historical, anatomical and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the lower limb. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Limb immobilization and corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Drubach, Daniel A; Knopman, David S; Ahlskog, J Eric; Golden, Erin C; Drubach, Dina I; Petersen, Ronald C; Josephs, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we evaluated two patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) who reported symptom onset after limb immobilization. Our objective was to investigate the association between trauma, immobilization and CBS. The charts of forty-four consecutive CBS patients seen in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer Disease Research Center were reviewed with attention to trauma and limb immobilization. 10 CBS patients (23%) had immobilization or trauma on the most affected limb preceding the onset or acceleration of symptoms. The median age at onset was 61. Six patients manifested their first symptoms after immobilization from surgery or fracture with one after leg trauma. Four patients had pre-existing symptoms of limb dysfunction but significantly worsened after immobilization or surgery. 23 percent of patients had immobilization or trauma of the affected limb. This might have implications for management of CBS, for avoiding injury, limiting immobilization and increasing movement in the affected limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infrared Observations of the Orion Capsule During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schuster, David M.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Schwartz, Richard J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Mercer, C. David; Tack, Steven; Ingram, Ben; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution infrared observations of the Orion capsule during its atmospheric reentry on December 5, 2015 were made from a US Navy NP-3D. This aircraft, equipped with a long-range optical sensor system, tracked the capsule from Mach 10 to 7 from a distance of approximately 60 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield were derived from near infrared intensity measurements. The global surface temperature measurements complemented onboard instrumentation and were invaluable to the interpretation of the in-depth thermocouple measurements which rely on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the desired surface temperature from the sub-surface measurements. The full paper will address the motivations behind the NASA Engineering Safety Center sponsored observation and highlight premission planning processes with an emphasis on aircraft placement, optimal instrument configuration and sensor calibrations. Critical aspects of mission operations coordinated from the NASA Johnson Spaceflight Center and integration with the JSC Flight Test Management Office will be discussed. A summary of the imagery that was obtained and processed to global surface temperature will be presented. At the capsule's point of closest approach relative to the imaging system, the spatial resolution was estimated to be approximately 15-inches per pixel and was sufficient to identify localized temperature increases associated with compression pad support hardware on the heatshield. The full paper will discuss the synergy of the quantitative imagery derived temperature maps with in-situ thermocouple measurements. Comparison of limited onboard surface thermocouple data to the image derived surface temperature will be presented. The two complimentary measurements serve as an example of the effective leveraging of resources to advance the understanding of high Mach number environments associated with an ablated heatshield and provide unique data

  7. Infrared observations of Comet Austin (1990 V) by the COBE/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Reach, W. T.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Comet Austin was observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) with broadband photometry at 1-240 micrometers during the comet's close passage by Earth in 1990 May. A 6 deg long (6 x 10(exp 6) km) dust tail was found at 12 and 25 micrometers, with detailed structure due to variations in particle properties and mass-loss rate. The spectrum of the central 42 x 42 sq arcmin pixel was found to agree with that of a graybody of temperature 309 +/- 5 K and optical depth 7.3 +/- 10(exp -8). Comparison with IUE and ground-based obervations indicates that particles of radius greater than 20 micrometers predominate by surface area. A mass-loss rate of 510 (+510/-205) kg/s and a total tail mass of 7 +/- 2 x 10(exp 10) kg was found for a model dust tail composed of Mie spheres with a differential particle mass distribution dn/d log m approx. m(exp -0.63) and 2:1 silicate:amorphous carbon composition by mass.

  8. CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, François; Dantes, Didier; Savaria, Eric; Selingardi, Mario Luis; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  9. Disappearance of "phantom limb" and amputated arm usage during dreaming in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Arnulf, Isabelle; Montagna, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Limb amputation is followed, in approximately 90% of patients, by "phantom limb" sensations during wakefulness. When amputated patients dream, however, the phantom limb may be present all the time, part of the time, intermittently or not at all. Such dreaming experiences in amputees have usually been obtained only retrospectively in the morning and, moreover, dreaming is normally associated with muscular atonia so the motor counterpart of the phantom limb experience cannot be observed directly. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), in which muscle atonia is absent during REM sleep and patients act out their dreams, allows a more direct analysis of the "phantom limb" phenomena and their modifications during sleep.

  10. Microarray and cDNA sequence analysis of transcription during nerve-dependent limb regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR and denervated (DL forelimbs of Mexican axolotls were amputated and transcripts were sampled after 0, 5, and 14 days of regeneration. Results Considerable similarity was observed between NR and DL transcriptional programs at 5 and 14 days post amputation (dpa. Genes with extracellular functions that are critical to wound healing were upregulated while muscle-specific genes were downregulated. Thus, many processes that are regulated during early limb regeneration do not depend upon nerve-derived factors. The majority of the transcriptional differences between NR and DL limbs were correlated with blastema formation; cell numbers increased in NR limbs after 5 dpa and this yielded distinct transcriptional signatures of cell proliferation in NR limbs at 14 dpa. These transcriptional signatures were not observed in DL limbs. Instead, gene expression changes within DL limbs suggest more diverse and protracted wound-healing responses. 454 cDNA sequencing complemented the microarray analysis by providing deeper sampling of transcriptional programs and associated biological processes. Assembly of new 454 cDNA sequences with existing expressed sequence tag (EST contigs from the Ambystoma EST database more than doubled (3935 to 9411 the number of non-redundant human-A. mexicanum orthologous sequences. Conclusion Many new candidate gene sequences were discovered for the first time and these will greatly enable future studies of wound healing, epigenetics, genome stability, and nerve-dependent blastema formation and outgrowth using the axolotl model.

  11. The cognitive rehabilitation of limb apraxia in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantagallo, Anna; Maini, Manuela; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2012-01-01

    Apraxia is a higher level motor deficit that occurs when processing a goal-directed action. The apraxic deficit can manifest itself in absence of sensory input deficits or motor output deficits, neglect, frontal inertia or dementia. According to a clinical classification still largely in use, there are two main forms of limb apraxia: ideomotor (IMA) and ideational (IA), observed when a patient is required to imitate a gesture or use an object, respectively. In the present review, we examined only the cognitive treatments of both types of limb apraxia of a vascular aetiology. Despite the high prevalence of limb apraxia caused by left brain damage, and the fact that apraxia has been known for over a century, the literature regarding its rehabilitation is still very limited. This is partly due to the nature of the recovery from the deficit, and in part to the automatic-voluntary dissociation. Here we review those treatments that have proved most successful in helping patients to recover from limb apraxia.

  12. A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.

  13. Limb Darkening and Planetary Transits: Testing Center-to-limb Intensity Variations and Limb-darkening Directly from Model Stellar Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); McNeil, Joseph T.; Ignace, Richard, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Box 70652, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The transit method, employed by Microvariability and Oscillation of Stars ( MOST ), Kepler , and various ground-based surveys has enabled the characterization of extrasolar planets to unprecedented precision. These results are precise enough to begin to measure planet atmosphere composition, planetary oblateness, starspots, and other phenomena at the level of a few hundred parts per million. However, these results depend on our understanding of stellar limb darkening, that is, the intensity distribution across the stellar disk that is sequentially blocked as the planet transits. Typically, stellar limb darkening is assumed to be a simple parameterization with two coefficients that are derived from stellar atmosphere models or fit directly. In this work, we revisit this assumption and compute synthetic planetary-transit light curves directly from model stellar atmosphere center-to-limb intensity variations (CLIVs) using the plane-parallel Atlas and spherically symmetric SAtlas codes. We compare these light curves to those constructed using best-fit limb-darkening parameterizations. We find that adopting parametric stellar limb-darkening laws leads to systematic differences from the more geometrically realistic model stellar atmosphere CLIV of about 50–100 ppm at the transit center and up to 300 ppm at ingress/egress. While these errors are small, they are systematic, and they appear to limit the precision necessary to measure secondary effects. Our results may also have a significant impact on transit spectra.

  14. Physiotherapy after amputation of the limb

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis the author considers physiotherapy after amputation of the lower limb. The theoretical section describes the anatomy of the lower limb, a procedure for amputation of the lower limb, occupational theraoy and prosthesis. The author then goes on to discuss physiotherapy in relation to two case studies of patients who have had their lower limbs removed.

  15. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simic Milena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement, such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated. Methods Twenty-five (17 women non-injured participants (mean age 25.6 years, range 18-37 were included. Visual analysis of the medio-lateral knee motion, scored as knee-over-foot or knee-medial-to-foot by two raters, and 3-D kinematic data were collected simultaneously during a single-limb mini squat. Frontal plane 2-D peak tibial, thigh, and knee varus-valgus angles, and 3-D peak hip internal-external rotation, and knee varus-valgus angles were calculated. Results Ten subjects were scored as having a knee-medial-to-foot position and 15 subjects a knee-over-foot position assessed by visual inspection. In 2-D, the peak tibial angle (mean 89.0 (SE 0.7 vs mean 86.3 (SE 0.4 degrees, p = 0.001 and peak thigh angle (mean 77.4 (SE 1.0 vs mean 81.2 (SE 0.5 degrees, p = 0.001 with respect to the horizontal, indicated that the knee was more medially placed than the ankle and thigh, respectively. Thus, the knee was in more valgus (mean 11.6 (SE 1.5 vs 5.0 (SE 0.8 degrees, p 0.90 and 96 between raters. Conclusions Medio-lateral motion of the knee can reliably be assessed during a single-leg mini-squat. The test is valid in 2-D, while the actual movement, in 3-D, is mainly exhibited as increased internal hip rotation. The single-limb mini squat is feasible and easy to administer in the clinical setting and in research to address lower extremity movement quality.

  16. Bethlem myopathy is not allelic to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, M.C.; Yamaoka, L.H.; Stajich, J.; Lewis, K. [and others

    1995-08-28

    The Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal-dominant myopathy, shows a distribution of proximal muscle weakness similar to that observed in dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Yet the Bethlem myopathy differs from most limb-girdle dystrophies in two important regards. First, the Bethlem myopathy presents with joint contractures most commonly observed at the elbows, ankles, and neck. Secondly, disease onset in the Bethlem myopathy is in early childhood, while most dominant LGMDs present with adult onset. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  17. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of microvasculature detects difference in lower limb vascular responsiveness in obese compared to lean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Murias, Juan M

    2018-07-01

    Microvascular dysfunction is an early complication in obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can lead to changes in hemodynamic function and endothelial cell expression throughout the vasculature that is vessel specific. This study aimed to evaluate whether the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with a vascular occlusion (VOT) assessment was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness within the microvasculature of the lower limb between lean and obese individuals. Twenty lean (BMI = 21.6 ± 1.3) and 17 obese individuals (BMI = 33.9 ± 1.1) participated in the study. Individuals underwent a VOT (5 min of baseline, 5 min of occlusion, and 8 min following cuff release) and vascular responsiveness was evaluated by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) signal during reperfusion. The difference between the minimal and the maximal value of StO 2 was calculated as the Amplitude of the StO 2 response. The Slope 2 StO 2 of the obese individuals was smaller (0.68 ± 0.07%·s -1 ) than the Slope 2 StO 2 of the lean individuals (1.08 ± 0.13%·s -1 ;P lean individuals (1708 ± 168%·s -1 ; P lean ones (30.4 ± 2.9 vs 21.6 ± 1.3 StO 2 (%), respectively; P lean individuals (r = 0.745; P lean and obese individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biofeedback effect of hybrid assistive limb in stroke rehabilitation: A proof of concept study using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Saita

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted rehabilitation has been increasingly drawing attention in the field of neurorehabilitation. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL is an exoskeleton robot developed based on the "interactive biofeedback" theory, and several studies have shown its efficacy for patients with stroke. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the facilitative effect of neurorehabilitation using a single-joint HAL (HAL-SJ and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.Subacute stroke patients admitted to our hospital were assessed in this study for HAL eligibility. We evaluated motor-related cortical activity using an fNIRS system at baseline and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment on the same day. Cortical activity was determined through the relative changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. For statistical analysis, we compared the number of flexion/extension movements before and immediately after HAL-SJ treatment using paired t-test. fNIRS used both the methods of statistical parametric mapping and random effect analysis.We finally included 10 patients (eight men, two women; mean age: 66.8 ± 12.0 years. The mean number of flexion/extension movements within 15 s increased significantly from 4.2 ± 3.1 to 5.3 ± 4.1 immediately after training. fNIRS showed increased cortical activation in the primary motor cortex of the ipsilesional hemisphere immediately after HAL-SJ treatment compared to the baseline condition.This study is the first to support the concept of the biofeedback effect from the perspective of changes in cortical activity measured with an fNIRS system. The biofeedback effect of HAL immediately increased the task-related cortical activity, and this may address the functional recovery. Further studies are warranted to support our findings.

  20. New gonioscopy system using only infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kota; Ito, Kunio; Matsunaga, Koichi; Miura, Katsuya; Esaki, Koji; Uji, Yukitaka

    2005-08-01

    To describe an infrared gonioscopy system designed to observe the anterior chamber angle under natural mydriasis in a completely darkened room. An infrared light filter was used to modify the light source of the slit-lamp microscope. A television monitor connected to a CCD monochrome camera was used to indirectly observe the angle. Use of the infrared system enabled observation of the angle under natural mydriasis in a completely darkened room. Infrared gonioscopy is a useful procedure for the observation of the angle under natural mydriasis.

  1. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.

    1980-01-01

    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  2. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  3. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Graphical User Interface for an Observing Control System for the UK Infrared Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Bridger, A.; Wright, G. S.; Adamson, A. J.; Currie, M. J.; Economou, F.

    A Graphical user interface for the observing control system of UK Infrared Telescope has been developed as a part of the ORAC (Observatory Reduction and Acquisition Control) Project. We analyzed and designed the system using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) with the CASE tool Rational Rose 98. The system has been implemented in a modular way with Java packages using Swing and RMI. This system is component-based with pluggability. Object orientation concepts and UML notations have been applied throughout the development.

  5. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  6. Radiography of syndactylous limbs of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uchino, T.

    1985-01-01

    Fore and hind limbs of 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian cattle ♀ (No.I) and those of 1-month-old Holstein-Friesian×Japanese Black cattle ♀ (No.II) suffering from syndactyly were dissected by means of radiographic examinations. The details were reported as follows. 1. The phalanges of both fore and left hind limbs of No.II cattle were completely fused. But, all the phalanges of left fore limb and proximal phalanges of right fore limb in No.I and the distal phalanges of right hind limb in No.II were normal, the others being of partial synostosis. 2. The distal parforating canal was absent in the metacarpus and the right metatarsus in No.II cattle. Also, in No.II on the distal part of the metacarpal or metatarsal, bone vestiges were noted, not only of the fifth and second metacarpus or metatarsus, but also the mutually jointed phalanges. 3. In No.I cattle, the left fore limb and 4 proximal sesamoid bones and 2 distal sesamoid bones, but the right limb had 4 sesamoid bones and 0 distal one. In No.II cattle, the fore limbs had 2 proximal and 0 distal sesamoid bones, left hind limb had 3 proximal and 0 distal ones, right hind limb had 3 proximal and 1 distal ones. 4. The arteries accommodated the syndactylous deformities. The median and radial arteries were fixed to be descended on to the palmar side of the metacarpus and mutually anastomosed to form a deep palmar arch. arising from the deep palmar arch, two branches (palmar proper digital aa. III and IV) were terminated by the lateral and medial palmar surfaces of the digit, where some anastomosing arches were formed by them. The arteries of the hind limbs were also similar to those of the fore limbs. 5. In radiographic examinations of syndactyly (in No.II) after 7-month feeding, hoof and digital bones were noted to have been developed, but distal phalanges were destructed and left in suspicion of bad prognosis

  7. Influence of limb temperature on cutaneous silent periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Markus; Valls-Solé, Josep; Vasko, Peter; Boček, Václav; Štetkárová, Ivana

    2014-09-01

    The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex mediated by small-diameter afferents (A-delta fibers) and large-diameter efferents (alpha motoneurons). The effect of limb temperature on CSPs has so far not been assessed. In 27 healthy volunteers (11 males; age 22-58 years) we recorded median nerve motor and sensory action potentials, median nerve F-wave and CSPs induced by noxious digit II stimulation in thenar muscles in a baseline condition at room temperature, and after randomly submersing the forearm in 42 °C warm or 15 °C cold water for 20 min each. In cold limbs, distal and proximal motor and sensory latencies as well as F-wave latencies were prolonged. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were reduced. Compound motor and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes did not differ significantly from baseline. CSP onset and end latencies were more delayed than distal and proximal median nerve motor and sensory latencies, whereas CSP duration was not affected. In warm limbs, opposite but smaller changes were seen in nerve conduction studies and CSPs. The observed CSP shift "en bloc" towards longer latencies without affecting CSP duration during limb cooling concurs with slower conduction velocity in both afferent and efferent fibers. Disparate conduction slowing in afferents and efferents, however, suggests that nociceptive EMG suppression is mediated by fibers of different size in the afferent than in the efferent arm, indirectly supporting the contribution of A-delta fibers as the main afferent input. Limb temperature should be taken into account when testing CSPs in the clinical setting, as different limb temperatures affect CSP latencies more than large-diameter fiber conduction function. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  9. Mass loss rates of OB stars derived from infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Panagia, N.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the authors report briefly on a study of the mass loss of early type stars in the infrared. Up to now near infrared (1.25 - 4.8 μ) broad band photometry of 70 southern OB stars of various luminosity class has been secured. Program stars have been selected, among those bright enough in the infrared to give a suitable photometric accuracy, in order to cover a wide range of spectral types. 37 stars are found to exhibit emission in excess over a blackbody photospheric continuum, which is interpreted in terms of gas ejected in the form of an accelerated wind. By means of model calculations the corresponding mass loss rates are derived. The obtained values compare well with those determined independently by various authors for stars in common. Their data show that mass loss rates increase with luminosity and are a decreasing function of surface gravity. (Auth.)

  10. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of a Wire-Driven Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot with Nonlinear Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Niu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot-aided rehabilitation has become an important technology to restore and reinforce motor functions of patients with extremity impairment, whereas it can be extremely challenging to achieve satisfactory tracking performance due to uncertainties and disturbances during rehabilitation training. In this paper, a wire-driven rehabilitation robot that can work over a three-dimensional space is designed for upper-limb rehabilitation, and sliding mode control with nonlinear disturbance observer is designed for the robot to deal with the problem of unpredictable disturbances during robot-assisted training. Then, simulation and experiments of trajectory tracking are carried out to evaluate the performance of the system, the position errors, and the output forces of the designed control scheme are compared with those of the traditional sliding mode control (SMC scheme. The results show that the designed control scheme can effectively reduce the tracking errors and chattering of the output forces as compared with the traditional SMC scheme, which indicates that the nonlinear disturbance observer can reduce the effect of unpredictable disturbances. The designed control scheme for the wire-driven rehabilitation robot has potential to assist patients with stroke in performing repetitive rehabilitation training.

  11. A large-scale intercomparison of stratospheric vertical distributions of NO2 and BrO retrieved from the SCIAMACHY limb measurements and ground-based twilight observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Hendrick, Francois; Lotz, Wolfhardt; van Roozendael, Michel; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    This study is devoted to the intercomparison of NO2 and BrO vertical profiles obtained from the satellite and ground-based measurements. Although, the ground-based observations are performed only at selected locations, they have a great potential to be used for the validation of satellite measurements since continuous long-term measurement series performed with the same instruments are available. Thus, long-term trends in the observed species can be analyzed and intercompared. Previous intercomparisons of the vertical distributions of NO2 and BrO retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements at the University of Bremen and obtained at IASB-BIRA by applying a profiling technique to ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations have shown a good agreement between the results of completely different measurement techniques. However, only a relatively short time period of one year was analyzed so far which do not allow investigating seasonal variations and trends. Furthermore, some minor discrepancies are still to be analyzed. In the current study, several years datasets obtained at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) in France and in Harestua in Norway will be compared to the retrievals of SCIAMACHY limb measurements. Seasonal and annual variations will be analyzed and possible reasons for the remaining discrepancies will be discussed.

  12. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  13. Probability of Regenerating a Normal Limb After Bite Injury in the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sierra; Muzinic, Laura; Muzinic, Christopher; Niemiller, Matthew L; Voss, S Randal

    2014-06-01

    Multiple factors are thought to cause limb abnormalities in amphibian populations by altering processes of limb development and regeneration. We examined adult and juvenile axolotls ( Ambystoma mexicanum ) in the Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center (AGSC) for limb and digit abnormalities to investigate the probability of normal regeneration after bite injury. We observed that 80% of larval salamanders show evidence of bite injury at the time of transition from group housing to solitary housing. Among 717 adult axolotls that were surveyed, which included solitary-housed males and group-housed females, approximately half presented abnormalities, including examples of extra or missing digits and limbs, fused digits, and digits growing from atypical anatomical positions. Bite injury likely explains these limb defects, and not abnormal development, because limbs with normal anatomy regenerated after performing rostral amputations. We infer that only 43% of AGSC larvae will present four anatomically normal looking adult limbs after incurring a bite injury. Our results show regeneration of normal limb anatomy to be less than perfect after bite injury.

  14. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Somatic and movement inductions phantom limb in non-amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, D. M.; Gentiletti, G. G.; Braidot, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The illusion of the mirror box is a tool for phantom limb pain treatment; this article proposes the induction of phantom limb syndrome on non-amputees upper limb, with a neurological trick of the mirror box. With two study situations: a) Somatic Induction is a test of the literature reports qualitatively, and novel proposal b) Motor Induction, which is an objective report by recording surface EEG. There are 3 cases proposed for Motor illusion, for which grasped movement is used: 1) Control: movement is made, 2) illusion: the mirror box is used, and 3) Imagination: no movement is executed; the subject only imagines its execution. Three different tasks are registered for each one of them (left hand, right hand, and both of them). In 64% of the subjects for somatic experience, a clear response to the illusion was observed. In the experience of motor illusion, cortical activation is detected in both hemispheres of the primary motor cortex during the illusion, where the hidden hand remains motionless. These preliminary findings in phantom limb on non-amputees can be a tool for neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-prosthesis control training.

  16. Comparison of stratospheric NO2 profiles above Kiruna, Sweden retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS measurements, SAOZ balloon measurements and SCIAMACHY limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Stratospheric NO2 not only destroys ozone but acts as a buffer against halogen catalyzed ozone loss by converting halogen species into stable nitrates. These two roles of stratospheric NO2 depend on the altitude. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the vertical distribution of stratospheric NO2. We compare the NO2 profiles derived from the zenith sky DOAS with those obtained from, SAOZ balloon measurements and satellite limb observations. Vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 are retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS observations operated at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) since 1996. To determine the profile of stratospheric NO2 measured from ground-based zenith sky DOAS, we apply the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM) to retrieval of vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 which has been developed by IASB-BIRA. The basic principle behind this profiling approach is the dependence of the mean scattering height on solar zenith angle (SZA). We compare the retrieved profiles to two additional datasets of stratospheric NO2 profile. The first one is derived from satellite limb observations by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on EnviSAT. The second is derived from the SAOZ balloon measurements (using a UV/Visible spectrometer) performed at Kiruna in Sweden.

  17. Elevated vacuum suspension preserves residual-limb skin health in people with lower-limb amputation: Randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Gynawali, Surya; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of clinical trials and case reports support qualitative claims that use of an elevated vacuum suspension (EVS) prosthesis improves residual-limb health on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, clinical outcomes scales, and wound closure studies. Here, we report first efforts to quantitatively assess residual-limb circulation in response to EVS. Residual-limb skin health and perfusion of people with lower-limb amputation (N = 10) were assessed during a randomized crossover study comparing EVS with nonelevated vacuum suspension (control) over a 32 wk period using noninvasive probes (transepidermal water loss, laser speckle imaging, transcutaneous oxygen measurement) and functional hyperspectral imaging approaches. Regardless of the suspension system, prosthesis donning decreased perfusion in the residual limb under resting conditions. After 16 wk of use, EVS improved residual-limb oxygenation during treadmill walking. Likewise, prosthesis-induced reactive hyperemia was attenuated with EVS following 16 wk of use. Skin barrier function was preserved with EVS but disrupted after control socket use. Taken together, outcomes suggest chronic EVS use improves perfusion and preserves skin barrier function in people with lower-limb amputation. ClinicalTrials.gov; "Evaluation of limb health associated with a prosthetic vacuum socket system": NCT01839123; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01839123?term=NCT01839123&rank=1.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of calcite, chalk, and coccoliths-do we observe the mineral surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Hem, Caroline Piper; Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    broadening from macroscopic dielectric effects. We detect water adsorbed on the high surface area synthetic calcite, which permits observation of the chemistry of thin liquid films on calcite using transmission infrared spectroscopy. The combination of infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory also...... asymmetric for the coccoliths and the synthetic calcite prepared using the carbonation method. It can be very well fitted by two peaks: a narrow Lorenzian at lower frequency and a broader Gaussian at higher frequency. These two samples both have a high specific surface area. Density functional theory...

  19. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  1. ISO far-infrared observations of rich galaxy clusters I. Abell 2670

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jorgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    As part of an investigation of far-infrared emission from rich galaxy clusters the central part of Abell 2670 has been mapped with ISO at 60 mu m, 100 mu m, 135 mu m, and 200 mu m using the PHT-C camera. Point sources detected in the field have infrared fluxes comparable to normal spirals...

  2. Limb myokymia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, J.W.; Allen, A.A.; Bastron, J.A.; Daube, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with myokymic discharges localized to limb muscles on needle electromyography had various neurologic lesions, both acute and chronic. Of the 38 patients, 27 had had previous radiation therapy and the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced plexopathy, myelopathy, or both. For the remaining 11 patients, the diagnoses included multiple sclerosis, inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, ischemic neuropathy, inflammatory myopathy, and chronic disorders of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The clinical presentations and results of local ischemia, peripheral nerve block, and percutaneous stimulation suggest that most limb myokymic discharges arise focally at the site of a chronic peripheral nerve lesion

  3. HAWC+/SOFIA observations of Rho Oph A: far-infrared polarization spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabio; Dowell, Charles D.; Houde, Martin; Looney, Leslie; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Novak, Giles; Ward-Thompson, Derek; HAWC+ Science Team

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary results from the HAWC+ far-infrared polarimeter that operates on the SOFIA airborne observatory. The densest portions of the Rho Ophiuchi molecular complex, known as Rho Oph A, have been mapped using HAWC+ bands C (89 microns) and D (155 microns). Rho Oph A is a well known nearby star forming region. At the target's distance of approximately 130 pc, our observations provide excellent spatial resolution (~5 mpc in band C).The magnetic field map suggests a compressed and distorted field morphology around Oph S1, a massive B3 star that is the main heat source of Rho Oph A. We compute the ratio p(D)/p(C), where p(C) and p(D) are the polarization degree maps at bands C and D, respectively. This ratio estimates the slope of the polarization spectrum in the far-infrared. Although the slope is predicted to be positive by dust grain models, previous observations of other molecular clouds have revealed that negative slopes are common. In Rho Oph A, we find that there is a smooth gradient of p(D)/p(C) across the mapped field. The change in p(D)/p(C) is well correlated with the integrated NH3 (1,1) emission. A positive slope dominates the lower density and well illuminated portions of the cloud, whereas a transition to a negative slope is observed at the denser and less evenly illuminated cloud core.We interpret the positive to negative slope transition as being consistent with the radiative torques (RATs) grain alignment theory. For the sight lines of higher column density, polarized emission from the warmer outer cloud layers is added to emission from the colder inner well-shielded layers lying along the same line-of-sight. Given that the outer layers receive more radiation from Oph S1, their grain alignment efficiency is expected to be higher according to RATs. The combination of warmer, well aligned grains with cooler, poorly aligned grains is what causes the negative slope. This effect is not present in the sight lines of lower column

  4. Clinical effectiveness of DSA-guided foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jianhua; He Xu; Chen Guoping; Gu Jianping; Wang Yafei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of DSA-guided foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins of lower limbs. Methods: A total of 25 diseased limbs in 20 patients with varicose veins were treated with foam sclerotherapy. The patients were followed up for six months. Sodium morrhuate, used as the sclerosant, was foamed with air by using Tessari's method, with liquid-gas ratio of 1 : 4. The clinical effectiveness was estimated by CEAP, clinical signs and symptoms. Results: A total of 25 limbs in 20 patients with varicose veins were successfully treated with foam sclerotherapy. The technical success rate was 100%. No serious complications such as pulmonary embolism occurred. Phlebitis was observed in two cases at 2 days 4 days after foam sclerotherapy respectively which was relieved after anti-inflammatory medication for 3 days. At the time of discharge, excellent result was seen in 12 (48%) limbs, good effect in 13 (52%) limbs. The total effective rate was 100%. Six months after the treatment, excellent effect was obtained in 15 (60%) limbs and good effect was seen in 10 (40%) limbs. The total effective rate was 100%. Conclusion: DSA-guided foam sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and micro-invasive treatment for varicose veins of lower limbs with high technical success rate, although the long-term clinical effect needs to be further evaluated. (authors)

  5. Moving a generalised limb : a simulation with consequences for theories on limb control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, E

    The movement control of articulated limbs in vertebrates has been explained in terms of equilibrium points and moving equilibrium points or virtual trajectories. These hypotheses state that the nervous system makes the control Of multi-segment limbs easier by simply planning in terms of these

  6. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna

    2014-01-01

    -related protein (FKRP) gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w) imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance......) that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii) new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I....

  7. A STUDY OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE GRADIENT VARIATION USING LIMB DARKENING MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Serena [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Foukal, Peter [192 Willow Road, Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The variation in area of quiet magnetic network measured over the sunspot cycle should modulate the spatially averaged photospheric temperature gradient, since temperature declines with optical depth more gradually in magnetic flux tube atmospheres. Yet, limb darkening measurements show no dependence upon activity level, even at an rms precision of 0.04%. We study the sensitivity of limb darkening to changes in area filling factor using a 3D MHD model of the magnetized photosphere. The limb darkening change expected from the measured 11-year area variation lies below the level of measured limb darkening variations, for a reasonable range of magnetic flux in quiet network and internetwork regions. So the remarkably constant limb darkening observed over the solar activity cycle is not inconsistent with the measured 11-year change in area of quiet magnetic network. Our findings offer an independent constraint on photospheric temperature gradient changes reported from measurements of the solar spectral irradiance from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor, and recently, from wavelength-differential spectrophotometry using the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the HINODE spacecraft.

  8. Congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Markatos, Konstantinos; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Gartziou-Tatti, Ariadne; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2018-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the limbs have been observed since ancient human civilizations, capturing the imagination of ancient physicians and people. The knowledge of the era could not possibly theorize on the biologic aspects of these anomalies; however, from the very beginning of civilization the spiritual status of people attempted to find a logical explanation for the existence of such cases. The next logical step of the spiritual and religious system of the ancients was to correlate these anomalies with the Gods and to attribute them to a different level of existence in order to rationalize their existence. In these settings, the mythology and religious beliefs of ancient civilizations comprised several creatures that were related to the observed congenital anomalies in humans. The purpose of this historic review is to summarize the depiction of congenital anomalies of the limbs in mythology and antiquity, to present several mythological creatures with resemblance to humans with congenital anomalies of the limbs, to present the atmosphere of the era concerning the congenital anomalies, and to theorize on the anomaly and medical explanation upon which such creatures were depicted. Our aim is to put historic information in one place, creating a comprehensive review that the curious reader would find interesting and enjoyable.

  9. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  10. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were enrolled. Ten patients had chronic PLP, while the other seven patients had no PLP. Tactile-sensation threshold, cold- and warm-sensation thresholds, cold- and heat-pain thresholds, electrical-sensation threshold (EST, and electrical-pain threshold on the distal residual limb and the symmetrical site on the sound limb were measured in all tested patients. Their thresholds were compared within the PLP and non-PLP group, and between the groups. Results: The novel findings included: 1 electrical-pain threshold was only decreased in the sound limb in the PLP group and there was no difference between two limbs in the non-PLP group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with PLP; and 2 EST was increased on the affected limb as compared to the sound limb within the PLP group, but there were no significant differences in EST between the PLP and non-PLP group. There were in general no significant differences in other tested thresholds within the groups and between groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate central sensitization in the patients with PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Keywords: central sensitization, pain threshold, human

  11. Airborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Libois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of the Far-InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR were performed in April 2015 during the panarctic NETCARE campaign. Vertical profiles of spectral upwelling radiance in the range 8–50 µm were measured in clear and cloudy conditions from the surface up to 6 km. The clear sky profiles highlight the strong dependence of radiative fluxes to the temperature inversion typical of the Arctic. Measurements acquired for total column water vapour from 1.5 to 10.5 mm also underline the sensitivity of the far-infrared greenhouse effect to specific humidity. The cloudy cases show that optically thin ice clouds increase the cooling rate of the atmosphere, making them important pieces of the Arctic energy balance. One such cloud exhibited a very complex spatial structure, characterized by large horizontal heterogeneities at the kilometre scale. This emphasizes the difficulty of obtaining representative cloud observations with airborne measurements but also points out how challenging it is to model polar clouds radiative effects. These radiance measurements were successfully compared to simulations, suggesting that state-of-the-art radiative transfer models are suited to study the cold and dry Arctic atmosphere. Although FIRR in situ performances compare well to its laboratory performances, complementary simulations show that upgrading the FIRR radiometric resolution would greatly increase its sensitivity to atmospheric and cloud properties. Improved instrument temperature stability in flight and expected technological progress should help meet this objective. The campaign overall highlights the potential for airborne far-infrared radiometry and constitutes a relevant reference for future similar studies dedicated to the Arctic and for the development of spaceborne instruments.

  12. Comment on "Infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caprini, I.; Fischer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), 018501/1-018501/5 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QCD * analyticity * infrared freezing Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  13. Ergotism of the lower limb complicating DHE-heparin thrombosis prophylaxis. Observation by serial angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    1988-10-01

    Today ergotism is becoming more and more important as a complication in the treatment of migraine headache or thrombosis prophylaxis with DHE heparin. Although complete recovery is seldom reported in the current literature, in our case it was possible to resolve a spasm of the left lower limb completely by early diagnosis and adaequate pharmacological treatment. The case was well documented by serial angiography.

  14. Bounded Control of an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwatosin Ajayi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A bounded control strategy is employed for the rehabilitation and assistance of a patient with lower-limb disorder. Complete and partial lower-limb motor function disorders are considered. This application is centered on the knee and the ankle joint level, thereby considering a user in a sitting position. A high gain observer is used in the estimation of the angular position and angular velocities which is then applied to the estimation of the joint torques. The level of human contribution is feedback of a fraction of the estimated joint torque. This is utilised in order to meet the demands for a bounded human torque; that is, τh≤N2,n≤N1,n. The asymptotic stability of the bounded control law without human contribution and the convergence analysis of the high gain observer is verified using Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulations are performed to verify the proposed control law. Results obtained guarantee a fair trajectory tracking of the physiotherapist trajectory.

  15. Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, E. M. B.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Epp, L.

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76 × 10^{19} cm^{-2} for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

  16. BMP-Mediated Functional Cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during Mammalian Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F.; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations. PMID:23382810

  17. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence Vieux-Rochas

    Full Text Available The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO, beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1 in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2 in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  18. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît; Levi, Giovanni; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  19. Working conditions at hospital food service and the development of venous disease of lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Clarissa Medeiros; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco; de Salazar, Begoña Rodriguez Ortiz; do Nascimento Galego, Gilberto

    2013-12-01

    The present study assesses some factors that may influence the development of lower limb venous disease in workers of a hospital food service unit. An Ergonomic analysis of work was carried out at a hospital located in the south of Brazil. As for data collection, the following were used: interviews and body mass index assessment; specific clinical examination to diagnose venous disease, water displacement volumetry of the lower limbs. The activities performed at the workplace were followed by direct observation with image registration, use of pedometers, stopwatches, decibel meter, and digital thermo-hygrometer. It was observed different degrees of venous disease in 78% of the cases investigated. The volumetric variation of the lower limbs was 5.13%, showing the presence of edema. Working in hospital food service is associated with circulatory disorders of lower limbs, such as edema and venous disease. The following risk factors were identified: standing activities at work during a long period of time, high temperature, and humidity and carrying heavy weights.

  20. Recovery of decreased bone mineral mass after lower-limb fractures in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier E; Delhumeau, Cécile; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; De Coulon, Geraldo; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Rizzoli, René

    2013-06-05

    Loss of bone mineral mass, muscle atrophy, and functional limitations are predictable consequences of immobilization and subsequent weight-bearing restriction due to leg or ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to prospectively determine whether decreased bone mineral mass following lower-limb fractures recovers at follow-up durations of six and eighteen months in adolescents. In the present study, we included fifty adolescents who underwent cast immobilization for a leg or ankle fracture. Dual x-ray absorptiometry scans of four different sites (total hip, femoral neck, entire lower limb, and calcaneus) were performed at the time of the fracture, at cast removal, and at follow-ups of six and eighteen months. Patients with fractures were paired with healthy controls according to sex, age, and ethnicity. Dual x-ray absorptiometry values were compared between groups and between injured and non-injured legs in adolescents with fractures. Among those with fractures, lower-limb bone mineral variables were significantly lower at the injured side compared with the non-injured side at cast removal, with differences ranging from 6.2% to 31.7% (p < 0.0001). Similarly, injured adolescents had significantly lower bone mineral values at the level of the injured lower limb compared with healthy controls (p < 0.0001). At the six-month follow-up, there were still significant residual differences between injured and non-injured legs in adolescents with fractures (p < 0.0001). However, a significant residual difference between healthy controls and injured adolescents was present only for femoral neck bone mineral density (p = 0.011). At the eighteen-month follow-up, no significant difference was observed at any lower-limb site. Bone mineral loss following a fracture of the lower limb in adolescents is highly significant and affects the lower limb both proximal to and distal to the fracture site. In contrast to observations in adults, a rapid bone mass reversal occurs with full

  1. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; et al.

    2014-04-17

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly-discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the ${\\it Fermi}$ Large Area Telescope observations of the $\\gamma$-ray emission from the Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range $\\sim 90~$GeV-$6~$TeV (derived from a photon energy range $15~$GeV-$1~$TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index $2.68 \\pm 0.04$ and $2.61 \\pm 0.08$ above $\\sim 200~$GeV, respectively.

  2. Atmospheric structure and helium abundance on Saturn from Cassini/UVIS and CIRS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, T. T.; Guerlet, S.

    2018-06-01

    We combine measurements from stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and limb scans observed by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) to create empirical atmospheric structure models for Saturn corresponding to the locations probed by the occultations. The results cover multiple locations at low to mid-latitudes between the spring of 2005 and the fall of 2015. We connect the temperature-pressure (T-P) profiles retrieved from the CIRS limb scans in the stratosphere to the T-P profiles in the thermosphere retrieved from the UVIS occultations. We calculate the altitudes corresponding to the pressure levels in each case based on our best fit composition model that includes H2, He, CH4 and upper limits on H. We match the altitude structure to the density profile in the thermosphere that is retrieved from the occultations. Our models depend on the abundance of helium and we derive a volume mixing ratio of 11 ± 2% for helium in the lower atmosphere based on a statistical analysis of the values derived for 32 different occultation locations. We also derive the mean temperature and methane profiles in the upper atmosphere and constrain their variability. Our results are consistent with enhanced heating at the polar auroral region and a dynamically active upper atmosphere.

  3. Computer simulations of neural mechanisms explaining upper and lower limb excitatory neural coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Daniel P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. Methods We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs did not receive supraspinal input such that the only mechanisms available for enhancing output were interlimb coupling gains and sensory feedback gains. Results In a two-CPG model with inhibitory sensory feedback gains, only excitatory gains of ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 26%. In a two-CPG model with excitatory sensory feedback gains, excitatory gains of contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 100%. However, within a given excitatory sensory feedback gain, enhancement due to excitatory interlimb gains could only reach levels up to 20%. Interconnecting four CPGs to have ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling, contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling, and bilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling could enhance

  4. Mechanobiology of embryonic limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, Niamh C; Murphy, Paula; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2007-04-01

    Considerable evidence exists to support the hypothesis that mechanical forces have an essential role in healthy embryonic skeletal development. Clinical observations and experimental data indicate the importance of muscle contractions for limb development. However, the influence of these forces is seldom referred to in biological descriptions of bone development, and perhaps this is due to the fact that the hypothesis that mechanical forces are essential for normal embryonic skeletal development is difficult to test and elaborate experimentally in vivo, particularly in humans. Computational modeling has the potential to address this issue by simulating embryonic growth under a range of loading conditions but the potential of such models has yet to be fully exploited. In this article, we review the literature on mechanobiology of limb development in three main sections: (a) experimental alteration of the mechanical environment, (b) mechanical properties of embryonic tissues, and (c) the use of computational models. Then we analyze the main issues, and suggest how experimental and computational fields could work closer together to enhance our understanding of mechanobiology of the embryonic skeleton.

  5. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Hiroko; Wong, Julia; Oishi, Isao; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The limb skeletal elements that have unique morphology and distinct locations are developed from limb progenitors, derived from the lateral plate mesoderm. These skeletal elements arise during limb development. In this study, we show genetic evidence that function of Sall4 is essential prior to limb outgrowth for development of the anterior-proximal skeletal elements. Furthermore, genetic interaction between Sall4 and Gli3 is upstream of establishing Shh (Sonic hedgehog) expression, and there...

  6. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  7. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  8. Incidental intima-media wall changes in the lower-limb arteries: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series describes the observed presence of echogenic circular “beads” identified by high-resolution ultrasound imaging in the peripheral arterial walls of the lower limbs of three vascularly asymptomatic runners. The aetiology, mechanisms and clinical implications of these observations remain uncertain. Keywords: ...

  9. Determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; Lakhani, Bimal; McIlroy, William E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke. Retrospective chart review. Inpatient rehabilitation. Convenience sample of individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with poststroke hemiparesis. Not applicable. Compensatory stepping responses were evoked using a lean-and-release postural perturbation. The limb used to initiate compensatory stepping was determined. The relationships between stepping with the paretic limb and premorbid limb dominance, weight bearing on the paretic limb in quiet standing, ability to bear weight on the paretic limb, preperturbation weight bearing on the paretic limb, and lower-limb motor recovery scores were determined. The majority (59.1%) of responses were steps initiated with the nonparetic limb. Increased lower-limb motor recovery scores and preperturbation weight bearing on the nonparetic limb were significantly related to increased frequency of stepping with the paretic limb. When the preferred limb was physically blocked, an inappropriate response was initiated in 21% of trials (ie, nonstep responses or an attempt to step with the blocked limb). This study reveals the challenges that individuals with poststroke hemiparesis face when executing compensatory stepping responses to prevent a fall after a postural perturbation. The inability or challenges to executing a compensatory step with the paretic limb may increase the risk for falls poststroke. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of phantom limb pain, stump pain, and phantom limb sensation among the amputated cancer patients in India: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phantom limb pain (PLP and phantom limb sensation (PLS are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. Methods: The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP, and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. Results: The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression.

  11. Limb development: a paradigm of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Florence; Sears, Karen E; Ahituv, Nadav

    2017-04-01

    The limb is a commonly used model system for developmental biology. Given the need for precise control of complex signalling pathways to achieve proper patterning, the limb is also becoming a model system for gene regulation studies. Recent developments in genomic technologies have enabled the genome-wide identification of regulatory elements that control limb development, yielding insights into the determination of limb morphology and forelimb versus hindlimb identity. The modulation of regulatory interactions - for example, through the modification of regulatory sequences or chromatin architecture - can lead to morphological evolution, acquired regeneration capacity or limb malformations in diverse species, including humans.

  12. Infrared emission and extragalactic starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the belief that recent star formation plays a significant role in determining many of the infrared properties of galaxies. Pertinent types of infrared observations and the infrared properties of starbursts are briefly summarized. Recently developed models which describe the evolution of starbursts are also considered. (U.K.)

  13. Evaluation of Genes Involved in Limb Development, Angiogenesis, and Coagulation as Risk Factors for Congenital Limb Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Marilyn L.; Carter, Tonia C.; Kay, Denise M.; Kuehn, Devon; Brody, Lawrence C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Liu, Aiyi; Caggana, Michele; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Mills, James L.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected genes to find common variants that play a role in the etiology of limb deficiencies (LD)s. Included in the study were 389 infants with LDs of unknown cause and 980 unaffected controls selected from all births in New York State (NYS) for the years 1998 to 2005. We used cases identified from the NYS Department of Health (DOH) Congenital Malformations Registry. Genotypes were obtained for 132 SNPs in genes involved in limb development (SHH, WNT7A, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, TBX3, TBX5, SALL4, GREM1, GDF5, CTNNB1, EN1, CYP26A1, CYP26B1), angiogenesis (VEGFA, HIF1A, NOS3), and coagulation (F2, F5, MTHFR). Genotype call rates were >97% and SNPs were tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations by race/ethnic subgroups. For each SNP, odds ratios (OR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated and corrected for multiple comparisons for all LDs combined and for LD subtypes. Among non-Hispanic white infants, associations between FGF10 SNPs rs10805683 and rs13170645 and all LDs combined were statistically significant following correction for multiple testing (OR=1.99; 95% CI=1.43-2.77; uncorrected p=0.000043 for rs10805683 heterozygous genotype, and OR=2.37; 95% CI=1.48-3.78; uncorrected p=0.00032 for rs13170645 homozygous minor genotype). We also observed suggestive evidence for associations with SNPs in other genes including CYP26B1 and WNT7A. Animal studies have shown that FGF10 induces formation of the apical ectodermal ridge and is necessary for limb development. Our data suggest that common variants in FGF10 increase the risk for a wide range of non-syndromic limb deficiencies. PMID:22965740

  14. Geometry of the chromosphere-corona transition region inferred from the center-to-limb variation of the radio emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, R [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1975-07-01

    Based on the observations of the EUV spectroheliograms, the effective chromosphere-corona transition region is assumed to be restricted in a small volume element in the boundaries of the supergranular network. The center-to-limb variation of the quiet Sun at cm and dm wavelengths is analyzed to determine where the transition region is located in the network boundaries. Expressions are derived for the theoretical center-to-limb variation of the hypothetical brightness temperature only from the transition region, taking into account the orientation of the spicules. Comparison with the observations shows that the spicule-sheath model (Brueckner and Nicolas, 1973) and the hot plagette model (Foukal, 1974) are not compatible with the observations, because the limb brighening predicted by these models is too great. A new picture is therefore proposed that thin platelet transition regions are placed on top of the chromosphere and scattered between the network boundaries (platlet transition-region model). This model is in accord with the observed center to limb variation of the radio emission.

  15. A Cometary Bow Shock and Mid-Infrared Emission Variations Revealed in Spitzer Observations of HD 34078 and IC 405

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Lupu, Roxana E.

    2006-01-01

    We present new infrared observations of the emission/reflection nebula IC 405 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared images in the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um) and two MIPS bands (24 and 70 um) are complemented by IRS spectroscopy (5-30 um) of two nebular filaments. The IRAC (8.0 um) and MIPS imaging shows evidence of a bow shock associated with the runaway O9.5V star, HD 34078, created by the interaction between the star and nebular material. The ratio of emission...

  16. Effect of parent-delivered action observation therapy on upper limb function in unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Emma; Pearse, Janice; James, Peter; Basu, Anna

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether home-based, parent-delivered therapy comprising action observation (AO) and repeated practice (RP) improves upper limb function more than RP alone in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). single-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation comparing AO+RP (intervention) with RP alone (control). computer-generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially-numbered envelopes. northern England, August 2011 to September 2013. 70 children with UCP; mean age 5.6 years (SD 2.1), 31 female. home-based activities were provided, tailored to interests and abilities. 15 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 months. Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA; primary outcome measure), Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA2), and ABILHAND-Kids at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Outcome data was available at 3 months for 28 children in the AO+RP group and 31 controls, and at 6 months for 26 and 28 children respectively. There were no between-group differences in AHA, MA2, or ABILHAND-Kids at 3 or 6 months versus baseline (all p>0.05). Combined-group improvements (pMA2 at 3 months, were maintained at 6 months. ABILHAND-Kids also showed improvement at 3 months (p=0.003), maintained at 6 months. Parent-delivered RP (with or without AO) improves upper limb function and could supplement therapist input. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  17. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  18. The two domain hypothesis of limb prepattern and its relevance to congenital limb anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hirotaka; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hui, Chi-Chung; Hopyan, Sevan

    2017-07-01

    Functional annotation of mutations that cause human limb anomalies is enabled by basic developmental studies. In this study, we focus on the prepatterning stage of limb development and discuss a recent model that proposes anterior and posterior domains of the early limb bud generate two halves of the future skeleton. By comparing phenotypes in humans with those in model organisms, we evaluate whether this prepatterning concept helps to annotate human disease alleles. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e270. doi: 10.1002/wdev.270 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  20. Lower limb immobilization device induced small setup errors in the radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuting; Ni, Xinye; Yu, Jingping; Ni, Xinchu; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianlin; Sun, Suping; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a lower limb immobilization device and investigate its clinical application in the radiotherapy of the lower limbs.Around 38 patients who underwent lower limb radiotherapy using the designed immobilization device were included in this study. The setup errors were calculated by comparison of the portal images and the simulator films or digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).From all 38 patients accomplished the radiotherapy using this device, 178 anteroposterior portal images and 178 lateral portal images were used for the analysis of the positional accuracy. Significant differences were observed in the setup error of the head-foot direction compared with the left-right direction (t = 3.404, P = .002) and the anterior-posterior directions (t = 3.188, P = .003). No statistical differences were identified in the setup error in the left-right direction and anterior-posterior direction (t = 0.497, P = .622).The use of the in-house designed lower limb immobilization device allowed for relatively small setup errors. Furthermore, it showed satisfactory accuracy and repeatability.

  1. Simulation of the vibrational chemistry and the infrared signature induced by a Sprite streamer in the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, F.; Payan, S.; Croize, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since their first observation in 1989, effect of TLEs on the atmospheric composition has become an open and important question. The lack of suitable experimental data is a shortcoming that hampers our understanding of the physics and chemistry induced by these effects. HALESIS (High-Altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery) is a future experiment dedicated to the measurement of the atmospheric perturbation induced by a TLE in the minutes following its occurrence, from a stratospheric balloon flying at an altitude of 25 km to 40 km. This work aims to quantify the local chemical impact of sprites in the stratosphere and mesosphere. In this paper, we will present the development of a tool which simulates (i) the impact of a sprite on the vibrational chemistry, (ii) the resulting infrared signature and (iii) the propagation of this signature through the atmosphere to an observer. First the Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium populations of a background atmosphere were computed using SAMM2 code. The initial thermodynamic and chemical description of atmosphere comes from the Whole Atmosphere community Climate Model (WACCM). Then a perturbation was applied to simulate a sprite. Chemistry due to TLEs was computed using Gordillo-Vazquez kinetic model. Rate coefficients that depend on the electron energy distribution function were calculated from collision cross-section data by solving the electron Boltzmann equation (BE). Time evolutions of the species densities and of vibrational populations in the non-thermal plasma consecutive to sprite discharge were simulated using the computer code ZDPlasKin (S. Pancheshn et al.). Finally, the resulting infrared signatures were propagated from the disturbed area through the atmosphere to an instrument placed in a limb line of sight using a line by line radiative transfer model. We will conclude that sprite could produce a significant infrared signature that last a few tens of seconds after the visible flash.

  2. GARLIC — A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code — GARLIC — is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus. - Highlights: • High resolution infrared-microwave radiative transfer model. • Discussion of algorithmic and computational aspects. • Jacobians by automatic/algorithmic differentiation. • Performance evaluation by intercomparisons, verification, validation

  3. Early GRB optical and infrared afterglow observations with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomboc, A.; Ljubljana Univ., Ljubljana; Mundell, C.G.; Guidorzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst IGRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations

  4. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  5. Space-Time Variations in Water Vapor as Observed by the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Lee S.; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Mote, Philip W.; Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Harwood, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere has a significant impact on the climate system. Difficulties in making accurate global measurements have led to uncertainty in understanding water vapor's coupling to the hydrologic cycle in the lower troposphere and its role in radiative energy balance. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is able to retrieve water vapor concentration in the upper troposphere with good sensitivity and nearly global coverage. An analysis of these preliminary retrievals based on 3 years of observations shows the water vapor distribution to be similar to that measured by other techniques and to model results. The primary MLS water vapor measurements were made in the stratosphere, where this species acts as a conserved tracer under certain conditions. As is the case for the upper troposphere, most of the stratospheric discussion focuses on the time evolution of the zonal mean and zonally varying water vapor. Stratospheric results span a 19-month period and tropospheric results a 36-month period, both beginning in October of 1991. Comparisons with stratospheric model calculations show general agreement, with some differences in the amplitude and phase of long-term variations. At certain times and places, the evolution of water vapor distributions in the lower stratosphere suggests the presence of meridional transport.

  6. A climatology of polar stratospheric cloud composition between 2002 and 2012 based on MIPAS/Envisat observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Rolf; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Höpfner, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Orr, Andrew; Riese, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument aboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 to April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements provide a unique dataset of day and night observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) up to both poles. A recent classification method for PSC types in infrared (IR) limb spectra using spectral measurements in different atmospheric window regions has been applied to the complete mission period of MIPAS. The method uses a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption on a combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D probability density functions of brightness temperature differences. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and liquid droplets of supercooled ternary solution (STS), as well as mixed types. A climatology of MIPAS PSC occurrence and specific PSC classes has been compiled. Comparisons with results from the classification scheme of the spaceborne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol-Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite show excellent correspondence in the spatial and temporal evolution for the area of PSC coverage (APSC) even for each PSC class. Probability density functions of the PSC temperature, retrieved for each class with respect to equilibrium temperature of ice and based on coincident temperatures from meteorological reanalyses, are in accordance with the microphysical knowledge of the formation processes with respect to temperature for all three PSC types.This paper represents unprecedented pole-covering day- and nighttime climatology of the PSC distributions and their composition of different particle types. The dataset allows analyses on the temporal and spatial development of the PSC formation process over

  7. A climatology of polar stratospheric cloud composition between 2002 and 2012 based on MIPAS/Envisat observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument aboard the European Space Agency (ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 to April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements provide a unique dataset of day and night observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs up to both poles. A recent classification method for PSC types in infrared (IR limb spectra using spectral measurements in different atmospheric window regions has been applied to the complete mission period of MIPAS. The method uses a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption on a combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D probability density functions of brightness temperature differences. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT, and liquid droplets of supercooled ternary solution (STS, as well as mixed types. A climatology of MIPAS PSC occurrence and specific PSC classes has been compiled. Comparisons with results from the classification scheme of the spaceborne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP on the Cloud-Aerosol-Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO satellite show excellent correspondence in the spatial and temporal evolution for the area of PSC coverage (APSC even for each PSC class. Probability density functions of the PSC temperature, retrieved for each class with respect to equilibrium temperature of ice and based on coincident temperatures from meteorological reanalyses, are in accordance with the microphysical knowledge of the formation processes with respect to temperature for all three PSC types.This paper represents unprecedented pole-covering day- and nighttime climatology of the PSC distributions and their composition of different particle types. The dataset allows analyses on the temporal and spatial development of the PSC formation

  8. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  9. Limb sparing approach: Adjuvant radiation therapy in adults with intermediate or high-grade limb soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merimsky, Ofer; Soyfer, Vjacheslav; Kovner, Felix; Bickels, Jacob; Issakov, Josephine; Flusser, Gideon; Meller, Isaac; Ofer, Oded; Kollender, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    Background: Limb soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are currently treated with limb sparing surgery (LSS) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Patients and methods: Between October 1994 and October 2002, 133 adult patients with intermediate or high-grade limb STS were approached by LSS+RT. Results: RT related toxicity was manageable, with a low rate of severe effects. At 4-year median follow-up, there were 48 recurrences of any type, 23 of isolated local failure, and 35 of systemic spread w/o local failure. DFS and OS were influenced by disease stage II vs I, primary site in the upper limb vs lower limb, MPNST vs other types, induction therapy vs no induction, adequate resection vs marginal resection or involved margins, and good response to induction therapy vs bad response. DFS and OS were Patient's age and sex, tumor depth, acute or late toxicity of RT, or the interval of time between the date of definitive surgery and the start of RT did not affect DFS and or OS. Conclusions: The RT protocol is applicable in the era of complicated, expensive and time-consuming 3D therapy. Our results of LSS+RT in adults with limb HG STS are satisfactory

  10. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  11. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  12. Robotics in Lower-Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Yue, Zan; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in the elderly, stroke has become a common disease, often leading to motor dysfunction and even permanent disability. Lower-limb rehabilitation robots can help patients to carry out reasonable and effective training to improve the motor function of paralyzed extremity. In this paper, the developments of lower-limb rehabilitation robots in the past decades are reviewed. Specifically, we provide a classification, a comparison, and a design overview of the driving modes, training paradigm, and control strategy of the lower-limb rehabilitation robots in the reviewed literature. A brief review on the gait detection technology of lower-limb rehabilitation robots is also presented. Finally, we discuss the future directions of the lower-limb rehabilitation robots.

  13. Roux limb volvulus in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass due to Roux limb stabilization suture: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Brendan; Yenumula, Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Complications after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery may be related to the type of surgical technique employed. One technique, the placement of a Roux limb stabilization suture, presumably prevents kink at the gastrojejunal anastomosis. However, it can have an adverse effect and we studied a series of cases presenting with intestinal obstruction secondary to this stitch. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass cases who had reoperations for Roux limb volvulus was performed at a single bariatric center by a single surgeon. Out of 199 patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass with placement of Roux limb stabilization suture, 4 patients (2.01%) presented with Roux limb volvulus postoperatively. BMI was 45.35 ± 2.95. The postoperative time to presentation was 11 ± 10.6 months. All four patients required surgical exploration to reduce the volvulus. In all cases, the Roux limb volvulus was directly attributable to the presence of the stabilization suture. In subsequent 250 cases where this suture was eliminated, there was no volvulus of Roux limb seen. The use of a stabilization suture can result in volvulus of the Roux limb causing intestinal obstruction and this complication can be prevented by avoiding this suture.

  14. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower limbs during forward ice hockey skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn, Tegan; Turcotte, René; Pearsall, David J; Loh, Jonathan

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe lower limb kinematics in three dimensions during the forward skating stride in hockey players and to contrast skating techniques between low- and high-calibre skaters. Participant motions were recorded with four synchronized digital video cameras while wearing reflective marker triads on the thighs, shanks, and skates. Participants skated on a specialized treadmill with a polyethylene slat bed at a self-selected speed for 1 min. Each participant completed three 1-min skating trials separated by 5 min of rest. Joint and limb segment angles were calculated within the local (anatomical) and global reference planes. Similar gross movement patterns and stride rates were observed; however, high-calibre participants showed a greater range and rate of joint motion in both the sagittal and frontal planes, contributing to greater stride length for high-calibre players. Furthermore, consequent postural differences led to greater lateral excursion during the power stroke in high-calibre skaters. In conclusion, specific kinematic differences in both joint and limb segment angle movement patterns were observed between low- and high-calibre skaters.

  15. A Tunable Silk Hydrogel Device for Studying Limb Regeneration in Adult Xenopus Laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Golding

    Full Text Available In certain amphibian models limb regeneration can be promoted or inhibited by the local wound bed environment. This research introduces a device that can be utilized as an experimental tool to characterize the conditions that promotes limb regeneration in the adult frog (Xenopus laevis model. In particular, this device was designed to manipulate the local wound environment via a hydrogel insert. Initial characterization of the hydrogel insert revealed that this interaction had a significant influence on mechanical forces to the animal, due to the contraction of the hydrogel. The material and mechanical properties of the hydrogel insert were a factor in the device design in relation to the comfort of the animal and the ability to effectively manipulate the amputation site. The tunable features of the hydrogel were important in determining the pro-regenerative effects in limb regeneration, which was measured by cartilage spike formation and quantified by micro-computed tomography. The hydrogel insert was a factor in the observed morphological outcomes following amputation. Future work will focus on characterizing and optimizing the device's observed capability to manipulate biological pathways that are essential for limb regeneration. However, the present work provides a framework for the role of a hydrogel in the device and a path forward for more systematic studies.

  16. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  17. Venous compressions of the nerves in the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Stevanato, G; Ionta, B; Cesaroni, A; Bianchi, E; Morselli, C; Grippaudo, F R

    2012-06-01

    The lower limbs are frequently involved in neurovascular compression syndromes, owing to their anatomical, vascular and muscular characteristics and to the orthostatic position. These syndromes were identified by exclusion, using neuroimaging techniques and treated by microsurgical techniques. Eight patients with a neurovascular compression syndrome due to venous vascular lesions in the lower limbs (popliteal fossa, proximal and medial third of the inferior limb, tarsal tunnel) were selected. The symptomatology was characterized by pain, Tinel's sign, hyperalgesia, allodynia, numbness along the nerve course and foot weakness: all were exacerbated by the standing position, thus suggesting a neurovascular compression syndrome. Diagnostic tools comprised Doppler ultrasonography, Electromyography, CT 3D and MRI. Treatment consisted of microsurgery with neurovascular dissection. Following surgical treatment, rapid pain relief and a partial recovery of neurological deficits (including the ability to walk) was observed within 8-10 months. An early diagnosis of NCS using various neuroimaging techniques and prompt treatment may improve the response to surgical therapy. The aim of the case studies described is to improve understanding of these pathologies thus enabling correct clinical decisions.

  18. The axolotl limb blastema: cellular and molecular mechanisms driving blastema formation and limb regeneration in tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Catherine; Bryant, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The axolotl is one of the few tetrapods that are capable of regenerating complicated biological structures, such as complete limbs, throughout adulthood. Upon injury the axolotl generates a population of regeneration‐competent limb progenitor cells known as the blastema, which will grow, establish pattern, and differentiate into the missing limb structures. In this review we focus on the crucial early events that occur during wound healing, the neural−epithelial interactions that drive the formation of the early blastema, and how these mechanisms differ from those of other species that have restricted regenerative potential, such as humans. We also discuss how the presence of cells from the different axes of the limb is required for the continued growth and establishment of pattern in the blastema as described in the polar coordinate model, and how this positional information is reprogrammed in blastema cells during regeneration. Multiple cell types from the mature limb stump contribute to the blastema at different stages of regeneration, and we discuss the contribution of these types to the regenerate with reference to whether they are “pattern‐forming” or “pattern‐following” cells. Lastly, we explain how an engineering approach will help resolve unanswered questions in limb regeneration, with the goal of translating these concepts to developing better human regenerative therapies. PMID:27499868

  19. Mental health and satisfaction with life among upper limb amputees: a Norwegian population-based survey comparing adult acquired major upper limb amputees with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.

  20. Noninvasive Multimodal Imaging to Predict Recovery of Locomotion after Extended Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Radowsky

    Full Text Available Acute limb ischemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following trauma both in civilian centers and in combat related injuries. Rapid determination of tissue viability and surgical restoration of blood flow are desirable, but not always possible. We sought to characterize the response to increasing periods of hind limb ischemia in a porcine model such that we could define a period of critical ischemia (the point after which irreversible neuromuscular injury occurs, evaluate non-invasive methods for characterizing that ischemia, and establish a model by which we could predict whether or not the animal's locomotion would return to baselines levels post-operatively. Ischemia was induced by either application of a pneumatic tourniquet or vessel occlusion (performed by clamping the proximal iliac artery and vein at the level of the inguinal ligament. The limb was monitored for the duration of the procedure with both 3-charge coupled device (3CCD and infrared (IR imaging for tissue oxygenation and perfusion, respectively. The experimental arms of this model are effective at inducing histologically evident muscle injury with some evidence of expected secondary organ damage, particularly in animals with longer ischemia times. Noninvasive imaging data shows excellent correlation with post-operative functional outcomes, validating its use as a non-invasive means of viability assessment, and directly monitors post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. A classification model, based on partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA of imaging variables only, successfully classified animals as "returned to normal locomotion" or "did not return to normal locomotion" with 87.5% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity after cross-validation. PLSDA models generated from non-imaging data were not as accurate (AUC of 0.53 compared the PLSDA model generated from only imaging data (AUC of 0.76. With some modification, this limb ischemia model could also serve as a

  1. Ultradeep Near-Infrared ISAAC Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South: Observations, Reduction, Multicolor Catalog, and Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Rix, Hans-Walter; Moorwood, Alan; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Werf, Paul; Röttgering, Huub; van Starkenburg, Lottie; van der Wel, Arjen; Kuijken, Konrad; Daddi, Emanuele

    2003-03-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) Js-, H-, and Ks-band ISAAC imaging of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) field of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S). The 2.5‧×2.5‧ high Galactic latitude field was observed with the Very Large Telescope under the best seeing conditions, with integration times amounting to 33.6 hr in Js, 32.3 hr in H, and 35.6 hr in Ks. We reach total AB magnitudes for point sources of 26.8, 26.2, and 26.2, respectively (3 σ), which make it the deepest ground-based NIR observation to date and the deepest Ks-band data in any field. The effective seeing of the co-added images is ~0.45" in Js, ~0.48" in H, and ~0.46" in Ks. Using published WFPC2 optical data, we constructed a Ks-limited multicolor catalog containing 833 sources down to Ktots,AB2.3 (in Johnson magnitudes). Because they are extremely faint in the observed optical, they would be missed by ultraviolet-optical selection techniques, such as the U-dropout method. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612). Also based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  3. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution

  4. Trade-offs in relative limb length among Peruvian children: extending the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447 we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia and autopod (hand and foot lengths. RESULTS: Highland children (exposed to greater stress had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that

  5. Isolated primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of proliferation, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors in the early human limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečić, Tina; Bilan, Kanito; Mardešić, Snježana; Vukojević, Katarina; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2016-06-01

    Involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the human limb development was analyzed electronmicroscopically and immunohistochemically in histological sections of 8 human embryos, 4(th) -10(th) week old, using apoptotic (caspase-3, AIF, BAX), anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers, and TUNEL method. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc test. Initially, developing human limbs consisted of mesenchymal core and surface ectoderm with apical ectodermal ridge (AER). During progression of development, strong proliferation activity gradually decreased in the mesenchyme (from 78% to 68%) and in the epithelium (from 62% to 42%), while in the differentiating finger cartilages proliferation was constantly low (26-7%). Apoptotic caspase-3 and AIF-positive cells characterized mesenchyme and AER at earliest stages, while during digit separation they appeared in interdigital mesenchyme as well. Strong Bcl-2 expression was observed in AER, subridge mesenchyme and phalanges, while BAX expression charaterized limb areas undergoing apoptosis. Ultrastructurally, proliferating cells showed mitotic figures, while apoptotic cells were characterized by nuclear fragmentation. Macrophages were observed around the apoptotic cells. We suggest that intense proliferation enables growth and elongation of human limb primordia, and differential growth of digits. Both caspase-3 and AIF-dependant pathways of cell death control the extent of AER and numer of cells in the subridge mesenchyme at earliest developmental stages, as well as process of digit separation at later stages of limb development. Spatio-temporal co-expresson of Bcl-2 and BAX indicates their role in suppression of apoptosis and selective stimulation of growth during human limb morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Results of the IRIS UV Burst Survey, Part I: Active Regions Tracked Limb to Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the first phase of an effort to thoroughly characterize UV bursts within the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data catalogue. The observational signatures of these phenomena include dramatically intensified and broadened NUV/FUV emission line profiles with absorption features from cool metallic ions. These properties suggest that UV bursts originate from plasma at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) which is deeply embedded in the cool lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Rigorously characterizing the energetic and dynamical properties of UV bursts is crucial since they have considerable potential to heat active region chromospheres and could provide critical constraints for models of magnetic reconnection in these regions. The survey first focuses on IRIS observations of active regions tracked from limb to limb. All observations consist of large field-of-view raster scans of 320 or 400 steps each, which allow for widespread detection of many burst profiles at the expense of having limited short-term time evolution information. We detect bursts efficiently by applying a semi-automated single-Gaussian fitting technique to Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles that isolates the distinct burst population in a 4-D parameter space. The robust sample of NUV/FUV burst spectra allows for precise constraints of properties critical for modeling reconnection in the chromosphere, including outflow kinetic energy, density estimates from intensity ratios of Si IV 1402.8 Å and O IV 1401.2 Å emission lines, and coincident measures of emission in other wavelengths. We also track burst properties throughout the lifetimes of their host active regions, noting changes in detection rate and preferential location as the active regions evolve. Finally, the tracked active region observations provide a unique opportunity to investigate line-of-sight effects on observed UV burst spectral properties, particularly the strength of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption

  8. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  9. Mid-Infrared Observations of the White Dwarf Brown Dwarf Binary GD 1400

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes are measured for the DA white dwarf plus brown dwarf pair GD 1400 with the Infrared Array Camera on the {\\em Spitzer Space Telescope}. GD 1400 displays an infrared excess over the entire $3-8\\mu$m region consistent with the presence of a mid- to late-type L dwarf companion. A discussion is given regarding current knowledge of this unique system.

  10. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation...... for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb....

  11. Incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury among patients who have suffered from an isolated limb fracture: Upper limb fracture patients are more at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Marianne; Rouleau, Dominique M; Charlebois-Plante, Camille; Benoit, Benoit; Leduc, Stéphane; Laflamme, G-Yves; Gosselin, Nadia; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; De Beaumont, Louis

    2016-08-01

    This study compares the incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) detected at follow-up visits (retrospective diagnosis) in patients suffering from an isolated limb trauma, with the incidence rate held by the hospital records (prospective diagnosis) of the sampled cohort. This study also seeks to determine which types of fractures present with the highest incidence of mild TBI. Retrospective assessment of mild TBI among orthopaedic monotrauma patients, randomly selected for participation in an Orthopaedic clinic of a Level I Trauma Hospital. Patients in the remission phase of a limb fracture were recruited between August 2014 and May 2015. No intervention was done (observational study). Standardized semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients to retrospectively assess for mild TBI at the time of the fracture. Emergency room related medical records of all patients were carefully analyzed to determine whether a prospective mild TBI diagnosis was made following the accident. A total of 251 patients were recruited (54% females, Mean age=49). Study interview revealed a 23.5% incidence rate of mild TBI compared to an incidence rate of 8.8% for prospective diagnosis (χ(2)=78.47; plimb monotrauma (29.6%; n=42/142) are significantly more at risk of sustaining a mild TBI compared to lower limb fractures (15.6%; n=17/109) (χ(2)=6.70; p=0.010). More specifically, patients with a proximal upper limb injury were significantly more at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI (40.6%; 26/64) compared to distal upper limb fractures (20.25%; 16/79) (χ(2)=7.07; p=0.008). Results suggest an important concomitance of mild TBI among orthopaedic trauma patients, the majority of which go undetected during acute care. Patients treated for an upper limb fracture are particularly at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  13. Evaluating the functional outcomes of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections using the Euro-musculus approach for upper limb spasticity treatment in post-stroke patients; an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukavci, Raikan; Akturk, Semra; Ersoy, Yüksel

    2018-02-07

    Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injection is an effective treatment for spasticity. Euro-musculus spasticity approach is a new method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. The clinical outcomes of this practical approach is not yet available in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on spasticity and the functional outcomes of ultrasound guided botulinum toxin type A injections via the Euro-musculus spasticity approach to treat upper limb spasticity in post-stroke patients. An observational study. Inpatient post-stroke patients. Twenty five post-stroke patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were recruited. The ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections were administered into the spastic target muscles using the Euro-musculus spasticity approach, and all of the patients were enrolled in rehabilitation programmes after the injections. This research included the innervation zone and injection site figures and ultrasound images of each muscle in the upper limb. The degree of spasticity was assessed via the Modified Ashworth Scale and the upper limb motor function via the Fugl Meyer Upper Extremity Scale at the baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after the botulinum toxin type A injection. Significant decreases in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores of the upper limb flexor muscle tone measured 4 and 12 weeks after the botulinum toxin type A injection were found when compared to the baseline scores (pbotulinum toxin type A injection via the Euro- musculus spasticity approach is a practical and effective method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections combined with rehabilitation programmes decrease spasticity and improve the upper extremity motor functions in stroke patients. This new approach for ultrasound- guided botulinum toxin type A injection is very practical and effective method for upper

  14. SMOC1 is essential for ocular and limb development in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ippei; Hamanoue, Haruka; Terada, Koji; Tohma, Takaya; Megarbane, Andre; Chouery, Eliane; Abou-Ghoch, Joelle; Jalkh, Nadine; Cogulu, Ozgur; Ozkinay, Ferda; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Ikegawa, Shiro; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Miyatake, Satoko; Nishimura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Niikawa, Norio; Hirahara, Fumiki; Kaname, Tadashi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Furukawa, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2011-01-07

    Microphthalmia with limb anomalies (MLA) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder, presenting with anophthalmia or microphthalmia and hand and/or foot malformation. We mapped the MLA locus to 14q24 and successfully identified three homozygous (one nonsense and two splice site) mutations in the SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)-related modular calcium binding 1 (SMOC1) in three families. Smoc1 is expressed in the developing optic stalk, ventral optic cup, and limbs of mouse embryos. Smoc1 null mice recapitulated MLA phenotypes, including aplasia or hypoplasia of optic nerves, hypoplastic fibula and bowed tibia, and syndactyly in limbs. A thinned and irregular ganglion cell layer and atrophy of the anteroventral part of the retina were also observed. Soft tissue syndactyly, resulting from inhibited apoptosis, was related to disturbed expression of genes involved in BMP signaling in the interdigital mesenchyme. Our findings indicate that SMOC1/Smoc1 is essential for ocular and limb development in both humans and mice.

  15. Infrared observations of HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 and HDE 245770/AO535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Toniolo, M.F.; Spada, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is known from Copernicus ultraviolet observations that all O type stars are losing mass by stellar wind. The ionized expanding circumstellar envelope formed by the stellar wind is emitting through free-free and bound-free radiation processes. This radiation is detectable at the infrared wavelengths where the stellar continuum is negligible. The measurement of the IR excess (defined as the difference between the total flux and the stellar continuum at a given wavelength) and the knowledge of the terminal velocity of the envelope, allow one to derive for OB stars the mass loss rate. From the analysis of Ir observations of two O stars, HDE 226868 and HDE 245770, identified as optical counterpart of X-ray sources, an estimate is given of their mass loss rate. (Auth.)

  16. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  17. Infrared speckle observations of Io - an eruption in the Loki region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.R.; Mcginn, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Speckle observations of Jupiter's satellite Io at a wavelength of 5 micrometers during July 1984 resolved the disk and showed emission from a hot spot in the Loki region. The hot spot contributed a flux approximately equal to 60 percent of that from the disk.Images reconstructed by means of the Knox-Thompson algorithm showed the spot moving across the disk as the satellite rotated. It was located at 301 deg + or - 6 deg west longitude, 10 deg + or - 6 deg north latitude, and had a radiance of (2.96 + or - 0.54) x 10 to the 22nd ergs/sec cm sr/A where A is the area of the spot. For an assumed temperature of 400 K, the area of the source would be 11,400 square kilometers. An active lava lake similar to that seen by Voyager may be the source of the infrared emission. 10 references

  18. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  19. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antxon@iaa.es, E-mail: torres@iaa.es, E-mail: colina@damir.iem.csic.es, E-mail: torrelle@ieec.fcr.es

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  1. Use of COTS uncooled microbolometers for the observation of solar eruptions in far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ruyet, B.; Bernardi, P.; Sémery, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions (SMESE) mission is a French-Chinese satellite dedicated to the combined study of coronal mass ejections and flares. It should operate by the beginning of 2013. The spacecraft is based on a generic MYRIADE platform developed by CNES. Its payload consists of a Lyman α imager and a Lyman α chronograph (LYOT), a far infrared telescope (DESIR) and a hard X and γ ray spectrometer (HEBS). Its Sun-synchronous orbit will allow for continuous observations. LESIA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique, in Paris-Meudon Observatory) is in charge of DESIR instrument. DESIR (Detection of Eruptive Solar InfraRed emission) is an imaging photometer observing the sun in two bandwidths: [25; 45μm] and [80; 130μm]. The detector is a commercially available, uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (UL 02 05 1, from ULIS) designed for thermographic imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range. The 160x120 pixels are based on amorphous silicon, with dimensions 35x35 μm2. The performances in terms of noise and dynamics given by the manufacturer associated with simulations of a perfect quarter-wave cavity to predict the microbolometer absorption, make possible the use of such a detector to fulfil the DESIR detection specifications in the two FIR bandwidths. During the A Phase, tests have been carried out in our laboratory to validate the feasibility of the project. In this work, we present the first results obtained on the microbolometer performances in the FIR domain.

  2. UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurementsV3.01 (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K; Rozanov, A; Azam, F; Bramstedt, K; Damadeo, R; Eichmann, K-U; Gebhardt, C; Hurst, D; Kraemer, M; Lossow, S; Read, W; Spelten, N; Stiller, G P; Walker, K A; Weber, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2016-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements from August 2002 until April 2012. SCIAMACHY measured the scattered or direct sunlight using different observation geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour at about 10-25 km height from the near-infrared spectral range (1353-1410 nm). These data cover the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), a region in the atmosphere which is of special interest for a variety of dynamical and chemical processes as well as for the radiative forcing. Here, the latest data version of water vapour (V3.01) from SCIAMACHY limb measurements is presented and validated by comparisons with data sets from other satellite and in situ measurements. Considering retrieval tests and the results of these comparisons, the V3.01 data are reliable from about 11 to 23 km and the best results are found in the middle of the profiles between about 14 and 20 km. Above 20 km in the extra tropics V3.01 is drier than all other data sets. Additionally, for altitudes above about 19 km, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profile is not sufficient to resolve signals with a short vertical structure like the tape recorder. Below 14 km, SCIAMACHY water vapour V3.01 is wetter than most collocated data sets, but the high variability of water vapour in the troposphere complicates the comparison. For 14-20 km height, the expected errors from the retrieval and simulations and the mean differences to collocated data sets are usually smaller than 10 % when the resolution of the SCIAMACHY data is taken into account. In general, the temporal changes agree well with collocated data sets except for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, where larger differences are observed. This indicates a possible drift in V3.01 most probably caused by the incomplete treatment of volcanic aerosols in the retrieval. In all other regions a

  3. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  4. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is involved in limb formation in mammalian embryonic development, as well as limb regeneration in amphibians. ... of the nail stem cells and the underlying layer of cells called the nail epithelium are left ...

  5. AN INTERFEROMETRIC STUDY OF THE FOMALHAUT INNER DEBRIS DISK. II. KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109-8099 (United States); Absil, O. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C. [IPAG, UMR 5274, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Millan-Gabet, R. [Michelson Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Liu, W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France)

    2013-02-15

    We report on high-contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% {+-} 0.10% between 8 and 11 {mu}m and increases from 8 to 13 {mu}m. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2 AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band ({approx_equal}2{mu}m) observations, which implied the presence of a {approx}0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric two-dimensional radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near- and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-component structure, with two different and spatially distinct grain populations. The 2-11 {mu}m data are consistent with an inner hot ring of very small ({approx_equal}10-300 nm) carbon-rich grains concentrating around 0.1 AU. The second dust population-inferred from the KIN data at longer mid-infrared wavelengths-consists of larger grains (size of a few microns to a few tens of microns) located further out in a colder region where regular astronomical silicates could survive, with an inner edge around 0.4 AU-1 AU. From a dynamical point of view, the presence of the inner concentration of submicron-sized grains is surprising, as such grains should be expelled from the inner planetary system by radiation pressure within only a few years. This could either point to some inordinate replenishment rates (e.g., many grazing comets coming from an outer reservoir) or to the existence of some braking mechanism preventing the grains

  6. Limb Regeneration in Axolotl: Is It Superhealing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Roy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of axolotls to regenerate their limbs is almost legendary. In fact, urodeles such as the axolotl are the only vertebrates that can regenerate multiple structures like their limbs, jaws, tail, spinal cord, and skin (the list goes on throughout their lives. It is therefore surprising to realize, although we have known of their regenerative potential for over 200 years, how little we understand the mechanisms behind this achievement of adult tissue morphogenesis. Many observations can be drawn between regeneration and other disciplines such as development and wound healing. In this review, we present new developments in functional analysis that will help to address the role of specific genes during the process of regeneration. We also present an analysis of the resemblance between wound healing and regeneration, and discuss whether axolotls are superhealers. A better understanding of these animals' regenerative capacity could lead to major benefits by providing regenerative medicine with directions on how to develop therapeutic approaches leading to regeneration in humans.

  7. Leisure activities following a lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Mélanie; Caron, Chantal D; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe leisure activities, leisure satisfaction and constraints on participation in leisure following a unilateral lower limb amputation due to vascular disease. This study used a mixed-method approach where 15 individuals with lower limb amputation completed the individual leisure profile 2-3 months post-discharge from rehabilitation. A subsample (n = 8) also participated in semi-structured interviews analysed using the Miles and Huberman analytic method. Results show that participants were involved in 12 different leisure activities on average. Compared to before the amputation, a decrease in participation was observed in all categories of leisure activity, and especially crafts, nature and outdoor activities, mechanics, sports and physical activities. Nonetheless, overall satisfaction was high. The most important constraints on participation in leisure were lack of accessibility, material considerations, functional abilities, affective constraints and social constraints. A decrease in leisure activity participation and the presence of constraints do not automatically translate into low levels of leisure satisfaction.

  8. Emulating Upper Limb Disorder for Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.

  9. [Mirror, mirror of the wall: mirror therapy in the treatment of phantom limbs and phantom limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Furnari, Anna; Lamberti, Raul Coelho; Kouloulas, Efthimios; Hagenberg, Annegret; Mallik, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Phantom limb and phantom limb pain control are pivotal points in the sequence of intervention to bring the amputee to functional autonomy. The alterations of perception and sensation, the pain of the residual limb and the phantom limb are therefore aspects of amputation that should be taken into account in the "prise en charge" of these patients. Within the more advanced physical therapies to control phantom and phantom limb pain there is the use of mirrors (mirror therapy). This article willfocus on its use and on the possible side effects induced by the lack of patient selection and a conflict of body schema restoration through mirror therapy with concurrent prosthetic training and trauma acceptance. Advice on the need to select patients before treatment decisions, with regard to their psychological as well as clinical profile (including time since amputation and clinical setting), and the need to be aware of the possible adverse effects matching different and somehow conflicting therapeutic approaches, are put forward. Thus a coordinated sequence of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures carried out by an interdisciplinary rehabilitation team that works globally on all patients' problems is fundamental in the management of amputees and phantom limb pain. Further studies and the development of a multidisciplinary network to study this and other applications of mirror therapy are needed.

  10. Retrieval of subvisual cirrus cloud optical thickness from limb-scatter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Wiensz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for estimating the optical thickness of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System, a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Cross-sections and phase functions from an in situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is shown that the retrieved extinction profile, for an assumed effective cloud particle size, models well the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. The greatest sensitivity of the retrieved optical thickness is to the effective cloud particle size. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  11. Reflexology treatment for patients with lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain--an exploratory pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine Ann; Lido, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the possibility of reflexology being used as a non-invasive form of phantom limb pain relief and of empowering patients to maintain any positive results with self-treatment. Prosthetic Services Centre, Herbert Street, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England. A same-subject, experimental pilot study, recording the intensity of phantom limb pain in weekly pain diaries over a 30-week period, which was divided into five phases: phase 1 gave a baseline of pain, whilst phase 3 was a resting phase. Phases 2, 4 and 5 provided the reflexology interventions. Ten participants with unilateral lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain were selected from the database at the Prosthetic Centre. REFLEXOLOGY INTERVENTIONS: In phase 2, six weekly reflexology treatments were given, which consisted of: full foot reflexology to the remaining foot and full hand reflexology to the hand of the amputated side of the body. In phase 4, six weekly hand reflexology teaching sessions were carried out; patients copied on their own hands what the therapist did on hers. A hand reflexology booklet gave the sequence of the treatment and was used as a reference. In phase 5, the patients self-treated for 6 weeks at home, using the reference material. Over the 30-week period, there was an improvement in the perception of the presence and the intensity of the phantom limb pain, with a corresponding improvement in the duration of the pain and the affect on the person's lifestyle. The improvement was maintained when the clients self-treated. FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE: A follow-up questionnaire was carried out in 2007--12 months after the project had ended--to elicit whether the patients had suffered from phantom pain over the previous 12 months, whether they still had relief from phantom limb pain and whether they still self-treated. The project indicated that reflexology treatment, teaching and self-treatment were effective in eradicating or reducing the

  12. Changes in functional status after treatment of critical limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline Alkine; Met, Rosemarie; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in functional status with the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) and in quality of life with the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) in patients treated for critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort

  13. PCA determination of the radiometric noise of high spectral resolution infrared observations from spectral residuals: Application to IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Jacquette, E.; Vandermarcq, O.; Bermudo, F.; Coppens, D.; Tobin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of characterizing and estimating the instrumental or radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers directly from Earth observations is addressed in this paper. An approach has been developed, which relies on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a suitable criterion to select the optimal number of PC scores. Different selection criteria have been set up and analysed, which is based on the estimation theory of Least Squares and/or Maximum Likelihood Principle. The approach is independent of any forward model and/or radiative transfer calculations. The PCA is used to define an orthogonal basis, which, in turn, is used to derive an optimal linear reconstruction of the observations. The residual vector that is the observation vector minus the calculated or reconstructed one is then used to estimate the instrumental noise. It will be shown that the use of the spectral residuals to assess the radiometric instrumental noise leads to efficient estimators, which are largely independent of possible departures of the true noise from that assumed a priori to model the observational covariance matrix. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) has been considered. A series of case studies has been set up, which make use of IASI observations. As a major result, the analysis confirms the high stability and radiometric performance of IASI. The approach also proved to be efficient in characterizing noise features due to mechanical micro-vibrations of the beam splitter of the IASI instrument.

  14. Adolescent Neuroblastoma of Lower Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of neural crest origin, commonly seen in children with upper abdomen involvement. Rarely neuroblastomas present in adolescents and adults involving lower limb. Histopathologically neuroblastoma of lower limb can be confused with other small round cell tumour especially with Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. A 16 year old male presented with 15x11cm swelling, pain and multiple discharging sinuses of right leg since 4 months. Routine haematological and biochemical analysis were within normal limits. Radiology of right leg showed large soft tissue swelling encompassing the pathological fracture of tibia and bowing of fibula. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed malignant small round cell tumour. Histopathology revealed poorly differentiated neuroblastoma of lower limb. The immunohistochemistry of Synaptophysin and Chromogranin were positive and CD 99 was negative. Neuroblastoma diagnosed at unusual site with uncommon age has poor prognosis. Hence, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma as one of the differential diagnosis in evaluating the soft tissue tumours of lower limb.

  15. [Psychotherapies for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Katherine; Aranda, Mariana

    The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items. After reviewing the abstracts, 25 articles were excluded for not being related to the objective of the research. Additionally cross references of included articles and literature were reviewed. To describe the psychotherapies used in the management of phantom limb pain, their effectiveness and clinical application reported in the literature. The mechanisms underlying phantom limb pain were initially explained, as were the published studies on the usefulness of some psychotherapies such as mirror visual feedback and immersive virtual reality, visual imagery, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements and hypnosis. The phantom limb pain is a complex syndrome that requires pharmacological and psychotherapeutic intervention. The psychotherapies that have been used the most as adjuvants in the treatment of phantom limb pain are mirror visual feedback, desensitization and reprocessing eye movements, imagery and hypnosis. Studies with more representative samples, specifically randomized trials are required. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Agency over Phantom Limb Enhanced by Short-Term Mirror Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa; Koyama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Most amputees experience phantom limb, whereby they feel that the amputated limb is still present. In some cases, these experiences include pain that can be alleviated by "mirror therapy." Mirror therapy consists of superimposing a mirrored image of the moving intact limb onto the phantom limb. This therapy provides a closed loop between the motor command to the amputated limb and its predicted visual feedback. This loop is also involved in the sense of agency, a feeling of controlling one's own body. However, it is unclear how mirror therapy is related to the sense of agency over a phantom limb. Using mirror therapy, we investigated phantom limb pain and the senses of agency and ownership (i.e., a feeling of having one's own body) of the phantom limb. Nine upper-limb amputees, five of whom reported recent phantom limb pain, underwent a single 15-min trial of mirror therapy. Before and after the trial, the participants completed a questionnaire regarding agency, ownership, and pain related to their phantom limb. They reported that the sense of agency over the phantom limb increased following the mirror therapy trial, while the ownership slightly increased but not as much as did the agency. The reported pain did not change; that is, it was comparably mild before and after the trial. These results suggest that short-term mirror therapy can, at least transiently, selectively enhance the sense of agency over a phantom limb, but may not alleviate phantom limb pain.

  17. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  18. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  19. There's more than one way to climb a tree: Limb length and microhabitat use in lizards with toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, Travis J; Harte, Scott; Vickers, Mathew; Harmon, Luke J; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles. Combining these measurements with microhabitat observations of geckos in Queensland, Australia, we observed geckos using similar microhabitats as reported for anoles, but geckos with relatively longer limbs were using narrower perches, differing from patterns observed in anoles and other lizards. We also observed arboreal geckos with relatively shorter proximal limb segments as compared to rock-dwelling and terrestrial geckos, similar to patterns observed for other lizards. We conclude that although both geckos and anoles have adhesive pads and use similar microhabitats, their locomotor systems likely complement their adhesive pads in unique ways and result in different ecomorphological patterns, reinforcing the idea that species with convergent morphologies still have idiosyncratic characteristics due to their own separate evolutionary histories.

  20. There's more than one way to climb a tree: Limb length and microhabitat use in lizards with toe pads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Hagey

    Full Text Available Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles. Combining these measurements with microhabitat observations of geckos in Queensland, Australia, we observed geckos using similar microhabitats as reported for anoles, but geckos with relatively longer limbs were using narrower perches, differing from patterns observed in anoles and other lizards. We also observed arboreal geckos with relatively shorter proximal limb segments as compared to rock-dwelling and terrestrial geckos, similar to patterns observed for other lizards. We conclude that although both geckos and anoles have adhesive pads and use similar microhabitats, their locomotor systems likely complement their adhesive pads in unique ways and result in different ecomorphological patterns, reinforcing the idea that species with convergent morphologies still have idiosyncratic characteristics due to their own separate evolutionary histories.

  1. On the Nature of Off-limb Flare Continuum Sources Detected by SDO /HMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, P.; Kašparová, J. [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Kleint, L.; Krucker, S., E-mail: pheinzel@asu.cas.cz [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-09-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unique observations of off-limb flare emission. White-light continuum enhancements were detected in the “continuum” channel of the Fe 6173 Å line during the impulsive phase of the observed flares. In this paper we aim to determine which radiation mechanism is responsible for such enhancement being seen above the limb, at chromospheric heights around or below 1000 km. Using a simple analytical approach, we compare two candidate mechanisms, the hydrogen recombination continuum (Paschen) and the Thomson continuum due to scattering of disk radiation on flare electrons. Both mechanisms depend on the electron density, which is typically enhanced during the impulsive phase of a flare as the result of collisional ionization (both thermal and also non-thermal due to electron beams). We conclude that for electron densities higher than 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, the Paschen recombination continuum significantly dominates the Thomson scattering continuum and there is some contribution from the hydrogen free–free emission. This is further supported by detailed radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of the flare chromosphere heated by the electron beams. We use the RHD code FLARIX to compute the temporal evolution of the flare-heating in a semi-circular loop. The synthesized continuum structure above the limb resembles the off-limb flare structures detected by HMI, namely their height above the limb, as well as the radiation intensity. These results are consistent with recent findings related to hydrogen Balmer continuum enhancements, which were clearly detected in disk flares by the IRIS near-ultraviolet spectrometer.

  2. Phase II Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Patient-Led Therapies (Mirror Therapy and Lower-Limb Exercises) During Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sarah; Wilkinson, Jack; Thomas, Nessa; Selles, Ruud; McCabe, Candy; Tyrrell, Pippa; Vail, Andy

    2015-10-01

    Patient-led therapy has the potential to increase the amount of therapy patients undertake during stroke rehabilitation and to enhance recovery. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of 2 patient-led therapies during the acute stages of stroke care: mirror therapy for the upper limb and lower-limb exercises for the lower limb. This was a blind assessed, multicenter, pragmatic randomized controlled trial of patient-led upper-limb mirror therapy and patient-led lower leg exercises. Stroke survivors with upper and lower limb limitations, undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and able to consent were recruited at least 1 week poststroke. Both interventions proved feasible, with >90% retention. No serious adverse events were reported. Both groups did less therapy than recommended; typically 5 to 15 minutes for 7 days or less. Participants receiving mirror therapy (n = 63) tended to do less practice than those doing lower-limb exercises (n = 31). Those with neglect did 69% less mirror therapy than those without (P = .02), which was not observed in the exercise group. Observed between-group differences were modest but neglect, upper-limb strength, and dexterity showed some improvement in the mirror therapy group. No changes were seen in the lower-limb group. Both patient-led mirror therapy and lower-limb exercises during inpatient stroke care are safe, feasible, and acceptable and warrant further investigation. Practice for 5 to 15 minutes for 7 days is a realistic prescription unless strategies to enhance adherence are included. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Limb Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in amputation. Injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects Some amputees have phantom pain, which is the feeling of pain in the missing limb. Other physical problems include surgical complications and skin problems, if you ...

  4. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  5. Comparison of Findings from Oblique Radiographs of the Raised Limb with Those of the Weight-bearing Limb for Selected Diseases of the Equine Digit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šterc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints was performed in 43 randomly selected horses. A total of 86 forelimbs were examined. On the forelimbs, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and dorsomedial-palmarolateral oblique views were performed. The oblique views were performed on raised limbs placed in a navicular block and on weight-bearing limbs placed on a pedestal made at the equine clinic. In total, 688 dorsolateral-palmaromedial and dorsomedial-palmarolateral views were taken. During the evaluation of the radiographs we focused on the detection of signs of degenerative joint disease of the distal and proximal iterphalangeal joints, and the detection of new bone formation in the phalanx regions, not associated with a disease of the distal or proximal interphalangeal joints. Based on the radiographic signs visible on these views, we diagnosed 9 cases of degenerative joint disease of the distal intraphalangeal joint, 13 cases of the degenerative joint disease of the proximal intraphalangeal joint and 21 cases of new bone formation in the phalanx regions. These signs were observed in 253 of 688 oblique views. Positive radiographic findings of the above-mentioned disorders were shown on 127 oblique views of the raised limb placed in the navicular block and 126 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb placed on the pedestal we made. When 128 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb (placed on the pedestal were compared with those of the raised limb (in the navicular block, there were different radiographic findings in three cases only. The differences in detection rates of radiographic signs between different type views showed no statistical significance (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore we assume that the pedestal we made can be routinely used for the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints on DL-PM and DM-PL oblique views, as part of pre-purchase examination or diagnosis

  6. Evolution of Titan's Lakes and Seas: Insights from Recent Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, C.; Seignovert, B.; Lawrence, K.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Hayes, A.; Le Mouelic, S.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's North Pole has been illuminated since the spring equinox in August 2009, allowing optical remote sensing instruments to acquire images of the lakes and seas that were discovered by the radar instrument earlier in the Cassini mission [1]. The illumination geometry continually improves with the incidence angle decreasing to its minimum at the summer solstice in 2017. Combined with highly inclined flybys that allow for small values of the emission angle, the 2013 observations are much less affected by the haze scattering because the optical path through the atmosphere is much shorter. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) can observe Titan's surface in seven infrared atmospheric windows between 0.96- and 5-μm. This study describes observations acquired during the recent T93 flyby on July 26, 2013. The footprint ranges from 10 km/pixel to 3 km/pixel. Maps of the three large seas (Ligeia Mare, Punga Mare, and Kraken Mare) at seven different wavelengths are being constructed and a mosaic of the lake area is being assembled. Ligeia Mare was previously imaged by the VIMS in June 2010 [2]. A preliminary analysis of the 2-μm map suggests that the shoreline has not evolved since 2010. The shape of the 2- μm atmospheric window will be compared between the two images and between the mare and the shore to investigate whether liquid ethane is present as is the case on Ontario lacus [3]. The lake area located between 0 and 90W was imaged with a resolution that allows comparison with the radar images. A preliminary comparison between the two data sets shows a very strong correlation. One part of Punga mare and a lake known as Kivu lacus were acquired on the same image. The northeastern part of Punga Mare seems entailed by a river network. No connections between Punga mare and Kivu lacus are observed on the VIMS image. Kivu lacus seems to lie in the center of a circular depression whose limit is bright at 2-μm. Equipotential maps are built from the

  7. Customizable Rehabilitation Lower Limb Exoskeleton System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Stopforth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people require assistance with the motion of their lower limbs to improve rehabilitation. Exoskeletons used for lower limb rehabilitation are highly priced and are not affordable to the lowerincome sector of the population. This paper describes an exoskeleton lower limb system that was designed keeping in mind that the cost must be as low as possible. The forward kinematic system that is used must be a simplified model to decrease computational time, yet allow the exoskeleton to be adjustable according to the patient's leg dimensions.

  8. Microscopic dust in the infrared sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leene, A.; Wesselius, P.

    1985-01-01

    After ten months of observation IRAS (InfraRed Astronomical Satellite) revealed for the first time an infrared sky map. One of its major discovery has been the display of new constituents in Universe: the infrared cirrus which are interstellar clouds constituted of microparticles abounding in carbon. Results and first hypothesis are presented in this article [fr

  9. Intercomparison of AIRS and HIRDLS stratospheric gravity wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Ern, Manfred; Hoffmann, Lars; Trinh, Quang Thai; Alexander, M. Joan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate stratospheric gravity wave observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. AIRS operational temperature retrievals are typically not used for studies of gravity waves, because their vertical and horizontal resolution is rather limited. This study uses data of a high-resolution retrieval which provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual satellite footprint. Therefore the horizontal sampling of the high-resolution retrieval is 9 times better than that of the operational retrieval. HIRDLS provides 2-D spectral information of observed gravity waves in terms of along-track and vertical wavelengths. AIRS as a nadir sounder is more sensitive to short-horizontal-wavelength gravity waves, and HIRDLS as a limb sounder is more sensitive to short-vertical-wavelength gravity waves. Therefore HIRDLS is ideally suited to complement AIRS observations. A calculated momentum flux factor indicates that the waves seen by AIRS contribute significantly to momentum flux, even if the AIRS temperature variance may be small compared to HIRDLS. The stratospheric wave structures observed by AIRS and HIRDLS often agree very well. Case studies of a mountain wave event and a non-orographic wave event demonstrate that the observed phase structures of AIRS and HIRDLS are also similar. AIRS has a coarser vertical resolution, which results in an attenuation of the amplitude and coarser vertical wavelengths than for HIRDLS. However, AIRS has a much higher horizontal resolution, and the propagation direction of the waves can be clearly identified in geographical maps. The horizontal orientation of the phase fronts can be deduced from AIRS 3-D temperature fields. This is a restricting factor for gravity wave analyses of limb measurements. Additionally, temperature variances with respect to stratospheric gravity wave activity are compared on a

  10. Intercomparison of AIRS and HIRDLS stratospheric gravity wave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Meyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate stratospheric gravity wave observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS aboard NASA's Aqua satellite and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS aboard NASA's Aura satellite. AIRS operational temperature retrievals are typically not used for studies of gravity waves, because their vertical and horizontal resolution is rather limited. This study uses data of a high-resolution retrieval which provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual satellite footprint. Therefore the horizontal sampling of the high-resolution retrieval is 9 times better than that of the operational retrieval. HIRDLS provides 2-D spectral information of observed gravity waves in terms of along-track and vertical wavelengths. AIRS as a nadir sounder is more sensitive to short-horizontal-wavelength gravity waves, and HIRDLS as a limb sounder is more sensitive to short-vertical-wavelength gravity waves. Therefore HIRDLS is ideally suited to complement AIRS observations. A calculated momentum flux factor indicates that the waves seen by AIRS contribute significantly to momentum flux, even if the AIRS temperature variance may be small compared to HIRDLS. The stratospheric wave structures observed by AIRS and HIRDLS often agree very well. Case studies of a mountain wave event and a non-orographic wave event demonstrate that the observed phase structures of AIRS and HIRDLS are also similar. AIRS has a coarser vertical resolution, which results in an attenuation of the amplitude and coarser vertical wavelengths than for HIRDLS. However, AIRS has a much higher horizontal resolution, and the propagation direction of the waves can be clearly identified in geographical maps. The horizontal orientation of the phase fronts can be deduced from AIRS 3-D temperature fields. This is a restricting factor for gravity wave analyses of limb measurements. Additionally, temperature variances with respect to stratospheric gravity wave activity are

  11. Infrared and X-ray observations of the decline of A 0620-00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citterio, O.; Conti, G.; Di Benedetto, P.; Tanzi, E.G.; Perola, G.C.; White, N.E.; Charles, P.A.; Sanford, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the 1.65- and 2.2-μ flux on five nights from October 3 to 31 and the 3 to 9 keV flux from October 7 to December 1 of the transient X-ray source A 0620-00 show a regular decline. The infrared flux is consistent with an extrapolation of a bremstrahlung spectrum fitted to the X-rays if the source is self-absorbed in the infrared, a situation similar to Sco X-I. (author)

  12. Infrared observations of giant elliptical galaxies: (V-K) colors and the infrared Hubble diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasdalen, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The (V-K) colors of giant elliptical galaxies as a function of redshift are discussed. Present data are consistent with mild color evolution at z approximately 0.45. An infrared Hubble (redshift-magnitude) diagram is given. Cosmological models with q 0 =0 and no luminosity evolution are clearly excluded by the present data. A wide variety of models including those with q 0 =0 are permissible if luminosity evolution is included. Instrumental and programmatic implications of these results are summarized. (Auth.)

  13. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  14. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Frost, Ray L; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; He, Junkai

    2010-12-01

    The structure and thermal stability between typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) and Raman spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-700°C has been used to characterise the thermal decomposition of both kaolinite and halloysite. Halloysite is characterised by two bands in the water bending region at 1629 and 1648 cm(-1), attributed to structural water and coordinated water in the interlayer. Well defined hydroxyl stretching bands at around 3695, 3679, 3652 and 3625 cm(-1) are observed for both kaolinite and halloysite. The 550°C infrared emission spectrum of halloysite is similar to that of kaolinite in 650-1350 cm(-1) spectral region. The infrared emission spectra of halloysite were found to be considerably different to that of kaolinite at lower temperatures. These differences are attributed to the fundamental difference in the structure of the two minerals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bergeron, P., E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: benstrickland@ou.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-03-20

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find {approx}10{sup 5} eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  16. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Bergeron, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find ∼10 5 eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  17. Limb anomaly and associated conditions: our clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragavan M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Munisamy Ragavan1, Uppalu Haripriya1, Janarthanam Sarvavinothini2, Nagaraja Rao3, Ramamoorthy Gokulkrishnan31Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesia, 3Department of Pediatrics, Narayana Medical College and Superspeciality Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Limb anomalies are a common clinical problem with a various spectrum of involvement. There are many conditions associated with these anomalies. There is a variable extent of involvement in the form of agenesis, overgrowth, and duplication, and there is no standard classification to describe all these lesions. Studying limb anomalies provides insights into limb development which may be useful for etiologic studies and public health monitoring. We pooled our data for 12 limb anomaly cases presenting from January 2008 to May 2009 and investigated their associated conditions. A descriptive system for the nomenclature and classification of congenital limb malformations suitable for clinical, epidemiological, and experimental use is discussed.Keywords: limb anomaly, phocomelia, amelia 

  18. Reactivation of larval keratin gene (krt62.L) in blastema epithelium during Xenopus froglet limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Saito, Nanami; Suzuki, Miyuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Ochi, Haruki; Makanae, Aki

    2017-12-15

    Limb regeneration is considered a form of limb redevelopment because of the molecular and morphological similarities. Forming a regeneration blastema is, in essence, creating a developing limb bud in an adult body. This reactivation of a developmental process in a mature body is worth studying. Xenopus laevis has a biphasic life cycle that involves distinct larval and adult stages. These distinct developmental stages are useful for investigating the reactivation of developmental processes in post-metamorphic frogs (froglets). In this study, we focused on the re-expression of a larval gene (krt62.L) during Xenopus froglet limb regeneration. Recently renamed krt62.L, this gene was known as the larval keratin (xlk) gene, which is specific to larval-tadpole stages. During limb regeneration in a froglet, krt62.L was re-expressed in a basal layer of blastema epithelium, where adult-specific keratin (Krt12.6.S) expression was also observable. Nerves produce important regulatory factors for amphibian limb regeneration, and also play a role in blastema formation and maintenance. The effect of nerve function on krt62.L expression could be seen in the maintenance of krt62.L expression, but not in its induction. When an epidermis-stripped limb bud was grafted in a froglet blastema, the grafted limb bud could reach the digit-forming stage. This suggests that krt62.L-positive froglet blastema epithelium is able to support the limb development process. These findings imply that the developmental process is locally reactivated in an postmetamorphic body during limb regeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Near-Infrared Photon-Counting Camera for High-Sensitivity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dark current of a transferred-electron photocathode with an InGaAs absorber, responsive over the 0.9-to-1.7- micron range, must be reduced to an ultralow level suitable for low signal spectral astrophysical measurements by lowering the temperature of the sensor incorporating the cathode. However, photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) is known to reduce to zero at such low temperatures. Moreover, it has not been demonstrated that the target dark current can be reached at any temperature using existing photocathodes. Changes in the transferred-electron photocathode epistructure (with an In- GaAs absorber lattice-matched to InP and exhibiting responsivity over the 0.9- to-1.7- m range) and fabrication processes were developed and implemented that resulted in a demonstrated >13x reduction in dark current at -40 C while retaining >95% of the approximately equal to 25% saturated room-temperature QE. Further testing at lower temperature is needed to confirm a >25 C predicted reduction in cooling required to achieve an ultralow dark-current target suitable for faint spectral astronomical observations that are not otherwise possible. This reduction in dark current makes it possible to increase the integration time of the imaging sensor, thus enabling a much higher near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity than is possible with current technology. As a result, extremely faint phenomena and NIR signals emitted from distant celestial objects can be now observed and imaged (such as the dynamics of redshifting galaxies, and spectral measurements on extra-solar planets in search of water and bio-markers) that were not previously possible. In addition, the enhanced NIR sensitivity also directly benefits other NIR imaging applications, including drug and bomb detection, stand-off detection of improvised explosive devices (IED's), Raman spectroscopy and microscopy for life/physical science applications, and semiconductor product defect detection.

  20. Functional influence of botulinum neurotoxin type A treatment (Xeomin® of multifocal upper and lower limb spasticity on chronic hemiparetic gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Falso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the modification of hemiplegic shoulder pain and walking velocity through injections of Xeomin®, a new botulinum neurotoxin type A formulation, in a 67-year-old woman with chronic residual left hemiparesis and hemiparetic gait attributable to stroke. Clinical evaluation included upper and lower limb spasticity, upper and lower limb pain, trunk control, upper and lower limb motricity index, visual gait analysis, and gait velocity. Assessments were performed before, 1 week after, and 1 month after treatment. Improvement was observed in all clinical parameters assessed. Amelioration of spasticity of the upper and lower limbs and shoulder pain was observed after 1 month. Trunk postural attitude and paraxial muscle recruitment recovered. No adverse events were observed and the patient shows significant improvement of functional impairment derived from chronic spasticity after treatment with Xeomin®. We also provide a simple and useful protocol for clinical evaluation of the treatment.

  1. Analysis and control of a parallel lower limb based on pneumatic artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most robots that are actuated by antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscles are controlled by various control algorithms that cannot adequately imitate the actual muscle distribution of human limbs. Other robots in which the distribution of pneumatic artificial muscle is similar to that of human limbs can only analyze the position of the robot using perceptual data instead of rational knowledge. In order to better imitate the movement of a human limb, the article proposes a humanoid lower limb in the form of a parallel mechanism where muscle is unevenly distributed. Next, the kinematic and dynamic movements of bionic hip joint are analyzed, where the joint movement is controlled by an observer-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm as a whole rather than each individual pneumatic artificial muscle and parameters that are optimized by a neural network. Finally, experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. We also document the role of muscle in trajectory tracking for the piriformis and musculi obturator internus in isobaric processes.

  2. Origin of directionally tuned responses in lower limb muscles to unpredictable upper limb disturbances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Forghani

    Full Text Available Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord.

  3. An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, F. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.hase@imk.fzk.de; Demoulin, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, allee du VI aout, 17, batiment B5a, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Sauval, A.J. [Observatoire Royal de Belgique, avenue circulaire, 3, B-1180, Bruxelles (Belgium); Toon, G.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bernath, P.F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L3G1 (Canada); Goldman, A. [Department of Physics, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hannigan, J.W. [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Rinsland, C.P. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission and absorption features in the solar spectrum in the mid-infrared region from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}. The transmittance is modelled as a function of the diameter of the field-of-view centered on the solar disk: the line broadening due to solar rotation as well as center-to-limb variations in strength and width are taken into account for stronger lines. Applications of the model presented here are in the fields of terrestrial remote sensing in the mid-infrared spectral region when the sun is used as radiation source or scattered solar radiation contributes to the measured signal and in the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms which compute the propagation of infrared solar radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  4. COBE diffuse infrared background experiment observations of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J. L.; Arendt, R. G.; Berriman, G. B.; Dwek, E.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitra, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Low angular resolution maps of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 micrometers obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) are presented. After correction for extinction and subtraction of an empirical model for the Galactic disk, the surface brightness distribution of the bulge resembles a flattened ellipse with a minor-to-major axis ratio of approximately 0.6. The bulge minor axis scale height is found to be 2.1 deg +/- 0.2 deg for all four near-infrared wavelengths. Asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of bulge brightness contours are qualitatively consistent with those expected for a triaxial bar with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant (0 deg less than l less than 90 deg). There is no evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of such a bar.

  5. Genetic Regulation of Embryological Limb Development with Relation to Congenital Limb Deformity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barham, Guy; Clarke, Nicholas M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, great improvements in genetic engineering and genetic manipulation strategies have led to significant advances in the understanding of the genetics governing embryological limb development. This field of science continues to develop, and the complex genetic interactions and signalling pathways are still not fully understood. In this review we will discuss the roles of the principle genes involved in the three-dimensional patterning of the developing limb and will discu...

  6. Transmission spectroscopy with the ACE-FTS infrared spectral atlas of Earth: A model validation and feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Städt, Steffen; Hedelt, Pascal; Godolt, Mareike

    2018-06-01

    Infrared solar occultation measurements are well established for remote sensing of Earth's atmosphere, and the corresponding primary transit spectroscopy has turned out to be valuable for characterization of extrasolar planets. Our objective is an assessment of the detectability of molecular signatures in Earth's transit spectra. To this end, we take a limb sequence of representative cloud-free transmission spectra recorded by the space-borne ACE-FTS Earth observation mission (Hughes et al., ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere, JQSRT 2014) and combine these spectra to the effective height of the atmosphere. These data are compared to spectra modeled with an atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared code to study the impact of individual molecules, spectral resolution, the choice of auxiliary data, and numerical approximations. Moreover, the study serves as a validation of our infrared radiative transfer code. The largest impact is due to water, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, nitric acid, oxygen, and some chlorofluorocarbons (CFC11 and CFC12). The effect of further molecules considered in the modeling is either marginal or absent. The best matching model has a mean residuum of 0.4 km and a maximum difference of 2 km to the measured effective height. For a quantitative estimate of visibility and detectability we consider the maximum change of the residual spectrum, the relative change of the residual norm, the additional transit depth, and signal-to-noise ratios for a JWST setup. In conclusion, our study provides a list of molecules that are relevant for modeling transmission spectra of Earth-like exoplanets and discusses the feasibility of retrieval.

  7. There’s more than one way to climb a tree: Limb length and microhabitat use in lizards with toe pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Scott; Vickers, Mathew; Harmon, Luke J.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles. Combining these measurements with microhabitat observations of geckos in Queensland, Australia, we observed geckos using similar microhabitats as reported for anoles, but geckos with relatively longer limbs were using narrower perches, differing from patterns observed in anoles and other lizards. We also observed arboreal geckos with relatively shorter proximal limb segments as compared to rock-dwelling and terrestrial geckos, similar to patterns observed for other lizards. We conclude that although both geckos and anoles have adhesive pads and use similar microhabitats, their locomotor systems likely complement their adhesive pads in unique ways and result in different ecomorphological patterns, reinforcing the idea that species with convergent morphologies still have idiosyncratic characteristics due to their own separate evolutionary histories. PMID:28953920

  8. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed. Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion. These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Geschwindigkeiten gehender Dinosaurier, die fossile Fährten hinterlassen haben, wurden als Produkt aus Schrittlänge und natürlicher Pendelfrequenz der Beine abgeschätzt. Eine detaillierte Analyse der Beinbewegungen von gehenden Asiatischen Elefanten und Giraffen offenbarte allerdings klare Unterschiede zwischen den tatsächlichen Extremitätenbewegungen und den Bewegungen, die zu erwarten wären, wenn die Gravitation die einzige treibende Kraft darstellte. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Die Schwingzeit der Gliedmaßen war recht konstant, aber besonders bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten viel kürzer als die halbe natürliche Pendelperiode der Extremitäten. Eine Analyse der Bewegungen der Hüft- und Schultergelenke während des Gehens zeigte, daß das Schwingen der Gliedmaßen durch Beschleunigungen dieser Gelenke beeinflußt wurde, insbesondere bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten. Die Resultate legen einen ökonomischen Mechanismus

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  10. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  11. Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre-Pascual, Elisa [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Epelman, Monica [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Johnson, Ann M.; Chauvin, Nancy A.; Coleman, Beverly G.; Victoria, Teresa [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The sonographic (US) features of limb-body wall complex have been well documented; however the literature regarding the findings on MRI in limb-body wall complex is scant. To characterize the prenatal MRI features of limb-body wall complex. We performed a retrospective review of all MRI scans of fetuses diagnosed with limb-body wall complex at our institution from 2001 to 2011. Fetuses without correlating US scans or follow-up information were excluded. Three pediatric radiologists blinded to the specific US findings reviewed the prenatal MRIs. Images were evaluated for the organ location and attachment, the body part affected, characterization of the body wall defect, and spinal, limb and umbilical cord abnormalities. Ten subjects met inclusion criteria. MRI was able to detect and characterize the body part affected and associated abnormalities. All fetuses had ventral wall defects, a small thorax and herniated liver and bowel. The kidneys were extracorporeal in three cases. The extruded organs were attached to the placenta or the uterine wall in all cases. Abnormal spinal curvatures of various degrees of severity were present in all cases. Eight cases had a short, uncoiled cord. Limb anomalies were present in 6 of the 10 cases. We illustrate the common fetal MRI findings of limb-body wall complex. The prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex and the differentiation of this defect from treatable abdominal wall defects are crucial to providing appropriate guidance for patient counseling and management. (orig.)

  12. Validation of lower limb segmental volumetry with hand-held, self-positioning three-dimensional laser scanner against water displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Sandrine; Veye, Florent; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Behar, Thomas; Triboulet, Jean; Berron, Nicolas; Demattei, Christophe; Quéré, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of limb volume is helpful for the evaluation and follow-up of edema, especially in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) or lymphedema. Water displacement (WD) is the reference method for limb volumetry but is not really suitable for clinical routine. Indirect volumetry based on circumference measurements as well as the more expansive but automatic optoelectronic techniques do not allow detailed measurement at the extremity of the limb. We used a self-positioning laser scanner with dynamic referencing for acquisition and real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the lower limb volume in 30 patients with CVI, 30 patients with lymphedema, and 30 healthy controls. Two independent observers performed either one or two laser scans, whose results were tested for intra- and interobserver reproducibility and compared with WD volumetry by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman graphic analysis. Automatic volume calculation from 3D laser scanning data failed in one patient with major lymphedema. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.99 and 0.98, respectively, for intraobserver no. 1 and no. 2, 0.98 for interobserver reproducibility, and 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, for observer no. 1 and observer no. 2 vs WD comparison. The 3D laser scanning yielded 1.99% precision. Accuracy was 3.12% for observer no. 1 and 2.71% for observer no. 2, laser scanning values being 90 mL higher than WD, which could be attributed to the different posture during measurement. Three-dimensional laser scanning is accurate and reproducible, and appears suitable for the evaluation of limb volume in patients with CVI or lymphedema. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu; Texas Univ., Austin)

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08. 27 references

  14. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  15. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  16. Artificial limb representation in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heiligenberg, Fiona M Z; Orlov, Tanya; Macdonald, Scott N; Duff, Eugene P; Henderson Slater, David; Beckmann, Christian F; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Culham, Jody C; Makin, Tamar R

    2018-05-01

    The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images. This was found even when one-handers were presented with images of active prostheses that share the functionality of the hand but not necessarily its visual features (e.g. a 'hook' prosthesis). Further, we show that daily prosthesis usage determines large-scale inter-network communication across hand-selective areas. This was demonstrated by increased resting state functional connectivity between visual and sensorimotor hand-selective areas, proportional to the intensiveness of everyday prosthesis usage. Further analysis revealed a 3-fold coupling between prosthesis activity, visuomotor connectivity and usage, suggesting a possible role for the motor system in shaping use-dependent representation in visual hand-selective areas, and/or vice versa. Moreover, able-bodied control participants who routinely observe prosthesis usage (albeit less intensively than the prosthesis users) showed significantly weaker associations between degree of prosthesis observation and visual cortex activity or connectivity. Together, our findings suggest that altered daily motor behaviour facilitates prosthesis-related visual processing and shapes communication across hand-selective areas. This neurophysiological substrate for prosthesis embodiment may inspire rehabilitation approaches to improve usage of existing substitutionary devices and aid implementation of future assistive and augmentative technologies.

  17. Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-12-01

    The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)

  18. Capturing the Perceived Phantom Limb through Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rogers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom limb is the sensation amputees may feel when the missing limb is still attached to the body and is still moving as it would if it still existed. Despite there being between 50 and 80% of amputees who report neuropathic pain, also known as phantom limb pain (PLP, there is still little understanding of why PLP occurs. There are no fully effective long-term treatments available. One of the struggles with PLP is the difficulty for amputees to describe the sensations of their phantom limbs. The sensations may be of a limb that is in a position that is impossible for a normal limb to attain. The goal of this project was to treat those with PLP by developing a system to communicate the sensations those with PLP were experiencing accurately and easily through various hand positions using a model arm with a user friendly interface. The system was developed with Maya 3D animation software, the Leap Motion input device, and the Unity game engine. The 3D modeled arm was designed to mimic the phantom sensation being able to go beyond normal joint extensions of regular arms. The purpose in doing so was to obtain a true 3D visualization of the phantom limb.

  19. Upper and Lower Limbs Disability and Personality Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)

  20. Atomic carbon in an infrared dark cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkopf, Volker; Ormel, Chris W.; Simon, Robert; Sun, Kefeng; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are potential sites of massive star formation, dark in the near-infrared, but in many cases already with indications of active star-formation from far-infrared and submm observations. They are an ideal test bed to study the role of internal and external heating on the

  1. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  2. High risk for major nonlimb anomalies associated with lower-limb deficiency: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvänen, Johanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä; Ritvanen, Annukka; Koskimies, Eeva; Kauko, Tommi; Helenius, Ilkka

    2014-11-19

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of congenital lower-limb reduction defects and associated mortality, to evaluate lower-limb deficiencies by type of reduction, and to identify patterns of associated anomalies. We conducted a population-based study with use of data from the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations and Care Register for Health Care. All cases of lower-limb deficiency among live births, stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, and terminations of pregnancy due to fetal anomalies from 1993 to 2008 were included. We analyzed medical records and classified lower-limb reduction defects. Associated major anomalies were recorded, and perinatal mortality and infant mortality were calculated. Two hundred and sixty-six cases with lower-limb deficiency were identified, with a total prevalence of 2.8 per 10,000 births, a birth prevalence of 2.2 per 10,000 births, and a live-birth prevalence of 2.1 per 10,000 live births. Terminal transverse limb reductions accounted for 44.7% of the cases; longitudinal reductions, 22.9%; intercalary reductions, 7.9%; multiple reductions, 8.3%; and split-foot malformations, 4.5%. In addition to lower-limb deficiency, 47.7% of the cases had other major anomalies; anomalies of internal organs were noted in 26.3% of the cases, anomalies of the axial skeleton in 13.5% of cases, and central nervous system anomalies in 12.8%. Upper-limb reductions were observed in 32.0% of the cases. The relative risk (RR) for associated major anomalies was 12.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.06 to 14.23) compared with the general figures for major congenital anomalies in Finland. The RR for associated anomalies was higher (1.75; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.53) for longitudinal preaxial lower-limb deficiencies than for the other types of lower-limb reductions. Perinatal mortality was seventy-eight per 1000 births. All infant deaths were associated with chromosomal abnormalities, other known syndromes, or additional congenital

  3. A Dynamic Model for Limb Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.F.A; Smitsman, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments and a model on limb selection are reported. In Experiment 1 left-handed and right-handed participants (N = 36) repeatedly used one hand for grasping a small cube. After a clear switch in the cube’s location, perseverative limb selection was revealed in both handedness groups. In

  4. Upper limb movement analysis during gait in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical and theoretical parallels between desire for limb amputation and gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2006-06-01

    Desire for amputation of a healthy limb has usually been regarded as a paraphilia (apotemnophilia), but some researchers propose that it may be a disorder of identity, similar to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) or transsexualism. Similarities between the desire for limb amputation and nonhomosexual male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism include profound dissatisfaction with embodiment, related paraphilias from which the conditions plausibly derive (apotemnophilia and autogynephilia), sexual arousal from simulation of the sought-after status (pretending to be an amputee and transvestism), attraction to persons with the same body type one wants to acquire, and an elevated prevalence of other paraphilic interests. K. Freund and R. Blanchard (1993) proposed that nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism represents an erotic target location error, in which men whose preferred erotic targets are women also eroticize their own feminized bodies. Desire for limb amputation may also reflect an erotic target location error, occurring in combination with an unusual erotic target preference for amputees. This model predicts that persons who desire limb amputation would almost always be attracted to amputees and would display an increased prevalence of gender identity problems, both of which have been observed. Persons who desire limb amputation and nonhomosexual MtF transsexuals often assert that their motives for wanting to change their bodies reflect issues of identity rather than sexuality, but because erotic/romantic orientations contribute significantly to identity, such distinctions may not be meaningful. Experience with nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism suggests possible directions for research and treatment for persons who desire limb amputation.

  6. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke. To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation. Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention. Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip. Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Current Observational Constraints to Holographic Dark Energy Model with New Infrared cut-off via Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuting; Xu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the holographic dark energy model with new infrared (IR) cut-off for both the flat case and the non-flat case are confronted with the combined constraints of current cosmological observations: type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, current Cosmic Microwave Background, and the observational hubble data. By utilizing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we obtain the best fit values of the parameters with $1\\sigma, 2\\sigma$ errors in the flat model: $\\Omega_{b}h...

  8. Far-infrared spectroscopy of HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.J.; Kessler, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Interest has developed rapidly in the astrophysics associated with far-infrared line emission from ionised regions, following the development of spectroscopic instruments and observing facilities appropriate to those wavelengths. Far-infrared observations and their interpretation are now at the stage where the need for specific developments in theoretical and laboratory work have been identified. The need is also apparent for the development of models dealing with more realistic astrophysical situations. (Auth.)

  9. Mirror therapy in lower limb amputees. A look beyond primary motor cortex reorganization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, S.; Essmeister, M.; Sycha, T.; Auff, E. [Vienna Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurology; Kasprian, G.; Furtner, J.; Schoepf, V.; Prayer, D. [Vienna Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2011-11-15

    Phantom pain in upper limb amputees is associated with the extent of reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Mirror visual feedback therapy has been shown to improve phantom pain. We investigated the extent of cortical reorganization in lower limb amputees and changes in neural activity induced by mirror therapy. Eight lower limb amputees underwent 12 sessions of MVFT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain before the first and after the last MVFT session. FMRI sessions consisted of two runs in which subjects were instructed to perform repetitive movement of the healthy and phantom ankle. Before MVFT, the mean phantom pain intensity was 4.6 {+-} 3.1 on a visual analog scale and decreased to 1.8 {+-} 1.7 (p = 0.04). We did not observe a consistent pattern of cortical activation in primary sensorimotor areas during phantom limb movements. Following MVFT, increased activity was obtained in the right orbitofrontal cortex during phantom ankle movements. Comparison of cortical activity during movements of the phantom ankle and the intact ankle showed significantly higher activity in the left inferior frontal cortex (pars triangularis). These results question the known association between phantom pain and primary sensorimotor reorganization and propose reorganizational changes involving multiple cortical areas in lower limb amputees. Finally, reduction of phantom pain after mirror visual feedback therapy was associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity during phantom ankle movements. (orig.)

  10. Bilateral responses of upper limb muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, P; Hamm, J D; Dhillon, P; Gross, P A

    2004-10-01

    Anatomical and behavioural work on primates has shown bilateral innervation of axial and proximal limb muscles, and contralateral control of distal limb muscles. The following study examined if a clear boundary exists between the distal and proximal upper limb muscles that are controlled contralaterally or bilaterally. The right motor cortical area representing the upper limb was stimulated, while surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from various upper limb muscles during rest and phasic voluntary contractions. Peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured for each muscle on both sides. The ratio R = (ipsilateral MEP: contralateral MEP) was calculated for seven pairs of muscles. For each of the seven pairs, R was less than 1.0, implying that for each muscle and subject, the contralateral control is stronger. The boundary where R changed from almost zero to a clearly measurable magnitude depended on the subject. Ipsilateral MEPs from trapezius and pectoralis could be recorded with a small background contraction from almost all subjects; on the other hand, in deltoid and biceps brachii, ipsilateral MEPs were observed only with bimanual phasic contractions. The forearm and hand muscles, in general, did not show any ipsilateral MEPs. Major differences between subjects lay in the presence or the absence of ipsilateral MEPs in biceps brachii and deltoid, without defining a sharp boundary between proximal and distal muscles.

  11. Himawari-8 infrared observations of the June-August 2015 Mt Raung eruption, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Takasaki, Kenji; Maeno, Fukashi; Wooster, Martin J.; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic activity involves processes that can change over short periods of time, which are sometimes closely related to the eruptive mode or the timing of its transitions. Eruptions bring high-temperature magma or gas to the surface; thermal observations of these eruptions can be used to determine the timeline of eruptive sequences or eruptive processes. In 2014, a new-generation meteorological satellite, Himawari-8, which carried a new sensor, the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), was launched. The AHI makes high-frequency infrared observations at a spatial resolution of 2 km during 10-min observation cycles. We analyzed an effusive eruption that occurred in 2015 at Mt Raung in Indonesia using these AHI images, which was the first attempt applying them to volcanological study. Based on the detailed analysis of the time-series variations in its thermal anomalies, this eruptive sequence was segmented into a Precursory Stage, Pulse 1, Pulse 2 and a Terminal Stage. Pulses 1 and 2 are effusive stages that exhibited a consecutive two-pulse pattern in their variations, reflecting changes in the lava effusion rate; the other stages are non-effusive. We were also able to determine the exact times of the onset and reactivation of lava flow effusion, as well as the precursory signals that preceded these events.

  12. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of ∼150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  13. Phantom Limbs, Neuroprosthetics, and the Developmental Origins of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Dooley, James C

    2017-10-01

    Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development. The sensorimotor circuits activated by twitching limbs, and the developmental context in which activation occurs, could provide a roadmap for creating neuroprosthetics that feel as if they are part of the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  15. Artificial limb representation in amputees

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heiligenberg, FMZ; Orlov, T; Macdonald, SN; Duff, EP; Henderson Slater, JDE; Beckmann, CF; Johansen-Berg, H; Culham, JC; Makin, TR

    2018-01-01

    The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral o...

  16. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration

  17. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  18. A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Magdis, Georgios; Hezaveh, Yashar; Le Borgne, Damien; Buat, Véronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Lagache, Guilaine; Scott, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 μJy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

  19. The hard X–ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broad–band (∼0.3–70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC6240, combined with archival Chandra, XMM–Newton and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger statewith two distinct nuclei separated by ∼1′.′5. P...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 IN THE PAIN MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CRITICAL LIMB ISCHAEMIA- A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sajan Kurien

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Critical Limb Ischaemia (CLI was defined for the first time in 1982 by P. R. F. Bell as a manifestation of peripheral artery disease, which describes patient with typical chronic ischaemic rest pain or ischaemic skin ulcers or gangrene.1 This term of CLI should only be used in patients with chronic ischaemic disease defined as presence of recurring rest pain that persists for more than two weeks requiring regular analgesics and with ulceration or gangrene of the foot or toes. These criteria correspond to stage 3 and 4 of Fontaine’s classification of POVD. Observational studies have shown that one year after diagnosis of CLI, 25% of patients experience a major amputation, 25% had died and only 50% survived without requiring a major amputation, though some have rest pain, ulcer or gangrene persisting. The primary goals in treating CLI are to relieve claudication pain and rest pain, to heal the ulcer, to prevent amputation of limbs, to improve quality of life and to prolong survival. The aim of the study is to study the improvement of claudication pain, rest pain and improvement of the level of amputation in patients with diffuse peripheral arterial disease (CLI after administration of PGE1. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2013 to November 2014, a total of 45 patients having advanced CLI (Fontaine’s grade III and IV not suitable for angioplasty and stenting or bypass procedures received different courses of PGE1. 20 patients (44.44% received 6 full courses of PGE1,3 patients (6.66% received 5 courses, 5 patients (11.11% received 4 courses, 4 patients (8.8% received 3 courses, 4 patients (8.8% received 2 courses and 9 patients (20% received one course. PGE1 was administered through intravenous infusion (alprostadil 100mcg over 10 hours a day for 5 days in one month (1course. The reduction in claudication and rest pain, improvement in level of amputation and complications were assessed. RESULTS In all cases, there was reduction in pain

  1. Solar brightness distribution at 8.6 mm from interferometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, K.; Fujishita, M.; Kato, T.; Ogawa, H.; Omodaka, T.

    1980-01-01

    The radial brightness distribution of the quiet Sun at 8.6 mm is synthesized from observations using a sixteen element east-west interferometer in Nagoya. The observed brightness is flat from the disk center to 0.8 Rsub(sun). A slight darkening appeared between 0.8 Rsub(sun) and the limb. No evidence if the bright ring near the limb is found. The radio radius at 8.6 mm is 1.015 +- 0.005 Rsub(sun). In addition there exists a coronal component just outside the radio limb. (orig.)

  2. Neural basis of limb ownership in individuals with body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna T van Dijk

    Full Text Available Our body feels like it is ours. However, individuals with body integrity identity disorder (BIID lack this feeling of ownership for distinct limbs and desire amputation of perfectly healthy body parts. This extremely rare condition provides us with an opportunity to study the neural basis underlying the feeling of limb ownership, since these individuals have a feeling of disownership for a limb in the absence of apparent brain damage. Here we directly compared brain activation between limbs that do and do not feel as part of the body using functional MRI during separate tactile stimulation and motor execution experiments. In comparison to matched controls, individuals with BIID showed heightened responsivity of a large somatosensory network including the parietal cortex and right insula during tactile stimulation, regardless of whether the stimulated leg felt owned or alienated. Importantly, activity in the ventral premotor cortex depended on the feeling of ownership and was reduced during stimulation of the alienated compared to the owned leg. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed during the performance of motor actions. These results suggest that altered somatosensory processing in the premotor cortex is associated with the feeling of disownership in BIID, which may be related to altered integration of somatosensory and proprioceptive information.

  3. Neural basis of limb ownership in individuals with body integrity identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Milenna T; van Wingen, Guido A; van Lammeren, Anouk; Blom, Rianne M; de Kwaasteniet, Bart P; Scholte, H Steven; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Our body feels like it is ours. However, individuals with body integrity identity disorder (BIID) lack this feeling of ownership for distinct limbs and desire amputation of perfectly healthy body parts. This extremely rare condition provides us with an opportunity to study the neural basis underlying the feeling of limb ownership, since these individuals have a feeling of disownership for a limb in the absence of apparent brain damage. Here we directly compared brain activation between limbs that do and do not feel as part of the body using functional MRI during separate tactile stimulation and motor execution experiments. In comparison to matched controls, individuals with BIID showed heightened responsivity of a large somatosensory network including the parietal cortex and right insula during tactile stimulation, regardless of whether the stimulated leg felt owned or alienated. Importantly, activity in the ventral premotor cortex depended on the feeling of ownership and was reduced during stimulation of the alienated compared to the owned leg. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed during the performance of motor actions. These results suggest that altered somatosensory processing in the premotor cortex is associated with the feeling of disownership in BIID, which may be related to altered integration of somatosensory and proprioceptive information.

  4. Phosphorylation of Lbx1 controls lateral myoblast migration into the limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Wouter; Masaki, Megumi; Sieiro, Daniel; Marcelle, Christophe; Currie, Peter D

    2017-10-15

    The migration of limb myogenic precursors from limb level somites to their ultimate site of differentiation in the limb is a paradigmatic example of a set of dynamic and orchestrated migratory cell behaviours. The homeobox containing transcription factor ladybird homeobox 1 (Lbx1) is a central regulator of limb myoblast migration, null mutations of Lbx1 result in severe disruptions to limb muscle formation, particularly in the distal region of the limb in mice (Gross et al., 2000). As such Lbx1 has been hypothesized to control lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb anlage. It acts as a core regulator of the limb myoblast migration machinery, controlled by Pax3. A secondary role for Lbx1 in the differentiation and commitment of limb musculature has also been proposed (Brohmann et al., 2000; Uchiyama et al., 2000). Here we show that lateral migration, but not differentiation or commitment of limb myoblasts, is controlled by the phosphorylation of three adjacent serine residues of LBX1. Electroporation of limb level somites in the chick embryo with a dephosphomimetic form of Lbx1 results in a specific defect in the lateral migration of limb myoblasts. Although the initial delamination and migration of myoblasts is unaffected, migration into the distal limb bud is severely disrupted. Interestingly, myoblasts undergo normal differentiation independent of their migratory status, suggesting that the differentiation potential of hypaxial muscle is not regulated by the phosphorylation state of LBX1. Furthermore, we show that FGF8 and ERK mediated signal transduction, both critical regulators of the developing limb bud, have the capacity to induce the phosphorylation of LBX1 at these residues. Overall, this suggests a mechanism whereby the phosphorylation of LBX1, potentially through FGF8 and ERK signalling, controls the lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb bud. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nonoperative active management of critical limb ischemia: initial experience using a sequential compression biomechanical device for limb salvage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2008-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients are at high risk of primary amputation. Using a sequential compression biomechanical device (SCBD) represents a nonoperative option in threatened limbs. We aimed to determine the outcome of using SCBD in amputation-bound nonreconstructable CLI patients regarding limb salvage and 90-day mortality. Thirty-five patients with 39 critically ischemic limbs (rest pain = 12, tissue loss = 27) presented over 24 months. Thirty patients had nonreconstructable arterial outflow vessels, and five were inoperable owing to severe comorbidity scores. All were Rutherford classification 4 or 5 with multilevel disease. All underwent a 12-week treatment protocol and received the best medical treatment. The mean follow-up was 10 months (SD +\\/- 6 months). There were four amputations, with an 18-month cumulative limb salvage rate of 88% (standard error [SE] +\\/- 7.62%). Ninety-day mortality was zero. Mean toe pressures increased from 38.2 to 67 mm Hg (SD +\\/- 33.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55-79). Popliteal artery flow velocity increased from 45 to 47.9 cm\\/s (95% CI 35.9-59.7). Cumulative survival at 12 months was 81.2% (SE +\\/- 11.1) for SCBD, compared with 69.2% in the control group (SE +\\/- 12.8%) (p = .4, hazards ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.15-2.32). The mean total cost of primary amputation per patient is euro29,815 ($44,000) in comparison with euro13,900 ($20,515) for SCBD patients. SCBD enhances limb salvage and reduces length of hospital stay, nonoperatively, in patients with nonreconstructable vessels.

  6. Transcriptomic insights into the genetic basis of mammalian limb diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jennifer A; Rivas-Astroza, Marcelo; Deng, Jenny; Dowling, Anna; Oboikovitz, Paige; Cao, Xiaoyi; Behringer, Richard R; Cretekos, Chris J; Rasweiler, John J; Zhong, Sheng; Sears, Karen E

    2017-03-23

    From bat wings to whale flippers, limb diversification has been crucial to the evolutionary success of mammals. We performed the first transcriptome-wide study of limb development in multiple species to explore the hypothesis that mammalian limb diversification has proceeded through the differential expression of conserved shared genes, rather than by major changes to limb patterning. Specifically, we investigated the manner in which the expression of shared genes has evolved within and among mammalian species. We assembled and compared transcriptomes of bat, mouse, opossum, and pig fore- and hind limbs at the ridge, bud, and paddle stages of development. Results suggest that gene expression patterns exhibit larger variation among species during later than earlier stages of limb development, while within species results are more mixed. Consistent with the former, results also suggest that genes expressed at later developmental stages tend to have a younger evolutionary age than genes expressed at earlier stages. A suite of key limb-patterning genes was identified as being differentially expressed among the homologous limbs of all species. However, only a small subset of shared genes is differentially expressed in the fore- and hind limbs of all examined species. Similarly, a small subset of shared genes is differentially expressed within the fore- and hind limb of a single species and among the forelimbs of different species. Taken together, results of this study do not support the existence of a phylotypic period of limb development ending at chondrogenesis, but do support the hypothesis that the hierarchical nature of development translates into increasing variation among species as development progresses.

  7. Structure design of lower limb exoskeletons for gait training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ziqiang; Tao, Chunjing; Ji, Run

    2015-09-01

    Due to the close physical interaction between human and machine in process of gait training, lower limb exoskeletons should be safe, comfortable and able to smoothly transfer desired driving force/moments to the patients. Correlatively, in kinematics the exoskeletons are required to be compatible with human lower limbs and thereby to avoid the uncontrollable interactional loads at the human-machine interfaces. Such requirement makes the structure design of exoskeletons very difficult because the human-machine closed chains are complicated. In addition, both the axis misalignments and the kinematic character difference between the exoskeleton and human joints should be taken into account. By analyzing the DOF(degree of freedom) of the whole human-machine closed chain, the human-machine kinematic incompatibility of lower limb exoskeletons is studied. An effective method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons, which are kinematically compatible with human lower limb, is proposed. Applying this method, the structure synthesis of the lower limb exoskeletons containing only one-DOF revolute and prismatic joints is investigated; the feasible basic structures of exoskeletons are developed and classified into three different categories. With the consideration of quasi-anthropopathic feature, structural simplicity and wearable comfort of lower limb exoskeletons, a joint replacement and structure comparison based approach to select the ideal structures of lower limb exoskeletons is proposed, by which three optimal exoskeleton structures are obtained. This paper indicates that the human-machine closed chain formed by the exoskeleton and human lower limb should be an even-constrained kinematic system in order to avoid the uncontrollable human-machine interactional loads. The presented method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons is universal and simple, and hence can be applied to other kinds of wearable exoskeletons.

  8. Delayed amputation following trauma increases residual lower limb infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhilash; Glass, Graeme E; Ahmadi, Hootan; Mackey, Simon; Simmons, Jon; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Pearse, Michael; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2013-04-01

    Residual limb infection following amputation is a devastating complication, resulting in delayed rehabilitation, repeat surgery, prolonged hospitalisation and poor functional outcome. The aim of this study was to identify variables predicting residual limb infection following non-salvageable lower limb trauma. All cases of non-salvageable lower limb trauma presenting to a specialist centre over 5 years were evaluated from a prospective database and clinical and management variables correlated with the development of deep infection. Forty patients requiring 42 amputations were identified with a mean age of 49 years (±19.9, 1SD). Amputations were performed for 21 Gustilo IIIB injuries, 12 multi-planar degloving injuries, seven IIIC injuries and one open Schatzker 6 fracture. One limb was traumatically amputated at the scene and surgically revised. Amputation level was transtibial in 32, through-knee in one and transfemoral in nine. Median time from injury to amputation was 4 days (range 0-30 days). Amputation following only one debridement and within 5 days resulted in significantly fewer stump infections (p = 0.026 and p = 0.03, respectively, Fisher's exact test). The cumulative probability of infection-free residual limb closure declined steadily from day 5. Multivariate analyses revealed that neither the nature of the injury nor pre-injury patient morbidity independently influenced residual limb infection. Avoiding residual limb infection is critically dependent on prompt amputation of non-salvageable limbs. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of lower limb preference on local muscular and vascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral physical training can enhance muscular size and function as well as vascular function in the trained limb. In non-athletes, the preferred arm for use during unilateral tasks may exhibit greater muscular strength compared to the non-preferred arm. It is unclear if lower limb preference affects lower limb vascular function or muscular endurance and power in recreationally active adults. To examine the effect of lower limb preference on quadriceps muscle size and function and on lower limb vascular function in middle-aged adults. Twenty (13 men, 7 women) recreationally-active middle-aged (55 ± 7 yrs) adults underwent measurements of quadriceps muscle thickness, strength, mean power, endurance, and arterial stiffness, calf venous compliance, and calf blood flow in the preferred and non-preferred lower limb. The preferred limb exhibited greater calf vascular conductance (31.6 ± 15.5 versus 25.8 ± 13.0 units flow/mmHg; p = 0.011) compared to the non-preferred limb. The interlimb difference in calf vascular conductance was negatively related to weekly aerobic activity (hrs/week) (r = −0.521; p = 0.019). Lower limb preference affects calf blood flow but not quadriceps muscle size or function. Studies involving unilateral lower limb testing procedures in middle-aged individuals should consider standardizing the testing to either the preferred or non-preferred limb rather than the right or left limb. (paper)

  10. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  11. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. [Evaluation of Iris Morphology Viewed through Stromal Edematous Corneas by Infrared Camera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Morishige, Naoyuki; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-02-01

    We reported that the application of infrared camera enables us to observe iris morphology in Peters' anomaly through edematous corneas. To observe the iris morphology in bullous keratopathy or failure grafts with an infrared camera. Eleven bullous keratopathy or failure grafts subjects (6 men and 5 women, mean age ± SD; 72.7 ± 13.0 years old) were enrolled in this study. The iris morphology was observed by applying visible light mode and near infrared light mode of infrared camera (MeibomPen). The detectability of pupil shapes, iris patterns and presence of iridectomy was evaluated. Infrared mode observation enabled us to detect the pupil shapes in 11 out of 11 cases, iris patterns in 3 out of 11 cases, and presence of iridetomy in 9 out of 11 cases although visible light mode observation could not detect any iris morphological changes. Applying infrared optics was valuable for observation of the iris morphology through stromal edematous corneas.

  13. Visible/near-infrared spectral diversity from in situ observations of the Bagnold Dune Field sands in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Achilles, Cherie; Bell, James F.; Bender, Steve; Cloutis, Edward; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fraeman, Abigail; Gasnault, Olivier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Pinet, Patrick; Thompson, Lucy; Wellington, Danika; Wiens, Roger C.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Bagnold Dune campaign conducted by Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of dune sands were acquired using Mast Camera (Mastcam) multispectral imaging (445-1013 nm) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) passive point spectroscopy (400-840 nm). By comparing spectra from pristine and rover-disturbed ripple crests and troughs within the dune field, and through analysis of sieved grain size fractions, constraints on mineral segregation from grain sorting could be determined. In general, the dune areas exhibited low relative reflectance, a weak 530 nm absorption band, an absorption band near 620 nm, and a spectral downturn after 685 nm consistent with olivine-bearing sands. The finest grain size fractions occurred within ripple troughs and in the subsurface and typically exhibited the strongest 530 nm bands, highest relative reflectances, and weakest red/near-infrared ratios, consistent with a combination of crystalline and amorphous ferric materials. Coarser-grained samples were the darkest and bluest and exhibited weaker 530 nm bands, lower relative reflectances, and stronger downturns in the near-infrared, consistent with greater proportions of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. These grains were typically segregated along ripple crests and among the upper surfaces of grain flows in disturbed sands. Sieved dune sands exhibited progressive decreases in reflectance with increasing grain size, as observed in laboratory spectra of olivine size separates. The continuum of spectral features observed between the coarse- and fine-grained dune sands suggests that mafic grains, ferric materials, and air fall dust mix in variable proportions depending on aeolian activity and grain sorting.

  14. Effect of limb rotation on radiographic alignment in total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Kerstin; Becher, Christoph; Noll, Yvonne; Ostermeier, Sven

    2010-04-01

    Even in a well-aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA), limb rotation at the time of radiographic assessment will alter the measurement of alignment. This could influence the radiographic outcome of TKA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb rotation on radiographic alignment after TKA and to establish a re-calculation of this rotation by using existing radiographic landmarks. Synthetic femur and tibia (Sawbones), Inc. Vashon Island, WA) were used to create a TKA of the Triathlon knee prosthesis system (Stryker), Limerick, Ireland). The femoral alignment was 6.5 degrees valgus. The model was fixed in an upright stand. Five series of nine anteroposterior (AP) long leg radiographs were taken on a 30 cm x 120 cm plates in full extension with the limb rotated, in 5 degrees increments, from 20 degrees external rotation to 20 degrees internal rotation. After digitizing each radiograph (Scanner Hewlett Packard XJ 527), an observer measured the anatomic mechanical angle of the femur [AMA ( degrees )], the mechanical lateral proximal femur angle [mLPFA ( degrees )], the mechanical lateral distal femur angle [mLDFA ( degrees )], the mechanical medial proximal tibia angle [mMPTA ( degrees )] and the mechanical lateral distal tibia angle [mLDTA ( degrees )] using a digital measurement software (MediCAD, Hectec, Altfraunhofen, Germany). Besides, the observer measured the geometrical distances of the femoral component figured on the long leg radiograph. A ratio of one distance to another was measured (called femoral component distance ratio). The average radiographic anatomic alignment ranged from 6.827 degrees AMA (SD = 0.22 degrees ) in 20 degrees internal rotation to 4.627 degrees AMA (SD = 0.22 degrees ) in 20 degrees external rotation. Average mLPFA ( degrees ) ranged from 101.63 degrees (SD = 0.63) in 20 degrees internal rotation to 93.60 degrees (SD = 0.74 degrees ) in 20 degrees external rotation. Average mLDFA ( degrees ) ranged from 90.59 degrees

  15. Medial knee joint contact force in the intact limb during walking in recently ambulatory service members with unilateral limb loss: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross H. Miller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation have a high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA in their intact limb as they age. This risk may be related to joint loading experienced earlier in life. We hypothesized that loading during walking would be greater in the intact limb of young US military service members with limb loss than in controls with no limb loss. Methods Cross-sectional instrumented gait analysis at self-selected walking speeds with a limb loss group (N = 10, age 27 ± 5 years, 170 ± 36 days since last surgery including five service members with transtibial limb loss and five with transfemoral limb loss, all walking independently with their first prosthesis for approximately two months. Controls (N = 10, age 30 ± 4 years were service members with no overt demographical risk factors for knee OA. 3D inverse dynamics modeling was performed to calculate joint moments and medial knee joint contact forces (JCF were calculated using a reduction-based musculoskeletal modeling method and expressed relative to body weight (BW. Results Peak JCF and maximum JCF loading rate were significantly greater in limb loss (184% BW, 2,469% BW/s vs. controls (157% BW, 1,985% BW/s, with large effect sizes. Results were robust to probabilistic perturbations to the knee model parameters. Discussion Assuming these data are reflective of joint loading experienced in daily life, they support a “mechanical overloading” hypothesis for the risk of developing knee OA in the intact limb of limb loss subjects. Examination of the evolution of gait mechanics, joint loading, and joint health over time, as well as interventions to reduce load or strengthen the ability of the joint to withstand loads, is warranted.

  16. Hemodynamic study of ischemic limb by velocity measurement in foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shionoya, S.; Hirai, M.; Kawai, S.; Ohta, T.; Seko, T.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a tracer technique with 99mTc-pertechnetate, provided with seven zonal regions of interest, 6 mm in width, placed at equal spaces of 18 mm, from the toe tip to the midfoot at a right angle to the long axis of the foot, arterial flow velocity in the foot during reactive hyperemia was measured. The mean velocity in the foot was 5.66 +/- 1.78 cm/sec in 14 normal limbs, 1.58 +/- 1.07 cm/sec in 29 limbs with distal thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), 0.89 +/- 0.61 cm/sec in 13 limbs with proximal TAO, and 0.97 +/- 0.85 cm/sec in 15 limbs with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). The velocity returned to normal in all 12 limbs after successful arterial reconstruction, whereas the foot or toe blood pressure remained pathologic in 9 of the 12 limbs postoperatively; the velocity reverted to normal in 4 of 13 limbs after lumbar sympathectomy. When the velocity was normalized after operation, the ulceration healed favorably, and the ischemic limb was salvaged. The most characteristic feature of peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity was a stagnation of arterial circulation in the foot, and the flow velocity in the foot was a sensitive predictive index of limb salvage

  17. Keck observations of near-Earth asteroids in the thermal infrared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Delbó, M.; Harris, A. W.; Binzel, R. P.; Pravec, Petr; Davies, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2003), s. 116-130 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * infrared observtions * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2003

  18. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  19. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  20. Observations of Young Stellar Objects with Infrared Interferometry: Recent Results from PTI, KI and IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, Rachel

    Young stellar objects have been one of the favorite targets of infrared interferometers for many years. In this contribution I will briefly review some of the first results and their contributions to the field and then describe some of the recent results from the Keck Interferometer (KI), the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) and the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA). This conference also saw many exciting new results from the VLTI at both near and mid-infrared wavelengths that are covered by other contributions.

  1. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  2. Far-infrared properties of optically selected quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The far-infrared properties of 10, optically selected quasars were studied on the basis of pointed IRAS observations and ground-based near-infrared and radio measurements. Nine of these quasars were detected in at least three IRAS bands. The flat spectral energy distributions characterizing these optically selected quasars together with large 60-100-micron luminosities suggest that the infrared emission is dominated by nonthermal radiation. Seven of the nine quasars with far-infrared detections were found to have low-frequency turnovers. 12 references

  3. Energy deposition patterns within limb models heated with a mini annular phased array (MAPA) applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerquin-Kern, J.L.; Hagmann, M.J.; Charny, C.K.; Levin, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out in order to characterize a MAPA applicator prior to possible clinical implementation. The energy deposition patterns were determined in several human limb models of different complexities. The maximum energy deposition observed in a homogeneous cylindrical phantom was found to be at the middle of the applicator. For more realistically shaped, homogeneous limb models, the point of maximum energy deposition was shifted towards a smaller cross-sectional region; this was also the case for isolated human legs. Furthermore, significant heating was observed in the bone of the isolated legs. Such phenomena illustrate the limitation of using classical 2-D numerical models for predicting the energy deposition patterns in heterogeneous bodies

  4. MR Imaging of Brachial Plexus and Limb-Girdle Muscles in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Agosta, Federica; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Pagani, Elisabetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Chaabane, Linda; Copetti, Massimiliano; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    To assess brachial plexus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities as signs of muscle denervation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was approved by the local ethical committees on human studies, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. By using an optimized protocol of brachial plexus MR imaging, brachial plexus and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were evaluated in 23 patients with ALS and clinical and neurophysiologically active involvement of the upper limbs and were compared with MR images in 12 age-matched healthy individuals. Nerve root and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were visually evaluated by two experienced observers. A region of interest-based analysis was performed to measure nerve root volume and T2 signal intensity. Measures obtained at visual inspection were analyzed by using the Wald χ(2) test. Mean T2 signal intensity and volume values of the regions of interest were compared between groups by using a hierarchical linear model, accounting for the repeated measurement design. The level of interrater agreement was very strong (κ = 0.77-1). T2 hyperintensity and volume alterations of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots were observed in patients with ALS (P < .001 to .03). Increased T2 signal intensity of nerve roots was associated with faster disease progression (upper-limb Medical Research Council scale progression rate, r = 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.001, 0.73). Limb-girdle muscle alterations (ie, T2 signal intensity alteration, edema, atrophy) and fat infiltration also were found, in particular, in the supraspinatus muscle, showing more frequent T2 signal intensity alterations and edema (P = .01) relative to the subscapularis and infraspinatus muscles. Increased T2 signal intensity and volume of brachial nerve roots do not exclude a diagnosis of ALS and suggest involvement of the peripheral nervous system in the ALS pathogenetic cascade. MR

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  6. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  7. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  8. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  9. Mirror therapy in lower limb amputees. A look beyond primary motor cortex reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, S.; Essmeister, M.; Sycha, T.; Auff, E.; Kasprian, G.; Furtner, J.; Schoepf, V.; Prayer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom pain in upper limb amputees is associated with the extent of reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Mirror visual feedback therapy has been shown to improve phantom pain. We investigated the extent of cortical reorganization in lower limb amputees and changes in neural activity induced by mirror therapy. Eight lower limb amputees underwent 12 sessions of MVFT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain before the first and after the last MVFT session. FMRI sessions consisted of two runs in which subjects were instructed to perform repetitive movement of the healthy and phantom ankle. Before MVFT, the mean phantom pain intensity was 4.6 ± 3.1 on a visual analog scale and decreased to 1.8 ± 1.7 (p = 0.04). We did not observe a consistent pattern of cortical activation in primary sensorimotor areas during phantom limb movements. Following MVFT, increased activity was obtained in the right orbitofrontal cortex during phantom ankle movements. Comparison of cortical activity during movements of the phantom ankle and the intact ankle showed significantly higher activity in the left inferior frontal cortex (pars triangularis). These results question the known association between phantom pain and primary sensorimotor reorganization and propose reorganizational changes involving multiple cortical areas in lower limb amputees. Finally, reduction of phantom pain after mirror visual feedback therapy was associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity during phantom ankle movements. (orig.)

  10. Upper limb fractures in rugby in Huddersfield 1986-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J

    1991-01-01

    Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.

  11. Effect of lower limb preference on variability of centre of pressure movement during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Svoboda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Centre of pressure (COP movement variability, as an example of 'end-point' variability (stability, may be one of the indicators that can assess the functional gait asymmetry caused by foot preference in relation to fall risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible differences in COP movement variability during the stance phase of gait caused by both aging and lower limb preference. Methods: Two groups of females participated in this study: Younger (n = 25, age 22.2 ± 1.8 years and Middle-aged (n = 25, age 56.6 ± 4.9 years. COP movement and ground reaction forces during gait at self-selected speed were recorded using two force platforms. The standard deviations of the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior COP displacements in four subphases: loading response (LR, midstance (MSt, terminal stance (TSt and pre-swing (PSw were assessed. Results: The observed variables indicated significantly higher mean values in almost all cases in subphases LR and PSw in comparison with MSt and TSt. When comparing preferred and non-preferred limb, the preferred limb showed greater variability in medial-lateral direction during LR and less variability in anterior-posterior direction during PSw. In the Younger group, greater variability was found on preferred limb in anterior-posterior direction during LR. When assessing age-related differences all significant cases showed higher variability in the Middle-aged group. Conclusions: The results suggest that COP movement variability is less on the non-preferred limb during weight acceptance and on the preferred limb during propulsion.

  12. Tharsis Limb Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of Tharsis Limb Cloud 7 September 2005 This composite of red and blue Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired on 6 July 2005 shows an isolated water ice cloud extending more than 30 kilometers (more than 18 miles) above the martian surface. Clouds such as this are common in late spring over the terrain located southwest of the Arsia Mons volcano. Arsia Mons is the dark, oval feature near the limb, just to the left of the 'T' in the 'Tharsis Montes' label. The dark, nearly circular feature above the 'S' in 'Tharsis' is the volcano, Pavonis Mons, and the other dark circular feature, above and to the right of 's' in 'Montes,' is Ascraeus Mons. Illumination is from the left/lower left. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. Regeneration and repair of human digits and limbs: fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Cheng, Tsun-Chih

    2015-08-01

    A variety of digit and limb repair and reconstruction methods have been used in different clinical settings, but regeneration remains an item on every plastic surgeon's "wish list." Although surgical salvage techniques are continually being improved, unreplantable digits and limbs are still abundant. We comprehensively review the structural and functional salvage methods in clinical practice, from the peeling injuries of small distal fingertips to multisegmented amputated limbs, and the developmental and tissue engineering approaches for regenerating human digits and limbs in the laboratory. Although surgical techniques have forged ahead, there are still situations in which digits and limbs are unreplantable. Advances in the field are delineated, and the regeneration processes of salamander limbs, lizard tails, and mouse digits and each component of tissue engineering approaches for digit- and limb-building are discussed. Although the current technology is promising, there are many challenges in human digit and limb regeneration. We hope this review inspires research on the critical gap between clinical and basic science, and leads to more sophisticated digit and limb loss rescue and regeneration innovations.

  14. An infrared view of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Timusk, T.; McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the infrared properties of the high T c superconductors are reviewed, with particular emphasis on attempts to determine the energy gap by far infrared spectroscopy and on the properties of the strong absorption that occurs in the mid infrared. The authors argue that this mid-infrared absorption is a direct particle-hole excitation rather than a Holstein emission process. In addition, they conclude that although the energy gap is not easily observed, several recent experiments place it in the weak to moderate strong coupling range

  15. Spatially resolved near infrared observations of Enceladus' tiger stripe eruptions from Cassini VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Hedman, Matthew M.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2017-08-01

    Particle properties of individual fissure eruptions within Enceladus' plume have been analyzed using high spatial resolution Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations from the Cassini mission. To first order, the spectra of the materials emerging from Cairo, Baghdad and Damascus sulci are very similar, with a strong absorption band around 3 μm due to water-ice. The band minimum position indicates that the ice grains emerging from all the fissures are predominantly crystalline, which implies that the water-ice particles' formation temperatures are likely above 130 K. However, there is also evidence for subtle variations in the material emerging from the different source fissures. Variations in the spectral slope between 1-2.5 μm are observed and probably reflect differences in the size distributions of particles between 0.5 and 5 μm in radius. We also note variations in the shape of the 3 μm water-ice absorption band, which are consistent with differences in the relative abundance of > 5 μm particles. These differences in the particle size distribution likely reflect variations in the particle formation conditions and/or their transport within the fissures. These observations therefore provide strong motivation for detailed modeling to help place important constraints on the diversity of the sub-surface environmental conditions at the geologically active south-pole of Enceladus.

  16. Biomechanical parameters in lower limbs during natural walking and Nordic walking at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Alicja K; Żurek, Grzegorz; Garrard, Ian; Wierzbicka-Damska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) is a sport that has a number of benefits as a rehabilitation method. It is performed with specially designed poles and has been often recommended as a physical activity that helps reduce the load to limbs. However, some studies have suggested that these findings might be erroneous. The aim of this paper was to compare the kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW) at both low and high walking speeds. The study used a registration system, BTS Smart software and Kistler platform. Eleven subjects walked along a 15-metre path at low (below 2 m⋅s-1) and high (over 2 m⋅s-1) walking speeds. The Davis model was employed for calculations of kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs. With constant speed, the support given by Nordic Walking poles does not make the stroke longer and there is no change in pelvic rotation either. The only change observed was much bigger pelvic anteversion in the sagittal plane during fast NW. There were no changes in forces, power and muscle torques in lower limbs. The study found no differences in kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW). Higher speeds generate greater ground reaction forces and muscle torques in lower limbs. Gait parameters depend on walking speed rather than on walking style.

  17. Risk factors in limb reduction defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Dott, B; Roth, M P

    1992-07-01

    Risk factors were studied in 123 children with limb reduction defects (LRD) from 118,265 consecutive births of known outcome during the period from 1979 to 1987 in the area which is covered by our registry of congenital malformations. For each case a control was studied. The LRD was localised and classified according to the EUROCAT guide for the description and classification of limb defects. The prevalence of LRD was 1.04 per thousand: 82.9% of the babies were liveborn, 13.0% were late spontaneous abortion or stillborn and termination was performed in 4.0% of the cases. The proportion of males was 0.55. The most common malformations in the 51.2% of children who had at least one other anomaly than LRD were associated cardiac, digestive and renal anomalies. The pregnancy with limb anomalies was more often complicated by oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios and threatened abortion but there were no differences in parental characteristics. However, 9.7% of marriages were consanguineous (P less than 0.01) and the incidence of LRD in first-degree relatives of the children with LRD was high. First-degree relatives also had more non-limb malformations than did those of controls.

  18. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  19. Near infrared observations of the visual reflection nebulae NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 2068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of the nebulae NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068 at visual wavelengths is due to reflected starlight. Recently the infrared emission of these nebulae has been found to consist not of reflected light, but rather to be due to some other emission process. Spectra of the infrared emission at nebular positions in NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 are shown. The infrared emission consists of a smooth continuum which extends at least from 1.25 to 4.8 μm, and strong emission features at 3.3 and 3.4μm. (author)

  20. Muscle co-contraction modulates damping and joint stability in a three-link bio mechanical limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eHeitmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model.

  1. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  2. Three-body segment musculoskeletal model of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdmanová L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to create a computational three-body segment model of an upper limb of a human body for determination of muscle forces generated to keep a given loaded upper limb position. The model consists of three segments representing arm, forearm, hand and of all major muscles connected to the segments. Muscle origins and insertions determination corresponds to a real anatomy. Muscle behaviour is defined according to the Hill-type muscle model consisting of contractile and viscoelastic element. The upper limb is presented by a system of three rigid bars connected by rotational joints. The whole limb is fixed to the frame in the shoulder joint. A static balance problem is solved by principle of virtual work. The system of equation describing the musculoskeletal system is overdetermined because more muscles than necessary contribute to get the concrete upper limb position. Hence the mathematical problem is solved by an optimization method searching the least energetically-consuming solution. The upper limb computational model is verified by electromyography of the biceps brachii muscle.

  3. Experimental Induction of a Perceived “Telescoped” Limb Using a Full-Body Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Phantom limbs refer to the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached to the body. Phantom limbs may be perceived as continuous with the stump so as to resemble a normal limb, or as “telescoped” with the more distal portion of the phantom being perceived as having withdrawn within the stump. Telescoping tends to be related to increased levels of phantom pain, making it a clinically relevant phenomenon to investigate. In the current study we show that a full-body illusion can be used to induce the sensation of a telescoped limb in healthy individuals. For the induction of the full-body illusion, participants saw the body of a mannequin from a first person perspective while being subjected to synchronized visuo-tactile stimulation through stroking. Crucially, the mannequin was missing its left hand so as to resemble an amputee. By manipulating the positioning of the strokes applied to the mannequin's stump with respect to the participants’ hand we were able to evoke the sensation of the participants’ hand being located either below the stump or, more crucially, “inside” the stump, i.e., telescoped. In three separate experiments these effects were supported by complementary subjective data from questionnaires, verbally reported perceived location of the hand, and manual pointing movements indicating hand position (proprioceptive drift). Taken together our results show that healthy individuals can experience the body of an upper limb amputee as their own, and that this can be associated with telescoping sensations. This is a theoretically important observation as it shows that ownership of an entire body can be evoked in the context of gross anatomical incongruence for a single limb, and that telescoping sensations occur as a consequence of the body representation system trying to reduce this incongruence. Furthermore, the present study might provide a new platform for future studies of the relationship between telescoping and phantom

  4. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  5. Observation of enhanced infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with gold by pulsed laser melting of nanometer-thick gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philippe K.; Yang, Wenjie; Hudspeth, Quentin; Lim, Shao Qi; Williams, Jim S.; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that pulsed laser melting (PLM) of thin 1, 5, and 10 nm-thick vapor-deposited gold layers on silicon enhances its room-temperature sub-band gap infrared absorption, as in the case of ion-implanted and PLM-treated silicon. The former approach offers reduced fabrication complexity and avoids implantation-induced lattice damage compared to ion implantation and pulsed laser melting, while exhibiting comparable optical absorptance. We additionally observed strong broadband absorptance enhancement in PLM samples made using 5- and 10-nm-thick gold layers. Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering analysis indicate that such an enhancement could be explained by absorption by a metastable, disordered and gold-rich surface layer. The sheet resistance and the diode electrical characteristics further elucidate the role of gold-supersaturation in silicon, revealing the promise for future silicon-based infrared device applications.

  6. Lower limb control and mobility following exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sukwon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week balance or weight training on ankle joint stiffness and limb stability for older adults, furthermore, on outcomes of slips while walking. Eighteen older adults volunteered for the study and randomly were assigned to the three groups, such as, weight, balance, or control group. While walking on a walking track, three-dimensional posture data were sampled and ankle joint stiffness and limb stability were computed to evaluate the effects of training. 2 (pre and post × 3 (weight, balance, and control × 2 (dominant and non-dominant legs mixed factor repeated ANOVA was performed. The results indicated that only balance training group showed an improvement in joint stiffness and both the training groups showed improvements in limb stability. Also, fall frequency results suggested that joint stiffness and limb stability had an effect on the likelihood of slip-induced falls. In conclusion, training can facilitate improvements in joint and limb control mechanism for older adults contributing to an improvement in the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  7. Gene expression patterns specific to the regenerating limb of the Mexican axolotl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Monaghan

    2012-07-01

    Salamander limb regeneration is dependent upon tissue interactions that are local to the amputation site. Communication among limb epidermis, peripheral nerves, and mesenchyme coordinate cell migration, cell proliferation, and tissue patterning to generate a blastema, which will form missing limb structures. An outstanding question is how cross-talk between these tissues gives rise to the regeneration blastema. To identify genes associated with epidermis-nerve-mesenchymal interactions during limb regeneration, we examined histological and transcriptional changes during the first week following injury in the wound epidermis and subjacent cells between three injury types; 1 a flank wound on the side of the animal that will not regenerate a limb, 2 a denervated limb that will not regenerate a limb, and 3 an innervated limb that will regenerate a limb. Early, histological and transcriptional changes were similar between the injury types, presumably because a common wound-healing program is employed across anatomical locations. However, some transcripts were enriched in limbs compared to the flank and are associated with vertebrate limb development. Many of these genes were activated before blastema outgrowth and expressed in specific tissue types including the epidermis, peripheral nerve, and mesenchyme. We also identified a relatively small group of transcripts that were more highly expressed in innervated limbs versus denervated limbs. These transcripts encode for proteins involved in myelination of peripheral nerves, epidermal cell function, and proliferation of mesenchymal cells. Overall, our study identifies limb-specific and nerve-dependent genes that are upstream of regenerative growth, and thus promising candidates for the regulation of blastema formation.

  8. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  9. Guided-wave high-performance spectrometers for the MEOS miniature earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Wong, Brian; Zou, Jing; Jamroz, Wes; Sloan, James; Cloutis, Edward

    2017-11-01

    The MEOS Miniature Earth Observing Satellite is a low-cost mission being developed for the Canadian Space Agency with international collaborations that will innovatively combine remote correlated atmospheric/land-cover measurements with the corresponding atmospheric and ecosystem modelling in near real-time to obtain simultaneous variations in lower tropospheric GHG mixing ratios and the resulting responses of the surface ecosystems. MEOS will provide lower tropospheric CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, H2O and aerosol mixing ratios over natural sources and sinks using two kinds of synergistic observations; a forward limb measurement and a follow-on nadir measurement over the same geographical tangent point. The measurements will be accomplished using separate limb and nadir suites of innovative miniature line-imaging spectrometers and will be spatially coordinated such that the same air mass is observed in both views within a few minutes. The limb data will consist of 16-pixel vertical spectral line imaging to provide 1-km vertical resolution, while the corresponding nadir measurements will view sixteen 5 by 10 km2 ground pixels with a 160-km East-West swath width. To facilitate the mission accommodation on a low-cost microsat with a net payload mass under 22 kg, groundbreaking miniature guided-wave spectrometers with advanced optical filtering and coding technologies will be employed based on MPBC's patented IOSPEC technologies. The data synergy requirements for each view will be innovatively met using two complementary miniature line-imaging spectrometers to provide broad-band measurements from 1200 to 2450 nm at about 1.2 nm/pixel bandwidth using a multislit binary-coded MEMS-IOSPEC and simultaneous high-resolution multiple microchannels at 0.03 nm FWHM using the revolutionary FP-IOSPEC Fabry-Perot guided-wave spectrometer concept. The guided-wave spectrometer integration provides an order of magnitude reduction in the mass and volume relative to traditional bulk

  10. Morphological Variation in Anuran Limbs: Constraints and Novelties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrezi, Marissa; Goldberg, Javier; Chuliver Pereyra, Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Anurans have three primary types of locomotion: walking, jumping, and swimming. Additionally, they may dig, climb, grasp, etc. All adult anurans have four limbs, with four fingers on the hands and five toes on the feet. We summarized and updated knowledge on the interspecific variation within anuran limbs, then discuss how developmental constraints (e.g., in size) and novelties may have influenced anuran diversification through the locomotion. We analyze morphological variation from limb bud stages up to the final limb form resulting from certain skeletal organization and growth. We find limited morphometric variations in the skeleton of different developmental modules (i.e., skull, trunk, urostyle, limbs) indicate that the anuran body shape is largely constrained. We identify specializations of the stylopodium, zeugopodium, and proximal carpals/tarsals that have evolved to facilitiate saltatorial locomotion. We show that the anuran prepollex and prehallux are not vestigial digits and that they have come to serve specialized function. Medial rotation of the manus in anurans appears to have evolved to help distribute the force of impact upon landing at the end of a jump. Additional skeletal elements in anuran limbs are intercalary elements and sesamoids. The intercalary elements appear within neobatrachians and are integrated with digital pads in lineages capable of locomotion on smooth vertical surfaces. They have allowed arboreal anurans to occupy a wide range of arboreal habitats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Empirical Storm-Time Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere Model E-Region Electron and Ion Density Parameterizations Using Observations from TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christoper J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    The response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-geomagnetic storms can be characterized using observations of infrared 4.3 micrometers emission. In particular, we utilize nighttime TIMED/SABER measurements of broadband 4.3 micrometers limb emission and derive a new data product, the NO+(v) volume emission rat