WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared integral field

  1. CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Monnier, John D.; Crepp, Justin; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 μm interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A V = 8-12, with an effective temperature of ∼4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  2. CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, Laurent [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Monnier, John D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 941 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Parry, Ian [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3, OHA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  3. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S.; McGregor, Peter J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M BH ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ 2 is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M BH ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10 7 M ☉ (1σ error) and Y H ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M ☉ /L ☉ (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57 −0.37 +0.45 ×10 7 M ⊙ ) and gas kinematics (3.0 −2.2 +0.75 ×10 7 M ⊙ ; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y H = 0.4 ± 0.2 M ☉ /L ☉ . The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ c = 116 ± 3 km s –1 , bringing this object slightly closer to the M BH -σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  4. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); McGregor, Peter J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Office 610, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Centre, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Física, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A., E-mail: christopher.onken@anu.edu.au, E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M{sub BH} ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ{sup 2} is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M{sub BH} ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} (1σ error) and Y{sub H} ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉} (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57{sub −0.37}{sup +0.45}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}) and gas kinematics (3.0{sub −2.2}{sup +0.75}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y{sub H} = 0.4 ± 0.2 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉}. The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ{sub c} = 116 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, bringing this object slightly closer to the M{sub BH}-σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  5. Infrared problems in field perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Francois.

    1982-12-01

    The work presented mainly covers questions related to the presence of ''infrared'' divergences in perturbation expansions of the Green functions of certain massless field theories. It is important to determine the mathematical status of perturbation expansions in field theory in order to define the region in which they are valid. Renormalization and the symmetry of a theory are important factors in infrared problems. The main object of this thesis resides in the mathematical techniques employed: integral representations of the Feynman amplitudes; methods for desingularization, regularization and dimensional renormalization. Nonlinear two dimensional space-time sigma models describing Goldstone's low energy boson dynamics associated with a breaking of continuous symmetry are studied. Random surface models are then investigated followed by infrared divergences in super-renormalizable theories. Finally, nonperturbation effects in massless theories are studied by expanding the two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model in 1/N [fr

  6. SPECTRAL TYPING OF LATE-TYPE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS FROM LOW-DISPERSION NEAR-INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15

    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  7. Classical field configurations and infrared slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark S.

    1987-09-01

    The problem of determining the energy of two spinor particles interacting through massless-particle exchange is analyzed using the path-integral method. A form for the long-range interaction energy is obtained by analyzing an abridged vertex derived from the parent theory. This abridged vertex describes the radiation of zero-momentum particles by pointlike sources. A path-integral formalism for calculating the energy of the radiation field associated with this abridged vertex is developed and applications are made to determine the energy necessary for adiabatic separation of two sources in quantum electrodynamics and for an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The latter theory is shown to be consistent with confinement via infrared slavery.

  8. Infrared behavior of massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical infrared effects in several gauge field theories with massless particles are investigated in perturbation theory. It is first shown that divergences occurring in individual Feynman graphs arising from integrations over the long-wavelength modes of the fields cancel when the graphs are grouped together in a particular way, in a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck treatment of QED. As one of the requirements of finiteness is renormalization of the vector propagator off shell, the charge in these theories is not directly related to classical experiment. In an effort to find the meaning of charge the low-energy theorem is considered. Although in lowest order the graphs reproduce the Thompson limit, it is found that loop corrections are singular in the low-energy limit; a simple definition of the charge is thus precluded. Finally, the behavior of the quark color magnetic moment is treated. An apparent infrared singularity of this moment is shown to be due to an improper use of perturbation theory, and is removed and replaced with a finite, field-dependent moment, by use of Furry picture propagators

  9. Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of silicon photonics over the past two decades has established silicon as a preferred substrate platform for photonic integration. While most silicon-based photonic components have so far been realized in the near-infrared (near-IR telecommunication bands, the mid-infrared (mid-IR, 2–20-μm wavelength band presents a significant growth opportunity for integrated photonics. In this review, we offer our perspective on the burgeoning field of mid-IR integrated photonics on silicon. A comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art of key photonic devices such as waveguides, light sources, modulators, and detectors is presented. Furthermore, on-chip spectroscopic chemical sensing is quantitatively analyzed as an example of mid-IR photonic system integration based on these basic building blocks, and the constituent component choices are discussed and contrasted in the context of system performance and integration technologies.

  10. Infrared divergences for free quantum fields in cosmological spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Rendell, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the nature of infrared divergences for the free graviton and inflaton two-point functions in flat Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime. These divergences arise because the momentum integral for these two-point functions diverges in the infrared. It is straightforward to see that the power of the momentum in the integrand can be increased by 2 in the infrared using large gauge transformations, which are sufficient for rendering these two-point functions infrared finite for slow-roll inflation. In other words, if the integrand of the momentum integral for these two-point functions behaves like , where p is the momentum, in the infrared, then it can be made to behave like by large gauge transformations. On the other hand, it is known that, if one smears these two-point functions in a gauge-invariant manner, the power of the momentum in the integrand is changed from to . This fact suggests that the power of the momentum in the integrand for these two-point functions can be increased by 4 using large gauge transformations. In this paper we show that this is indeed the case. Thus, the two-point functions for the graviton and inflaton fields can be made finite by large gauge transformations for a large class of potentials and states in single-field inflation.

  11. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  12. Infrared behavior of the Reggeon field theory for the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Dash, J.W.; Pinsky, S.S.; Rabl, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared structure of Reggeon field theory is investigated using renormalization group methods. The infrared fixed point where only the phi 3 interaction is nontrivial is shown to be stable with respect to all higher order interactions within the context of perturbation theory both at D = 2 and in the epsilon-expansion. This may imply that the asymptotic behavior of the total cross section is model independent

  13. Broadband integrated mid infrared light sources as enabling technology for point of care mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0061 Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy Alex...mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid-infrared spectroscopy 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1-4037...Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy ” Date: 16th August 2017 Name

  14. Infrared difficulties with thermal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandou, T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing briefly the two main difficulties encountered in thermal quantum field theories at finite temperature when dealing with the Braaten-Pisarski (BP) resummation program, the motivation is introduced of an analysis relying on the bare perturbation theory, right from the onset. (author)

  15. Integration of infrared thermography into various maintenance methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William T.

    1993-04-01

    Maintenance methodologies are in developmental stages throughout the world as global competitiveness drives all industries to improve operational efficiencies. Rapid progress in technical advancements has added an additional strain on maintenance organizations to progressively change. Accompanying needs for advanced training and documentation is the demand for utilization of various analytical instruments and quantitative methods. Infrared thermography is one of the primary elements of engineered approaches to maintenance. Current maintenance methodologies can be divided into six categories; Routine ('Breakdown'), Preventive, Predictive, Proactive, Reliability-Based, and Total Productive (TPM) maintenance. Each of these methodologies have distinctive approaches to achieving improved operational efficiencies. Popular though is that infrared thermography is a Predictive maintenance tool. While this is true, it is also true that it can be effectively integrated into each of the maintenance methodologies for achieving desired results. The six maintenance strategies will be defined. Infrared applications integrated into each will be composed in tabular form.

  16. Integrated solution for field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois [EDF, Chatou (France)

    2014-08-15

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted.

  17. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted

  18. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)

  19. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  20. WISE: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Cohen, M.; Cutri, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Lonsdale, C.; Mainzer, A.; Mather, J.; McLean, I.; McMillan, R.; Mendez, B.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Walker, R.

    2009-01-01

    WISE will map the entire sky at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns with sensitivities of 0.12, 0.16. 0.65, and 2.6 mJy. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 rocket, rotating at a constant rate while a scan mirror freezes the line of sight during each exposure, covering the sky in 6 months following a one month checkout. Orbit to orbit overlap provides 8 or more exposures at each location. The instrument, provided by the Space Dynamics Laboratory, includes an all-reflective aluminum telescope with a 40 cm primary built by SSG-Tinsley, a solid hydrogen cryostat built by Lockheed-Martin's Advanced Technology Center, and 1024x1024 pixel Si:As and HgCdTe arrays built by DRS and Teledyne. Dichroic beamsplitters allow simultaneous images in the four bands over a 47'x47' field of view with 5" resolution to be obtained every 11 seconds. Ball Aerospace is providing the spacecraft, including a 500W fixed solar array, Li-ion battery, two star trackers, reaction wheels, and torque rods. The 50 GB per day of images are losslessly compressed, stored in flash memory, and downlinked at 100 Mbps four times per day using a fixed antenna and TDRSS satellites. The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center will process the data and deliver the image atlas and source catalog, with a preliminary release 6 months after the survey, and a final release 2 years after the survey. JPL manages the project for UCLA PI Ned Wright, and conducts mission operations. Education and Public Outreach is provided by UC Berkeley's Space Science Laboratory. WISE hardware is presently being integrated and tested, with launch scheduled in November 2009.

  1. Characterization methods of integrated optics for mid-infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Kern, Pierre Y.; Schanen-Duport, Isabelle; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    his article deals with one of the important instrumentation challenges of the stellar interferometry mission IRSI-Darwin of the European Space Agency: the necessity to have a reliable and performant system for beam combination has enlightened the advantages of an integrated optics solution, which is already in use for ground-base interferometry in the near infrared. Integrated optics provides also interesting features in terms of filtering, which is a main issue for the deep null to be reached by Darwin. However, Darwin will operate in the mid infrared range from 4 microns to 20 microns where no integrated optics functions are available on-the-shelf. This requires extending the integrated optics concept and the undergoing technology in this spectral range. This work has started with the IODA project (Integrated Optics for Darwin) under ESA contract and aims to provide a first component for interferometry. In this paper are presented the guidelines of the characterization work that is implemented to test and validate the performances of a component at each step of the development phase. We present also an example of characterization experiment used within the frame of this work, is theoretical approach and some results.

  2. Jacobi fields of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2003-01-01

    We show that Jacobi fields of a completely integrable Hamiltonian system of m degrees of freedom make up an extended completely integrable system of 2m degrees of freedom, where m additional first integrals characterize a relative motion

  3. Infrared and ultraviolet behaviour of effective scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.D.; Thorne, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the infrared and ultraviolet behaviour of the effective quantum field theory of a single Z 2 symmetric scalar field. In a previous paper we proved to all orders in perturbation theory the renormalizability of massive effective scalar field theory using Wilson's exact renormalization group equation. Here we show that away from exceptional momenta the massless theory is similarly renormalizable, and we prove detailed bounds on Green's functions as arbitrary combinations of exceptional Euclidean momenta are approached. As a corollary we also Weinberg's Theorem for the massive effective theory, n the form of bounds on Green's functions at Euclidean momenta much greater than the particle mass but below the naturalness scale of theory. 12 refs

  4. Infrared and ultraviolet behaviour of effective scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D

    1995-01-01

    We consider the infrared and ultraviolet behaviour of the effective quantum field theory of a single Z_2 symmetric scalar field. In a previous paper we proved to all orders in perturbation theory the renormalizability of massive effective scalar field theory using Wilson's exact renormalization group equation. Here we show that away from exceptional momenta the massless theory is similarly renormalizable, and we prove detailed bounds on Green's functions as arbitrary combinations of exceptional Euclidean momenta are approached. As a corollary we also prove Weinberg's Theorem for the massive effective theory, in the form of bounds on Green's functions at Euclidean momenta much greater than the particle mass but below the naturalness scale of the theory.

  5. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  6. Data requirements for integrated near field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilems, R.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Faust, C.R.; Brecher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The coupled nature of the various processes in the near field require that integrated models be employed to assess long term performance of the waste package and repository. The nature of the integrated near field models being compiled under the SCEPTER program are discussed. The interfaces between these near field models and far field models are described. Finally, near field data requirements are outlined in sufficient detail to indicate overall programmatic guidance for data gathering activities

  7. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  8. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A V ∼ 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 μG and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales (∼2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  9. Integrity Evaluation of Railway Bogie Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk

    2011-01-01

    The lock-in thermography was employed to evaluate the integrity of railway bogies. Prior to the actual application on railway bogies, in order to assess the detectability of known flaws, the calibration reference panel was prepared with various dimensions of artificial flaws. The panel was composed of structural steel, which was the same material with actual bogies. Through lock-in thermography evaluation, the optimal frequency of heat source was determined for the best flaw detection. Based on the defects information, the actual defect assessments on railway bogie were conducted with different types of railway bogies, which were used for the current operation. In summary, the defect assessment results with thermography method showed a good agreement as compared with the conventional inspection techniques. Moreover, it was found that the novel infrared thermography technique could be an effective way for the inspection and the detection of surface defects on bogies since the infrared thermography method provided rapid and non-contact mode for the investigation of railway bogies

  10. OH megamasers: dense gas & the infrared radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, JiangShui; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jie

    2018-06-01

    To investigate possible factors related to OH megamaser formation (OH MM, L_{H2O}>10L_{⊙}), we compiled a large HCN sample from all well-sampled HCN measurements so far in local galaxies and identified with the OH MM, OH kilomasers (L_{H2O}gas and the dense gas, respectively), we found that OH MM galaxies tend to have stronger HCN emission and no obvious difference on CO luminosity exists between OH MM and non-OH MM. This implies that OH MM formation should be related to the dense molecular gas, instead of the low-density molecular gas. It can be also supported by other facts: (1) OH MMs are confirmed to have higher mean molecular gas density and higher dense gas fraction (L_{HCN}/L_{CO}) than non-OH MMs. (2) After taking the distance effect into account, the apparent maser luminosity is still correlated with the HCN luminosity, while no significant correlation can be found at all between the maser luminosity and the CO luminosity. (3) The OH kMs tend to have lower values than those of OH MMs, including the dense gas luminosity and the dense gas fraction. (4) From analysis of known data of another dense gas tracer HCO^+, similar results can also be obtained. However, from our analysis, the infrared radiation field can not be ruled out for the OH MM trigger, which was proposed by previous works on one small sample (Darling in ApJ 669:L9, 2007). On the contrary, the infrared radiation field should play one more important role. The dense gas (good tracers of the star formation) and its surrounding dust are heated by the ultra-violet (UV) radiation generated by the star formation and the heating of the high-density gas raises the emission of the molecules. The infrared radiation field produced by the re-radiation of the heated dust in turn serves for the pumping of the OH MM.

  11. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  12. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  13. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  14. Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2004-01-01

    Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory

  15. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Marek

    2008-11-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain.

  16. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain

  17. THE HAWAII INFRARED PARALLAX PROGRAM. II. YOUNG ULTRACOOL FIELD DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N., E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present a large, uniform analysis of young (≈10–150 Myr) ultracool dwarfs, based on new high-precision infrared (IR) parallaxes for 68 objects. We find that low-gravity (vl-g) late-M and L dwarfs form a continuous sequence in IR color–magnitude diagrams, separate from the field population and from current theoretical models. These vl-g objects also appear distinct from young substellar (brown dwarf and exoplanet) companions, suggesting that the two populations may have a different range of physical properties. In contrast, at the L/T transition, young, old, and spectrally peculiar objects all span a relatively narrow range in near-IR absolute magnitudes. At a given spectral type, the IR absolute magnitudes of young objects can be offset from ordinary field dwarfs, with the largest offsets occurring in the Y and J bands for late-M dwarfs (brighter than the field) and mid-/late-L dwarfs (fainter than the field). Overall, low-gravity (vl-g) objects have the most uniform photometric behavior, while intermediate gravity (int-g) objects are more diverse, suggesting a third governing parameter beyond spectral type and gravity class. We examine the moving group membership for all young ultracool dwarfs with parallaxes, changing the status of 23 objects (including 8 previously identified planetary-mass candidates) and fortifying the status of another 28 objects. We use our resulting age-calibrated sample to establish empirical young isochrones and show a declining frequency of vl-g objects relative to int-g objects with increasing age. Notable individual objects in our sample include high-velocity (≳100 km s{sup −1}) int-g objects, very red late-L dwarfs with high surface gravities, candidate disk-bearing members of the MBM20 cloud and β  Pic moving group, and very young distant interlopers. Finally, we provide a comprehensive summary of the absolute magnitudes and spectral classifications of young ultracool dwarfs, using a combined sample of 102

  18. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  19. Integrable structures in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This review was born as notes for a lecture given at the Young Researchers Integrability School (YRIS) school on integrability in Durham, in the summer of 2015. It deals with a beautiful method, developed in the mid-nineties by Bazhanov, Lukyanov and Zamolodchikov and, as such, called BLZ. This method can be interpreted as a field theory version of the quantum inverse scattering, also known as the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Starting with the case of conformal field theories (CFTs) we show how to build the field theory analogues of commuting transfer T matrices and Baxter Q -operators of integrable lattice models. These objects contain the complete information of the integrable structure of the theory, viz. the integrals of motion, and can be used, as we will show, to derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and nonlinear integral equations. This same method can be easily extended to the description of integrable structures of certain particular massive deformations of CFTs; these, in turn, can be described as quantum group reductions of the quantum sine-Gordon model and it is an easy step to include this last theory in the framework of BLZ approach. Finally we show an interesting and surprising connection of the BLZ structures with classical objects emerging from the study of classical integrable models via the inverse scattering transform method. This connection goes under the name of ODE/IM correspondence and we will present it for the specific case of quantum sine-Gordon model only. (topical review)

  20. Intelligent Compaction and Infrared Scanning Field Projects with Consulting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) was awarded a grant from the FHWA Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) program, in 2016. MoDOT provided the required matching funds to support this Intelligent Compaction (IC) and Infrared Scanning...

  1. Design of integral magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Cheng Yinhui; Wu Wei; Li Baozhong; Zhou Hui; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field is one of the important physical parameters in the measuring process of pulsed EMP. We researched on anti-interference and high-sensitivity measurement technique of magnetic field in this report. Semi rigid cables were to bent into ringed antenna so that the antenna was shielded from electric-field interference and had little inductance; In order to have high sensitivity, operational transconductance amplifier was used to produce an active integrator; We designed an optical-electronic transferring module to upgrade anti-interference capability of the magnetic-field measurement system. A measurement system of magnetic field was accomplished. The measurement system was composed of antenna, integrator, and optical-electric transferring module and so on. We calibrated the measurement system in coaxial TEM cell. It indicates that, the measurement system's respondence of rise time is up to 2.5 ns, and output width at 90%-maximum of the pulse is wider than 200 ns. (authors)

  2. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  3. Field theory a path integral approach

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    This unique book describes quantum field theory completely within the context of path integrals. With its utility in a variety of fields in physics, the subject matter is primarily developed within the context of quantum mechanics before going into specialized areas.Adding new material keenly requested by readers, this second edition is an important expansion of the popular first edition. Two extra chapters cover path integral quantization of gauge theories and anomalies, and a new section extends the supersymmetry chapter, where singular potentials in supersymmetric systems are described.

  4. Analysis of near-field components of a plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guiru; Vaillancourt, Jarrod; Lu, Xuejun

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, we analyze near-field vector components of a metallic circular disk array (MCDA) plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) enhancement. The near-field vector components of the MCDA optical antenna and their distribution in the QD active region are simulated. The near-field overlap integral with the QD active region is calculated at different wavelengths and compared with the QDIP enhancement spectrum. The x-component (E(x)) of the near-field vector shows a larger intensity overlap integral and stronger correlation with the QDIP enhancement than E(z) and thus is determined to be the major near-field component to the QDIP enhancement.

  5. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  6. Far-infrared imaging arrays for fusion plasma density and magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, D.P.; Rutledge, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Far-infrared imaging detector arrays are required for the determination of density and local magnetic field in fusion plasmas. Analytic calculations point out the difficulties with simple printed slot and dipole antennas on ungrounded substrates for use in submillimeter wave imaging arrays because of trapped surface waves. This is followed by a discussion of the use of substrate-lens coupling to eliminate the associated trapped surface modes responsible for their poor performance. This integrates well with a modified bow-tie antenna and permits diffraction-limited imaging. Arrays using bismuth microbolometers have been successfully fabricated and tested at 1222μm and 119μm. A 100 channel pilot experiment designed for the UCLA Microtor tokamak is described. (author)

  7. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  8. Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Pastor, Daniel; Pérez, Daniel; Doménech, José David; Fernández, Juan; Baños, Rocío; Alemany, Rubén; Sánchez, Ana M.; Cirera, Josep M.; Mas, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nitride photonics is on the rise owing to the broadband nature of the material, allowing applications of biophotonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing, from visible, through near to mid-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, a review of the state of the art of silicon nitride strip waveguide platforms is provided, alongside the experimental results on the development of a versatile 300 nm guiding film height silicon nitride platform. PMID:28895906

  9. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL

  10. Integrating out the standard Higgs field in the path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmaier, S.

    1996-01-01

    We integrate out the Higgs boson in the electroweak standard model at one loop and construct a low-energy effective Lagrangian assuming that the Higgs mass is much larger than the gauge-boson masses. Instead of applying diagrammatical techniques, we integrate out the Higgs boson directly in the path integral, which turns out to be much simpler. By using the background-field method and the Stueckelberg formalism, we directly find a manifestly gauge-invariant result. The heavy-Higgs effects on fermionic couplings are derived, too. At one loop the log M H terms of the heavy-Higgs limit of the electroweak standard model coincide with the UV-divergent terms in the gauged non-linear σ-model, but vertex functions differ in addition by finite constant terms. Finally, the leading Higgs effects to some physical processes are calculated from the effective Lagrangian. (orig.)

  11. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  12. Path integral for multi-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Postech, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Min-Seok [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science, 34051 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shiu, Gary [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-07-20

    We develop the path integral formalism for studying cosmological perturbations in multi-field inflation, which is particularly well suited to study quantum theories with gauge symmetries such as diffeomorphism invariance. We formulate the gauge fixing conditions based on the Poisson brackets of the constraints, from which we derive two convenient gauges that are appropriate for multi-field inflation. We then adopt the in-in formalism to derive the most general expression for the power spectrum of the curvature perturbation including the corrections from the interactions of the curvature mode with other light degrees of freedom. We also discuss the contributions of the interactions to the bispectrum.

  13. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) - FIELDS Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Bing-Canar, John; Cooper, Brian; Roth, Chuck

    2003-04-19

    Two software packages, VSP 2.1 and FIELDS 3.5, are being used by environmental scientists to plan the number and type of samples required to meet project objectives, display those samples on maps, query a database of past sample results, produce spatial models of the data, and analyze the data in order to arrive at defensible decisions. VSP 2.0 is an interactive tool to calculate optimal sample size and optimal sample location based on user goals, risk tolerance, and variability in the environment and in lab methods. FIELDS 3.0 is a set of tools to explore the sample results in a variety of ways to make defensible decisions with quantified levels of risk and uncertainty. However, FIELDS 3.0 has a small sample design module. VSP 2.0, on the other hand, has over 20 sampling goals, allowing the user to input site-specific assumptions such as non-normality of sample results, separate variability between field and laboratory measurements, make two-sample comparisons, perform confidence interval estimation, use sequential search sampling methods, and much more. Over 1,000 copies of VSP are in use today. FIELDS is used in nine of the ten U.S. EPA regions, by state regulatory agencies, and most recently by several international countries. Both software packages have been peer-reviewed, enjoy broad usage, and have been accepted by regulatory agencies as well as site project managers as key tools to help collect data and make environmental cleanup decisions. Recently, the two software packages were integrated, allowing the user to take advantage of the many design options of VSP, and the analysis and modeling options of FIELDS. The transition between the two is simple for the user – VSP can be called from within FIELDS, automatically passing a map to VSP and automatically retrieving sample locations and design information when the user returns to FIELDS. This paper will describe the integration, give a demonstration of the integrated package, and give users download

  14. Integrated management systems in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.A.; Berg, H.P.; Karapetrovic, S.V.; Willborn, W.O.

    2005-01-01

    In the last years several internationally accepted standards such as the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series and other function-specific management systems standards have been developed. At the same time, it has become imperative for organisations to continuously improve their overall quality, environmental and safety performance. Therefore, the need to create integrated management systems is of growing importance to enable an easier handling of the different management systems. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to address the key issues in the underlying theory of integrated management systems including benefits and limits, the second one is to illustrate the importance of an integrated (in particular safety) management system and the experience feedback providing examples from different areas and different organisations in the nuclear field. (orig.)

  15. Wide-field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry: Bringing High Resolution to the Far- Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitx, David

    Wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry combines spatial and spectral interferometric data to provide integral field spectroscopic information over a wide field of view. This technology breaks through a mission cost barrier that stands in the way of resolving spatially and measuring spectroscopically at far-infrared wavelengths objects that will lead to a deep understanding of planetary system and galaxy formation processes. A space-based far-IR interferometer will combine Spitzer s superb sensitivity with a two order of magnitude gain in angular resolution, and with spectral resolution in the thousands. With the possible exception of detector technology, which is advancing with support from other research programs, the greatest challenge for far-IR interferometry is to demonstrate that the interferometer will actually produce the images and spectra needed to satisfy mission science requirements. With past APRA support, our team has already developed the highly specialized hardware testbed, image projector, computational model, and image construction software required for the proposed effort, and we have access to an ideal test facility.

  16. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  17. Asymptotic series and functional integrals in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the methods for analyzing ultra-violet and infrared asymptotics in the quantum field theory (QFT) have been reviewed. A powerful method of the QFT analysis connected with the group property of renormalized transformations has been created at the first stage. The result of the studies of the second period is the constructive solution of the problem of outgoing the framework of weak coupling. At the third stage of studies essential are the asymptotic series and functional integrals in the QFT, which are used for obtaining the asymptotic type of the power expansion coefficients in the coupling constant at high values of the exponents for a number of simple models. Further advance to higher values of the coupling constant requires surmounting the difficulties resulting from the asymptotic character of expansions and a constructive application in the region of strong coupling (g >> 1)

  18. Microcanonical functional integral for the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.; York, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The gravitational field in a spatially finite region is described as a microcanonical system. The density of states ν is expressed formally as a functional integral over Lorentzian metrics and is a functional of the geometrical boundary data that are fixed in the corresponding action. These boundary data are the thermodynamical extensive variables, including the energy and angular momentum of the system. When the boundary data are chosen such that the system is described semiclassically by any real stationary axisymmetric black hole, then in this same approximation lnν is shown to equal 1/4 the area of the black-hole event horizon. The canonical and grand canonical partition functions are obtained by integral transforms of ν that lead to ''imaginary-time'' functional integrals. A general form of the first law of thermodynamics for stationary black holes is derived. For the simpler case of nonrelativistic mechanics, the density of states is expressed as a real-time functional integral and then used to deduce Feynman's imaginary-time functional integral for the canonical partition function

  19. On infrared problems of effective Lagrangians of massive spin 2 fields coupled to gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio, E-mail: canfora@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Giacomini, Alex, E-mail: alexgiacomini@uach.cl [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Zerwekh, Alfonso R., E-mail: alfonso.zerwekh@usm.cl [Departamento de Física and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper we analyze the interactions of massive spin-2 particles charged under both Abelian and non-Abelian group using the Porrati–Rahman Lagrangian. This theory is valid up to an intrinsic cutoff scale. Phenomenologically a theory valid up to a cutoff scale is sensible as all known higher spin particles are non-fundamental and it is shown that indeed this action can be used to estimate some relevant cross section. Such action necessarily includes Stückelberg field and therefore it is necessary to fix the corresponding gauge symmetry. We show that this theory, when the Stückelberg symmetry is gauge-fixed, possesses a non-trivial infrared problem. A gauge fixing ambiguity arises which is akin to the Gribov problem in QCD in the Abelian case as well. In some cases (such as when the space–time is the four-dimensional torus) the vacuum copies can be found analytically. A similar phenomenon also appears in the case of Proca fields. A very interesting feature of these copies is that they arise only for “large enough” gauge potentials. This opens the possibility to avoid the appearance of such gauge fixing ambiguities by using a Gribov–Zwanziger like approach.

  20. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusa, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C. [4th Physical Institute – Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ashihara, S., E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  1. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  2. Improving the performance of infrared reflective night curtains for warming field plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Larsen, Klaus S.; de Dato, Giovanbattista D.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared reflective (IR) curtains have been widely used to obtain passive nighttime warming in field ecosystem experiments in order to simulate and study climate warming effects on ecosystems. For any field installation with IR-reflective curtains in an ecosystem the achieved heating effect depen...

  3. The Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-06-01

    We present the design of the Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph, a dedicated I and z band instrument (0.65μm micron - 1.0μm micron at R~4000), designed to be used in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system (PALAO, and its planned upgrade PALM-3000). It builds on two recent developments (i) the improved ability of second generation adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric turbulence at wavelengths less than or equal to 1μm micron, and (ii) the availability of CCD array detectors with high quantum efficiency at very red wavelengths (close to the silicon band edge). Combining these with a state-of-the-art integral field unit design using an all-glass image slicer, SWIFT's design provides very high throughput and low scattered light. SWIFT simultaneously provides spectra of ~4000 spatial elements, arranged in a rectangular field-of-view of 44 × 89 pixels. It has three on-the-fly selectable pixel scales of 0.24", 0.16" and 0.08'. First light is expected in spring 2008.

  4. Integration of non-Gaussian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Mohr, Gunnar; Hoffmeyer, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    The limitations of the validity of the central limit theorem argument as applied to definite integrals of non-Gaussian random fields are empirically explored by way of examples. The purpose is to investigate in specific cases whether the asymptotic convergence to the Gaussian distribution is fast....... and Randrup-Thomsen, S. Reliability of silo ring under lognormal stochastic pressure using stochastic interpolation. Proc. IUTAM Symp., Probabilistic Structural Mechanics: Advances in Structural Reliability Methods, San Antonio, TX, USA, June 1993 (eds.: P. D. Spanos & Y.-T. Wu) pp. 134-162. Springer, Berlin...

  5. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-15

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  6. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  7. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariningsih; Basuki Notobroto, Hari; Winarni, Dwi; Achmad Hussein, Saikhu; Anggono Prijo, Tri

    2017-05-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice (mus musculus), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared.

  8. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariningsih; Prijo, Tri Anggono; Notobroto, Hari Basuki; Winarni, Dwi; Hussein, Saikhu Achmad

    2017-01-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice ( mus musculus ), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared. (paper)

  9. Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hongtao; Hu, Juejun; Li, Mo

    2014-07-22

    Besides being the foundational material for microelectronics, crystalline silicon has long been used for the production of infrared lenses and mirrors. More recently, silicon has become the key material to achieve large-scale integration of photonic devices for on-chip optical interconnect and signal processing. For optics, silicon has significant advantages: it offers a very high refractive index and is highly transparent in the spectral range from 1.2 to 8 μm. To fully exploit silicon’s superior performance in a remarkably broad range and to enable new optoelectronic functionalities, here we describe a general method to integrate silicon photonic devices on arbitrary foreign substrates. In particular, we apply the technique to integrate silicon microring resonators on mid-infrared compatible substrates for operation in the mid-infrared. These high-performance mid-infrared optical resonators are utilized to demonstrate, for the first time, on-chip cavity-enhanced mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic chemicals with a limit of detection of less than 0.1 ng.

  10. Evanescent field infrared spectroscopy using chalcogenide glass fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz Moti

    1992-06-01

    In the last few years a simple and cheap fiber-optics based spectroscopy method was developed for the investigation of liquids, pastes gases and thin layers. The fiber is immersed in the sample, and the investigated material becomes the fiber cladding. the interaction between the guided radiation in the fiber and the specimen is taking place by evanescent field which extends outside the fiber. This work concentrates in the quantitative characterization of the absorption of the evanescent field by the fiber cladding (the specimen). This subject was dealt with only briefly in the earlier works, and the aim of this work is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of this issue. (author)

  11. Global integrability of field theories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, J.; Seiler, W.M.; Tucker, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The GIFT 2006 workshop covers topics related to the Global Integration of Field Theories. These topics span several domains of science including Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. It is indeed an interdisciplinary event and this feature is well illustrated by the diversity of papers presented at the workshop. Physics is our main target. A simple approach would be to state that we investigate systems of partial differential equations since it is widely believed that they provide a fair description of our world. The questions whether this world is Einsteinian or not, is described by String Theory or not are not however on our agenda. At this stage we have defined what we mean with field theories. To assess what global integrability means we surf on the two other domains of our interest. Mathematics delivers the main methodologies and tools to achieve our goal. It is a trivial remark to say that there exists several approaches to investigate the concept of integrability. Only selected ones are to be found in these proceedings. We do not try to define precisely what global integrability means. Instead, we only suggest two tracks. The first one is by analogy with the design of algorithms, in Computer Algebra or Computer Science, to solve systems of differential equations. The case of ODEs is rather well understood since a constructive methodology exists. Although many experts claim that numerous results do exist to solve systems of PDEs, no constructive decision method exists. This is our first track. The second track follows directly since the real world is described by systems of PDEs, which are mainly non-linear ones. To be able to decide in such a case of the existence of solutions would increase immediately the scope of new technologies applicable to indus trial problems. It is this latter remark that led to the European NEST project with the same name. The GIFT project aims at making progresses in the investigation of field theories through the use of very

  12. Global integrability of field theories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, J.; Seiler, W.M.; Tucker, R.W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The GIFT 2006 workshop covers topics related to the Global Integration of Field Theories. These topics span several domains of science including Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. It is indeed an interdisciplinary event and this feature is well illustrated by the diversity of papers presented at the workshop. Physics is our main target. A simple approach would be to state that we investigate systems of partial differential equations since it is widely believed that they provide a fair description of our world. The questions whether this world is Einsteinian or not, is described by String Theory or not are not however on our agenda. At this stage we have defined what we mean with field theories. To assess what global integrability means we surf on the two other domains of our interest. Mathematics delivers the main methodologies and tools to achieve our goal. It is a trivial remark to say that there exists several approaches to investigate the concept of integrability. Only selected ones are to be found in these proceedings. We do not try to define precisely what global integrability means. Instead, we only suggest two tracks. The first one is by analogy with the design of algorithms, in Computer Algebra or Computer Science, to solve systems of differential equations. The case of ODEs is rather well understood since a constructive methodology exists. Although many experts claim that numerous results do exist to solve systems of PDEs, no constructive decision method exists. This is our first track. The second track follows directly since the real world is described by systems of PDEs, which are mainly non-linear ones. To be able to decide in such a case of the existence of solutions would increase immediately the scope of new technologies applicable to indus trial problems. It is this latter remark that led to the European NEST project with the same name. The GIFT project aims at making progresses in the investigation of field theories through the use of very

  13. Thermal and ghost reflection modeling for a 180-deg. field-of-view long-wave infrared lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weimin; Couture, Michael E.

    2001-03-01

    Optics 1, Inc. has successfully designed and developed a 180 degree(s) field of view long wave infrared lens for USAF/AFRL under SBIR phase I and II funded projects in support of the multi-national Programmable Integrated Ordinance Suite (PIOS) program. In this paper, a procedure is presented on how to evaluate image degradation caused by asymmetric aerodynamic dome heating. In addition, a thermal gradient model is proposed to evaluate degradation caused by axial temperature gradient throughout the entire PIOS lens. Finally, a ghost reflection analysis is demonstrated with non-sequential model.

  14. The electric field standing wave effect in infrared transflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    We show that an electric field standing wave effect is responsible for the oscillations and the non-linear dependence of the absorbance on the layer thickness in thin layers on a reflective surface. This effect is connected to the occurrence of interference inside these layers. Consequently, the absorptance undergoes a maximum electric field intensity enhancement at spectral positions close to those where corresponding non-absorbing layers on a metal show minima in the reflectance. The effect leads to changes of peak maxima ratios with layer thickness and shows the same periodicity as oscillations in the peak positions. These peculiarities are fully based on and described by Maxwell's equations but cannot be understood and described if the strongly simplifying model centered on reflectance absorbance is employed.

  15. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  16. On the infrared behaviour of some non-Minkowskian quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathinayake, C.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared structure of some quantum fields in several spacetimes was studied. Here infrared refers to effects associated with modes whose wave length is large compared to the characteristic scale of the space. Several situations dealing with aspects of this question are analyzed. It is shown that the infrared behavior of a massless scalar field and an antisymmetric tensor field in de Sitter space are different even though these two fields appear to be formally equivalent. The scalar field does not have a de Sitter-invariant quantum state, while the antisymmetric tensor is shown to have a well-behaved de Sitter-invariant vacuum. The second topic considered is the behavior of the expectation value of phi squared for a massless scalar field phi whose quantum state is free from infrared divergences in spatially flat Robertson-Walker universes. If the universe expands as a power of comoving time and the power is greater than 3/2, then phi squared grows for a finite interval of time. The next topic discussed is zero-frequency modes of massless scalar fields and vector fields in compact spaces. In some spaces they are growing functions of time. It is shown that growth rates can be related to initial conditions of the theory if the mass of the field is a function of time which varies from a constant in the past to 0 in the future. Growth in zero modes of a scalar field phi would lead to growth in phi squared. The relevance of these growing expectation values of squared field operators in global symmetry breaking is studied

  17. A path-integral approach for bosonic effective theories for Fermion fields in four and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    1998-02-01

    We study four dimensional Effective Bosonic Field Theories for massive fermion field in the infrared region and massive fermion in ultraviolet region by using an appropriate Fermion Path Integral Chiral variable change and the Polyakov's Fermi-Bose transmutation in the 3D-Abelian Thrirring model. (author)

  18. Infrared transparent graphene heater for silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Daniel; Mohsin, Muhammad; Sagade, Abhay A; Otto, Martin; Chmielak, Bartos; Suckow, Stephan; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2016-04-18

    Thermo-optical tuning of the refractive index is one of the pivotal operations performed in integrated silicon photonic circuits for thermal stabilization, compensation of fabrication tolerances, and implementation of photonic operations. Currently, heaters based on metal wires provide the temperature control in the silicon waveguide. The strong interaction of metal and light, however, necessitates a certain gap between the heater and the photonic structure to avoid significant transmission loss. Here we present a graphene heater that overcomes this constraint and enables an energy efficient tuning of the refractive index. We achieve a tuning power as low as 22 mW per free spectral range and fast response time of 3 µs, outperforming metal based waveguide heaters. Simulations support the experimental results and suggest that for graphene heaters the spacing to the silicon can be further reduced yielding the best possible energy efficiency and operation speed.

  19. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  20. Theoretical considerations and preparatory experiments for poloidal field measurements in tokamaks by far-infrared polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, W; Dodel, G [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung

    1978-12-01

    Numerical calculations give an optimum wavelength and show the precision requirements for determining poloidal field profiles in tokamaks on the basis of the Faraday effect. The required precision of the polarimetric measurements can be achieved in the far-infrared as is verified in a model experiment using a ferrite modulated HCN laser beam.

  1. [Design of flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Yu

    2008-07-01

    Near-infrared spectrum analysis can be used to determine the nature or test quantitatively some chemical compositions by detecting molecular double frequency and multiple frequency absorption. It has been used in agriculture, biology, petrifaction, foodstuff, medicament, spinning and other fields. Near-infrared spectrophotometer is the main apparatus for near-infrared spectrum analysis, and the grating is the most important part of the apparatus. Based on holographic concave grating theory and optic design software CODE V, a flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. Using CODE V software, complex high-order aberration equations need not be solved, the result can be evaluated quickly, flat field and resolving power can be kept in balance, and the work efficiency is also enhanced. A paradigm of flat field holographic concave grating is given, it works between 900 nm to 1 700 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 25 mm, and F/ # is 1. 5. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 6.3 nm.

  2. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  3. Cancellation of infrared and collinear singularities in relativistic thermal field theories. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.; Reynaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the infrared and collinear divergences of a renormalizable scalar field theory at finite temperature. We give the final results of an investigation undertaken in a previous work by showing the complete cancellation of all divergences at two-loop order in a physical process. This result makes the validity of the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem at finite temperature extremely plausible. (orig.)

  4. Plasmonic Moon: a Fano-like approach for squeezing the magnetic field in the infrared

    KAUST Repository

    Panaro, Simone

    2015-08-11

    Outstanding results have been achieved in the localization of optical electric fields via ultrasmall plasmonic cavities, paving the way to the subdiffractive confinement of local electromagnetic fields. However, due to the intrinsic constraints related to conventional architectures, no comparable squeezing factors have been managed yet for the magnetic counterpart of radiation, practically hindering the detection and manipulation of magneto-optical effects at the nanoscale. Here, we observe a strong magnetic field nanofocusing in the infrared, promoted by the induction of a coil-type Fano resonance. By triggering the coil current via a quadrupole-like plasmonic mode, we straightforwardly boost the enhancement of the infrared magnetic field and perform its efficient squeezing in localized nanovolumes.

  5. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  6. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  7. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  8. Preferential flow pathways revealed by field based stable isotope analysis of CO2 by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Jost, Hj

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed and commercially available isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a 10-day field monitoring campaign at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in northern Germany. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10-day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 minutes resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within 2σ analytical precision (<0.3 ‰). This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time table isotope data directly in the field. The injected CO2 tracer had a distinct δ13C value that was largely different from the reservoir background value. The laser spectroscopy data revealed a prior to this study unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ13C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The new technique might contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir.

  9. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  10. An integral field spectrograph utilizing mirrorlet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-09-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 mÅ) across a 15 Å spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  11. An Integral Field Spectrograph Utilizing Mirrorlet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-01-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 m) across a 15 spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  12. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshkin, K R

    2014-01-01

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  13. Calculating infrared contributions to vacuum expectation values of gluonic and quark fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Boos, E.E.; Turashvili, K.Sh.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the infrared asymptotics of the lower QCD Green's functions obtained before, we propose a definition and elaborate a technique for calculating non-perturbative vacuum expectations of gluon and quark fields. In our calculations, we use only the known QCD parameters: constituent quark masses, the confining potential slope and the QCD parameter Λ. The values obtained for the vacuum expectations agree well with experiment. (orig.)

  14. Integrative Multi-Spectral Sensor Device for Far-Infrared and Visible Light Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Chen, Lulu; Pang, Yusong; Yan, Gaowei

    2018-06-01

    Infrared and visible light image fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of multi-sensor fusion technology in recent years. Existing infrared and visible light fusion technologies need to register before fusion because of using two cameras. However, the application effect of the registration technology has yet to be improved. Hence, a novel integrative multi-spectral sensor device is proposed for infrared and visible light fusion, and by using the beam splitter prism, the coaxial light incident from the same lens is projected to the infrared charge coupled device (CCD) and visible light CCD, respectively. In this paper, the imaging mechanism of the proposed sensor device is studied with the process of the signals acquisition and fusion. The simulation experiment, which involves the entire process of the optic system, signal acquisition, and signal fusion, is constructed based on imaging effect model. Additionally, the quality evaluation index is adopted to analyze the simulation result. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor device is effective and feasible.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  16. Infrared and visible images registration with adaptable local-global feature integration for rail inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoqing; Tian, Gui Yun; Chen, Xiaotian; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Kongjing; Meng, Hongying

    2017-12-01

    Active thermography provides infrared images that contain sub-surface defect information, while visible images only reveal surface information. Mapping infrared information to visible images offers more comprehensive visualization for decision-making in rail inspection. However, the common information for registration is limited due to different modalities in both local and global level. For example, rail track which has low temperature contrast reveals rich details in visible images, but turns blurry in the infrared counterparts. This paper proposes a registration algorithm called Edge-Guided Speeded-Up-Robust-Features (EG-SURF) to address this issue. Rather than sequentially integrating local and global information in matching stage which suffered from buckets effect, this algorithm adaptively integrates local and global information into a descriptor to gather more common information before matching. This adaptability consists of two facets, an adaptable weighting factor between local and global information, and an adaptable main direction accuracy. The local information is extracted using SURF while the global information is represented by shape context from edges. Meanwhile, in shape context generation process, edges are weighted according to local scale and decomposed into bins using a vector decomposition manner to provide more accurate descriptor. The proposed algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively validated using eddy current pulsed thermography scene in the experiments. In comparison with other algorithms, better performance has been achieved.

  17. Athermalization of infrared dual field optical system based on wavefront coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiu-sha

    2017-02-01

    Wavefront coding is a technology which combination of the optical design and digital image processing. By inserting a phase mask closed to the pupil plane of the optical system the wavefront of the system is re-modulated. And the depth of focus is extended consequently. In reality the idea is same as the athermalization theory of infrared optical system. In this paper, an uncooled infrared dual field optical system with effective focal as 38mm/19mm, F number as 1.2 of both focal length, operating wavelength varying from 8μm to 12μm was designed. A cubic phase mask was used at the pupil plane to re-modulate the wavefront. Then the performance of the infrared system was simulated with CODEV as the environment temperature varying from -40° to 60°. MTF curve of the optical system with phase mask are compared with the outcome before using phase mask. The result show that wavefront coding technology can make the system not sensitive to thermal defocus, and then realize the athermal design of the infrared optical system.

  18. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John, E-mail: adam.shaw@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45{sup 0} to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 {sup 0}C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  19. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John

    2010-01-01

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45 0 to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 0 C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  20. Far infrared polarimetry with tokamak plasmas for determination of the poloidal magnetic field distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, W

    1979-01-01

    This study examines the poloidal magnetic field distribution of tokamak plasma, and the elucidation of the radial distribution of the toroidal plasma flow. A numerical and experimental determination of the poloidal field based on the Faraday effect is presented. A method is discussed for measuring the rotation of the polarization plane linear polarized electromagnetic radiation, by passing through a plasma magnetized in the direction of the radiation. The polarization behavior of a linear polarized wave passing through a tokamak plasma is presented theoretically for various wavelengths, along with the experimental investigation of a ferrite modulation procedure through the use of different far infrared detectors.

  1. Infrared Dual-Line Hanle Diagnostic of the Coronal Vector Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, Gabriel I.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States); Berdyugina, Svetlana V., E-mail: gdima@hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States); Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Freiburg (Germany); Predictive Science Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Measuring the coronal vector magnetic field is still a major challenge in solar physics. This is due to the intrinsic weakness of the field (e.g., ~4G at a height of 0.1R⊙ above an active region) and the large thermal broadening of coronal emission lines. We propose using concurrent linear polarization measurements of near-infrared forbidden and permitted lines together with Hanle effect models to calculate the coronal vector magnetic field. In the unsaturated Hanle regime both the direction and strength of the magnetic field affect the linear polarization, while in the saturated regime the polarization is insensitive to the strength of the field. The relatively long radiative lifetimes of coronal forbidden atomic transitions implies that the emission lines are formed in the saturated Hanle regime and the linear polarization is insensitive to the strength of the field. By combining measurements of both forbidden and permitted lines, the direction and strength of the field can be obtained. For example, the SiX 1.4301 μm line shows strong linear polarization and has been observed in emission over a large field-of-view (out to elongations of 0.5 R⊙). Here we describe an algorithm that combines linear polarization measurements of the SiX 1.4301 μm forbidden line with linear polarization observations of the HeI 1.0830 μm permitted coronal line to obtain the vector magnetic field. To illustrate the concept we assume that the emitting gas for both atomic transitions is located in the plane of the sky. The further development of this method and associated tools will be a critical step toward interpreting the high spectral, spatial and temporal infrared spectro-polarimetric measurements that will be possible when the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is completed in 2019.

  2. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 – W2 ≥ 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]–[4.6] ≥0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 ± 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg 2 to a depth of W2 ∼ 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 μJy at 4.6 μm, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  3. A Note on the First Integrals of Vector Fields with Integrating Factors and Normalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Llibre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We prove a sufficient condition for the existence of explicit first integrals for vector fields which admit an integrating factor. This theorem recovers and extends previous results in the literature on the integrability of vector fields which are volume preserving and possess nontrivial normalizers. Our approach is geometric and coordinate-free and hence it works on any smooth orientable manifold.

  4. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: telescope design and simulated performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics missions by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, the team has been working with the WFIRST Science Definition Team to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the current interim reference mission point design of the payload, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slit-less spectroscopy science channels. We also present the first results of Structural/Thermal/Optical performance modeling of the telescope point design.

  5. Experimental study on infrared radiation temperature field of concrete under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Quan; He, Xueqiu

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermography, as a nondestructive, non-contact and real-time monitoring method, has great significance in assessing the stability of concrete structure and monitoring its failure. It is necessary to conduct in depth study on the mechanism and application of infrared radiation (IR) of concrete failure under loading. In this paper, the concrete specimens with size of 100 × 100 × 100 mm were adopted to carry out the uniaxial compressions for the IR tests. The distribution of IR temperatures (IRTs), surface topography of IRT field and the reconstructed IR images were studied. The results show that the IRT distribution follows the Gaussian distribution, and the R2 of Gaussian fitting changes along with the loading time. The abnormities of R2 and AE counts display the opposite variation trends. The surface topography of IRT field is similar to the hyperbolic paraboloid, which is related to the stress distribution in the sample. The R2 of hyperbolic paraboloid fitting presents an upward trend prior to the fracture which enables to change the IRT field significantly. This R2 has a sharp drop in response to this large destruction. The normalization images of IRT field, including the row and column normalization images, were proposed as auxiliary means to analyze the IRT field. The row and column normalization images respectively show the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the IRT field, and they have clear responses to the destruction occurring on the sample surface. In this paper, the new methods and quantitative index were proposed for the analysis of IRT field, which have some theoretical and instructive significance for the analysis of the characteristics of IRT field, as well as the monitoring of instability and failure for concrete structure.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Marcel; Lang, Walter; Dumstorff, Gerrit

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Reimers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  8. Path integral Liouville dynamics: Applications to infrared spectra of OH, water, ammonia, and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Path integral Liouville dynamics (PILD) is applied to vibrational dynamics of several simple but representative realistic molecular systems (OH, water, ammonia, and methane). The dipole-derivative autocorrelation function is employed to obtain the infrared spectrum as a function of temperature and isotopic substitution. Comparison to the exact vibrational frequency shows that PILD produces a reasonably accurate peak position with a relatively small full width at half maximum. PILD offers a potentially useful trajectory-based quantum dynamics approach to compute vibrational spectra of molecular systems

  9. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  10. Variational method for integrating radial gradient field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda-Saenz, Ricardo; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Rivera, Mariano; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    We propose a variational method for integrating information obtained from circular fringe pattern. The proposed method is a suitable choice for objects with radial symmetry. First, we analyze the information contained in the fringe pattern captured by the experimental setup and then move to formulate the problem of recovering the wavefront using techniques from calculus of variations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical experiments with both synthetic and real data.

  11. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  12. Feasibility of field portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine cyanide concentrations in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Fischer, Thomas; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In Germany, at more than 1000 sites, soil is polluted with an anthropogenic contaminant in form of iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations are caused by former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs), where electricity for lighting was produced in the process of coal gasification. The production of manufactured gas was restrained in 1950, which caused cessation of MGPs. Our study describes the application of Polychromix Handheld Field Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer to predict the cyanide concentrations in soil. In recent times, when the soil remediation is of major importance, there is a need to develop rapid and non-destructive methods for contaminant determination in the field. In situ analysis enables determination of 'hot spots', is cheap and time saving in comparison to laboratory methods. This paper presents a novel usage of NIR spectroscopy, where a calibration model was developed, using multivariate calibration algorithms, in order to determine NIR spectral response to the cyanide concentration in soil samples. As a control, the contaminant concentration was determined using conventional Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The experiments revealed that portable near-infrared spectrometers could be a reliable device for identification of contamination 'hot spots', where cyanide concentration are higher than 2400 mg kg-1 in the field and >1750 mg kg-1 after sample preparation in the laboratory, but cannot replace traditional laboratory analyses due to high limits of detection.

  13. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  14. Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared: progress and recent achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, M.; Barthelemy, E.; Bastard, L.; Broquin, J.-E.; Hawkins, G.; Kirschner, V.; Ménard, S.; Parent, G.; Poinsot, C.; Pradel, A.; Vigreux, C.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.

    2017-11-01

    The search for Earth-like exoplanets, orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than our Sun and showing biological activity, is one of the most exciting and challenging quests of the present time. Nulling interferometry from space, in the thermal infrared, appears as a promising candidate technique for the task of directly observing extra-solar planets. It has been studied for about 10 years by ESA and NASA in the framework of the Darwin and TPF-I missions respectively [1]. Nevertheless, nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared remains a technological challenge at several levels. Among them, the development of the "modal filter" function is mandatory for the filtering of the wavefronts in adequacy with the objective of rejecting the central star flux to an efficiency of about 105. Modal filtering [2] takes benefit of the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit a single amplitude function, to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible. The modal filter may either be based on single-mode Integrated Optics (IO) and/or Fiber Optics. In this paper, we focus on IO, and more specifically on the progress of the on-going "Integrated Optics" activity of the European Space Agency.

  15. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Architectures for Green-Field Supply Chain Integration: Supply Chain Integration Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radanliev, Petar

    2015-01-01

    This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply\\ud chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architect...

  17. Near-Infrared to Visible Organic Upconversion Devices Based on Organic Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongwei; Hu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Nan; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie; Guo, Xiaoyang; Fan, Yi; Luo, Jinsong; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-10-18

    The near-infrared (NIR) to visible upconversion devices have attracted great attention because of their potential applications in the fields of night vision, medical imaging, and military security. Herein, a novel all-organic upconversion device architecture has been first proposed and developed by incorporating a NIR absorption layer between the carrier transport layer and the emission layer in heterostructured organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). The as-prepared devices show a typical photon-to-photon upconversion efficiency as high as 7% (maximum of 28.7% under low incident NIR power intensity) and millisecond-scale response time, which are the highest upconversion efficiency and one of the fastest response time among organic upconversion devices as referred to the previous reports up to now. The high upconversion performance mainly originates from the gain mechanism of field-effect transistor structures and the unique advantage of OLEFETs to balance between the photodetection and light emission. Meanwhile, the strategy of OLEFETs also offers the advantage of high integration so that no extra OLED is needed in the organic upconversion devices. The results would pave way for low-cost, flexible and portable organic upconversion devices with high efficiency and simplified processing.

  18. DARKNESS: A Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Integral Field Spectrograph for High-contrast Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Seth R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Walter, Alex B.; Strader, Paschal; Fruitwala, Neelay; Bockstiegel, Clint; Szypryt, Paul; Ulbricht, Gerhard; Coiffard, Grégoire; Bumble, Bruce; Cancelo, Gustavo; Zmuda, Ted; Treptow, Ken; Wilcer, Neal; Collura, Giulia; Dodkins, Rupert; Lipartito, Isabel; Zobrist, Nicholas; Bottom, Michael; Shelton, J. Chris; Mawet, Dimitri; van Eyken, Julian C.; Vasisht, Gautam; Serabyn, Eugene

    2018-06-01

    We present DARKNESS (the DARK-speckle Near-infrared Energy-resolving Superconducting Spectrophotometer), the first of several planned integral field spectrographs to use optical/near-infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) for high-contrast imaging. The photon counting and simultaneous low-resolution spectroscopy provided by MKIDs will enable real-time speckle control techniques and post-processing speckle suppression at frame rates capable of resolving the atmospheric speckles that currently limit high-contrast imaging from the ground. DARKNESS is now operational behind the PALM-3000 extreme adaptive optics system and the Stellar Double Coronagraph at Palomar Observatory. Here, we describe the motivation, design, and characterization of the instrument, early on-sky results, and future prospects.

  19. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...... the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at http://califa.caha.es/DR1....

  20. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  1. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  3. INFRARED HIGH-RESOLUTION INTEGRATED LIGHT SPECTRAL ANALYSES OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS FROM APOGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakari, Charli M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-1580 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, HC75 Box 1337-MCD, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; García-Hernández, Domingo Aníbal [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Va Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Majewski, Steven; O’Connell, Robert W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Strader, Jay, E-mail: sakaricm@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 25 M31 globular clusters (GCs), based on moderately high resolution ( R = 22,500) H -band integrated light (IL) spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Infrared (IR) spectra offer lines from new elements, lines of different strengths, and lines at higher excitation potentials compared to the optical. Integrated abundances of C, N, and O are derived from CO, CN, and OH molecular features, while Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti abundances are derived from atomic features. These abundances are compared to previous results from the optical, demonstrating the validity and value of IR IL analyses. The CNO abundances are consistent with typical tip of the red giant branch stellar abundances but are systematically offset from optical Lick index abundances. With a few exceptions, the other abundances agree between the optical and the IR within the 1 σ uncertainties. The first integrated K abundances are also presented and demonstrate that K tracks the α elements. The combination of IR and optical abundances allows better determinations of GC properties and enables probes of the multiple populations in extragalactic GCs. In particular, the integrated effects of the Na/O anticorrelation can be directly examined for the first time.

  4. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  5. Innovative Magnetic-Field Array Probe for TRUST Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Despite all actions and concerns, this problem continues to escalate due to offshore fabrication of the integrated circuits ICs [1]. In order to...diagnosis and fault isolation in ICs, as well as the characterization of the functionality of ICs including malicious circuitry. Integrated circuits ...Innovative Magnetic-Field Array Probe for TRUST Integrated Circuits   contains the RF-switch matrix and broad-band (BB) low noise amplifiers (LNAs

  6. Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenglie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to…

  7. Ultradeep Near-Infrared ISAAC Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South: Observations, Reduction, Multicolor Catalog, and Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Rix, Hans-Walter; Moorwood, Alan; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Werf, Paul; Röttgering, Huub; van Starkenburg, Lottie; van der Wel, Arjen; Kuijken, Konrad; Daddi, Emanuele

    2003-03-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) Js-, H-, and Ks-band ISAAC imaging of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) field of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S). The 2.5‧×2.5‧ high Galactic latitude field was observed with the Very Large Telescope under the best seeing conditions, with integration times amounting to 33.6 hr in Js, 32.3 hr in H, and 35.6 hr in Ks. We reach total AB magnitudes for point sources of 26.8, 26.2, and 26.2, respectively (3 σ), which make it the deepest ground-based NIR observation to date and the deepest Ks-band data in any field. The effective seeing of the co-added images is ~0.45" in Js, ~0.48" in H, and ~0.46" in Ks. Using published WFPC2 optical data, we constructed a Ks-limited multicolor catalog containing 833 sources down to Ktots,AB2.3 (in Johnson magnitudes). Because they are extremely faint in the observed optical, they would be missed by ultraviolet-optical selection techniques, such as the U-dropout method. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612). Also based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Meola, Carosena; Di Maio, Rosa; Fedi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the integration of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for the inspection of architectonic structures. First, laboratory tests were carried out with both techniques by considering an ad hoc specimen made of concrete and with the insertion of anomalies of a different nature and at different depths. Such tests provided helpful information for ongoing inspections in situ, which were later performed in two important Italian archaeological sites, namely Pompeii (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration was devoted to the analysis of the wall paintings of Villa Imperiale with the aim of evaluating the state of conservation of frescoes as well of the underneath masonry structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allowed outlining some areas, which were damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials, and also for recognition of previous restoration. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the attention was driven towards the evaluation of the state of degradation of the theatre remnants. Our prospections show that the front side of the theatre, being more strongly affected by degradation, needs a massive restoration work. As a general result, we demonstrated that a joint interpretation of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data supplies detailed 3D information from near-surface to deep layers, which may assist in restoration planning

  9. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H 2 O and CH 4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51–054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f λ , so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH 3 . These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722–05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  10. Conformal field theories, Coulomb gas picture and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the links between some results of conformal field theory, the conventional Coulomb gas picture in statistical mechanics and the approach of integrable models. It is shown that families of conformal theories, related by the coset construction to the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra, may be regarded as obtained from some free field, and modified by the coupling of its winding numbers to floating charges. This representation reflects the procedure of restriction of the corresponding integrable lattice models. The work may be generalized to models based on the coset construction with higher rank algebras. The corresponding integrable models are identified. In the conformal field description, generalized parafermions appear, and are coupled to free fields living on a higher-dimensional torus. The analysis is not as exhaustive as in the SU(2) case: all the various restrictions have not been identified, nor the modular invariants completely classified

  11. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  12. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  13. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types ≥T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 μm (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541–2250, is the closest at 2.8 +1.3 –0.6 pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541–2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of ∼4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of these objects

  14. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  15. Inhomogeneous ozone doping and heat induced defects in graphene studied by infrared near-field microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Jiawei; Deng, Haiming; Liu, Megnkun; Xu, Du

    With the potential use of surface plasmon such as transfer data many orders faster than traditional wires, it has been very popular in research. The fact is that the wavelength of of plasmon is much shorter than the one of free space radiation. The UV ozone doping level can be fine controlled in room temperature creating selected plasmon circuit. We study inhomogeneous graphene plasmonics in ozone doped graphene using scattering-type scanning near-field infrared microscopy and spectroscopy. The single layer and bilayer graphene are doped with different dosage of ozone under UV exposure, which lead to surface inhomogeneity and inhomogeneous graphene plasmon polarition excitation under tip. After annealing the ozone doped graphene in air, the inhomogeneous doping induced plasmons disappear, together with the occurrence of local defects after high temperature annealing.

  16. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Nathaniel J; Saucedo, Celeste L; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-03-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells. Previous research found that transcranial infrared laser stimulation aimed at the prefrontal cortex can improve sustained attention, short-term memory, and executive function. In this study, we directly investigated the influence of transcranial infrared laser stimulation on two neurobiologically dissociable systems of category learning: a prefrontal cortex mediated reflective system that learns categories using explicit rules, and a striatally mediated reflexive learning system that forms gradual stimulus-response associations. Participants (n=118) received either active infrared laser to the lateral prefrontal cortex or sham (placebo) stimulation, and then learned one of two category structures-a rule-based structure optimally learned by the reflective system, or an information-integration structure optimally learned by the reflexive system. We found that prefrontal rule-based learning was substantially improved following transcranial infrared laser stimulation as compared to placebo (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 298)=5.117, p=0.024), while information-integration learning did not show significant group differences (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 288)=1.633, p=0.202). These results highlight the exciting potential of transcranial infrared laser stimulation for cognitive enhancement and provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of category learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE WIDE-FIELD IMAGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Cooray, A.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Smidt, J. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Lam, A. C.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, K. [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies to a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.

  18. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  19. Discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variables with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Langer, N.; Stringfellow, G. S.; Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Grebel, E. K.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    We report the discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) stars via detection of circular shells (typical of confirmed and candidate LBVs) and follow-up spectroscopy of their central stars. The shells were detected at 22 μm in the archival data of the Mid-Infrared All Sky Survey carried out with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Follow-up optical spectroscopy of the central stars of the shells conducted with the renewed Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) showed that their spectra are very similar to those of the well-known LBVs P Cygni and AG Car, and the recently discovered candidate LBV MN112, which implies the LBV classification for these stars as well. The LBV classification of both stars is supported by detection of their significant photometric variability: one of them brightened in the R and I bands by 0.68 ± 0.10 and 0.61 ± 0.04 mag, respectively, during the last 13-18 years, while the second one (known as Hen 3-1383) varies its B, V, R, I and Ks brightnesses by ≃0.5-0.9 mag on time-scales from 10 d to decades. We also found significant changes in the spectrum of Hen 3-1383 on a time-scale of ≃3 months, which provides additional support for the LBV classification of this star. Further spectrophotometric monitoring of both stars is required to firmly prove their LBV status. We discuss a connection between the location of massive stars in the field and their fast rotation, and suggest that the LBV activity of the newly discovered candidate LBVs might be directly related to their possible runaway status. a USNO B-1 (Monet et al. 2003); bDENIS; c2MASS; dSALT; ePROMPT.

  20. Thermal Field Analysis and Simulation of an Infrared Belt Furnace Used for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During solar cell firing, volatile organic compounds (VOC and a small number of metal particles were removed using the gas flow. When the gas flow was disturbed by the thermal field of infrared belt furnace and structure, the metal particles in the discharging gas flow randomly adhered to the surface of solar cell, possibly causing contamination. Meanwhile, the gas flow also affected the thermal uniformity of the solar cell. In this paper, the heating mechanism of the solar cell caused by radiation, convection, and conduction during firing was analyzed. Afterward, four 2-dimensional (2D models of the furnace were proposed. The transient thermal fields with different gas inlets, outlets, and internal structures were simulated. The thermal fields and the temperature of the solar cell could remain stable and uniform when the gas outlets were installed at the ends and in the middle of the furnace, with the gas inlets being distributed evenly. To verify the results, we produced four types of furnaces according to the four simulated results. The experimental results indicated that the thermal distribution of the furnace and the characteristics of the solar cells were consistent with the simulation. These experiments improved the efficiency of the solar cells while optimizing the solar cell manufacturing equipment.

  1. Band Gap Distortion in Semiconductors Strongly Driven by Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, J.; Chin, A. H.

    2000-03-01

    Crystalline solids non-resonantly driven by intense time-periodic electric fields are predicted to exhibit unusual band-gap distortion.(e.g., Y. Yacoby, Phys. Rev. 169, 610 (1968); L.C.M. Miranda, Solid State Commun. 45, 783 (1983); J.Z. Kaminski, Acta Physica Polonica A 83, 495(1993).) Such non-perturbative effects have not been observed to date because of the unavoidable sample damage due to the very high intensity required using conventional lasers ( 1 eV photon energy). Here, we report the first clear evidence of laser-induced bandgap shrinkage in semiconductors under intense mid-infrared (MIR) laser fields. The use of long-wavelength light reduces the required intensity and prohibits strong interband absorption, thereby avoiding the damage problem. The significant sub-bandgap absorption persists only during the existence of the MIR laser pulse, indicating the virtual nature of the effect. We show that this particular example of non-perturbative behavior, known as the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect, occurs when the effective ponderomotive potential energy is comparable to the photon energy of the applied field. This work was supported by ONR, NSF, JST and NEDO.

  2. Calculation Of Multicenter Electric Field Integrals Over Slater Type Orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaim, N.

    2010-01-01

    Using the properties of complete orthonormal sets of Ψ α -exponential type orbitals (α1,0,-1,-2, ...) and the relations for overlap integrals, the calculations for the multicenter electric field integrals of Slater type orbitals are performed. The results of computer calculations are presented. The convergence of the series is tested by calculating concrete cases for the arbitrary values of quantum numbers, orbital parameters and internuclear distances.

  3. Development of integrated platform based on chalcogenides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, Aldo; Bodiou, Loïc.; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Baudet, Emeline; Baillieul, Marion; Hardy, Isabelle; Caillaud, Celine; Colas, Florent; Boukerma, Kada; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Michel, Karine; Bureau, Bruno; Nazabal, Virginie; Charrier, Joël.

    2018-03-01

    Mid-Infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, spanning from 2 μm to 20 μm, is ideal for chemical sensing using spectroscopy thanks to the presence of vibrational absorption bands of many liquid and gas substances in this wavelength range. Indeed, mid-IR spectroscopy allows simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis by, respectively, identifying molecules from their spectral signature and relating the concentrations of different chemical agents to their absorption coefficient according to Beer-Lambert law. In the last years, photonic integrated sensors based on mid-IR spectroscopy have emerged as a cheap, accurate, and compact solution that would enable continuous real-time on-site diagnostics and monitoring of molecular species without the need to collect samples for off-site measurements. Here, we report the design, processing and characterization of a photonic integrated transducer based on selenide ridge waveguides. Evanescent wave detection of chemical substances in liquid phase (isopropyl alcohol, C3H8O, and acetic acid, C2H4O2, both dissolved in cyclohexane) is presented using their absorption at a wavelength of 7.7 μm.

  4. Integral parameters of crystal field for RE spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustov, E.F.; Maketov, T.K.; Prgevudsky, A.K.; Steczko, G.

    1980-01-01

    The integral parameters of the crystal field are introduced for the interpretation of the spectra of RE ions in various crystals. The main formula of the method, the expression of the parameters for various states of Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Er, Tu, and Yb are determined. Integral parameters of A 2 , A 4 , A 6 and parameter of the spin-orbit interaction xi are calculated for 40 laser crystals with Nd, Er. An interpretation of the symmetry of the Eu 3+ centres of the NaBaZn silicate glass is given using integral parameters A 2 , A 4 . (author)

  5. Infrared Thermography Approach for Effective Shielding Area of Field Smoke Based on Background Subtraction and Transmittance Interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Runze; Zhang, Tonglai; Chen, Yongpeng; Liang, Hao; Li, Bingyang; Zhou, Zunning

    2018-05-06

    Effective shielding area is a crucial indicator for the evaluation of the infrared smoke-obscuring effectiveness on the battlefield. The conventional methods for assessing the shielding area of the smoke screen are time-consuming and labor intensive, in addition to lacking precision. Therefore, an efficient and convincing technique for testing the effective shielding area of the smoke screen has great potential benefits in the smoke screen applications in the field trial. In this study, a thermal infrared sensor with a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) range of 3 to 5 μm was first used to capture the target scene images through clear as well as obscuring smoke, at regular intervals. The background subtraction in motion detection was then applied to obtain the contour of the smoke cloud at each frame. The smoke transmittance at each pixel within the smoke contour was interpolated based on the data that was collected from the image. Finally, the smoke effective shielding area was calculated, based on the accumulation of the effective shielding pixel points. One advantage of this approach is that it utilizes only one thermal infrared sensor without any other additional equipment in the field trial, which significantly contributes to the efficiency and its convenience. Experiments have been carried out to demonstrate that this approach can determine the effective shielding area of the field infrared smoke both practically and efficiently.

  6. Infrared Thermography Approach for Effective Shielding Area of Field Smoke Based on Background Subtraction and Transmittance Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runze Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective shielding area is a crucial indicator for the evaluation of the infrared smoke-obscuring effectiveness on the battlefield. The conventional methods for assessing the shielding area of the smoke screen are time-consuming and labor intensive, in addition to lacking precision. Therefore, an efficient and convincing technique for testing the effective shielding area of the smoke screen has great potential benefits in the smoke screen applications in the field trial. In this study, a thermal infrared sensor with a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR range of 3 to 5 μm was first used to capture the target scene images through clear as well as obscuring smoke, at regular intervals. The background subtraction in motion detection was then applied to obtain the contour of the smoke cloud at each frame. The smoke transmittance at each pixel within the smoke contour was interpolated based on the data that was collected from the image. Finally, the smoke effective shielding area was calculated, based on the accumulation of the effective shielding pixel points. One advantage of this approach is that it utilizes only one thermal infrared sensor without any other additional equipment in the field trial, which significantly contributes to the efficiency and its convenience. Experiments have been carried out to demonstrate that this approach can determine the effective shielding area of the field infrared smoke both practically and efficiently.

  7. Invariant hyperplanes and Darboux integrability of polynomial vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiang

    2002-01-01

    This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we provide an upper bound for the number of invariant hyperplanes of the polynomial vector fields in n variables. This result generalizes those given in Artes et al (1998 Pac. J. Math. 184 207-30) and Llibre and Rodriguez (2000 Bull. Sci. Math. 124 599-619). The second part gives an extension of the Darboux theory of integrability to polynomial vector fields on algebraic varieties

  8. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • The electron-impurity interaction on energy levels in nanoring have been investigated. • The electron-impurity interaction on far-infrared absorption have been investigated. • The energy levels are more stable for higher values of electric field. - Abstract: The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  9. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  10. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE IRAC DARK FIELD. II. MID-INFRARED SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J. L.; Gorjian, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) luminosities, star formation rates (SFR), colors, morphologies, locations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) properties of 24 μm detected sources in photometrically detected high-redshift clusters in order to understand the impact of environment on star formation (SF) and AGN evolution in cluster galaxies. We use three newly identified z = 1 clusters selected from the IRAC dark field; the deepest ever mid-IR survey with accompanying, 14 band multiwavelength data including deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging and deep wide-area Spitzer MIPS 24 μm imaging. We find 90 cluster members with MIPS detections within two virial radii of the cluster centers, of which 17 appear to have spectral energy distributions dominated by AGNs and the rest dominated by SF. We find that 43% of the star-forming sample have IR luminosities L IR > 10 11 L sun (luminous IR galaxies). The majority of sources (81%) are spirals or irregulars. A large fraction (at least 25%) show obvious signs of interactions. The MIPS-detected member galaxies have varied spatial distributions as compared to the MIPS-undetected members with one of the three clusters showing SF galaxies being preferentially located on the cluster outskirts, while the other two clusters show no such trend. Both the AGN fraction and the summed SFR of cluster galaxies increase from redshift zero to one, at a rate that is a few times faster in clusters than over the same redshift range in the field. Cluster environment does have an effect on the evolution of both AGN fraction and SFR from redshift one to the present, but does not affect the IR luminosities or morphologies of the MIPS sample. SF happens in the same way regardless of environment making MIPS sources look the same in the cluster and field, however the cluster environment does encourage a more rapid evolution with time as compared to the field.

  11. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  12. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  13. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio.

    1993-09-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 μm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ∼10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ∼5% and ∼15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ∼30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ∼90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M). (author)

  15. The quantum double in integrable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.; LeClair, A.

    1993-01-01

    Various aspects of recent works on affine quantum group symmetry of integrable 2D quantum field theory are reviewed and further clarified. A geometrical meaning is given to the quantum double, and other properties of quantum groups. The S-matrix is identified with the universal R-matrix. Multiplicative presentations of the yangian double are analyzed. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation Of Farmer Field School On Integrated Pest | Rustum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed to explore the quality of the program implementation of the Integrated Pest Management Field Farmer School (IPMFFS) (in Indonesian ... quantity (3) participate agricultural extension, (4) remedial practice, (5) insight development, (6) motivation establishment, (7) the readiness of the participants, ...

  17. Effect of integrated pest management farmer field school (IPMFFS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to explore the effect of the Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School (IPMFFS), on farmer knowledge, farmer group's ability, process of adoption and diffusion of IPM in Jember district. The population of the research was 556 farmer groups consisting of 22.240 farmers engaged in the IPMFFS in ...

  18. Classically integrable boundary conditions for affine Toda field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowcock, P.; Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.; Rietdijk, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Boundary conditions compatible with classical integrability are studied both directly, using an approach based on the explicit construction of conserved quantities, and indirectly by first developing a generalisation of the Lax pair idea. The latter approach is closer to the spirit of earlier work by Sklyanin and yields a complete set of conjectures for permissible boundary conditions for any affine Toda field theory. (orig.)

  19. Integrating nature, culture, and society: the concept of landscape field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva; Rikoon, S.; Maxa, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2001), s. 125-138 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : landscape field * nature culture integration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  20. Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1996-01-01

    We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

  1. Non-integrable quantum field theories as perturbations of certain integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, G.; Simonetti, P.

    1996-03-01

    We approach the study of non-integrable models of two-dimensional quantum field theory as perturbations of the integrable ones. By exploiting the knowledge of the exact S-matrix and Form Factors of the integrable field theories we obtain the first order corrections to the mass ratios, the vacuum energy density and the S-matrix of the non-integrable theories. As interesting applications of the formalism, we study the scaling region of the Ising model in an external magnetic field at T ∼ T c and the scaling region around the minimal model M 2 , τ . For these models, a remarkable agreement is observed between the theoretical predictions and the data extracted by a numerical diagonalization of their Hamiltonian. (author). 41 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  2. Infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in graphene layer infrared photodetectors integrated with LEDs based on van der Waals heterostructures: Concept, device model, and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Shur, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose the concept of the infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in the devices using the integration of the graphene layer infrared detectors (GLIPs) and the light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Using the developed device model of the GLIP-LEDs, we calculate their characteristics. The GLIP-LED devices can operate as the detectors of far- and mid infrared radiation (FIR and MIR) with an electrical output or with near-infrared radiation (NIR) or visible radiation (VIR) output. In the latter case, GLIP-LED devices function as the photon energy up-converters of FIR and MIR to NIR or VIR. The operation of GLIP-LED devices is associated with the injection of the electron photocurrent produced due to the interband absorption of the FIR/MIR photons in the GLIP part into the LED emitting NIR/VIR photons. We calculate the GLIP-LED responsivity and up-conversion efficiency as functions the structure parameters and the energies of the incident FIR/MIR photons and the output NIR/VIR photons. The advantages of the GLs in the vdW heterostructures (relatively high photoexcitation rate from and low capture efficiency into GLs) combined with the reabsorption of a fraction of the NIR/FIR photon flux in the GLIP (which can enable an effective photonic feedback) result in the elevated GLIP-LED device responsivity and up-conversion efficiency. The positive optical feedback from the LED section of the device lead to increasing current injection enabling the appearance of the S-type current-voltage characteristic with a greatly enhanced responsivity near the switching point and current filamentation.

  3. Perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED with infrared divergences regularized by residual gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    2006-01-01

    We construct a new perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED in which the inherent infrared divergences are regularized by residual gauge fields. For this purpose, we carry out our calculations in the coordinates x μ =(x + , x - , x 1 , x 2 ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 3 cosθ and x - = x 0 cosθ - x 3 sinθ. Here, A=A 0 cosθ + A 3 sinθ = n·A=0 is taken as the gauge fixing condition. We show in detail that, in perturbation theory, infrared divergences resulting from the residual gauge fields cancel infrared divergences resulting from the physical parts of the gauge field. As a result, we obtain the gauge field propagator proposed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. By taking the limit θ→π/4, we are able to construct a light-cone formulation that is free from infrared divergences. With that analysis complete, we next calculate the one-loop electron self-energy, something not previously done in the light-cone quantization and light-cone gauge. (author)

  4. Gravitational field strength and generalized Komar-integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, W.

    1984-01-01

    We define a 'gravitational field strength' in theories of the Einstein-Cartan type admitting a Killing-vector. This field strength is a second rank, antisymmetric, divergence-free tensor, whose ('Komar-') integral over a closed 2-surface gives a physically meaningful quantity. We find conditions on the Lagrange-density of the theory which ensure the existence of such a tensor, and show that they are satisfied for N = 2-supergravity and for a special case of the bosonic sector of N = 4-supergravity. We discuss a possible application of the generalized Komar-integral in the theory of stationary black holes. We also consider the Kaluza-Klein-approach to the 'field-strength-problem', which turns out to be particularly rewarding in the application to black holes. (Author)

  5. Integral methods of active infrared thermography; Integrale Verfahren der aktiven Infrarotthermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    Non-destructive evaluation is a task of utmost importance for both, the economic point of view and to guarantee the required safety and reliability of technical systems. Thermography is a fast and contactless technique which received continued attention not least through the significant price drop at the infrared camera market. It is typically used to detect near-surface defects which are expanded parallel to the surface. This thesis deals with two non-standard inspection tasks. With the weld lens diameter of spot welds, a feature in the sample's geometrical center is indirectly sized by flash thermography. The presented method is suitable to distinguish typical error classes like stick welds or expulsions. This fact is validated by statistical evaluations of thermographic and destructive test series. As an example for perpendicularly oriented imperfections, surface cracks are investigated, which can be a major problem at welding seams. A technique for detecting cracks entirely based on commercially available equipment is developed. In addition, the accessibility of geometric characteristics of cracks was examined by experiments and FEM-simulations. Similar to the method developed for assessing spot welds, an approach based on the analysis of spatial and temporal integral quantities which depend on the thermal resistance is used. In doing so, the simultaneous determination of crack angle and depth is possible.

  6. ON THE NEAR-INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTEGRAL SOURCE IGR J16328–4726

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persi, P.; Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Parisi, P. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, Via fosso del cavaliere, 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Tapia, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Roth, M., E-mail: paolo.persi@iaps.inaf.it [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this work is to identify the infrared (IR) counterpart of the Galactic high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16328–4726 discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and to derive the extinction and distance to the system. We present new deep sub-arcsecond JHK{sub s} imaging and low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy in the 1.5 and 2.4 μm range of IGR J16328–4726. We report the presence of two near-IR stellar sources separated by about 1.″8 at the location of the unresolved 2MASS source J16323791–4723409, previously considered to be the near-IR counterpart of the X-ray source. From the analysis of their near-IR colors and spectra as well as accurate positions, we uniquely identify the true IR counterpart of IGR J16328–4726. Our 1.5–2.4 μm spectrum of this star is consistent with the published classification O8Iafpe. Assuming this, and in combination with new JHK{sub s} photometry, a reddening A{sub V} = 23.6 ± 0.7 and a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun are derived.

  7. Design and implementation of Gm-APD array readout integrated circuit for infrared 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-xia; Yang, Jun-hao; Liu, Zhao; Dong, Huai-peng; Wu, Jin; Sun, Wei-feng

    2013-09-01

    A single-photon detecting array of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) capable of infrared 3D imaging by photon detection and time-of-flight measurement is presented in this paper. The InGaAs avalanche photon diodes (APD) dynamic biased under Geiger operation mode by gate controlled active quenching circuit (AQC) are used here. The time-of-flight is accurately measured by a high accurate time-to-digital converter (TDC) integrated in the ROIC. For 3D imaging, frame rate controlling technique is utilized to the pixel's detection, so that the APD related to each pixel should be controlled by individual AQC to sense and quench the avalanche current, providing a digital CMOS-compatible voltage pulse. After each first sense, the detector is reset to wait for next frame operation. We employ counters of a two-segmental coarse-fine architecture, where the coarse conversion is achieved by a 10-bit pseudo-random linear feedback shift register (LFSR) in each pixel and a 3-bit fine conversion is realized by a ring delay line shared by all pixels. The reference clock driving the LFSR counter can be generated within the ring delay line Oscillator or provided by an external clock source. The circuit is designed and implemented by CSMC 0.5μm standard CMOS technology and the total chip area is around 2mm×2mm for 8×8 format ROIC with 150μm pixel pitch. The simulation results indicate that the relative time resolution of the proposed ROIC can achieve less than 1ns, and the preliminary test results show that the circuit function is correct.

  8. Synergistic Use of Thermal Infrared Field and Satellite Data: Eruption Detection, Monitoring and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ASTER-based observational success of active volcanic processes early in the Terra mission later gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER scenes following an eruption and perform the ground-based science needed to validate that data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER visible and thermal infrared (TIR) data are being acquired at numerous active volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many new targets such as Mt. Etna, the URP has increased the observational frequency by as much 50%. Examples of these datasets will be presented, which have been used for operational response to new eruptions as well as longer-term scientific studies. These studies include emplacement of new lava flows, detection of endogenous dome growth, and interpretation of hazardous dome collapse events. As a means to validate the ASTER TIR data and capture higher-resolution images, a new ground-based sensor has recently been developed that consists of standard FLIR camera modified with wavelength filters similar to the ASTER bands. Data from this instrument have been acquired of the lava lake at Kilauea and reveal differences in emissivity between molten and cooled surfaces confirming prior laboratory results and providing important constraints on lava

  9. Predicting Canopy Temperatures without and with Infrared Heating of Open-Field Plots and Energy Requirements for such Infrared Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the likely effect of global warming on agricultural productivity while avoiding experimental artifacts, there is a need to conduct warming research under conditions as representative as possible of future open fields, i.e., temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) e...

  10. The integrable structure of nonrational conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytsko, A. [Steklov Mathematics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Using the example of Liouville theory, we show how the separation into left- and rightmoving degrees of freedom of a nonrational conformal field theory can be made explicit in terms of its integrable structure. The key observation is that there exist separate Baxter Q-operators for left- and right-moving degrees of freedom. Combining a study of the analytic properties of the Q-operators with Sklyanin's Separation of Variables Method leads to a complete characterization of the spectrum. Taking the continuum limit allows us in particular to rederive the Liouville reflection amplitude using only the integrable structure. (orig.)

  11. Infrared Selection of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Juneau, Stéphanie; da Cunha, Elisabete; Salvato, Mara; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Ilbert, Olivier; Toba, Yoshiki; Lim, Chen-Fatt; Tang, Ji-Jia; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferraro, Nicholas; Urry, Megan C.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of the connection among black hole accretion, star formation, and galaxy morphology at z≤slant 2.5. We focus on active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by their mid-IR power-law emission. By fitting optical to far-IR photometry with state-of-the-art spectral energy distribution (SED) techniques, we derive stellar masses, star formation rates, dust properties, and AGN contributions in galaxies over the whole COSMOS field. We find that obscured AGNs lie within or slightly above the star-forming sequence. We confirm our previous finding about compact host galaxies of obscured AGNs at z˜ 1, and find that galaxies with 20%-50% AGN contributions tend to have smaller sizes, by ˜25%-50%, compared to galaxies without AGNs. Furthermore, we find that a high merger fraction of up to 0.5 is appropriate for the most luminous ({log}({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )˜ 12.5) AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies, but not for the whole obscured AGN sample. Moreover, the merger fraction depends on the total and star-forming IR luminosity, rather than on the decomposed AGN infrared luminosity. Our results suggest that major mergers are not the main driver of AGN activity, and therefore obscured AGNs might be triggered by internal mechanisms, such as secular processes, disk instabilities, and compaction in a particular evolutionary stage. We make the SED modeling results publicly available.

  12. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF YOUNG FIELD ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allers, K. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Liu, Michael C., E-mail: k.allers@bucknell.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth ( Almost-Equal-To 10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R {approx}> 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of {approx}10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications.

  13. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  14. Tunable magnetization of infrared epsilon-near-zero media via field-effect modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that field effect modulation enables electrical tuning of the effective permeability of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media at infrared frequencies. In particular, hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) is incorporated as an epsilon-near-zero host in a gated 6H-SiC/SiO2/Si heterostructure. The change in the applied voltage leads to a change in the carrier concentration of the accumulation layer formed at the interface of 6H-SiC and SiO2 which can alter the effective permeability of the heterostructure by virtue of the photonic doping effect. We will rigorously model and analyze the structure by linking charge transport and electromagnetic models. The presented mechanism allows for tuning the impedance and magnetization of ENZ materials in real-time while capturing extreme cases of epsilon-and-mu-near-zero and magnetic conductor. As such, it can be used for various applications such as real-time engineering of thermal emission, dynamic switching, reconfigurable tunneling, and holography.

  15. New twistorial integral formulas for massless free fields of arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A manifestly scaling-invariant version of the Kirchoff-D'Adhemar-Penrose field integrals is presented. The invariant integral expressions for the spinning massless free fields are directly transcribed into the framework of twistor theory. It is then shown that the resulting twistorial field integrals can be thought of as being equivalent to the universal Penrose contour integral formulas for these fields

  16. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory to Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L.; Mustard, J.; McAfee, J.; Hapke, B.; Ramsey, M.

    2002-12-01

    Visible-infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing compositional discoveries in the solar system. A primary goal of the Mars visible-infrared spectral community is to provide information to enhance the exploration of Mars. We are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions every ~2 years. It is critical that each mission provide information to optimize the success of the next mission. That will not occur effectively unless the data can be analyzed on a ~2-year rate. Our current knowledge of spectral properties of materials and effects of the natural environment are not sufficient for the accurate interpretations needed for such time critical objectives. Relevant instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA and PFS, 2003 MER Pancam and Mini-TES, and the 2005 CRISM. Two critical gaps that cannot be filled by individual researchers alone exist in moving toward the goal of rapid and accurate analysis. These are in coordinated "end-to-end" field testing and public spectral libraries. Three related gaps are in data from terrestrial sites to aid interpretations of the orbited spectrometers, lack of high quality development data to support landers, and delays in funding non-flight team members owing to lack of coordination between research and analysis proposal dues dates and mission data releases. A detailed discussion of the each of these areas is in a workshop report through the web site below. The two critical gaps are summarized below. Field Testing. Field/rover, airborne/satellite, and telescopic measurements are sensitive to very different effects, and these differ from those present in the lab. Thus a convincing determination of uncertainties requires demonstration through coordinated "end-to-end" field testing, using: (1) Data sets of appropriate terrestrial analog sites that are measured with both geometric and spectral fidelity as close as possible to flight instruments; (2) Interpretation as applied to data of Mars; (3

  17. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence

  18. Ensuring validity of radiometric temperature measurements obtained in the field using infrared imagers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available When a military aircraft becomes the target of an approaching infrared seeker missile, it relies on infrared counter-measures to serve as decoys and to confuse the missile. The Optronic Sensor Systems (OSS) group at CSIR-DPSS is involved in computer...

  19. A new device for production measurements of field integral and field direction of SC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissner, H.; Bouchard, R.; Luethke, P.; Makulski, A.; Meinke, R.; Nesteruk, K.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of all superconducting magnets for HERA is tested in the DESY magnet test facility and their magnetic field is measured. For dipole magnets the magnitude and the direction of the field is measured point by point along the axis with a mole-type probe which is transported through the beam pipe. The positioning of the probe is done via a toothed belt with an accuracy of 1 mm. The probe houses two Hall probes perpendicular to each other, a gravitational tilt sensor and an NMR probe. The field in the plateau is measured by NMR, the fringe field is measured by the Hall probes and the field direction relative to gravity is obtained from the ratio of the two Hall voltages and the tilt sensor. The field integral is determined with an accuracy of 10 -4 and the average field direction is measured with an accuracy of 0.2 mrad. 4 refs., 4 figs

  20. 28.3THz bowtie antenna integrated rectifier for infrared energy harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Gadalla, Mena N.

    2014-10-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of an asymmetric 28.3 THz antenna integrated rectifier (rectenna) using Au/Al2O3/Pt is presented. The rectenna design comprises a sharp tip bowtie antenna and a tunneling Metal-insulator-Metal (MIM) diode. The design benefits from the geometric field enhancement around the nano tips of the bowtie antenna. Simultaneous optimization of the antenna\\'s length and flare angle resulted in a relative intensity enhancement of 104 for a 10 nm gap. In order to benefit from the field enhancement, the THz diode is realized through the overlap of the bowtie sharp tips exactly at the hot spot. Dissimilar electrodes are used to allow THz signals rectification at zero bias, which is critical for energy harvesting applications. The rectenna exhibits a zero bias responsivity of 10 A/W. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  1. Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

  2. LRS2: A New Integral Field Spectrograph for the HET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Tonnesen, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present LRS2 (Low Resolution Spectrograph) and highlight early science opportunities with the newly upgraded Hobby Eberly telescope (HET). LRS2 is a four-channel optical wavelength (370nm - 1micron) spectrograph based on two VIRUS unit spectrographs. This fiber-fed integral field spectrograph covers a 12" x 6" field of view, switched between the two units (one blue, and one red) at R~2000. We highlight design elements, including the fundamental modification to grisms (from VPH gratings in VIRUS) to access the higher resolution. We discuss early science opportunities, including investigating nearby "blue-bulge" spiral galaxies and their anomalous star formation distribution.

  3. AN ORDERED MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK OF AB Aur REVEALED BY MID-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan; Pantin, Eric; Telesco, Charles M.; Zhang, Han; Barnes, Peter J.; Mariñas, Naibí [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, FL 32611 (United States); Wright, Christopher M. [School of Physical, Environmental, and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Packham, Chris, E-mail: d.li@ufl.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Magnetic fields ( B -fields) play a key role in the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks, but their properties are poorly understood due to the lack of observational constraints. Using CanariCam at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, we have mapped out the mid-infrared polarization of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star AB Aur. We detect ∼0.44% polarization at 10.3 μ m from AB Aur's inner disk ( r  < 80 au), rising to ∼1.4% at larger radii. Our simulations imply that the mid-infrared polarization of the inner disk arises from dichroic emission of elongated particles aligned in a disk B -field. The field is well ordered on a spatial scale, commensurate with our resolution (∼50 au), and we infer a poloidal shape tilted from the rotational axis of the disk. The disk of AB Aur is optically thick at 10.3 μ m, so polarimetry at this wavelength is probing the B -field near the disk surface. Our observations therefore confirm that this layer, favored by some theoretical studies for developing magneto-rotational instability and its resultant viscosity, is indeed very likely to be magnetized. At radii beyond ∼80 au, the mid-infrared polarization results primarily from scattering by dust grains with sizes up to ∼1 μ m, a size indicating both grain growth and, probably, turbulent lofting of the particles from the disk mid-plane.

  4. The hippocampus facilitates integration within a symbolic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, John Thor

    2017-10-01

    This paper attempts to elaborate a fundamental brain mechanism involved in the creation and maintenance of symbolic fields of thought. It will integrate theories of psychic spaces as explored by Donald Winnicott and Wilfred Bion with the neuroscientific examinations of those with bilateral hippocampal injury to show how evidence from both disciplines sheds important light on this aspect of mind. Possibly originating as a way of maintaining an oriented, first person psychic map, this capacity allows individuals a dynamic narrative access to a realm of layered elements and their connections. If the proposed hypothesis is correct, the hippocampus facilitates the integration of this symbolic field of mind, where narrative forms of thinking, creativity, memory, and dreaming are intertwined. Without the hippocampus, there is an inability to engage many typical forms of thought itself. Also, noting the ways these individuals are not impaired supports theories about other faculties of mind, providing insight into their possible roles within human thought. The evidence of different systems working in conjunction with the symbolic field provides tantalizing clues about these fundamental mechanisms of brain and mind that are normally seamlessly integrated, and hints at future areas of clinical and laboratory research, both within neuroscience and psychoanalysis. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (u-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 micromillimeter wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 square cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for Micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its twodimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. A point design with resolving power of 257, an RMS phase error less than 0.1 radians and four stigmatic points was developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  6. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  7. The second Herschel-ATLAS Data Release - III. Optical and near-infrared counterparts in the North Galactic Plane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, C.; Dye, S.; Bourne, N.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Valiante, E.; Smith, M. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper forms part of the second major public data release of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical and near-infrared counterparts to the submillimetre detected sources in the 177 deg2 North Galactic Plane (NGP) field. We used the likelihood ratio method to identify counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Imaging Deep Sky Survey within a search radius of 10 arcsec of the H-ATLAS sources with a 4σ detection at 250 μm. We obtained reliable (R ≥ 0.8) optical counterparts with r performance of the likelihood ratio method to identify optical and near-infrared counterparts taking into account the depth and area of both input catalogues. Using catalogues with the same surface density of objects in the overlapping ˜25 deg2 area, we obtained that the reliable fraction in the near-infrared (54.8 per cent) is significantly higher than in the optical (36.4 per cent). Finally, using deep radio data which covers a small region of the NGP field, we found that 80-90 per cent of our reliable identifications are correct.

  8. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-01-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K s images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  9. Field Method for Integrating the First Order Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; ZHENG Shi-wang; ZHANG Yao-yu

    2007-01-01

    An important modern method in analytical mechanics for finding the integral, which is called the field-method, is used to research the solution of a differential equation of the first order. First, by introducing an intermediate variable, a more complicated differential equation of the first order can be expressed by two simple differential equations of the first order, then the field-method in analytical mechanics is introduced for solving the two differential equations of the first order. The conclusion shows that the field-method in analytical mechanics can be fully used to find the solutions of a differential equation of the first order, thus a new method for finding the solutions of the first order is provided.

  10. Neural Circuit to Integrate Opposing Motions in the Visual Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Alex S; Pankova, Katarina; Arenz, Alexander; Nern, Aljoscha; Rubin, Gerald M; Borst, Alexander

    2015-07-16

    When navigating in their environment, animals use visual motion cues as feedback signals that are elicited by their own motion. Such signals are provided by wide-field neurons sampling motion directions at multiple image points as the animal maneuvers. Each one of these neurons responds selectively to a specific optic flow-field representing the spatial distribution of motion vectors on the retina. Here, we describe the discovery of a group of local, inhibitory interneurons in the fruit fly Drosophila key for filtering these cues. Using anatomy, molecular characterization, activity manipulation, and physiological recordings, we demonstrate that these interneurons convey direction-selective inhibition to wide-field neurons with opposite preferred direction and provide evidence for how their connectivity enables the computation required for integrating opposing motions. Our results indicate that, rather than sharpening directional selectivity per se, these circuit elements reduce noise by eliminating non-specific responses to complex visual information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Entanglement entropy of non-unitary integrable quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bianchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the simplest massive 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theory which can be described as a perturbation of a non-unitary minimal conformal field theory: the Lee–Yang model. We are particularly interested in the features of the bi-partite entanglement entropy for this model and on building blocks thereof, namely twist field form factors. Non-unitarity selects out a new type of twist field as the operator whose two-point function (appropriately normalized yields the entanglement entropy. We compute this two-point function both from a form factor expansion and by means of perturbed conformal field theory. We find good agreement with CFT predictions put forward in a recent work involving the present authors. In particular, our results are consistent with a scaling of the entanglement entropy given by ceff3log⁡ℓ where ceff is the effective central charge of the theory (a positive number related to the central charge and ℓ is the size of the region. Furthermore the form factor expansion of twist fields allows us to explore the large region limit of the entanglement entropy and find the next-to-leading order correction to saturation. We find that this correction is very different from its counterpart in unitary models. Whereas in the latter case, it had a form depending only on few parameters of the model (the particle spectrum, it appears to be much more model-dependent for non-unitary models.

  12. Poloidal magnetic field profile measurements on the microwave tokamak experiment using far-infrared polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The measurement of plasma poloidal magnetic field (B) profiles in tokamaks with good temporal and spatial resolution has proven to be a difficult but important measurement. A large range of toroidal confinement phenomena is expected to depend sensitively on the radial variation of B including the tearing instability, sawtooth oscillations, disruptions, and transport. Experimental confirmation of theoretical models describing these phenomena has been hampered by the lack of detailed B measurements. A fifteen chord far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter has been developed to measure B in the Microwave Tokamak, Experiment (MTX). Polarimetry utilizes the well known Faraday rotation effect, which causes a rotation of the polarization of an FIR beam propagating in the poloidal plane. The rotation angle is proportional to the component of B parallel to the beam. A new technique for determining the Faraday rotation angle is introduced, based on phase measurements of a rotating polarization ellipse. This instrument has been used successfully to measure B profiles for a wide range of experiments on MTX. For ohmic discharges, measurements of the safety factor on axis give q 0 ∼ 0.75 during sawteeth and q 0 > 1 without sawteeth. Large perturbations to the polarimeter signals correlated with the sawtooth crash are observed during some discharges. Measurements in discharges with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) show a transition from a hollow to peaked J profile that is triggered by the ECH pulse. Current-ramp experiments were done to perturb the J profile from the nominal Spitzer conductivity profile. Profiles for initial current ramps and ramps starting from a stable equilibrium have been measured and are compared with a cylindrical diffusion model. Finally, the tearing mode stability equation is solved using measured J profiles. Stability predictions are in good agreement with the existence of oscillations observed on the magnetic loops

  13. Daily SST fields produced by blending infrared and microwave radiometer estimates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, O.P.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using satellite based sensors have matured during the last decade. The infrared measurements, using the AVHRR sensor, flown onboard the NOAA satellites, have been used for the generation of high...

  14. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  15. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas

  16. Nano Antenna Integrated Diode (Rectenna) For Infrared Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Gadalla, Mena N.

    2013-01-01

    In this work full parametric analysis of nano antennas is presented. To begin with, optical or electronic properties of noble metals such as gold and copper were studied in details to get a clear understanding of their reaction to an incident electromagnetic wave. Complex frequency dependent dielectric functions indicated that in THz metals acts as a dielectric with significant absorption. Simultaneous optimization of the length and the bow angle of a bow-tie antenna resulted in relative electric field intensity enhancement of 8 orders of magnitude for 0.5nm gap and 4 orders of magnitude for 50nm around 28THz resonance frequency. These results are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than the published optical antennas. Physical reasons behind field localization and intensity enhancement  are  discussed  in  details.  The  solution  of  Maxwell’s  equations  at   the  interface   between metallic nano antenna and air is also present in this piece of research. The derived dispersion relation of surface plasmons shows momentum matching at 28.3 THz between free propagating electromagnetic fields’ modes in air and localized modes at the interface. Consequently, Propagating electromagnetic waves are ensured to couple to localized surface propagating modes producing filed enhancement. The integrated matching section is theoretically proven to increase transmission to substrate to 75% (compared to 40% without it) which in turn improves the coupled power by 40 times. Nano antennas were fabricated in house using Electron beam lithography with a precise gap of 50nm. In addition, THz diode was designed, fabricated and integrated to the nano antennas to rectify the enhanced THz signal. The integration of the nano diode required a precise overlap of the two arms of the antenna in the rage of 100nm. In order to overcome two arms overlap fabrication challenges, three layer alignment technique was used to produce precise overlap.The THz rectifier was

  17. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  18. TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 - A possible probe of origin and intergalactic infrared radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.; Salamon, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 during 1991 June exhibited a near-perfect power law between 50 MeV and over 5 GeV with a differential spectral index of -(2.02 +/- 0.07). If extrapolated, the gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 should be easily detectable with first-generation air Cerenkov detectors operating above about 0.3 TeV provided there is no intergalactic absorption. However, by using model-dependent lower and upper limits for the extragalactic infrared background radiation field, a sharp cutoff of the 3C 279 spectrum is predicted at between about 0.1 and about 1 TeV. The sensitivity of present air Cerenkov detectors is good enough to measure such a cutoff, which would provide the first opportunity to obtain a measurement of the extragalactic background infrared radiation field.

  19. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Path Integrals in Field Theory: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Lewis

    2004-06-01

    In the 1960s Feynman was known to particle physicists as one of the people who solved the major problems of quantum electrodynamics, his contribution famously introducing what are now called Feynman diagrams. To other physicists he gained a reputation as the author of the Feynman Lectures on Physics; in addition some people were aware of his work on the path integral formulation of quantum theory, and a very few knew about his work on gravitation and Yang--Mills theories, which made use of path integral methods. Forty years later the scene is rather different. Many of the problems of high energy physics are solved; and the standard model incorporates Feynman's path integral method as a way of proving the renormalisability of the gauge (Yang--Mills) theories involved. Gravitation is proving a much harder nut to crack, but here also questions of renormalisability are couched in path-integral language. What is more, theoretical studies of condensed matter physics now also appeal to this technique for quantisation, so the path integral method is becoming part of the standard apparatus of theoretical physics. Chapters on it appear in a number of recent books, and a few books have appeared devoted to this topic alone; the book under review is a very recent one. Path integral techniques have the advantage of enormous conceptual appeal and the great disadvantage of mathematical complexity, this being partly the result of messy integrals but more fundamentally due to the notions of functional differentiation and integration which are involved in the method. All in all this subject is not such an easy ride. Mosel's book, described as an introduction, is aimed at graduate students and research workers in particle physics. It assumes a background knowledge of quantum mechanics, both non-relativistic and relativistic. After three chapters on the path integral formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics there are eight chapters on scalar and spinor field theory, followed

  1. The foundational origin of integrability in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; FU-Berlin

    2012-02-01

    There are two foundational model-independent concepts of integrability in QFT. One is 'dynamical' and generalizes the solvability in closed analytic form of the dynamical aspects as known from the Kepler two-body problem and its quantum mechanical counterpart. The other, referred to as 'kinematical' integrability, has no classical nor even quantum mechanical counterpart; it describes the relation between so called eld algebra and its local observable subalgebras and their discrete inequivalent representation classes (the DHR theory of superselection sectors). In the standard case of QFTs with mass gaps it contains the information about the representation of the (necessary compact) internal symmetry group and statistics in form of a tracial state on a 'dual group'. In Lagrangian or functional quantization one deals with the eld algebra and the division into observable /eld algebras does presently not play a role in constructive approaches to QFT. 'Kinematical' integrability is however of particular interest in conformal theories where the observable algebra fulfils the Huygens principle (light like propagation) and lives on the compactified Minkowski spacetime whereas the eld algebra, whose spacetime symmetry group is the universal covering of the conformal group lives on the universal covering of the compactified Minkowski spacetime. Since the (anomalous) dimensions of fields show up in the spectrum of the unitary representative of the center of this group , the kinematical structure contained in the relation fields/Huygens observables valuable information which in the usual terminology would be called 'dynamical'. The dynamical integrability is defined in terms of properties of 'wedge localization' and uses the fact that modular localization theory allows to 'emulate' interaction-free wedge-localized operators in a objective manner with the wedge localized interacting algebra. Emulation can be viewed as a generalization of the functorial relation between localized

  2. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.X. Horváth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  3. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, D.X., E-mail: esoxluciuslinne@gmail.com [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Sotiriadis, S., E-mail: sotiriad@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Takács, G., E-mail: takacsg@eik.bme.hu [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  4. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  5. Spatial distribution of dust in galaxies from the Integral field unit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Sophie Dubber, Andrew Hopkins

    2018-01-01

    An important characteristic of the dust is it can be used as a tracer of stars (and gas) and tell us about the composition of galaxies. Sub-mm and infrared studies can accurately determine the total dust mass and its spatial distribution in massive, bright galaxies. However, faint and distant galaxies are hampered by resolution to dust spatial dust distribution. In the era of integral-field spectrographs (IFS), Balmer decrement is a useful quantity to infer the spatial extent of the dust in distant and low-mass galaxies. We conducted a study to estimate the spatial distribution of dust using the Sydney-Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) galaxies. Our methodology is unique to exploit the potential of IFS and using the spatial and spectral information together to study dust in galaxies of various morphological types. The spatial extent and content of dust are compared with the star-formation rate, reddening, and inclination of galaxies. We find a right correlation of dust spatial extent with the star-formation rate. The results also indicate a decrease in dust extent radius from Late Spirals to Early Spirals.

  6. Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poghossian, A., E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Malzahn, K. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Abouzar, M.H. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mehndiratta, P. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Katz, E. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, NanoBio Laboratory (NABLAB), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. > The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. > Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). > The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.

  7. Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghossian, A.; Malzahn, K.; Abouzar, M.H.; Mehndiratta, P.; Katz, E.; Schoening, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. → The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. → Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). → The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta 2 O 5 ) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.

  8. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  9. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L. [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Physique

    2001-10-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  10. Yang-Baxter algebra - Integrable systems - Conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karowski, M.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is based on investigations [1,2] of finite-size corrections for the six-vertex model by means of Bethe ansatz methods. In addition a review on applications of Yang-Baxter algebras and an introduction to the theory of integrable systems and the algebraic Bethe ansatz is presented. A Θ-vacuum like angle appearing in the RSOS-models is discussed. The continuum limit in the critical case of these statistical models is performed to obtain the minimal models of conformal quantum field theory. (author)

  11. The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, M.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Maday, Y.; Stamm, B.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, for many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.

  12. Social Integration as Professional Field: Psychotherapy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johnsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the emergence and development of a professional field called social integration. Ideas, theories, and occupational practices forming this field are explored, particularly those related to the development of a new discipline, that of psychotherapy. The development of three occupations (psychiatry, psychology and social work and their professionalisation is described through their qualitative and quantitative take‑offs in particular historical periods. Three periods are identified: formation, 1850-1920, when psychiatry was defined as a medical sub-discipline; consolidation, 1920-1945, with the institutionalisation of psychiatric care, and with psychoanalysis and mental hygiene as qualitatively new cognitive bases for practitioners; and professionalisation, 1945-1980, with the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care and the professionalisation of psychologists and social workers. New ideas on subjectivity and individualism, new welfare state institutions, as well as collaborative professionalism all favoured the creation of psychotherapy as professional knowledge, and a possible new profession of psychotherapists.

  13. Virtual Reality System with Integrated Sound Field Simulation and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Assenmacher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time audio rendering system is introduced which combines a full room-specific simulation, dynamic crosstalk cancellation, and multitrack binaural synthesis for virtual acoustical imaging. The system is applicable for any room shape (normal, long, flat, coupled, independent of the a priori assumption of a diffuse sound field. This provides the possibility of simulating indoor or outdoor spatially distributed, freely movable sources and a moving listener in virtual environments. In addition to that, near-to-head sources can be simulated by using measured near-field HRTFs. The reproduction component consists of a headphone-free reproduction by dynamic crosstalk cancellation. The focus of the project is mainly on the integration and interaction of all involved subsystems. It is demonstrated that the system is capable of real-time room simulation and reproduction and, thus, can be used as a reliable platform for further research on VR applications.

  14. Conformal fields. From Riemann surfaces to integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    I discuss the idea of translating ingredients of conformal field theory into the language of hierarchies of integrable differential equations. Primary conformal fields are mapped into (differential or matrix) operators living on the phase space of the hierarchy, whereas operator insertions of, e.g., a current or the energy-momentum tensor, become certain vector fields on the phase space and thus acquire a meaning independent of a given Riemann surface. A number of similarities are observed between the structures arising on the hierarchy and those of the theory on the world-sheet. In particular, there is an analogue of the operator product algebra with the Cauchy kernel replaced by its 'off-shell' hierarchy version. Also, hierarchy analogues of certain operator insertions admit two (equivalent, but distinct) forms, resembling the 'bosonized' and 'fermionized' versions respectively. As an application, I obtain a useful reformulation of the Virasoro constraints of the type that arise in matrix models, as a system of equations on dressing (or Lax) operators (rather than correlation functions, i.e., residues or traces). This also suggests an interpretation in terms of a 2D topological field theory, which might be extended to a correspondence between Virasoro-constrained hierarchies and topological theories. (orig.)

  15. Expectation values of local fields for a two-parameter family of integrable models and related perturbed conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, P.; Fateev, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum expectation values of local fields for the two-parameter family of integrable field theories introduced and studied by Fateev (1996). Using this result we propose an explicit expression for the vacuum expectation values of local operators in parafermionic sine-Gordon models and in integrable perturbed SU(2) coset conformal field theories. (orig.)

  16. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  17. [Research on the temperature field detection method of hot forging based on long-wavelength infrared spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Cun; Wei, Bin; Fu, Xian-Bin

    2014-02-01

    A temperature field detection method based on long-wavelength infrared spectrum for hot forging is proposed in the present paper. This method combines primary spectrum pyrometry and three-stage FP-cavity LCTF. By optimizing the solutions of three group nonlinear equations in the mathematical model of temperature detection, the errors are reduced, thus measuring results will be more objective and accurate. Then the system of three-stage FP-cavity LCTF was designed on the principle of crystal birefringence. The system realized rapid selection of any wavelength in a certain wavelength range. It makes the response of the temperature measuring system rapid and accurate. As a result, without the emissivity of hot forging, the method can acquire exact information of temperature field and effectively suppress the background light radiation around the hot forging and ambient light that impact the temperature detection accuracy. Finally, the results of MATLAB showed that the infrared spectroscopy through the three-stage FP-cavity LCTF could meet the requirements of design. And experiments verified the feasibility of temperature measuring method. Compared with traditional single-band thermal infrared imager, the accuracy of measuring result was improved.

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes preliminary results from a field experiment designed to evaluate a new approach to quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions from area air pollution sources. The new approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical re...

  19. MUSE integral-field spectroscopy towards the Frontier Fields Cluster Abell S1063

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karman, W.; Caputi, K. I.; Grillo, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first observations of the Frontier Fields Cluster Abell S1063 taken with the newly commissioned Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. Because of the relatively large field of view (1 arcmin^2), MUSE is ideal to simultaneously target multiple galaxies...... the cluster, we find 17 galaxies at higher redshift, including three previously unknown Lyman-alpha emitters at z>3, and five multiply-lensed galaxies. We report the detection of a new z=4.113 multiply lensed galaxy, with images that are consistent with lensing model predictions derived for the Frontier...... of scientific topics that can be addressed with a single MUSE pointing. We conclude that MUSE is a very efficient instrument to observe galaxy clusters, enabling their mass modelling, and to perform a blind search for high-redshift galaxies....

  20. An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Adam S; Burles, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction

  1. A quantum group structure in integrable conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss a quantization prescription of the conformal algebras of a class of d=2 conformal field theories which are integrable. We first give a geometrical construction of certain extensions of the classical Virasoro algebra, known as classical W algebras, in which these algebras arise as the Lie algebra of the second Hamiltonian structure of a generalized Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy. This fact implies that the W algebras, obtained as a reduction with respect to the nilpotent subalgebras of the Kac-Moody algebra, describe the intergrability of a Toda field theory. Subsequently we determine the coadjoint operators of the W algebras, and relate these to classical Yang-Baxter matrices. The quantization of these algebras can be carried out using the concept of a so-called quantum group. We derive the condition under which the representations of these quantum groups admit a Hilbert space completion by exploring the relation with the braid group. Then we consider a modification of the Miura transformation which we use to define a quantum W algebra. This leads to an alternative interpretation of the coset construction for Kac-Moody algebras in terms of nonlinear integrable hierarchies. Subsequently we use the connection between the induced braid group representations and the representations of the mapping class group of Riemann surfaces to identify an action of the W algebras on the moduli space of stable curves, and we give the invariants of this action. This provides a generalization of the situation for the Virasoro algebra, where such an invariant is given by the so-called Mumford form which describes the partition function of the bosonic string. (orig.)

  2. Integrated approach to gas accumulation identification in Field M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshevskaya, K; Rukavishnikov, V; Belozerov, B; Podnebesnikh, A

    2015-01-01

    The given paper describes how the integration of different methods, such as core data, well logs, production logging, seismic data and well test analysis, was used to solve the problem of determining gas accumulation boundaries in sediment complex PK1-3 of Field M. This paper is devoted to the block with wells 2, 36, 49, 85, 127, 148 of the field, since it is characterized by high uncertainty, sc. recently drilled wells 1V, 2V and 120 have produced oil, although according to the present-day geological concept they were considered to be gas saturated in the intervals investigated with production logging. Besides, well 127 that was presumably oil saturated has produced gas. By accounting mismatching production data and the geological concept, the authors have supposed that PK1-3 gas accumulation is characterized by a more complex structure than it was supposed by the predecessors and it is represented by reservoir compartmentalization and high heterogeneity. Therefore, the main goal of the work was to revise the distribution of gas saturated reservoir within the PK1-3 sediment complex. To achieve this goal, the authors have set the following tasks: to revise the geological correlation and gas oil contact; to carry out fault interpretation by means of seismic and well test data; to determine areal facies distribution on the basis of integrated core, perform a log motifs and seismic facies analysis. Thus, the estimation of the gas saturated reservoir portion was implemented in two stages: defining the boundary of gas accumulation in depth on the basis of well logs, production data and fault interpretation; reservoir distribution determination on the basis of the seismic facies analysis within the derived gas accumulation boundary

  3. Second and third harmonic generation associated to infrared transitions in a Morse quantum well under applied electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, R. L.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the second and third harmonic generation coefficients in a Morse potential quantum well are theoretically studied. The energy levels and corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation for the electron in the parabolic band scheme and effective mass approximations and the envelope function approach. The results show that both the electric and the magnetic fields have significant influence on the magnitudes and resonant peak energy positions of the second and third harmonic generation responses. In general, the Morse potential profile becomes wider and shallower as γ -parameter increases and so the energies of the bound states will be functions of this parameter. Therefore, we can conclude that the effects of the electric and magnetic fields can be used to tune and control the optical properties of interest in the range of the infrared electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide bet...

  5. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments.

  6. The Integral Field View of the Orion Nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adal Mesa-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major advances achieved in the Orion Nebula through the use of integral field spectroscopy (IFS. Since the early work of Vasconcelos and collaborators in 2005, this technique has facilitated the investigation of global properties of the nebula and its morphology, providing new clues to better constrain its 3D structure. IFS has led to the discovery of shock-heated zones at the leading working surfaces of prominent Herbig-Haro objects as well as the first attempt to determine the chemical composition of Orion protoplanetary disks, also known as proplyds. The analysis of these morphologies using IFS has given us new insights into the abundance discrepancy problem, a long-standing and unresolved issue that casts doubt on the reliability of current methods used for the determination of metallicities in the universe from the analysis of H II regions. Results imply that high-density clumps and high-velocity flows may play an active role in the production of such discrepancies. Future investigations based on the large-scale IFS mosaic of Orion will be very valuable for exploring how the integrated effect of small-scale structures may have impact at larger scales in the framework of star-forming regions.

  7. Multimode simulations of a wide field of view double-Fourier far-infrared spatio-spectral interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Colm P.; Lightfoot, John; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Donohoe, Anthony; Savini, Giorgio; Juanola-Parramon, Roser; The Fisica Consortium, On Behalf Of

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of 50-m class space-based observatories, subarcsecond astronomy spanning the full far-infrared wavelength range will require space-based long-baseline interferometry. The long baselines of up to tens of meters are necessary to achieve subarcsecond resolution demanded by science goals. Also, practical observing times command a field of view toward an arcminute (1‧) or so, not achievable with a single on-axis coherent detector. This paper is concerned with an application of an end-to-end instrument simulator PyFIInS, developed as part of the FISICA project under funding from the European Commission's seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). Predicted results of wide field of view spatio-spectral interferometry through simulations of a long-baseline, double-Fourier, far-infrared interferometer concept are presented and analyzed. It is shown how such an interferometer, illuminated by a multimode detector can recover a large field of view at subarcsecond angular resolution, resulting in similar image quality as that achieved by illuminating the system with an array of coherent detectors. Through careful analysis, the importance of accounting for the correct number of higher-order optical modes is demonstrated, as well as accounting for both orthogonal polarizations. Given that it is very difficult to manufacture waveguide and feed structures at sub-mm wavelengths, the larger multimode design is recommended over the array of smaller single mode detectors. A brief note is provided in the conclusion of this paper addressing a more elegant solution to modeling far-infrared interferometers, which holds promise for improving the computational efficiency of the simulations presented here.

  8. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  9. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  10. Rapid Measurement of Soil Carbon in Rice Paddy Field of Lombok Island Indonesia Using Near Infrared Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono, S.; Bustan, B.

    2018-02-01

    Measuring soil organic carbon (C) using conventional analysis is tedious procedure, time consuming and expensive. It is needed simple procedure which is cheap and saves time. Near infrared technology offers rapid procedure as it works based on the soil spectral reflectance and without any chemicals. The aim of this research is to test whether this technology able to rapidly measure soil organic C in rice paddy field. Soil samples were collected from rice paddy field of Lombok Island Indonesia, and the coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analysed using conventional analysis (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) Models were developed using data of soil C analysed using conventional analysis and data from soil spectral reflectance. The models were moderately successful to measure soil C in rice paddy field of Lombok Island. This shows that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the C change in rice paddy soil.

  11. High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Gonoskov, I A; Tzallas, P

    2017-04-27

    High-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range, resulting from the strong-field laser-atom interaction, have been used in a broad range of fascinating applications in all states of matter. In the majority of these studies the harmonic generation process is described using semi-classical theories which treat the electromagnetic field of the driving laser pulse classically without taking into account its quantum nature. In addition, for the measurement of the generated harmonics, all the experiments require diagnostics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Here by treating the driving laser field quantum mechanically we reveal the quantum-optical nature of the high-order harmonic generation process by measuring the photon number distribution of the infrared light exiting the harmonic generation medium. It is found that the high-order harmonics are imprinted in the photon number distribution of the infrared light and can be recorded without the need of a spectrometer in the extreme-ultraviolet.

  12. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  13. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer, providing 2.5 eV spectral resolution, over a 5' (equivalent diameter) field of view, and count rate capabilities up to 1 Crab in the 0.2-12 keV range. Approaching the end of its feasibility study (scheduled around the end of 2017), I will briefly recall the scientific objectives of Athena driving the X-IFU specifications and will describe its current baseline configuration and the expected performances. I will outline the on-going technology developments that will enable the X-IFU. The X-IFU will be developed by an international consortium led by France (IRAP/CNES), the Netherlands (SRON), Italy (IAPS), with ESA member state contributions from Belgium, Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain and Switzerland, and international partner contributions from Japan and the United States. This talk is given on behalf of the X-IFU Consortium.

  14. Very large scale heterogeneous integration (VLSHI) and wafer-level vacuum packaging for infrared bolometer focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Samel, Björn; Ericsson, Per; Hoivik, Nils; Lapadatu, Adriana; Bring, Martin; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of -3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  15. Plasmonic Moon: a Fano-like approach for squeezing the magnetic field in the infrared

    KAUST Repository

    Panaro, Simone; Nazir, Adnan; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Razzari, Luca; Liberale, Carlo; De Angelis, Francesco; Toma, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding results have been achieved in the localization of optical electric fields via ultrasmall plasmonic cavities, paving the way to the subdiffractive confinement of local electromagnetic fields. However, due to the intrinsic constraints

  16. Study of field enhancement in overlapped bowtie antenna for Infrared harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Meredov, Azat

    2017-10-25

    Energy Harvesting from waste heat using wave nature of the heat is a promising technology for the future of green energy. Nanoantenna combined with high-speed Metal/Insulator/Metal diode known as rectenna is able to couple mid-Infrared (IR) waves and rectify the AC signal to DC. The behavior of the materials in mid-IR change with frequency, choosing suitable insulator will increase the cut-off frequency of the device. Substrate effects are studied to have the best match between computation and measurements.

  17. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  18. Shining new light on treating dementia: integrating EEG neurofeedback training and near infrared photobiomodulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin H.

    2017-02-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies regarding the biological impact of near infrared light stimulation has significantly increased of late noting the disease modifying properties of photobiomodulation for improving physical and cognitive performance in subjects with a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Concurrently we see a growing body of literature regarding the efficacy of operant conditioning of EEG amplitude and connectivity in remediating both cognitive and behavioral symptoms of both neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including traumatic brain injury, ADHD, PTSD, and dementia. This presentation seeks to outline a treatment model combining these two treatment methods to stop the progression of neurodegeneration using pulsed (10hz), brief (5-20minutes) repeated (1-2x/daily) transcranial and intranasal photobiomodulation with 810nm and 1068nm near infrared phototherapy and operant conditioning of EEG amplitude and coherence. Our initial study on treating dementia with EEG biofeedback (N=37) showed neuroplasticity's potential for modifying cognitive and behavioral symptoms using the evidence from decades of neurological research that never felt the warm touch of a translational researcher's hand. The near infrared interventional studies clarified the order of treatment, i.e., tissue health and renewal were achieved, followed by neural connectivity enhancement. Significant improvements in both immediate and delayed recall and praxis memory as well as executive functioning and behavioral regulation were obtained with each intervention. The inferred synergistic impact of properly combining these approaches is what informs our current clinical applications and future research efforts examining the value of combined treatments for all dementias, parkinson's disease and age-related dry macular degeneration.

  19. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  20. Outdoor thermal monitoring of large scale structures by infrared thermography integrated in an ICT based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    An infrared system has been developed to monitor transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. Results obtained on bridges open to traffic allows to retrieve the inner structure of the decks. To complete this study, experiments were carried out over several months to monitor two reinforced concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T each. Detection of a damaged area over one of the two beams was made by Pulse Phase Thermography approach. Measurements carried out over several months. Finally, conclusion on the robustness of the system is proposed and perspectives are presented.

  1. Impacts of field of view configuration of Cross-track Infrared Sounder on clear-sky observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likun; Chen, Yong; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Hyperspectral infrared radiance measurements from satellite sensors contain valuable information on atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and greenhouse gases, and therefore are directly assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as inputs for weather forecasting. However, data assimilations in current operational NWP models still mainly rely on cloud-free observations due to the challenge of simulating cloud-contaminated radiances when using hyperspectral radiances. The limited spatial coverage of the 3×3 field of views (FOVs) in one field of regard (FOR) (i.e., spatial gap among FOVs) as well as relatively large footprint size (14 km) in current Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments limits the amount of clear-sky observations. This study explores the potential impacts of future CrIS FOV configuration (including FOV size and spatial coverage) on the amount of clear-sky observations by simulation experiments. The radiance measurements and cloud mask products (VCM) from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to simulate CrIS clear-sky observation under different FOV configurations. The results indicate that, given the same FOV coverage (e.g., 3×3), the percentage of clear-sky FOVs and the percentage of clear-sky FORs (that contain at least one clear-sky FOV) both increase as the FOV size decreases. In particular, if the CrIS FOV size were reduced from 14 km to 7 km, the percentage of clear-sky FOVs increases from 9.02% to 13.51% and the percentage of clear-sky FORs increases from 18.24% to 27.51%. Given the same FOV size but with increasing FOV coverage in each FOR, the clear-sky FOV observations increases proportionally with the increasing sampling FOVs. Both reducing FOV size and increasing FOV coverage can result in more clear-sky FORs, which benefit data utilization of NWP data assimilation.

  2. Infrared behavior of closed superstrings in strong magnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.; Kounnas, C.

    1995-01-01

    A large class of four-dimensional supersymmetric ground states of closed superstrings with a non-zero mass gap are constructed. For such ground states we turn on chromo-magnetic fields as well as curvature. The exact spectrum as function of the chromo-magnetic fields and curvature is derived. We examine the behavior of the spectrum, and find that there is a maximal value for the magnetic field H max similar M planck 2 . At this value all states that couple to the magnetic field become infinitely massive and decouple. We also find tachyonic instabilities for strong background fields of the order O (μM planck ) where μ is the mass gap of the theory. Unlike the field theory case, we find that such ground states become stable again for magnetic fields of the order O (M 2 planck ). The implications of these results are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Distortion of Magnetic Fields in a Starless Core: Near-infrared Polarimetry of FeSt 1–457

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandori, Ryo; Tamura, Motohide; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasushi [Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8601 (Japan); Kwon, Jungmi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomisaka, Kohji; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi, E-mail: r.kandori@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    Magnetic fields are believed to play an important role in controlling the stability and contraction of the dense condensations of gas and dust that lead to the formation of stars and planetary systems. In the present study, the magnetic field of FeSt 1–457, a cold starless molecular cloud core, was mapped on the basis of the polarized near-infrared light from 185 background stars after being dichroically absorbed by dust aligned with the magnetic field in the core. A distinct “hourglass-shaped” magnetic field was identified in the region of the core, and was interpreted as the first evidence of a magnetic field structure distorted by mass condensation in a starless core. The steep curvature of the magnetic field lines obtained in the present study indicates that the distortion was mainly created during the formation phase of the dense core. The derived mass-to-magnetic flux ratio indicates that the core is in a magnetically supercritical state. However, the stability of the core can be considered to be in a nearly critical state if the additional contributions from the thermal and turbulent support are included. Further diffusion of the magnetic field and/or turbulent dissipation would cause the onset of the dynamical collapse of the core. The geometrical relationship between the direction of the magnetic field lines and the elongation of the core was found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the formation of Sun-like stars under the influence of a magnetic field.

  4. Infrared signal generation from AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando

    2018-02-27

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam to produce light. An energy conversion device utilizes light energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a light energy consuming function. A device for producing light and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  5. Properties of the HII Regions Derived Using Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian F. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we review some of our more recent results on the observed properties of HII regions using Integral Field Spectroscopy. In particular, we illustrate the use of this technique to study in detail the ionization conditions across the nebulae for galactic HII regions (focused on the Orion Nebula and the statistical study of large samples of extragalactic HII regions. We review the reported new scaling relation between the local mass density and the oxygen abundance across the disk galaxies and the recently discovered universal gradient for oxygen abundances. We update our previous results the lack of a dependence of the Mass-Metallicity relation with the starformation rate, including new unpublished data. Finally we discuss on the relation between the ionization conditions in the nebulae and the underlying stellar population. All together our results indicate that disk galaxies present a chemical enrichment dominated by an inside-out growth scenario, with a less evident effect of radial migrations and/or outflows.

  6. Calibrating the SNfactory Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS) with SCALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, Daniel; Lombardo, Simona; Kowalski, Marek; Aldering, Greg; Nordin, Jakob; Rigault, Mickael

    2016-08-01

    The SNIFS CALibration Apparatus (SCALA), a device to calibrate the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University Hawaii 2.2m telescope, was developed and installed in Spring 2014. SCALA produces an artificial planet with a diameter of 1° and a constant surface brightness. The wavelength of the beam can be tuned between 3200 Å and 10000 Å and has a bandwidth of 35 Å. The amount of light injected into the telescope is monitored with NIST calibrated photodiodes. SCALA was upgraded in 2015 with a mask installed at the entrance pupil of the UH88 telescope, ensuring that the illumination of the telescope by stars is similar to that of SCALA. With this setup, a first calibration run was performed in conjunction with the spectrophotometric observations of standard stars. We present first estimates for the expected systematic uncertainties of the in-situ calibration and discuss the results of tests that examine the influence of stray light produced in the optics.

  7. SCALA: In situ calibration for integral field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, S.; Küsters, D.; Kowalski, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Baugh, D.; Bongard, S.; Boone, K.; Buton, C.; Chen, J.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Hayden, B.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hoffmann, A.; Kim, A. G.; Leget, P.-F.; McKay, L.; Nordin, J.; Pain, R.; Pécontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reif, K.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Smadja, G.; Suzuki, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The scientific yield of current and future optical surveys is increasingly limited by systematic uncertainties in the flux calibration. This is the case for type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology programs, where an improved calibration directly translates into improved cosmological constraints. Current methodology rests on models of stars. Here we aim to obtain flux calibration that is traceable to state-of-the-art detector-based calibration. Methods: We present the SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a color (relative) flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova integral field spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m (UH 88) telescope. Results: By comparing the color trend of the illumination generated by SCALA during two commissioning runs, and to previous laboratory measurements, we show that we can determine the light emitted by SCALA with a long-term repeatability better than 1%. We describe the calibration procedure necessary to control for system aging. We present measurements of the SNIFS throughput as estimated by SCALA observations. Conclusions: The SCALA calibration unit is now fully deployed at the UH 88 telescope, and with it color-calibration between 4000 Å and 9000 Å is stable at the percent level over a one-year baseline.

  8. MUSE integral-field spectroscopy towards the Frontier Fields cluster Abell S1063 I. Data products and redshift identifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, W.; Caputi, K. I.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Vanzella, E.; Coe, D.; Christensen, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kruehler, T.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; van der Wel, A.

    We present the first observations of the Frontier Fields cluster Abell S1063 taken with the newly commissioned Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer ( MUSE) integral field spectrograph. Because of the relatively large field of view ( 1 arcmin(2)), MUSE is ideal to simultaneously target multiple galaxies

  9. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  10. THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF L1544. I. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY AND THE NON-UNIFORM ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Dan P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion (Greece); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail: clemens@bu.edu, E-mail: tassis@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: paul.f.goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, M/S 169-504, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The magnetic field ( B -field) of the starless dark cloud L1544 has been studied using near-infrared (NIR) background starlight polarimetry (BSP) and archival data in order to characterize the properties of the plane-of-sky B -field. NIR linear polarization measurements of over 1700 stars were obtained in the H band and 201 of these were also measured in the K band. The NIR BSP properties are correlated with reddening, as traced using the Rayleigh–Jeans color excess ( H – M ) method, and with thermal dust emission from the L1544 cloud and envelope seen in Herschel maps. The NIR polarization position angles change at the location of the cloud and exhibit their lowest dispersion there, offering strong evidence that NIR polarization traces the plane-of-sky B -field of L1544. In this paper, the uniformity of the plane-of-sky B -field in the envelope region of L1544 is quantitatively assessed. This allows evaluation of the approach of assuming uniform field geometry when measuring relative mass-to-flux ratios in the cloud envelope and core based on averaging of the radio Zeeman observations in the envelope, as done by Crutcher et al. In L1544, the NIR BSP shows the envelope B -field to be significantly non-uniform and likely not suitable for averaging Zeeman properties without treating intrinsic variations. Deeper analyses of the NIR BSP and related data sets, including estimates of the B -field strength and testing how it varies with position and gas density, are the subjects of later papers in this series.

  11. Experimental Visualizations of a Generic Launch Vehicle Flow Field: Time-Resolved Shadowgraph and Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Panda, Jayanta; Ross, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Time-Resolved shadowgraph and infrared (IR) imaging were performed to investigate off-body and on-body flow features of a generic, 'hammer-head' launch vehicle geometry previously tested by Coe and Nute (1962). The measurements discussed here were one part of a large range of wind tunnel test techniques that included steady-state pressure sensitive paint (PSP), dynamic PSP, unsteady surface pressures, and unsteady force measurements. Image data was captured over a Mach number range of 0.6 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 1.2 at a Reynolds number of 3 million per foot. Both shadowgraph and IR imagery were captured in conjunction with unsteady pressures and forces and correlated with IRIG-B timing. High-speed shadowgraph imagery was used to identify wake structure and reattachment behind the payload fairing of the vehicle. Various data processing strategies were employed and ultimately these results correlated well with the location and magnitude of unsteady surface pressure measurements. Two research grade IR cameras were positioned to image boundary layer transition at the vehicle nose and flow reattachment behind the payload fairing. The poor emissivity of the model surface treatment (fast PSP) proved to be challenging for the infrared measurement. Reference image subtraction and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) were used to analyze this dataset. Ultimately turbulent boundary layer transition was observed and located forward of the trip dot line at the model sphere-cone junction. Flow reattachment location was identified behind the payload fairing in both steady and unsteady thermal data. As demonstrated in this effort, recent advances in high-speed and thermal imaging technology have modernized classical techniques providing a new viewpoint for the modern researcher

  12. Calculations of magnetic field errors caused by mechanical accuracy at infra-red undulator construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushevskij, E.A.; Morozov, N.A.; Syresin, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the electromagnetic undulator with maximal magnetic field 1.2 T and 40 cm period is under development. The computer models for the undulator magnet system were realized on the basis of POISSON and RADIA codes. The undulator magnetic field imperfections due to the design errors were simulated by the models

  13. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J. [Caterpillar Corp.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for

  14. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H 2 O and CH 4 absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  15. Visible/near-infrared spectral diversity from in situ observations of the Bagnold Dune Field sands in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Achilles, Cherie; Bell, James F.; Bender, Steve; Cloutis, Edward; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fraeman, Abigail; Gasnault, Olivier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Pinet, Patrick; Thompson, Lucy; Wellington, Danika; Wiens, Roger C.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Bagnold Dune campaign conducted by Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of dune sands were acquired using Mast Camera (Mastcam) multispectral imaging (445-1013 nm) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) passive point spectroscopy (400-840 nm). By comparing spectra from pristine and rover-disturbed ripple crests and troughs within the dune field, and through analysis of sieved grain size fractions, constraints on mineral segregation from grain sorting could be determined. In general, the dune areas exhibited low relative reflectance, a weak 530 nm absorption band, an absorption band near 620 nm, and a spectral downturn after 685 nm consistent with olivine-bearing sands. The finest grain size fractions occurred within ripple troughs and in the subsurface and typically exhibited the strongest 530 nm bands, highest relative reflectances, and weakest red/near-infrared ratios, consistent with a combination of crystalline and amorphous ferric materials. Coarser-grained samples were the darkest and bluest and exhibited weaker 530 nm bands, lower relative reflectances, and stronger downturns in the near-infrared, consistent with greater proportions of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. These grains were typically segregated along ripple crests and among the upper surfaces of grain flows in disturbed sands. Sieved dune sands exhibited progressive decreases in reflectance with increasing grain size, as observed in laboratory spectra of olivine size separates. The continuum of spectral features observed between the coarse- and fine-grained dune sands suggests that mafic grains, ferric materials, and air fall dust mix in variable proportions depending on aeolian activity and grain sorting.

  16. Infrared remote sensing for canopy temperature in paddy field and relationship between leaf temperature and leaf color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared remote sensing is used for crop monitoring, for example evaluation of water stress, detection of infected crops and estimation of transpiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was conducted to show another application of remote sensing information. The relationship between rice leaf temperature and chlorophyll content in the leaf blade was investigated by using thermography during the ripening period. The canopy of a rice community fertilized by top dressing was cooler than that not fertilized in a 1999 field experiment. In an experiment using thermocouples to measure leaf temperature, a rice leaf with high chlorophyll content was also cooler than that with a low chlorophyll content. Transpiration resistance and transpiration rate were measured with a porometer. Transpiration rate was higher with increasing chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. Stomatal aperture is related to chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. High degree of stomatal aperture is caused by high chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. As degree of stomatal aperture increases, transpiration rate increases. Therefore the rice leaf got cooler with increasing chlorophyll content in leaf blade. Paddy rice communities with different chlorophyll contents were provided with fertilization of different nitrogen levels on basal and top dressing in a 2000 field experiment. Canopy temperature of the rice community with high chlorophyll content was 0.85°C cooler than that of the rice community with low chlorophyll content. Results of this study revealed that infrared remote sensing could detect difference in chlorophyll contents in rice communities and could be used in fertilizer management in paddy fields. (author)

  17. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, François; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S; Litvinyuk, Igor V; Tong, Xiao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H 2 and D 2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm. (paper)

  18. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  19. Increasing sensitivity and angle-of-view of mid-wave infrared detectors by integration with dielectric microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kenneth.allen@gtri.gatech.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Duran, Joshua M.; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Urbas, Augustine M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    We observed up to 100 times enhancement of sensitivity of mid-wave infrared photodetectors in the 2–5 μm range by using photonic jets produced by sapphire, polystyrene, and soda-lime glass microspheres with diameters in the 90–300 μm range. By finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling, we gain insight into the role of the microspheres refractive index, size, and alignment with respect to the detector mesa. A combination of enhanced sensitivity with angle-of-view (AOV) up to 20° is demonstrated for individual photodetectors. It is proposed that integration with microspheres can be scaled up for large focal plane arrays, which should provide maximal light collection efficiencies with wide AOVs, a combination of properties highly attractive for imaging applications.

  20. DERIVING METALLICITIES FROM THE INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EXTRAGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS USING THE NEAR-INFRARED CALCIUM TRIPLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Caroline; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    The Ca II triplet (CaT) feature in the near-infrared has been employed as a metallicity indicator for individual stars as well as integrated light of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and galaxies with varying degrees of success, and sometimes puzzling results. Using the DEIMOS multi-object spectrograph on Keck we obtain a sample of 144 integrated light spectra of GCs around the brightest group galaxy NGC 1407 to test whether the CaT index can be used as a metallicity indicator for extragalactic GCs. Different sets of single stellar population models make different predictions for the behavior of the CaT as a function of metallicity. In this work, the metallicities of the GCs around NGC 1407 are obtained from CaT index values using an empirical conversion. The measured CaT/metallicity distributions show unexpected features, the most remarkable being that the brightest red and blue GCs have similar CaT values despite their large difference in mean color. Suggested explanations for this behavior in the NGC 1407 GC system are (1) the CaT may be affected by a population of hot blue stars, (2) the CaT may saturate earlier than predicted by the models, and/or (3) color may not trace metallicity linearly. Until these possibilities are understood, the use of the CaT as a metallicity indicator for the integrated spectra of extragalactic GCs will remain problematic.

  1. MENTORING IN THE FIELDS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY AND INTEGRATED CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Nenova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available creativecommons Index Copernicus Value: 2016 -90,65 SJIF (Scientific Journal Impact Factor: 2017 - 7,61 Global Impact Factor: 2015 - 0,787 JIFACTOR: 2015 - 0,5 back to 2018Jan-Mar;24(1 Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing ISSN: 1312-773X (Online Issue: 2018, vol. 24, issue1 Subject Area: Medicine - DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2018241.1923 Published online: 07 March 2018 Original article J of IMAB. 2018 Jan-Mar;24(1:1923-1927 MENTORING IN THE FIELDS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY AND INTEGRATED CARE Gergana Nenova1ORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Paraskeva Mancheva1ORCID logo, Todorka Kostadinova2, Kalin Mihov3ORCID logo, Svetoslav Dobrilov3ORCID logo, 1 Training and research sector of Rehabilitation, Medical College - Varna, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria. 2 Department of Health Economics and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria. 3 Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria. ABSTRACT: A survey on the opinion of students studying Rehabilitation as a major subject on the role of their mentors and their qualities in the "Student Practice project.” The aim of the study is to investigate the point of view of the students, involved in the "Student Practice" project, about the role and the qualities that mentors and academic coaches (physiotherapists should possess in order to be created a selection criteria. Subject of the survey are 14 students studying at the Medical College of MU-Varna which study "Rehabilitation". These students participated in the "Students practice" project for the period November 2016 - March 2017. A feedback was sought from them through a questionnaire method with an exclusively prepared for the survey questionnaire. The results of the feedback from trainees showed their increased confidence in dealing with patients and their better integration within the work team. The knowledge and skills acquired by

  2. Methods for quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements using an FTIR and a commercial integrating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hanssen, Leonard; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Infrared integrating sphere measurements of solid samples are important in providing reference data for contact, standoff and remote sensing applications. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) we have developed protocols to measure both the directional-hemispherical ( and diffuse (d) reflectances of powders, liquids, and disks of powders and solid materials using a commercially available, matte gold-coated integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Detailed descriptions of the sphere alignment and its use for making these reflectance measurements are given. Diffuse reflectance values were found to be dependent on the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the sample and the solid angle intercepted by the sphere’s specular exclusion port. To determine how well the sphere and protocols produce quantitative reflectance data, measurements were made of three diffuse and two specular standards prepared by the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), LabSphere Infragold and Spectralon standards, hand-loaded sulfur and talc powder samples, and water. The five NIST standards behaved as expected: the three diffuse standards had a high degree of “diffuseness,” d/ = D > 0.9, whereas the two specular standards had D ≤ 0.03. The average absolute differences between the NIST and PNNL measurements of the NIST standards for both directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectances are on the order of 0.01 reflectance units. Other quantitative differences between the PNNL-measured and calibration (where available) or literature reflectance values for these standards and materials are given and the possible origins of discrepancies are discussed. Random uncertainties and estimates of systematic uncertainties are presented. Corrections necessary to provide better agreement between the PNNL reflectance values as measured for the NIST standards and the NIST reflectance values for these same standards are also

  3. On integrability conditions of the equations of nonsymmetrical chiral field on SO(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tskhakaya, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possibility of integrating the equations of nonsymmetrical chiral field on SO(4) by means of the inverse scattering method is investigated. Maximal number of the motion integrals is found for the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations

  4. Nano Antenna Integrated Diode (Rectenna) For Infrared Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Gadalla, Mena N.

    2013-01-01

    40% without it) which in turn improves the coupled power by 40 times. Nano antennas were fabricated in house using Electron beam lithography with a precise gap of 50nm. In addition, THz diode was designed, fabricated and integrated to the nano antennas to rectify the enhanced THz signal. The integration of the nano diode required a precise overlap of the two arms of the antenna in the rage of 100nm. In order to overcome two arms overlap fabrication challenges, three layer alignment technique was used to produce precise overlap.The THz rectifier was electrically tested and shown high sensitivity and rectification ability without any bias. Finally, nano antenna integrated diode is under optical testing using   a   10.6μm   𝐶𝑜2 laser at Electro-Optics Lab, Prince Sultan Advanced Technologies Research Institute (PSATRI), King Saud University due to the unavailability of the measurement setup in KAUST.

  5. Parfocal wide field near infrared grism design and fabrication for WFIRST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WFIRST will have Hubble image quality with 100x the field area of HST/WFC3. It requires both imaging and, working in the same optical train, a grism allowing...

  6. Infrared polarimetry of dark clouds. Pt. 1. Magnetic field structure in Heiles Cloud 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Motohide; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Tanaka, Masuo

    1987-01-15

    The K-band polarization of 18 stars toward Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus dark cloud complex has been measured to investigate the structure of the magnetic field in this cloud. The observed polarization vectors are well aligned, with a mean position angle of approx. 50/sup 0/, which is perpendicular to the direction of the elongation of the cloud. This indicates that Heiles Cloud 2 has formed by contraction along the magnetic field, resulting in the flattened shape.

  7. Calculations of transient fields in the Felix experiments at Argonne using null field integrated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.C.; Davey, K.R.; Turner, L.

    1985-08-01

    The transient eddy current problem is characteristically computationally intensive. The motivation for this research was to realize an efficient, accurate, solution technique involving small matrices via an eigenvalue approach. Such a technique is indeed realized and tested using the null field integral technique. Using smart (i.e., efficient, global) basis functions to represent unknowns in terms of a minimum number of unknowns, homogeneous eigenvectors and eigenvalues are first determined. The general excitatory response is then represented in terms of these eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Excellent results are obtained for the Argonne Felix cylinder experiments using a 4 x 4 matrix. Extension to the 3-D problem (short cylinder) is set up in terms of an 8 x 8 matrix

  8. Assessing soil water repellency of a sandy field with visible near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    . A lower prediction error of the WR model for soils dried at 105°C (1.93 mN m–1) than at 60°C (2.52 mN m–1) can be explained by a lower range of WR values for the soils dried at 105°C. Moreover, a higher temperature reduced the number of absorption bands related to OM, indicating a degradation......Soil water repellency (WR) is a widespread phenomenon caused by aggregated organic matter (OM) and layers of hydrophobic organic substances coating the surface of soil particles. These substances have a very low surface free energy, reducing a soil’s water attraction. There is focus on WR due...... to its effects on germination, root growth, liquid–vapour dynamics, surface erosion and leaching of chemicals through fingered flow paths. However, common techniques for measuring WR are time-consuming and expensive. Meanwhile, it is well established that visible near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy...

  9. 28.3THz bowtie antenna integrated rectifier for infrared energy harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Gadalla, Mena N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of an asymmetric 28.3 THz antenna integrated rectifier (rectenna) using Au/Al2O3/Pt is presented. The rectenna design comprises a sharp tip bowtie antenna and a tunneling Metal-insulator-Metal (MIM) diode

  10. Autonomous Preference-Aware Information Services Integration for High Response in Integrated Faded Information Field Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.

  11. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Markarian 273: Mapping High-Velocity Gas Flows and an Off-Nucleus Seyfert 2 Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina; Arribas; Borne

    1999-12-10

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-based system is used to map the extended ionized regions and gas flows in Mrk 273, one of the closest ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The Hbeta and [O iii] lambda5007 maps show the presence of two distinct regions separated by 4&arcsec; (3.1 kpc) along position angle (P.A.) 240 degrees. The northeastern region coincides with the optical nucleus of the galaxy and shows the spectral characteristics of LINERs. The southwestern region is dominated by [O iii] emission and is classified as a Seyfert 2. Therefore, in the optical, Mrk 273 is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy with a LINER nucleus and an extended off-nucleus Seyfert 2 nebula. The kinematics of the [O iii] ionized gas shows (1) the presence of highly disturbed gas in the regions around the LINER nucleus, (2) a high-velocity gas flow with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.4x103 km s-1, and (3) quiescent gas in the outer regions (at 3 kpc). We hypothesize that the high-velocity flow is the starburst-driven superwind generated in an optically obscured nuclear starburst and that the quiescent gas is directly ionized by a nuclear source, similar to the ionization cones typically seen in Seyfert galaxies.

  12. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS and principal components regression (PCR were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm−1 from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry.

  13. Classifying coastal resources by integrating optical and radar imagery and color infrared photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, Gene A.; Sapkota, Sijan

    1998-01-01

    A progressive classification of a marsh and forest system using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), color infrared (CIR) photograph, and ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data improved classification accuracy when compared to classification using solely TM reflective band data. The classification resulted in a detailed identification of differences within a nearly monotypic black needlerush marsh. Accuracy percentages of these classes were surprisingly high given the complexities of classification. The detailed classification resulted in a more accurate portrayal of the marsh transgressive sequence than was obtainable with TM data alone. Individual sensor contribution to the improved classification was compared to that using only the six reflective TM bands. Individually, the green reflective CIR and SAR data identified broad categories of water, marsh, and forest. In combination with TM, SAR and the green CIR band each improved overall accuracy by about 3% and 15% respectively. The SAR data improved the TM classification accuracy mostly in the marsh classes. The green CIR data also improved the marsh classification accuracy and accuracies in some water classes. The final combination of all sensor data improved almost all class accuracies from 2% to 70% with an overall improvement of about 20% over TM data alone. Not only was the identification of vegetation types improved, but the spatial detail of the classification approached 10 m in some areas.

  14. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P

    2016-09-07

    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources.

  15. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  16. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  17. Some results from a temperature evaluation of a cotton field with infrared thermometer for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharova, A.; Kolev, N.; Nedkov, N.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present study were connected with evaluation of the basic soil properties, distribution of thermal, hydrological and electronic soil properties and criteria for minimization of the measurement points, obtained in the cotton non-irrigated field of the Institute of durum wheat and cotton near Chirpan. It were measured crop temperature of cotton field and soil surface temperature distribution during the main vegetative stages. Using the energy balance equation and soil water balance equation was calculated the intensity of evapotranspiration during the days of measurements

  18. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  19. Auditory-visual integration in fields of the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Michinori; Sugimoto, Shunji; Hosokawa, Yutaka; Ojima, Hisayuki; Horikawa, Junsei

    2017-03-01

    While multimodal interactions have been known to exist in the early sensory cortices, the response properties and spatiotemporal organization of these interactions are poorly understood. To elucidate the characteristics of multimodal sensory interactions in the cerebral cortex, neuronal responses to visual stimuli with or without auditory stimuli were investigated in core and belt fields of guinea pig auditory cortex using real-time optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On average, visual responses consisted of short excitation followed by long inhibition. Although visual responses were observed in core and belt fields, there were regional and temporal differences in responses. The most salient visual responses were observed in the caudal belt fields, especially posterior (P) and dorsocaudal belt (DCB) fields. Visual responses emerged first in fields P and DCB and then spread rostroventrally to core and ventrocaudal belt (VCB) fields. Absolute values of positive and negative peak amplitudes of visual responses were both larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields. When combined visual and auditory stimuli were applied, fields P and DCB were more inhibited than core and VCB fields beginning approximately 110 ms after stimuli. Correspondingly, differences between responses to auditory stimuli alone and combined audiovisual stimuli became larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields after approximately 110 ms after stimuli. These data indicate that visual influences are most salient in fields P and DCB, which manifest mainly as inhibition, and that they enhance differences in auditory responses among fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The infrared problem for the dressed non-relativistic electron in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Grebert, B.; Guillot, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a non-relativistic electron interacting with a classical magnetic field pointing along the x 3 -axis and with a quantized electromagnetic field. The system is translation invariant in the x 3 -direction and the corresponding Hamiltonian has a decomposition H ≅∫ R + H(P 3 )dP 3 . For a fixed momentum P 3 sufficiently small, we prove that H(P 3 ) has a ground state in the Fock representation if and only if E'(P 3 )=0, where P 3 →E'(P 3 ) is the derivative of the map P 3 →E(P 3 )=infσ(H(P 3 )). If E'(P 3 )≠0, we obtain the existence of a ground state in a non-Fock representation. This result holds for sufficiently small values of the coupling constant. (authors)

  1. Measurement of poloidal field distributions in Tokamaks by far-infrared polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, W [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physikalische Elektronik; Dodel, G

    1978-02-01

    A sufficiently precise measurement of small Faraday rotation angles in a Tokamak experiment should be possible. Besides the precision with which the Faraday rotation angles can be measured, the precision with which the poloidal field can finally be deduced from such measurements, depends on other factors such as the measuring precision of the electron density profile, the diameter of the probing beam and the deviation of the plasma from circular symmetry.

  2. Far-infrared polarimetry/interferometry for poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    The measurement of internal magnetic field profiles may be a very important step in the understanding of magnetic confinement physics issues. The measurement of plasma-induced Faraday rotation is one of the more promising internal magnetic field diagnostics. This thesis describes the development of a heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer for internal poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M. Heterodyne techniques were employed because of the insensitivity to spurious signal amplitude changes that cause errors in other methods. Initial problems in polarimetric sensitivity were observed that were ultimately found to be related to discharge-induced motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence reflections on metallic surfaces of the diagnostic ports caused polarization changes that affected the measurement accuracy. Installation of internally threaded sleeves to baffle the reflections eliminated the sensitivity problem, and allowed useful Faraday rotation measurements to be made. Simultaneous polarimetric and interferometric measurements have also been demonstrated. The ability to assemble a working heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer is no longer in question. The extension of the present system to multichord operation requires increased laser power and efficiency

  3. Integrated-light spectroscopy of globular clusters at the infrared Ca II lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Zinn, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy has been obtained for 27 globular clusters at the Ca II IR triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities have been measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the Ca II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates. Thus, the triplet is useful as a metallicity indicator in globular cluster integrated-light spectra. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths (compared to the blue region of the spectrum) has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from IR photometry by Malkan (1981). The strength of an interstellar band at 8621A has been used to estimate the amount of extinction towards these clusters. Using the new metallicity and radial-velocity data, the metallicity distribution, kinematics, and spatial distribution of the disk globular cluster system have been analyzed. Results very similar to those of Zinn (1985) have been found. The relation of the disk globulars to the stellar thick disk is discussed.

  4. Integral abutment bridges under thermal loading : field monitoring and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have gained popularity throughout the United States due to their low construction and maintenance costs. Previous research on IABs has been heavily focused on substructure performance, leaving a need for better unders...

  5. Particles versus fields in PT-symmetrically deformed integrable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reversal and parity transformation, can be used to construct new integrable models. Some complex valued multi-particle systems, such as deformations of the Calogero–Moser– Sutherland models, are shown to arise naturally from real valued ...

  6. Integrated modelling of near field and engineered barrier system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, A.; Gansemer, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Integrating Model (YMIM) is an integrated model of the Engineered barrier System has been developed to assist project managers at LLNL in identifying areas where research emphasis should be placed. The model was designed to be highly modular so that a model of an individual process could be easily modified or replaced without interfering with the models of other processes. The modules modelling container failure and the dissolution of nuclides include particularly detailed, temperature dependent models of their corresponding processes

  7. Imaging of phase change materials below a capping layer using correlative infrared near-field microscopy and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, M.; Hauer, B.; Bornhöfft, M.; Jung, L.; Benke, J.; Michel, A.-K. U.; Mayer, J.; Wuttig, M.; Taubner, T.

    2015-10-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) show two stable states in the solid phase with significantly different optical and electronic properties. They can be switched reversibly between those two states and are promising candidates for future non-volatile memory applications. The development of phase change devices demands characterization tools, yielding information about the switching process at high spatial resolution. Scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) allows for spectroscopic analyses of the different optical properties of the PCMs on the nm-scale. By correlating the optical s-SNOM images with transmission electron microscopy images of the same sample, we unambiguously demonstrate the correlation of the infrared optical contrast with the structural state of the phase change material. The investigated sample consists of sandwiched amorphous and crystalline regions of Ag 4 In 3 Sb 67 Te 26 below a 100 nm thick ( ZnS ) 80 - ( SiO2 ) 20 capping layer. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of s-SNOM to small dielectric near-field contrasts even below a comparably thick capping layer ( 100 nm ).

  8. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  9. iHWG-μNIR: a miniaturised near-infrared gas sensor based on substrate-integrated hollow waveguides coupled to a micro-NIR-spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwedder, J J R; Pasquini, C; Fortes, P R; Raimundo, I M; Wilk, A; Mizaikoff, B

    2014-07-21

    A miniaturised gas analyser is described and evaluated based on the use of a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) coupled to a microsized near-infrared spectrophotometer comprising a linear variable filter and an array of InGaAs detectors. This gas sensing system was applied to analyse surrogate samples of natural fuel gas containing methane, ethane, propane and butane, quantified by using multivariate regression models based on partial least square (PLS) algorithms and Savitzky-Golay 1(st) derivative data preprocessing. The external validation of the obtained models reveals root mean square errors of prediction of 0.37, 0.36, 0.67 and 0.37% (v/v), for methane, ethane, propane and butane, respectively. The developed sensing system provides particularly rapid response times upon composition changes of the gaseous sample (approximately 2 s) due the minute volume of the iHWG-based measurement cell. The sensing system developed in this study is fully portable with a hand-held sized analyser footprint, and thus ideally suited for field analysis. Last but not least, the obtained results corroborate the potential of NIR-iHWG analysers for monitoring the quality of natural gas and petrochemical gaseous products.

  10. Field-scale predictions of soil contaminant sorption using visible–near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria

    2016-01-01

    . By means of the vis–NIR spectra we were able to predict phenanthrene (R2 = 0.95, RMSECV = 31 L kg−1) and glyphosate (R2 = 0.79, RMSECV = 45 L kg−1) sorption capacities. A model using vis–NIR spectra plus pH values improved the prediction of glyphosate sorption capacity (R2 = 0.88, RMSECV = 34 L kg−1......) and glyphosate (sorbed on mineral fractions). Forty-five bulk soil samples were collected from an agricultural field in Estrup, Denmark, in a 15 m × 15 m grid. Samples were air-dried, sieved to 2 mm and analysed for selected soil properties. Sorption coefficients were obtained from a batch equilibration...

  11. Near-infrared Variability in the 2MASS Calibration Fields: A Search for Planetary Transit Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; Jura, M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometric calibration observations cover approximately 6 square degrees on the sky in 35 'calibration fields,' each sampled in nominal photometric conditions between 562 and 3692 times during the 4 years of the 2MASS mission. We compile a catalog of variables from the calibration observations to search for M dwarfs transited by extrasolar planets. We present our methods for measuring periodic and nonperiodic flux variability. From 7554 sources with apparent K(sub s) magnitudes between 5.6 and 16.1, we identify 247 variables, including extragalactic variables and 23 periodic variables. We have discovered three M dwarf eclipsing systems, including two candidates for transiting extrasolar planets.

  12. High-sensitivity broadband infrared monitor of spatial structure of relativistic bunches and thermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.; Maslova, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor is intended for registration of spatial distribution of density of energy of pulsing radiation of thermal fields and bunches of relativistic electrons and protons in a wide spectral range 0,4 - 4 μm. In a measuring system of a monitor effective means of active and passive increase of the relation of a useful signal to noise, in view of particular conditions and requirements are used. The measuring channel can confidently allocate a useful signal on a background of handicaps, the size of which can make about 20 kE in a pulse [1]. The accuracy of measurement of amplitude of a signal of radiation makes 0,2% of maximum significances of a registrar scale. (author)

  13. Integrability and the conformal field theory of the Higgs branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Bogdan, Stefański Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, we investigate the Higgs branch CFT 2 . Witten showed that states localised near the small instanton singularity can be described in terms of vector multiplet variables. This theory has a planar, weak-coupling limit, in which anomalous dimensions of single-trace composite operators can be calculated. At one loop, the calculation reduces to finding the spectrum of a spin-chain with nearest-neighbour interactions. This CFT 2 spin-chain matches precisely the one that was previously found as the weak-coupling limit of the integrable system describing the AdS 3 side of the duality. We compute the one-loop dilatation operator in a non-trivial compact subsector and show that it corresponds to an integrable spin-chain Hamiltonian. This provides the first direct evidence of integrability on the CFT 2 side of the correspondence.

  14. Complexity of Configurators Relative to Integrations and Field of Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Battistello, Loris

    . Moreover, configurators are commonly integrated to various IT systems within companies. The complexity of configurators is an important factor when it comes to performance, development and maintenance of the systems. A direct comparison of the complexity based on the different application...... integrations to other IT systems. The research method adopted in the paper is based on a survey followed with interviews where the unit of analysis is based on operating configurators within a company.......Configurators are applied widely to automate the specification processes at companies. The literature describes the industrial application of configurators supporting both sales and engineering processes, where configurators supporting the engineering processes are described more challenging...

  15. Efficient perovskite/organic integrated solar cells with extended photoresponse to 930 nm and enhanced near-infrared external quantum efficiency of over 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Liu, Hao; Shi, Zhenzhen; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhou, Erjun; Bian, Xingming; Zhang, Bing; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2018-02-15

    Enhancing the light-harvesting activity is an effective way to improve the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. Although rapid enhancement in the PCE up to a value of 22.1% has been achieved for perovskite solar cells, only part of the sunlight, i.e., with wavelengths below 800-850 nm is utilized due to the limited bandgap of the perovskite materials, resulting in most of the near infrared light being wasted. To broaden the photoresponse of perovskite solar cells, we demonstrate an efficient perovskite/organic integrated solar cell containing both CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite and PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO organic photoactive layers. By integrating a low band gap PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO active layer on a perovskite layer, the maximum wavelength for light harvesting of the ISC increased to 930 nm, sharply increasing the utilization of near infrared radiation. In addition, the external quantum efficiency of the integrated device exceeded 50% in the near infrared range. The MAPbI 3 /PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO ISCs show an enhanced short-circuit current density of over 24 mA cm -2 , which is the highest existing value among perovskite/organic integrated solar cells and much higher than the traditional MAPbI 3 based perovskite solar cells. The results reveal that a perovskite/organic integrated structure is a promising strategy to extend and enhance sunlight utilization for perovskite solar cells.

  16. Assessment of a landfill methane emission screening method using an unmanned aerial vehicle mounted thermal infrared camera – A field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, A. G.; Larsen, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-mounted thermal infrared (TIR) camera’s ability to delineate landfill gas (LFG) emission hotspots was evaluated in a field test at two Danish landfills (Hedeland landfill and Audebo landfill). At both sites, a test area of 100 m2 was established and divided into a...

  17. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  18. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  19. Micro- and nano-scale optical devices for high density photonic integrated circuits at near-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    In this research work, we explore fundamental silicon-based active and passive photonic devices that can be integrated together to form functional photonic integrated circuits. The devices which include power splitters, switches and lenses are studied starting from their physics, their design and fabrication techniques and finally from an experimental standpoint. The experimental results reveal high performance devices that are compatible with standard CMOS fabrication processes and can be easily integrated with other devices for near infrared telecom applications. In Chapter 2, a novel method for optical switching using nanomechanical proximity perturbation technique is described and demonstrated. The method which is experimentally demonstrated employs relatively low powers, small chip footprint and is compatible with standard CMOS fabrication processes. Further, in Chapter 3, this method is applied to develop a hitless bypass switch aimed at solving an important issue in current wavelength division multiplexing systems namely hitless switching of reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of the nanomechanical proximity perturbation technique to practical situations. In Chapter 4, a fundamental photonic component namely the power splitter is described. Power splitters are important components for any photonic integrated circuits because they help split the power from a single light source to multiple devices on the same chip so that different operations can be performed simultaneously. The power splitters demonstrated in this chapter are based on multimode interference principles resulting in highly compact low loss and highly uniform power splitting to split the power of the light from a single channel to two and four channels. These devices can further be scaled to achieve higher order splitting such as 1x16 and 1x32 power splits. Finally in Chapter 5 we overcome challenges in device

  20. Evaluate depth of field limits of fixed focus lens arrangements in thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    More and more modern thermal imaging systems use uncooled detectors. High volume applications work with detectors that have a reduced pixel count (typically between 200x150 and 640x480). This reduces the usefulness of modern image treatment procedures such as wave front coding. On the other hand, uncooled detectors demand lenses with fast fnumbers, near f/1.0, which reduces the expected Depth of Field (DoF). What are the limits on resolution if the target changes distance to the camera system? The desire to implement lens arrangements without a focusing mechanism demands a deeper quantification of the DoF problem. A new approach avoids the classic "accepted image blur circle" and quantifies the expected DoF by the Through Focus MTF of the lens. This function is defined for a certain spatial frequency that provides a straightforward relation to the pixel pitch of imaging device. A certain minimum MTF-level is necessary so that the complete thermal imaging system can realize its basic functions, such as recognition or detection of specified targets. Very often, this technical tradeoff is approved with a certain lens. But what is the impact of changing the lens for one with a different focal length? Narrow field lenses, which give more details of targets in longer distances, tighten the DoF problem. A first orientation is given by the hyperfocal distance. It depends in a square relation on the focal length and in a linear relation on the through focus MTF of the lens. The analysis of these relations shows the contradicting requirements between higher thermal and spatial resolution, faster f-number and desired DoF. Furthermore, the hyperfocal distance defines the DoF-borders. Their relation between is such as the first order imaging formulas. A calculation methodology will be presented to transfer DoF-results from an approved combination lens and camera to another lens in combination with the initial camera. Necessary input for this prediction is the accepted DoF of

  1. Studies on infrared drying of paper, use of integrating spheres in FTIR measurements, and heat and mass transfer inside paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, K

    1994-12-31

    The effect of various factors on the efficiency of infrared dryers has been studied by modelling and simulation of radiative heat transfer in these dryers. Generally, 20-35 % of the radiation from electrical IR dryers becomes absorbed by the web, whereas in the case of a gas-fired dryer 30-50 % of the energy becomes absorbed. The efficiency is strongly dependent on the dryer design, power, geometry, cleanness, and the material to be dried. Ways to improve the efficiency of installed dryers are proposed and tested. The escape of radiation from the system can be reduced, the optical properties of the surfaces can be improved, the amount of cooling can be reduced in low power circumstances, and the way of installation can be changed. A very promising method is to install the dryer far from the web and attach side flanges of high emissivity beside the dryer. The spectral properties of papers and dryer materials are studied with an FTIR spectrometer using integrating sphere techniques. The heat and mass transfer processes inside the paper during drying has been studied. The drying model was applied to the simulation of the wetting experiments. The approximate magnitude for the permeability of liquid water inside the web was determined by adapting the liquid movement to these results. Applying this enhanced model, the flows of liquid water and vapor inside paper have been studied during the drying process on a hot cylinder

  2. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Lejeune, P.; Lasri, T.; Leclercq, D. [IEMN, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS and Lille 1 University, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Savelli, G.; Hauser, D.; Michon, P.-M. [CEA, LITEN, Thermoelectricity Laboratory, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (μSIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of μSIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in μSIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

  3. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  4. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    The dividing line between specialised lexicography and terminography is non-existent. The focus of preparing dictionaries for a particular subject-field should be the needs of its user group in specific situations. This is catered for by the modern theory of dictionary functions and includes...... the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users. The optimal dictionary...

  5. Exact results for integrable asymptotically-free field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J M; Evans, Jonathan M; Hollowood, Timothy J

    1995-01-01

    An account is given of a technique for testing the equivalence between an exact factorizable S-matrix and an asymptotically-free Lagrangian field theory in two space-time dimensions. The method provides a way of resolving CDD ambiguities in the S-matrix and it also allows for an exact determination of the physical mass in terms of the Lambda parameter of perturbation theory. The results for various specific examples are summarized. (To appear in the Proceedings of the Conference on Recent Developments in Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics, ICTP, Trieste, Easter 1995).

  6. Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L. [Univ. Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria). Dept. de Physique

    2008-05-15

    The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)

  7. Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)

  8. The Far-Infrared Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Density for Dust Obscured Galaxies in the Bootes Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson; Wardlow, J. L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A. R.; HerMES

    2013-01-01

    We present the far-Infrared (FIR) luminosity function (LF) and the star-formation rate density (SFRD) for dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field at redshift 2. These galaxies are selected by having a large rest frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratio ( > 1000) and are expected to be some of the most luminous and heavily obscured galaxies in the Universe at this epoch. Photometric redshifts for DOGs are estimated from optical and mid-IR data using empirically derived low resolution spectral templates for AGN and galaxies. We use HerMES Herschel-SPIRE data to fit a modified blackbody to calculate the FIR luminosity (LFIR) and dust temperature (Td) for all DOGs individually detected in SPIRE maps. A stacking analyses was implemented to measure a median sub-mm flux of undetected DOGs. We find that DOGs have LIR and Td that are similar with the sub-millimeter galaxy (SMG) population, suggesting these two populations are related. The DOG LF and SFRD at 2 are calculated and compared to SMGs.

  9. A differential algebraic integration algorithm for symplectic mappings in systems with three-dimensional magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.; Lee, S.Y.; Yan, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  10. A Differential Algebraic Integration Algorithm for Symplectic Mappings in Systems with Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P

    2004-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  11. Cluster of Sound Speed Fields by an Integral Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the same cost in time. The increasing the number of sensor depths does not cause execution time to increase. And finally assume that the time required...to be P = Z − ∫ 0 b ∂C(ρ, θ, λ) ∂ρ ∂C(ρ, θ, λ) ∂ρ dρ (2) where (ρ,θ,λ) are the usual geocentric spherical coordinates, and the limits of integration...but using spherical coordinates requires that the horizontal (θ , λ) terms be normalized by the radius. In the case of geocentric coordinates this

  12. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  13. Integrable models in 1+1 dimensional quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddeev, Ludvig.

    1982-09-01

    The goal of this lecture is to present a unifying view on the exactly soluble models. There exist several reasons arguing in favor of the 1+1 dimensional models: every exact solution of a field-theoretical model can teach about the ability of quantum field theory to describe spectrum and scattering; some 1+1 d models have physical applications in the solid state theory. There are several ways to become acquainted with the methods of exactly soluble models: via classical statistical mechanics, via Bethe Ansatz, via inverse scattering method. Fundamental Poisson bracket relation FPR and/or fundamental commutation relations FCR play fundamental role. General classification of FPR is given with promizing generalizations to FCR

  14. On integration over Fermi fields in chiral and supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Chiral and supersymmetric theories are considered which cannot be formulated directly in Euclidean space or regularized by means of massive fields in a manifestly gauge invariant fashion. In case of so called real representations a simple recipe is proposed which allows for unambiguous evaluation of the fermionic determinant circumventing the difficulties mentioned. As application of the general technique the effective fermionic interactions induced by instantons of small size within simplest chiral and supesymmetric theories are calculated (SU(2) as the gauge group and one doublet of Weyl spinors or a triplet of Majorana spinors, respectively). In the latter case the effective Lagrangian violates explicitly invariance under supersymmetric transformations on the fermionic and vector fields defined in standard way [ru

  15. NEAR-INFRARED PERIODIC AND OTHER VARIABLE FIELD STARS IN THE FIELD OF THE CYGNUS OB7 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present a subset of the results of a three-season, 124 night, near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark clouds Lynds 1003 and Lynds 1004 in the Cygnus OB7 star-forming region. In this paper, we focus on the field star population. Using three seasons of UKIRT J, H, and K-band observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. After excluding known disk-bearing stars we identify 149 variables-1.6% of the sample. Of these, about 60 are strictly periodic, with periods predominantly <2 days. We conclude this group is dominated by eclipsing binaries. A few stars have long period signals of between 20 and 60 days. About 25 stars have weak modulated signals, but it was not clear if these were periodic. Some of the stars in this group may be diskless young stellar objects with relatively large variability due to cool starspots. The remaining {approx}60 stars showed variations which appear to be purely stochastic.

  16. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy MRK 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas Off Fueling Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in approximately 700 x 2100 pc(exp 2) circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  17. Integrated Community Based Coastal Management: Lesson From The Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal abrasion has been occurred throughout coastline of Java reaching 745 km at length, account for 44% of total Java’s coastline. This phenomena is caused by reclamation, cutting of mangrove, land-use change and other human activities specifically at coastal area. Coastal abrasion stimulates flood or tidal flood, when sea level rise, the sea water flows to the land undated fish pond, settlement and other infrastructures standing at coastal area. Tidal flood destroys settlement lead to significant decrease of property value: land and house. Coastal abrasion caused lose people’s job and income. One measure taken by local community is mangrove cultivation intended to prevent sea level rise flowing to the inland. However many efforts taken by community frequently fail because of un-integrated approach. This paper reviews a mangrove plantations in Mangunharjo, district of Tugu, Semarang, Central Java by utilizing an innovative approach integrating environmental, economic and social aspect. These mangrove cultivations environmentally useful to prevent coastal abrasion, economically creating income for local people and socially supported by local community. These three approaches ensure sustainability of mangrove’s culture.

  18. Off-equilibrium infrared structure of self-interacting scalar fields: Universal scaling, vortex-antivortex superfluid dynamics, and Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Schlichting, Soeren; Venugopalan, Raju; Wang, Qun

    2018-05-01

    We map the infrared dynamics of a relativistic single-component (N =1 ) interacting scalar field theory to that of nonrelativistic complex scalar fields. The Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, describing the real-time dynamics of single-component ultracold Bose gases, is obtained at first nontrivial order in an expansion proportional to the powers of λ ϕ2/m2 where λ , ϕ , and m are the coupling constant, the scalar field, and the particle mass respectively. Our analytical studies are corroborated by numerical simulations of the spatial and momentum structure of overoccupied scalar fields in (2+1)-dimensions. Universal scaling of infrared modes, vortex-antivortex superfluid dynamics, and the off-equilibrium formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate are observed. Our results for the universal scaling exponents are in agreement with those extracted in the numerical simulations of the GP equation. As in these simulations, we observe coarsening phase kinetics in the Bose superfluid with strongly anomalous scaling exponents relative to that of vertex resummed kinetic theory. Our relativistic field theory framework further allows one to study more closely the coupling between superfluid and normal fluid modes, specifically the turbulent momentum and spatial structure of the coupling between a quasiparticle cascade to the infrared and an energy cascade to the ultraviolet. We outline possible applications of the formalism to the dynamics of vortex-antivortex formation and to the off-equilibrium dynamics of the strongly interacting matter formed in heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Integrated Stewardship of NASA Satellite and Field Campaign Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.; Hardman, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive, steward and distributor for physical oceanographic satellite data. Those data are typically organized along the lines of single parameters, such as Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Winds, Salinity, etc. However there is a need supplement satellite data with in situ and various other remote sensing data to provide higher spatial and temporal sampling and information on physical processes that the satellites are not capable of measuring. This presentation will discuss how PO.DAAC is creating a stewardship and distribution plan that will accommodate satellite, in situ and other remote sensing data that can be used to solve a more integrated approach to data access and utilization along thematic lines in support of science and applications, specifically those posed by Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) and Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) projects. SPURS used shipboard data, moorings and in situ instruments to investigate changes in salinity and how that information can be used in explaining the water cycle. OMG is studying ice melt in Greenland and how it contributes to changes in sea level through shipboard measurements, airborne and a variety of in situ instruments. PO.DAAC plans on adapting to stewarding and distributing these varieties of data through applications of file format and metadata standards (so data are discoverable and interoperable), extend the internal data system (to allow for better archiving, collection generation and querying of in situ and airborne data) and integration into tools (visualization and data access). We are also working on Virtual Collections with ESDWG, which could provide access to relevant data across DAACs/Agencies along thematic lines. These improvements will improve long-term data management and make it easier for users of various background, regardless if remote sensing or in situ, to discover and use the data.

  20. On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed

  1. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  2. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  3. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  4. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  5. A calderón multiplicative preconditioner for the combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Cools, Kristof; Olyslager, Femke; Michielssen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP) for the combined field integral equation (CFIE) is developed. Just like with previously proposed Caldern-preconditioned CFIEs, a localization procedure is employed to ensure that the equation

  6. Introduction to functional and path integral methods in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, J.

    1991-11-01

    The following aspects concerning the use of functional and path integral methods in quantum field theory are discussed: generating functionals and the effective action, perturbation series, Yang-Mills theory and BRST symmetry. 10 refs, 3 figs

  7. 1. Introduction. 2. Laboratory experiments. 3. Field experiments. 4. Integrated field-laboratory experiments. 5. Panel recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Some recommendations for the design of laboratory and field studies in marine radioecology are formulated. The difficulties concerning the comparability of various experimental methods used to measure the fluxes of radionuclides through marine organisms and ecosystems, and also the use of laboratory results to make predictions for the natural environment are discussed. Three working groups were established during the panel meeting, to consider laboratory experiments, field studies, and the design and execution of integrated laboratory and field studies respectively. A number of supporting papers dealing with marine radioecological experiments were presented

  8. Integration of field data into operational snowmelt-runoff models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, M.; Bergström, S.

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual runoff models have become standard tools for operational hydrological forecasting in Scandinavia. These models are normally based on observations from the national climatological networks, but in mountainous areas the stations are few and sometimes not representative. Due to the great economic importance of good hydrological forecasts for the hydro-power industry attempts have been made to improve the model simulations by support from field observations of the snowpack. The snowpack has been mapped by several methods; airborne gamma-spectrometry, airborne georadars, satellites and by conventional snow courses. The studies cover more than ten years of work in Sweden. The conclusion is that field observations of the snow cover have a potential for improvement of the forecasts of inflow to the reservoirs in the mountainous part of the country, where the climatological data coverages is poor. This is pronounced during years with unusual snow distribution. The potential for model improvement is smaller in the climatologically more homogeneous forested lowlands, where the climatological network is denser. The costs of introduction of airborne observations into the modelling procedure are high and can only be justified in areas of great hydropower potential. (author)

  9. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  10. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  11. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  12. Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Токарев

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using  integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.

  13. Computer-aided discovery of debris disk candidates: A case study using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T.; Pankratius, V.; Eckman, L.; Seager, S.

    2018-04-01

    Debris disks around stars other than the Sun have received significant attention in studies of exoplanets, specifically exoplanetary system formation. Since debris disks are major sources of infrared emissions, infrared survey data such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey (WISE) catalog potentially harbors numerous debris disk candidates. However, it is currently challenging to perform disk candidate searches for over 747 million sources in the WISE catalog due to the high probability of false positives caused by interstellar matter, galaxies, and other background artifacts. Crowdsourcing techniques have thus started to harness citizen scientists for debris disk identification since humans can be easily trained to distinguish between desired artifacts and irrelevant noises. With a limited number of citizen scientists, however, increasing data volumes from large surveys will inevitably lead to analysis bottlenecks. To overcome this scalability problem and push the current limits of automated debris disk candidate identification, we present a novel approach that uses citizen science results as a seed to train machine learning based classification. In this paper, we detail a case study with a computer-aided discovery pipeline demonstrating such feasibility based on WISE catalog data and NASA's Disk Detective project. Our approach of debris disk candidates classification was shown to be robust under a wide range of image quality and features. Our hybrid approach of citizen science with algorithmic scalability can facilitate big data processing for future detections as envisioned in future missions such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

  14. Simulation of sensory integration dysfunction in autism with dynamic neural fields model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonnaparamutt, W.; Barakova, E.I.; Rutkowski, L.; Taseusiewicz, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies dynamic neural fields model [1,23,7] to multimodal interaction of sensory cues obtained from a mobile robot, and shows the impact of different temporal aspects of the integration to the precision of movements. We speculate that temporally uncoordinated sensory integration might be

  15. Integrals of random fields treated by the model correction factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  16. Model correction factor method for reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  17. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  18. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  19. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  20. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  1. An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, H. Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep

  2. Integral of notion for a quantum Sutherland-Calogero system in the external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheryakov, D.V.; Tverskoj, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Sutherland-Calogero three-particle system in the external field is considered. The formula for ordering non-commutating variables in the motion integrals is proposed. The motion integrals are obtained in an obvious form. The problem on analytical evidence of the system complete integration by arbitrary N remains open. The formula, proposed in this paper for ordering non-commutating variables in the I n , may be applied by conducting the total evidence [ru

  3. Imaging FTS: A Different Approach to Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Drissen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (iFTS is a promising, although technically very challenging, option for wide-field hyperspectral imagery. We present in this paper an introduction to the iFTS concept and its advantages and drawbacks, as well as examples of data obtained with a prototype iFTS, SpIOMM, attached to the 1.6 m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic: emission line ratios in the spiral galaxy NGC 628 and absorption line indices in the giant elliptical M87. We conclude by introducing SpIOMM's successor, SITELLE, which will be installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in 2014.

  4. Interaction with a field: a simple integrable model with backreaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Amaury

    2008-09-01

    The classical model of an oscillator linearly coupled to a string captures, for a low price in technique, many general features of more realistic models for describing a particle interacting with a field or an atom in an electromagnetic cavity. The scattering matrix and the asymptotic in and out-waves on the string can be computed exactly and the phenomenon of resonant scattering can be introduced in the simplest way. The dissipation induced by the coupling of the oscillator to the string can be studied completely. In the case of a d'Alembert string, the backreaction leads to an Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac-like equation. In the case of a Klein-Gordon string, one can see explicitly how radiation governs the (meta)stability of the (quasi)bounded mode.

  5. Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors.

  6. Effect of surface fields on the dynamic resistance of planar HgCdTe mid-wavelength infrared photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kai; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yi-Yu [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Song-Min; Xie, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Chun, E-mail: chun-lin@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhang, Qin-Yao, E-mail: qinyao@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Li, Yang [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    This work investigates the effect of surface fields on the dynamic resistance of a planar HgCdTe mid-wavelength infrared photodiode from both theoretical and experimental aspects, considering a gated n-on-p diode with the surface potential of its p-region modulated. Theoretical models of the surface leakage current are developed, where the surface tunnelling current in the case of accumulation is expressed by modifying the formulation of bulk tunnelling currents, and the surface channel current for strong inversion is simulated with a transmission line method. Experimental data from the fabricated devices show a flat-band voltage of V{sub FB}=−5.7 V by capacitance-voltage measurement, and then the physical parameters for bulk properties are determined from the resistance-voltage characteristics of the diode working at a flat-band gate voltage. With proper values of the modeling parameters such as surface trap density and channel electron mobility, the theoretical R{sub 0}A product and corresponding dark current calculated from the proposed model as functions of the gate voltage V{sub g} demonstrate good consistency with the measured values. The R{sub 0}A product remarkably degenerates when V{sub g} is far below or above V{sub FB} because of the surface tunnelling current or channel current, respectively; and it attains the maximum value of 5.7×10{sup 7} Ω · cm{sup 2} around the transition between surface depletion and weak inversion when V{sub g}≈−4 V, which might result from reduced generation-recombination current.

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  8. Assessment of multifocal contact lens over-refraction using an infrared, open-field autorefractor: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Anna; Aldaba, Mikel; Arjona, Montserrat; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of an infrared open-field autorefractor as a predictor of the refractive error when fitting multifocal contact lenses (MCL). Objective and subjective measurements of the non-cycloplegic distance refractive error were compared in patients wearing MCL. We used the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor for the objective measurements. Three commercially available MCL were tested. Twenty-one eyes of sixteen healthy adults were included in the study. Over-refraction was evaluated in terms of spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatic vectors (J0 and J45). The mean difference±SD of each parameter was calculated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normal distribution. Pearson's correlation, Bland and Altman plot and paired sample t test were used to compare the results obtained with both methods. The mean difference between objective and subjective results of the SE over-refraction was 0.13±0.42D; for astigmatic vectors J0 and J45 were 0.03±0.32D and -0.00±0.17D, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal distribution for all parameters. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for the SE with values of 0.98 without MCL and 0.97 with MCL. The lowest were obtained for J45 with values of 0.65 without MCL and 0.75 with MCL. Significant correlations were obtained for each parameter. The paired sample t test failed to show significant differences in analyzed parameters except for J0 without MCL. The Grand Seiko WAM-5500 can be used as a screening method of over-refraction in the clinical fitting of MCL. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coral Reef Surveillance: Infrared-Sensitive Video Surveillance Technology as a New Tool for Diurnal and Nocturnal Long-Term Field Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnwoeber, Markus; Machan, Rudolf; Herler, Juergen

    2012-10-31

    Direct field observations of fine-scaled biological processes and interactions of the benthic community of corals and associated reef organisms (e.g., feeding, reproduction, mutualistic or agonistic behavior, behavioral responses to changing abiotic factors) usually involve a disturbing intervention. Modern digital camcorders (without inflexible land-or ship-based cable connection) such as the GoPro camera enable undisturbed and unmanned, stationary close-up observations. Such observations, however, are also very time-limited (~3 h) and full 24 h-recordings throughout day and night, including nocturnal observations without artificial daylight illumination, are not possible. Herein we introduce the application of modern standard video surveillance technology with the main objective of providing a tool for monitoring coral reef or other sessile and mobile organisms for periods of 24 h and longer. This system includes nocturnal close-up observations with miniature infrared (IR)-sensitive cameras and separate high-power IR-LEDs. Integrating this easy-to-set up and portable remote-sensing equipment into coral reef research is expected to significantly advance our understanding of fine-scaled biotic processes on coral reefs. Rare events and long-lasting processes can easily be recorded, in situ -experiments can be monitored live on land, and nocturnal IR-observations reveal undisturbed behavior. The options and equipment choices in IR-sensitive surveillance technology are numerous and subject to a steadily increasing technical supply and quality at decreasing prices. Accompanied by short video examples, this report introduces a radio-transmission system for simultaneous recordings and real-time monitoring of multiple cameras with synchronized timestamps, and a surface-independent underwater-recording system.

  10. Coral Reef Surveillance: Infrared-Sensitive Video Surveillance Technology as a New Tool for Diurnal and Nocturnal Long-Term Field Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Herler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct field observations of fine-scaled biological processes and interactions of the benthic community of corals and associated reef organisms (e.g., feeding, reproduction, mutualistic or agonistic behavior, behavioral responses to changing abiotic factors usually involve a disturbing intervention. Modern digital camcorders (without inflexible land-or ship-based cable connection such as the GoPro camera enable undisturbed and unmanned, stationary close-up observations. Such observations, however, are also very time-limited (~3 h and full 24 h-recordings throughout day and night, including nocturnal observations without artificial daylight illumination, are not possible. Herein we introduce the application of modern standard video surveillance technology with the main objective of providing a tool for monitoring coral reef or other sessile and mobile organisms for periods of 24 h and longer. This system includes nocturnal close-up observations with miniature infrared (IR-sensitive cameras and separate high-power IR-LEDs. Integrating this easy-to-set up and portable remote-sensing equipment into coral reef research is expected to significantly advance our understanding of fine-scaled biotic processes on coral reefs. Rare events and long-lasting processes can easily be recorded, in situ-experiments can be monitored live on land, and nocturnal IR-observations reveal undisturbed behavior. The options and equipment choices in IR-sensitive surveillance technology are numerous and subject to a steadily increasing technical supply and quality at decreasing prices. Accompanied by short video examples, this report introduces a radio-transmission system for simultaneous recordings and real-time monitoring of multiple cameras with synchronized timestamps, and a surface-independent underwater-recording system.

  11. PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelz, Andreas; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Roth, Martin M.; Bauer, Svend M.; Becker, Thomas; Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Laux, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into the existing Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph. The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a large

  12. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, Didier; Lam Trong, Thien; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stéphane; Rauw, Gregor; RoŻanska, Agata; Wilms, Joern; Barbera, Marco; Bozzo, Enrico; Ceballos, Maria Teresa; Charles, Ivan; Decourchelle, Anne; den Hartog, Roland; Duval, Jean-Marc; Fiore, Fabrizio; Gatti, Flavio; Goldwurm, Andrea; Jackson, Brian; Jonker, Peter; Kilbourne, Caroline; Macculi, Claudio; Mendez, Mariano; Molendi, Silvano; Orleanski, Piotr; Pajot, François; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Porter, Frederick; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Prêle, Damien; Ravera, Laurent; Renotte, Etienne; Schaye, Joop; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Valenziano, Luca; Vink, Jacco; Webb, Natalie; Yamasaki, Noriko; Delcelier-Douchin, Françoise; Le Du, Michel; Mesnager, Jean-Michel; Pradines, Alice; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Dadina, Mauro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Miller, Jon; Nazé, Yaël; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Sciortino, Salvatore; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Geoffray, Hervé; Hernandez, Isabelle; Luno, Laure; Peille, Philippe; André, Jérôme; Daniel, Christophe; Etcheverry, Christophe; Gloaguen, Emilie; Hassin, Jérémie; Hervet, Gilles; Maussang, Irwin; Moueza, Jérôme; Paillet, Alexis; Vella, Bruno; Campos Garrido, Gonzalo; Damery, Jean-Charles; Panem, Chantal; Panh, Johan; Bandler, Simon; Biffi, Jean-Marc; Boyce, Kevin; Clénet, Antoine; DiPirro, Michael; Jamotton, Pierre; Lotti, Simone; Schwander, Denis; Smith, Stephen; van Leeuwen, Bert-Joost; van Weers, Henk; Brand, Thorsten; Cobo, Beatriz; Dauser, Thomas; de Plaa, Jelle; Cucchetti, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5" pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5

  13. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  14. Near Field Communication-based telemonitoring with integrated ECG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, J; Kumpusch, H; Hayn, D; Leitner, M; Scherr, D; Fruhwald, F M; Schreier, G

    2011-01-01

    Telemonitoring of vital signs is an established option in treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). In order to allow for early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is highly prevalent in the CHF population telemonitoring programs should include electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It was therefore the aim to extend our current home monitoring system based on mobile phones and Near Field Communication technology (NFC) to enable patients acquiring their ECG signals autonomously in an easy-to-use way. We prototypically developed a sensing device for the concurrent acquisition of blood pressure and ECG signals. The design of the device equipped with NFC technology and Bluetooth allowed for intuitive interaction with a mobile phone based patient terminal. This ECG monitoring system was evaluated in the course of a clinical pilot trial to assess the system's technical feasibility, usability and patient's adherence to twice daily usage. 21 patients (4f, 54 ± 14 years) suffering from CHF were included in the study and were asked to transmit two ECG recordings per day via the telemonitoring system autonomously over a monitoring period of seven days. One patient dropped out from the study. 211 data sets were transmitted over a cumulative monitoring period of 140 days (overall adherence rate 82.2%). 55% and 8% of the transmitted ECG signals were sufficient for ventricular and atrial rhythm assessment, respectively. Although ECG signal quality has to be improved for better AF detection the developed communication design of joining Bluetooth and NFC technology in our telemonitoring system allows for ambulatory ECG acquisition with high adherence rates and system usability in heart failure patients.

  15. BIGRE: A LOW CROSS-TALK INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT TAILORED FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANETS IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antichi, Jacopo; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Boccaletti, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets through high-contrast imaging since it allows us to obtain simultaneously a large number of monochromatic images. These can be used to calibrate and then to reduce the impact of speckles, once their chromatic dependence is taken into account. The main concern in designing integral field spectrographs for high-contrast imaging is the impact of the diffraction effects and the noncommon path aberrations together with an efficient use of the detector pixels. We focus our attention on integral field spectrographs based on lenslet arrays, discussing the main features of these designs: the conditions of appropriate spatial and spectral sampling of the resulting spectrograph's slit functions and their related cross-talk terms when the system works at the diffraction limit. We present a new scheme for the integral field unit based on a dual-lenslet device (BIGRE), that solves some of the problems related to the classical Traitement Integral des Galaxies par l'Etude de leurs Rays (TIGER) design when used for such applications. We show that BIGRE provides much lower cross-talk signals than TIGER, allowing a more efficient use of the detector pixels and a considerable saving of the overall cost of a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph.

  16. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  17. On the integrability of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models with conformally coupled massive scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, L A A [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20550-900 (Brazil); Skea, J E F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20550-900 (Brazil); Stuchi, T J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21945-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: luis@dft.if.uerj.br, E-mail: jimsk@dft.if.uerj.br, E-mail: tstuchi@if.ufrj.br

    2008-02-22

    In this paper, we use a nonintegrability theorem by Morales and Ramis to analyse the integrability of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models with a conformally coupled massive scalar field. We answer the long-standing question of whether these models with a vanishing cosmological constant and non-self-interacting scalar field are integrable: by applying Kovacic's algorithm to the normal variational equations, we prove analytically and rigorously that these equations and, consequently, the Hamiltonians are nonintegrable. We then address the models with a self-interacting massive scalar field and cosmological constant and show that, with the exception of a set of measure zero, the models are nonintegrable. For the spatially curved cases, we prove that there are no additional integrable cases other than those identified in the previous work based on the non-rigorous Painleve analysis. In our study of the spatially flat model, we explicitly obtain a new possibly integrable case.

  18. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    . Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since......An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density...

  19. Computer algebra in quantum field theory integration, summation and special functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The book focuses on advanced computer algebra methods and special functions that have striking applications in the context of quantum field theory. It presents the state of the art and new methods for (infinite) multiple sums, multiple integrals, in particular Feynman integrals, difference and differential equations in the format of survey articles. The presented techniques emerge from interdisciplinary fields: mathematics, computer science and theoretical physics; the articles are written by mathematicians and physicists with the goal that both groups can learn from the other field, including

  20. Constant external fields in gauge theory and the spin 0, 1/2, 1 path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Schmidt, M.G.

    1996-10-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the ''string-inspired technique'' for gauge theory calculations in a constant external field background. Our approach is based on Strassler's worldline path integral approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism, and on the construction of worldline (super-) Green's functions incorporating external fields as well as internal propagators. The worldline path integral representation of the gluon loop is reexamined in detail. We calculate the two-loop effective actions induced for a constant external field by a scalar and spinor loop, and the corresponding one-loop effective action in the gluon loop case. (orig.)

  1. Approximate Integrals of rf-driven Particle Motion in Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    For a particle moving in nonuniform magnetic field under the action of an rf wave, ponderomotive effects result from rf-driven oscillations nonlinearly coupled with Larmor rotation. Using Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, we show how, despite this coupling, two independent integrals of the particle motion are approximately conserved. Those are the magnetic moment of free Larmor rotation and the quasi-energy of the guiding center motion parallel to the magnetic field. Under the assumption of non-resonant interaction of the particle with the rf field, these integrals represent adiabatic invariants of the particle motion

  2. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  3. Confinement of an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field: Integrable vs superintegrable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, A.; Negro, J.; Tristao, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to a plane. From the classical point of view this is an integrable, but not superintegrable, solvable system. In the quantum framework of the Dirac equation this integrable system is solvable too; the energy levels and wavefunctions of bound states, for its reduction to the plane, are computed. The effective one-dimensional matrix Hamiltonian is shown to belong to a shape-invariant hierarchy. Through this example we will shed some light on the specific properties of a quantum integrable system with respect to those characteristic of superintegrable systems. - Highlights: • The system: an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field. • This is a solvable integrable but not superintegrable system. • Solutions to the discrete Dirac spectrum are found. • The shape-invariance of Dirac matrix Hamiltonians is characterized. • Specific properties of integrable, not superintegrable, systems are analyzed.

  4. Confinement of an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field: Integrable vs superintegrable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Astorga, A., E-mail: alonso.contreras.astorga@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tristao, S., E-mail: hetsudoyaguiu@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-01-08

    This paper deals with the problem of an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to a plane. From the classical point of view this is an integrable, but not superintegrable, solvable system. In the quantum framework of the Dirac equation this integrable system is solvable too; the energy levels and wavefunctions of bound states, for its reduction to the plane, are computed. The effective one-dimensional matrix Hamiltonian is shown to belong to a shape-invariant hierarchy. Through this example we will shed some light on the specific properties of a quantum integrable system with respect to those characteristic of superintegrable systems. - Highlights: • The system: an electron in a non-homogeneous magnetic field. • This is a solvable integrable but not superintegrable system. • Solutions to the discrete Dirac spectrum are found. • The shape-invariance of Dirac matrix Hamiltonians is characterized. • Specific properties of integrable, not superintegrable, systems are analyzed.

  5. Unified analytical treatment of multicentre electron attraction, electric field and electric field gradient integrals over Slater orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I I

    2004-01-01

    The new central and noncentral potential functions (CPFs and NCPFs) of a molecule depending on the coordinates of the nuclei are introduced. Using complete orthonormal sets of Ψ α -exponential-type orbitals (Ψ α -ETOs) introduced by the author, the series expansion formulae for the multicentre electronic attraction (EA), electric field (EF) and electric field gradient (EFG) integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) in terms of CPFs and NCPFs are derived. The relationships obtained are valid for the arbitrary location, quantum numbers and screening constants of STOs

  6. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  7. Field visit placements: An integrated and community approach to learning in children's nursing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cummins, Ann

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new initiative, field visit placements towards and integrated and community approach to learning for nursing students. To date, limited literature exists on the potential of community field visits as meaningful learning opportunities for nursing students. Drawing on our experiences, the structure and processes involved in implementing field visits are described in this paper. Students evaluated the field visits positively indicating that they provided a wealth of learning opportunities that enhanced their knowledge and awareness of services available to children and their families in the community. The potential of field visits to promote an integrated and community approach to placements in children\\'s nursing is discussed.

  8. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  9. A Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) employing self-adaptive background current compensation technique for Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Zhao, Jian; He, Yong; Jiang, Bo; Su, Yan

    2018-05-01

    A novel self-adaptive background current compensation circuit applied to infrared focal plane array is proposed in this paper, which can compensate the background current generated in different conditions. Designed double-threshold detection strategy is to estimate and eliminate the background currents, which could significantly reduce the hardware overhead and improve the uniformity among different pixels. In addition, the circuit is well compatible to various categories of infrared thermo-sensitive materials. The testing results of a 4 × 4 experimental chip showed that the proposed circuit achieves high precision, wide application and high intelligence. Tape-out of the 320 × 240 readout circuit, as well as the bonding, encapsulation and imaging verification of uncooled infrared focal plane array, have also been completed.

  10. Long-wavelength III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelkens, G.C.; Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Hattasan, N.; Ryckeboer, E.M.P.; Muneeb, M.; Hu, C.L.; Malik, A.; Hens, Z.; Baets, R.G.F.; Shimura, Y.; Gencarelli, F.; Vincent, B.; Loo, van de R.; Verheyen, P.A.; Lepage, G.; Campenhout, van J.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriquez, J.B.; Tournie, E.; Chen, X; Nedeljkovic, G.; Mashanovich, G.; Liu, X.; Green, W.S.

    2013-01-01

    We review our work in the field of short-wave infrared and mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits for applications in spectroscopic sensing systems. Passive silicon waveguide circuits, GeSn photodetectors, the integration of III-V and IV-VI semiconductors on these circuits, and silicon nonlinear

  11. Integrating Field Buses at the Application Level C Interface and LabView Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Charrue, P

    1996-01-01

    The controls group of the SPS and LEP accelerators at CERN, Geneva, uses many different fieldbuses into the controls infrastucture, such as 1553, BITBUS, GPIB, RS232, JBUS, etc. A software package (SL-EQUIP) has been developped to give end users a standardized application program interface (API) to access any equipment connected to any fieldbus. This interface has now been integrated to LabView. We can offer a powerful graphical package, running on HP-UX workstations which treats data from heterogeneous equipment using the great flexibility of LabView. This paper will present SL-EQUIP and LabView, and will then describe some applications using these tools.

  12. Degenerate variational integrators for magnetic field line flow and guiding center trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C. L.; Finn, J. M.; Burby, J. W.; Kraus, M.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Symplectic integrators offer many benefits for numerically approximating solutions to Hamiltonian differential equations, including bounded energy error and the preservation of invariant sets. Two important Hamiltonian systems encountered in plasma physics—the flow of magnetic field lines and the guiding center motion of magnetized charged particles—resist symplectic integration by conventional means because the dynamics are most naturally formulated in non-canonical coordinates. New algorithms were recently developed using the variational integration formalism; however, those integrators were found to admit parasitic mode instabilities due to their multistep character. This work eliminates the multistep character, and therefore the parasitic mode instabilities via an adaptation of the variational integration formalism that we deem "degenerate variational integration." Both the magnetic field line and guiding center Lagrangians are degenerate in the sense that the resultant Euler-Lagrange equations are systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. We show that retaining the same degree of degeneracy when constructing discrete Lagrangians yields one-step variational integrators preserving a non-canonical symplectic structure. Numerical examples demonstrate the benefits of the new algorithms, including superior stability relative to the existing variational integrators for these systems and superior qualitative behavior relative to non-conservative algorithms.

  13. Review of microscopic integral cross section data in fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN-ΣΣ facilities; the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility; the reference neutron field at the center of the 10% enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field

  14. Review of microscopic integral cross section data in fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.

    1976-10-01

    The paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: (1) the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (2) the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (3) the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN--ΣΣ facilities; (4) the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility (CFRMF); (5) the reference neutron field at the center of the 10 percent enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; and (6) the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field

  15. Hybrid active pixel sensors in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Gert; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Joerg; Moorwood, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is currently benefiting from three main technologies providing high-performance hybrid active pixel sensors. In the near infrared from 1 to 5 μm two technologies, both aiming for buttable 2Kx2K mosaics, are competing, namely InSb and HgCdTe grown by LPE or MBE on Al 2 O 3 , Si or CdZnTe substrates. Blocked impurity band Si:As arrays cover the mid infrared spectral range from 8 to 28 μm. Adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high-resolution spectrographs drive the requirements for the array format of infrared sensors used at ground-based infrared observatories. The pixel performance is now approaching fundamental limits. In view of this development, a detection limit for the photon flux of the ideal detector will be derived, depending only on the temperature and the impedance of the detector. It will be shown that this limit is approximated by state of the art infrared arrays for long on-chip integrations. Different detector materials are compared and strategies to populate large focal planes are discussed. The need for the development of small-format low noise sensors for adaptive optics and interferometry will be pointed out

  16. The integration of open access journals in the scholarly communication system: Three science fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    across disciplines. This study is an analysis of the citing behaviour in journals within three science fields: biology, mathematics, and pharmacy and pharmacology. It is a statistical analysis of OAJs as well as non-OAJs including both the citing and cited side of the journal to journal citations......The greatest number of open access journals (OAJs) is found in the sciences and their influence is growing. However, there are only a few studies on the acceptance and thereby integration of these OAJs in the scholarly communication system. Even fewer studies provide insight into the differences....... The multivariate linear regression reveals many similarities in citing behaviour across fields and media. But it also points to great differences in the integration of OAJs. The integration of OAJs in the scholarly communication system varies considerably across fields. The implications for bibliometric research...

  17. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  18. Supply Chain Systems Architecture and Engineering Design: Green-field Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Radanliev, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineer...

  19. Alternative integral equations and perturbation expansions for self-coupled scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the theory of a self-coupled scalar field may be expressed in terms of a class of integral equations which include the Yang-Feldman equation as a particular case. Other integral equations in this class could be used to generate alternative perturbation expansions which contain a nonanalytic dependence upon the coupling constant and are less ultraviolet divergent than the conventional perturbation expansion. (orig.)

  20. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  1. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  2. Effects of electromagnetic radiation (bright light, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, infrared radiation) on the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lerchl, Alexander; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at infrared radiation (65 degrees C) was applied from 5 pm to 1 am. Salivary melatonin level was determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were continuously recorded. Melatonin synthesis was completely suppressed by light but resumed thereafter. The nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate were delayed. The magnetic field had no effect. Infrared radiation elevated rectal temperature and heart rate. Only bright light affected the circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate, however, differently thus causing a dissociation, which might enhance the adverse effects of shiftwork in the long run.

  3. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  4. Calculation of an axisymmetric current coil field with the bounding contour integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, Alexander P.; Klevets, Nickolay I. E-mail: pmsolution@mail.ru

    2004-06-01

    Method for the economic and stable (in the sense of calculation errors) analysis of an induction of a magnetic field created with axisymmetric coils in arbitrary points of space, including points located inside a coil or on its border, is obtained. The basic idea of the method is to replace a current coil with continuous distribution of current density by magnetization distributed in the volume of the coil and creating the equivalent magnetic field. This allows to use field surface sources at calculation of the fields. Consequently, the range of integration is reduced resulting in reduction of calculation volume by an order in most cases. Besides, the calculation of improper integrals in internal points and on the border is completely excluded.

  5. Calculation of an axisymmetric current coil field with the bounding contour integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, Alexander P.; Klevets, Nickolay I.

    2004-01-01

    Method for the economic and stable (in the sense of calculation errors) analysis of an induction of a magnetic field created with axisymmetric coils in arbitrary points of space, including points located inside a coil or on its border, is obtained. The basic idea of the method is to replace a current coil with continuous distribution of current density by magnetization distributed in the volume of the coil and creating the equivalent magnetic field. This allows to use field surface sources at calculation of the fields. Consequently, the range of integration is reduced resulting in reduction of calculation volume by an order in most cases. Besides, the calculation of improper integrals in internal points and on the border is completely excluded

  6. On-chip integrated functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) photoreceiver for portable brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Ehsan

    Optical brain imaging using functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a direct and noninvasive tool for monitoring of blood oxygenation. fNIRS is a noninvasive, safe, minimally intrusive, and high temporal-resolution technique for real-time and long-term brain imaging. It allows detecting both fast-neuronal and slow-hemodynamic signals. Besides the significant advantages of fNIRS systems, they still suffer from few drawbacks including low spatial-resolution, moderately high-level noise and high-sensitivity to movement. In order to overcome the limitations of currently available non-portable fNIRS systems, we have introduced a new low-power, miniaturized on-chip photodetector front-end intended for portable fNIRS systems. It includes silicon avalanche photodiode (SiAPD), Transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and Quench- Reset circuitry implemented using standard CMOS technologies to operate in both linear and Geiger modes. So it can be applied for both continuous-wave fNIRS (CW-fNIRS) and also single-photon counting applications. Several SiAPDs have been implemented in novel structures and shapes (Rectangular, Octagonal, Dual, Nested, Netted, Quadratic and Hexadecagonal) using different premature edge breakdown prevention techniques. The main characteristics of the SiAPDs are validated and the impact of each parameter and the device simulators (TCAD, COMSOL, etc.) have been studied based on the simulation and measurement results. Proposed techniques exhibit SiAPDs with high avalanche-gain (up to 119), low breakdown-voltage (around 12V) and high photon-detection efficiency (up to 72% in NIR region) in additional to a low dark-count rate (down to 30Hz at 1V excess bias voltage). Three new high gain-bandwidth product (GBW) and low-noise TIAs are introduced and implemented based on distributed-gain concept, logarithmic-amplification and automatic noise-rejection and have been applied in linear-mode of operation. The implemented TIAs offer a power

  7. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Application of integrated petroleum reservoir study for intervention and field development program in western onshore field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Kumar Baskaran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an integrated reservoir study is performed in the J#Field (J-Oil Field of western onshore, India to evaluate its additional reserves expectations and implement field developments plan using waterflood pilot program. The target strata includes two formations of Paleogene, which is about 3600 ft, namely G#Fm (G-Formation of the Eocene and T#Fm (T-Formation of Oligocene, subdivided into 11 zones. Based on these results, an attempt was made to construct of an optimization plan to exploit it, taking into account that the field is producing since 1947, with a cumulative production of 183.5 MMbbl and an overall recovery factor of 28% until January 2016. On the basis of the potential evaluation and geological modeling, blocks J48 and J45 were simulated, and the remaining oil distribution characteristics in two blocks were studied after history match. The work includes the stratigraphic studies, seismic study, logging interpretation, sedimentary facies modeling, three dimensional geological modeling, simulations for waterflooding, and future field development plans.

  9. Integrable systems and quantum field theory. Works in progress Nr 75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Paul; Helein, Frederic; Kouneiher, Joseph; Roubtsov, Volodya; Antunes, Paulo; Banos, Bertrand; Barbachoux, Cecile; Desideri, Laura; Kahouadji, Nabil; Gerding, Aaron; Heller, Sebastian; Schmitt, Nicholas; Harrivel, Dikanaina; Hoevenaars, Luuk K.; Iftime, Mihaela; Levy, Thierry; Lisovyy, Oleg; Masson, Thierry; Skrypnyk, Taras; Pedit, Franz; Egeileh, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The contributions of this collective book address the quantum field theory (integrable systems and quantum field theory, introduction to supermanifolds and supersymmetry, beyond geometric quantification, Gaussian measurements and Fock spaces), differential geometry and physics (gravitation and geometry, physical events and the superspace about the hole argument, the Cartan-Kaehler theory and applications to local isometric and conformal embedding, calibrations, Cabal-Yau structures and Monge-Ampere structures, Hamiltonian multi-symplectic formalism and Monge-Ampere equations, big bracket, derivations and derivative multi-brackets), integrable system, geometry and physics (finite-volume correlation functions of monodromy fields on the lattice with the Toeplitz representation, Frobenius manifolds and algebraic integrability, an introduction to twistors, Hamiltonian systems on the 'coupled' curves, Nambu-Poisson mechanics and Fairlie-type integrable systems, minimal surfaces with polygonal boundary and Fuchsian equations, global aspects of integrable surface geometry), and non commutative geometry (an informal introduction to the ideas and concepts of non commutative geometry)

  10. Stability Analysis and Variational Integrator for Real-Time Formation Based on Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a framework of real-time formation of autonomous vehicles by using potential field and variational integrator. Real-time formation requires vehicles to have coordinated motion and efficient computation. Interactions described by potential field can meet the former requirement which results in a nonlinear system. Stability analysis of such nonlinear system is difficult. Our methodology of stability analysis is discussed in error dynamic system. Transformation of coordinates from inertial frame to body frame can help the stability analysis focus on the structure instead of particular coordinates. Then, the Jacobian of reduced system can be calculated. It can be proved that the formation is stable at the equilibrium point of error dynamic system with the effect of damping force. For consideration of calculation, variational integrator is introduced. It is equivalent to solving algebraic equations. Forced Euler-Lagrange equation in discrete expression is used to construct a forced variational integrator for vehicles in potential field and obstacle environment. By applying forced variational integrator on computation of vehicles' motion, real-time formation of vehicles in obstacle environment can be implemented. Algorithm based on forced variational integrator is designed for a leader-follower formation.

  11. Integrated Study of Lithofacies Identification—A Case Study in X Field, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qi Ngui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding subsurface geology is essential for oil and gas exploration. Seismic facies interpretation is very useful in investigating this concept. The interpretation of the depositional setting of the X Field is achieved by integrating the seismic facies characteristics on 3D seismic data and well log data. Both the seismic and well log data are widely used in hydrocarbon exploration to map the subsurface, as they complement each other. Well logs yield the vertical resolution of the subsurface geology at the drilled well, whereas seismic data reveal the lateral continuity. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of 3D seismic data and well log data for lithofacies identification. Interpretation and analysis of lithofacies is carried out through the integration of the characteristics of seismic reflections with well information (logs. Horizons are interpreted based on the variation in seismic reflections on the seismic section, which is caused by the change in geology within seismic sequences. Well logs give detailed information at the points where the wells were drilled. Interpolating between these points and extrapolating away from the points into undrilled areas can be helpful in providing a better geological knowledge of an area. The result of this integrated study depicts the lithofacies in the area. This integrated study will provide a better insight with higher degree of reliability to the facies distribution and depositional setting of the X Field. The geological and geophysical aspects of the field will be documented.

  12. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Cools, Kristof; Olyslager, Femke; Michielssen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well

  13. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@superig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R{sup {infinity}}, we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  14. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R ∞ , we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  15. Integrating iPad Technology in Earth Science K-12 Outreach Courses: Field and Classroom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Davin J.; Witus, Alexandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating technology into courses is becoming a common practice in universities. However, in the geosciences, it is difficult to find technology that can easily be transferred between classroom- and field-based settings. The iPad is ideally suited to bridge this gap. Here, we fully integrate the iPad as an educational tool into two…

  16. On the classical origins of yangian symmetry in integrable field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Drinfeld's yangian algebra, studied recently as the algebra of conserved charges in certain two-dimensional integrable quantum field theories, is also present in the classical theory as a Poisson-Hopf algebra, and exhibit explicitly the Serre relations, coproduct and antipode. (orig.)

  17. PPAK integral field spectroscopy survey of the Orion nebula. Data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Cardiel, N.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Martín-Gordón, D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Alves, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We present a low-resolution spectroscopic survey of the Orion nebula. The data are released for public use. We show the possible applications of this dataset analyzing some of the main properties of the nebula. Methods: We perform an integral field spectroscopy mosaic of an area of ~5 arcmin× 6

  18. GEMINI NEAR INFRARED FIELD SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SEYFERT 2 GALAXY MRK 573: IN SITU ACCELERATION OF IONIZED AND MOLECULAR GAS OFF FUELING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Straughn, A. N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Machuca, C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Baron, F.; Revalski, M.; Pope, C. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Schmitt, H. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Storchi-Bergmann, T., E-mail: travis.c.fischer@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a ∼700 × 2100 pc{sup 2} circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  19. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Corp, L.A.; Daughtry, C.S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  20. Entanglement entropy in integrable field theories with line defects II. Non-topological defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    This is the second part of two papers where we study the effect of integrable line defects on bipartite entanglement entropy in integrable field theories. In this paper, we consider non-topological line defects in Ising field theory. We derive an infinite series expression for the entanglement entropy and show that both the UV and IR limits of the bulk entanglement entropy are modified by the line defect. In the UV limit, we give an infinite series expression for the coefficient in front of the logarithmic divergence and the exact defect g-function. By tuning the defect to be purely transmissive and reflective, we recover correctly the entanglement entropy of the bulk and with integrable boundary respectively.

  1. Unbounded representations of symmetry groups in gauge quantum field theory. II. Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkel, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Within the gauge quantum field theory of the Wightman--Garding type, the integration of representations of Lie algebras is investigated. By means of the covariance condition (substitution rules) for the basic fields, it is shown that a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra can be integrated to a form isometric and in general unbounded representation of the universal covering group of a corresponding Lie group provided the conditions (Nelson, Sternheimer, etc.), which are well known for the case of Hilbert or Banach representations, hold. If a form isometric representation leaves the subspace from which the physical Hilbert space is obtained via factorization and completion invariant, then the same is proved to be true for its differential. Conversely, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the transmission of the invariance of this subspace under a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra to its integral

  2. Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers

  3. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  4. Analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging by the combined field integral equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, 10/B1D728, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-06-21

    We present the combined field integral equation (CFIE) method for analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional models of coils and the human body were used to take into account the electromagnetic coupling. In the method of moments formulation, we applied triangular patches and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions to model arbitrarily shaped geometries. We first examined a rectangular loop coil to verify the CFIE method and also demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. We then studied several eight-channel receive-only head coil arrays for 7.0 T SENSE functional MRI. Numerical results show that the signal dropout and the average SNR are two major concerns in SENSE coil array design. A good design should be a balance of these two factors.

  5. Integral equation and simulation studies of a planar nematogenic liquid in crossed external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lado, F; Lomba, E; MartIn, C; Almarza, N G

    2005-01-01

    We study a fluid of nematogenic molecules with centres of mass constrained to lie in a plane but with axes free to rotate in any direction. An external disorienting field perpendicular to the plane along with a second orienting field in the plane induce an in-plane order-disorder transition. We analyse the behaviour of this simple biaxial model using a well-established generalization of molecular integral equation methods built upon specially tailored basis functions that maintain orthogonality in the presence of anisotropy. Computer simulation and integral equation calculations predict an isotropic-nematic transition at low temperatures in zero field and an in-plane transition at somewhat higher temperatures in the presence of the disorienting field. The oriented states obtained in the presence of both fields can subsequently be used as input to uncover in detail first the transition in the absence of the in-plane orienting field and finally the spontaneous transition in the absence of any field. According to the simulation, the transition apparently belongs to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless defect-mediated type, whereas the theory reproduces a weak first-order transition

  6. Integrating Field Spectra and Worldview-2 Data for Grapevine Productivity in Different Irrigation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitiyiming, M.; Bozzolo, A.; Wulamu, A.; Wilkins, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming requires high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data to detect plant physiological changes. The higher spatial resolution is particularly as important as the spectral resolution for crop monitoring. It is important to develop data integration techniques between field or airborne hyperspectral data with spaceborne broad band multispectral images for plant productivity monitoring. To investigate varying rootstock and irrigation interactions, different irrigation treatments are implemented in a vineyard experimental site either i) unirrigated ii) full replacement of evapotranspiration (ET) iii) irrigated at 50 % of the potential ET. In summer 2014, we collected leaf and canopy spectra of the vineyard using field spectroscopy along with other plant physiological and nutritional variables. In this contribution, we integrate the field spectra and the spectral wavelengths of WorldView-2 to develop a predictive model for plant productivity,i.e., fruit quality and yield. First, we upscale field and canopy spectra to WorldView-2 spectral bands using radiative transfer simulations (e.g., MODTRAN). Then we develop remote sensing techniques to quantify plant productivity in different scenarios water stress by identifying the most effective and sensitive wavelengths, and indices that are capable of early detection of plant health and estimation of crop nutrient status. Finally we present predictive models developed from partial least square regression (PLSR) for plant productivity using spectral wavelengths and indices derived from integrated field and satellite remote sensing data.

  7. A Bayesian reliability evaluation method with integrated accelerated degradation testing and field information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lizhi; Pan, Rong; Li, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tongmin

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is a common approach in reliability prediction, especially for products with high reliability. However, oftentimes the laboratory condition of ADT is different from the field condition; thus, to predict field failure, one need to calibrate the prediction made by using ADT data. In this paper a Bayesian evaluation method is proposed to integrate the ADT data from laboratory with the failure data from field. Calibration factors are introduced to calibrate the difference between the lab and the field conditions so as to predict a product's actual field reliability more accurately. The information fusion and statistical inference procedure are carried out through a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The proposed method is demonstrated by two examples and the sensitivity analysis to prior distribution assumption

  8. Path integral methods for primordial density perturbations - sampling of constrained Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Path integrals may be used to describe the statistical properties of a random field such as the primordial density perturbation field. In this framework the probability distribution is given for a Gaussian random field subjected to constraints such as the presence of a protovoid or supercluster at a specific location in the initial conditions. An algorithm has been constructed for generating samples of a constrained Gaussian random field on a lattice using Monte Carlo techniques. The method makes possible a systematic study of the density field around peaks or other constrained regions in the biased galaxy formation scenario, and it is effective for generating initial conditions for N-body simulations with rare objects in the computational volume. 21 references

  9. Rehabilitation of Mature Gas Fields in Romania: Success Through Integration of Management Processes and New Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louboutin Michel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature oil and gas fields are difficult to rehabilitate effectively because of the economics of declining production. Many fields are abandoned prematurely when their life could be prolonged significantly through application of new technology. Romgaz (a national exploration and production company and Schlumberger (an integrated oilfield services company developed a new business model to overcome these obstacles. The key to success of this model, which is being applied to gas fields in the Transylvanian basin of Romania, is the shared risk and shared reward for the two companies. Integrated management processes addressing the complete system from reservoir to wellbore to surface/transmission facilities and application of new technology (logging, perforation, etc. have resulted in multifold increases in production.

  10. Photographic infrared spectroscopy and near infrared photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swings, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics are tackled in this presentation: spectroscopy and photometry. The following definitions are chosen: photographic infrared spectroscopy (wavelengths Hα<=lambda<1.2 μ); near infrared photometry (wavebands: 1.6 μ<=lambda<=20 μ). Near infrared spectroscopy and photometry of classical and peculiar Be stars are discussed and some future developments in the field are outlined. (Auth.)

  11. Non-Gaussian path integration in self-interacting scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ali

    2004-01-01

    In self-interacting scalar field theories kinetic expansion is an alternative way of calculating the generating functional for Green's functions where the zeroth order non-Gaussian path integral becomes diagonal in x-space and reduces to the product of an ordinary integral at each point which can be evaluated exactly. We discuss how to deal with such functional integrals and propose a new perturbative expansion scheme which combines the elements of the kinetic expansion with the usual perturbation theory techniques. It is then shown that, when the cutoff dependences of the bare parameters in the potential are chosen to have a well defined non-Gaussian path integral without the kinetic term, the theory becomes trivial in the continuum limit

  12. Self-field calculation of CICC with fast direct Biot–Savart integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou, Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • An algorithm of fast direct Biot–Savart integration (FDBS) is proposed. • FDBS calculates the self-field of ITER cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). • FDBS is more effective and easier to implement. • This new method will benefit future magnet design. - Abstract: ITER magnetic device (Tokamak) requires a strong magnetic field produced by charged cable conductors and external sources to arrive at stable and reliable magnetic confinement performance. Before manufacturing and assembling conductors, preliminary analysis of self-field induction is helpful for reducing the cost of varying-parameter experiments. Spatial helix shape of numerous strand elements and multi-level twist of the finalized cable, known as CICC type, make it unpractical to direct use finite-element methods and other numerical procedures for self-field calculation. An algorithm FDBS (fast direct Biot–Savart integration) is proposed to surmount this difficulty, which improves the traditional method (DBS, direct implementing Biot–Savart law for all strand sources) in terms of computational effort. As such the complexity reduces to O(N) from the original O(N{sup 2}) and speed enhancement is achieved in the parallel computation environment. FDBS calculates out a detailed self-field profile for the uncompressed ITER TF conductors carrying uniform current at each cabling level; the layered self-field distribution becomes more indistinct for higher level subcable.

  13. Self-field calculation of CICC with fast direct Biot–Savart integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen; Zhou, Youhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An algorithm of fast direct Biot–Savart integration (FDBS) is proposed. • FDBS calculates the self-field of ITER cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). • FDBS is more effective and easier to implement. • This new method will benefit future magnet design. - Abstract: ITER magnetic device (Tokamak) requires a strong magnetic field produced by charged cable conductors and external sources to arrive at stable and reliable magnetic confinement performance. Before manufacturing and assembling conductors, preliminary analysis of self-field induction is helpful for reducing the cost of varying-parameter experiments. Spatial helix shape of numerous strand elements and multi-level twist of the finalized cable, known as CICC type, make it unpractical to direct use finite-element methods and other numerical procedures for self-field calculation. An algorithm FDBS (fast direct Biot–Savart integration) is proposed to surmount this difficulty, which improves the traditional method (DBS, direct implementing Biot–Savart law for all strand sources) in terms of computational effort. As such the complexity reduces to O(N) from the original O(N 2 ) and speed enhancement is achieved in the parallel computation environment. FDBS calculates out a detailed self-field profile for the uncompressed ITER TF conductors carrying uniform current at each cabling level; the layered self-field distribution becomes more indistinct for higher level subcable

  14. Magnetic field integral equation analysis of surface plasmon scattering by rectangular dielectric channel discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremmos, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The scattering of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) by a rectangular dielectric channel discontinuity is analyzed through a rigorous magnetic field integral equation method. The scattering phenomenon is formulated by means of the magnetic-type scalar integral equation, which is subsequently treated through an entire-domain Galerkin method of moments (MoM), based on a Fourier-series plane wave expansion of the magnetic field inside the discontinuity. The use of Green's function Fourier transform allows all integrations over the area and along the boundary of the discontinuity to be performed analytically, resulting in a MoM matrix with entries that are expressed as spectral integrals of closed-form expressions. Complex analysis techniques, such as Cauchy's residue theorem and the saddle-point method, are applied to obtain the amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected SPP modes and the radiated field pattern. Through numerical results, we examine the wavelength selectivity of transmission and reflection against the channel dimensions as well as the sensitivity to changes in the refractive index of the discontinuity, which is useful for sensing applications.

  15. Field configurations for small deviations of the integral filling factors in IQHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Castineiras, J.; Gonzalez, R.; Penaranda, S.

    1990-07-01

    A numerical solution of the effective Maxwell equations of the IQHE is presented. It corresponds to inhomogeneous electromagnetic field distributions appearing after a small constant magnetic field is added to a 2D-electron gas sheet when the density exactly fills an integral number of Landau levels. It follows that the Chern-Simons terms of the Maxwell equation transform the applied magnetic field into an equivalent homogeneous charge density. The numerical value of this density is exactly the one which is needed to furnish complete filling at the new value of the total magnetic field. The system then reacts tending to screen the effective charge density by removing charge from the sample edges. It is interesting that for the selected parameter values here, reflecting the current experimental situations, the system response is able to approximately establish an integral filling factor in the central portion of the sheet. Then, at least a small plateau is predicted to occur in pure samples at zero temperature. It also follows that the current distribution is unsymmetric under the inversion, as opposed to the configuration associated to a flow of a net Hall current at integral filling factors. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  16. Integrable model of Yang-Mills theory with scalar field and quasi-instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsun, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of Euclidean conformally invariant Yang-Mills theory with a scalar field a study is made of a Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom that is integrable for a definite relationship between the coupling constants. A particular solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation leads to first-order equations that ensure a nonself-dual solution of instanton type of the considered model. As generalization of the first-order equations a quasiself-dual equation that can be integrated by means of the 't Hooft ansatz and leads to quasiself-dual instantons - quasi-instantons - is proposed

  17. Variational-integral perturbation corrections of some lower excited states for hydrogen atoms in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Lin; Zhou Ben-Hu; Zhao Yun-Hui; Xu Jun; Hai Wen-Hua

    2012-01-01

    A variational-integral perturbation method (VIPM) is established by combining the variational perturbation with the integral perturbation. The first-order corrected wave functions are constructed, and the second-order energy corrections for the ground state and several lower excited states are calculated by applying the VIPM to the hydrogen atom in a strong uniform magnetic field. Our calculations demonstrated that the energy calculated by the VIPM only shows a negative value, which indicates that the VIPM method is more accurate than the other methods. Our study indicated that the VIPM can not only increase the accuracy of the results but also keep the convergence of the wave functions

  18. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  19. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  20. Dose calculations for irregular fields using three-dimensional first-scatter integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesecke, R.; Scharfenberg, H.; Schlegel, W.; Hartmann, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method of dose calculations for irregular fields which requires only the mean energy of the incident photons, the geometrical properties of the irregular field and of the therapy unit, and the attenuation coefficient of tissue. The method goes back to an approach including spatial aspects of photon scattering for inhomogeneities for the calculation of dose reduction factors as proposed by Sontag and Cunningham (1978). It is based on the separation of dose into a primary component and a scattered component. The scattered component can generally be calculated for each field by integration over dose contributions from scattering in neighbouring volume elements. The quotient of this scattering contribution in the irregular field and the scattering contribution in the equivalent open field is then the correction factor for scattering in an irregular field. A correction factor for the primary component can be calculated if the attenuation of the photons in the shielding block is properly taken into account. The correction factor is simply given by the quotient of primary photons of the irregular field and the primary photons of the open field. (author)

  1. Enhancing mid-infrared spectral response at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xin; Zhao, Kun; Xi, Jian-Feng; Xiang, Wen-Feng; Lu, Zhi-Qing; Sun, Qi; Wu, Shi-Xiang; Ni, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Many unexpected properties have been found in the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructure, but the interaction of the many ground states at its interface remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate an optical property of this n-type heterostructure where the mid-infrared spectral responsivity at the interface is enhanced by an external magnetic field. The field intensity ranged from 0.8 to 6 kOe at a low temperature (19 K) as measured with our spectral response measurement system. Two spectral peaks related to the spin-orbit coupling effect were also observed at wavelengths 2400 nm and 3700 nm. The intriguing phenomena relate to changes in the crystallographic structure and subband structure at the interface

  2. Determination of the bending field integral of the LEP spectrometer dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritin, R.; Cornuet, D.; Dehning, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Hildreth, M.; Kalbreier, W.; Leclere, P.; Mugnai, G.; Palacios, J.; Roncarolo, F.; Torrence, E.; Wilkinson, G.

    2005-01-01

    The LEP spectrometer performed calibrations of the beam energy in the 2000 LEP run, in order to provide a kinematical constraint for the W boson mass measurement. The beam was deflected in the spectrometer by a steel core dipole, and the bending angle was measured by Beam-Position Monitors on either side of the magnet. The energy determination relies on measuring the change in bending angle when ramping the beam from a reference point at 50GeV to an energy within the LEP W physics regime, typically 93GeV. The ratio of integrated bending fields at these settings (approximately 1.18Tm/0.64Tm) must be known with a precision of a few 10 -5 . The paper reports on the field mapping measurements which were conducted to determine the bending integral under a range of excitation currents and coil temperatures. These were made in the laboratory before and after spectrometer operation, using a test-bench equipped with a moving arm, carrying an NMR probe and Hall probes, and in the LEP tunnel itself, with a mapping trolley inside the vacuum chamber. The mapping data are related to local readings supplied by fixed NMR probes in the dipole, and a predictive model developed which shows good consistency for all datasets within the estimated uncertainty, which is 14x10 -5 for the moving arm, and 3x10 -5 for the mapping trolley. Measurements are also presented of the field gradient inside the dipole, and of the environmental magnetic fields in the LEP tunnel. When applied to the spectrometer energy calibrations, the bending field model calculates the ratio of integrated fields with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5x10 -5

  3. The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

  4. Integrated passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a surface acoustic wave-based passive and wireless sensor that can measure magnetic field, temperature and humidity. A thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor, a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate and a humidity sensitive hydrogel are integrated together with a surface acoustic wave transducer to realize the multifunctional sensor. The device is characterized using a network analyzer under sequentially changing humidity, temperature and magnetic field conditions. The first hand results show the sensor response to all three sensing parameters with small temperature interference on the magnetic signals. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Integrated passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Yassine, Omar; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a surface acoustic wave-based passive and wireless sensor that can measure magnetic field, temperature and humidity. A thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor, a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate and a humidity sensitive hydrogel are integrated together with a surface acoustic wave transducer to realize the multifunctional sensor. The device is characterized using a network analyzer under sequentially changing humidity, temperature and magnetic field conditions. The first hand results show the sensor response to all three sensing parameters with small temperature interference on the magnetic signals. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. An innovative large scale integration of silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallais, M.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Mouis, M.; Salem, B.; Robin, E.; Chenevier, P.; Ternon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, silicon nanowire field effect transistors are emerging as ultrasensitive biosensors while offering label-free, portable and rapid detection. Nevertheless, their large scale production remains an ongoing challenge due to time consuming, complex and costly technology. In order to bypass these issues, we report here on the first integration of silicon nanowire networks, called nanonet, into long channel field effect transistors using standard microelectronic process. A special attention is paid to the silicidation of the contacts which involved a large number of SiNWs. The electrical characteristics of these FETs constituted by randomly oriented silicon nanowires are also studied. Compatible integration on the back-end of CMOS readout and promising electrical performances open new opportunities for sensing applications.

  7. An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-07-25

    An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep scheme. At each time step, a system with a Gram matrix is solved for the predicted/corrected field expansion coefficients. Depending on the type of spatial testing scheme Gram matrix is sparse or consists of blocks with only diagonal entries regardless of the time step size. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme is more efficient than its implicit counterparts, which call for inversion of fuller matrix system at lower frequencies. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and stability of the proposed MOT scheme, are presented.

  8. On the algebra of deformed differential operators, and induced integrable Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hssaini, M.; Kessabi, M.; Maroufi, B.; Sedra, M.B.

    2000-07-01

    We build in this paper the algebra of q-deformed pseudo-differential operators shown to be an essential step towards setting a q-deformed integrability program. In fact, using the results of this q-deformed algebra, we derive the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We focus in particular the first leading orders of this q-deformed hierarchy namely the q-KdV and q-Boussinesq integrable systems. We also present the q-generalisation of the conformal transformations of the currents u n , n ≥ 2 and discuss the primary condition of the fields w n , n ≥ 2 by using the Volterra gauge group transformations for the q-covariant Lax operators. An induced su(n)-Toda(su(2)-Liouville) field theory construction is discussed and other important features are presented. (author)

  9. A calderón multiplicative preconditioner for the combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2009-10-01

    A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP) for the combined field integral equation (CFIE) is developed. Just like with previously proposed Caldern-preconditioned CFIEs, a localization procedure is employed to ensure that the equation is resonance-free. The iterative solution of the linear system of equations obtained via the CMP-based discretization of the CFIE converges rapidly regardless of the discretization density and the frequency of excitation. © 2009 IEEE.

  10. Explicit solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    An explicit yet stable marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The stability of the explicit scheme is achieved via (i) accurate evaluation of the MOT matrix elements using closed form expressions and (ii) a PE(CE) m type linear multistep method for time marching. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the proposed explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solver. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov scheme of construction of two-dimensional completely integrable field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Columbia Univ., New York; Chudnovsky, G.V.; Columbia Univ., New York

    1980-01-01

    General algebraic and analytic formalism for derivation and solution of general two dimensional field theory equations of Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov type is presented. The examples presented show that this class of equations covers most of the known two-dimensional completely integrable equations. Possible generalizations for four dimensional systems require detailed analysis of Baecklund transformation of these equations. Baecklund transformation is presented in the form of Riemann problem and one special case of dual symmetry is worked out. (orig.)

  12. Magnetostatic fields computed using an integral equation derived from Green's theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-04-01

    A method of computing magnetostatic fields is described that is based on a numerical solution of the integral equation obtained from Green's Theorems. The magnetic scalar potential and its normal derivative on the surfaces of volumes are found by solving a set of linear equations. These are obtained from Green's Second Theorem and the continuity conditions at interfaces between volumes. Results from a two-dimensional computer program are presented and these show the method to be accurate and efficient. (author)

  13. Characterisation of large catastrophic landslides using an integrated field, remote sensing and numerical modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Andrea Elaine

    2014-01-01

    I apply a forensic, multidisciplinary approach that integrates engineering geology field investigations, engineering geomorphology mapping, long-range terrestrial photogrammetry, and a numerical modelling toolbox to two large rock slope failures to study their causes, initiation, kinematics, and dynamics. I demonstrate the significance of endogenic and exogenic processes, both separately and in concert, in contributing to landscape evolution and conditioning slopes for failure, and use geomor...

  14. Contour integral representations for the characters of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, S.; Panda, S.; Sen, A.

    1989-01-01

    We propose simple Feigin-Fuchs contour integral representations for the characters of a large class of rational conformal field theories. These include the A, D and E series SU(2) WZW theories, the A and D series c<1 minimal theories, and the k=1 SU(N) WZW theories. All these theories are characterized by the absence of the zeroes in the wronskian determinant of the characters in the interior of moduli space. This proposal is verified by several calculations. (orig.)

  15. Study of the conformal symmetry breaking in field theories in gravitational background using path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Alves, Marcelo de.

    1990-03-01

    Some general aspects on field theories in curved space-time and a introduction to conformal symmetry are presented.The behavior of the physical systems under Weyl transformations is discussed. The quantization of such systems are performed through the functional integration method. The regularization in curved space-time is also discussed. An application of this analysis in String theories is made. 42 refs

  16. Explicit solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2012-09-01

    An explicit yet stable marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The stability of the explicit scheme is achieved via (i) accurate evaluation of the MOT matrix elements using closed form expressions and (ii) a PE(CE) m type linear multistep method for time marching. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the proposed explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solver. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Differential Galois theory and non-integrability of planar polynomial vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Humánez, Primitivo B.; Lázaro, J. Tomás; Morales-Ruiz, Juan J.; Pantazi, Chara

    2018-06-01

    We study a necessary condition for the integrability of the polynomials vector fields in the plane by means of the differential Galois Theory. More concretely, by means of the variational equations around a particular solution it is obtained a necessary condition for the existence of a rational first integral. The method is systematic starting with the first order variational equation. We illustrate this result with several families of examples. A key point is to check whether a suitable primitive is elementary or not. Using a theorem by Liouville, the problem is equivalent to the existence of a rational solution of a certain first order linear equation, the Risch equation. This is a classical problem studied by Risch in 1969, and the solution is given by the "Risch algorithm". In this way we point out the connection of the non integrability with some higher transcendent functions, like the error function.

  18. Phase modulation of mid-infrared radiation in double-quantum-well structures under a lateral electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagula, R. M.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Makhov, I. S.; Sofronov, A. N., E-mail: sofronov@rphf.spbstu.ru; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The modulation of polarized radiation by GaAs/AlGaAs structures with tunnel-coupled double quantum wells in a strong lateral electric field is studied. The spectra of the variation in the refractive index under a lateral electric field in the vicinity of the intersubband resonance are experimentally investigated.

  19. Reproduction of pressure field in ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flow is used to analyze the velocity and pressure fields by applying feedback signals of artificial body forces based on differences of Doppler velocities between ultrasonic measurement and numerical simulation. Previous studies have revealed that UMI simulation accurately reproduces the velocity field of a target blood flow, but that the reproducibility of the pressure field is not necessarily satisfactory. In the present study, the reproduction of the pressure field by UMI simulation was investigated. The effect of feedback on the pressure field was first examined by theoretical analysis, and a pressure compensation method was devised. When the divergence of the feedback force vector was not zero, it influenced the pressure field in the UMI simulation while improving the computational accuracy of the velocity field. Hence, the correct pressure was estimated by adding pressure compensation to remove the deteriorating effect of the feedback. A numerical experiment was conducted dealing with the reproduction of a synthetic three-dimensional steady flow in a thoracic aneurysm to validate results of the theoretical analysis and the proposed pressure compensation method. The ability of the UMI simulation to reproduce the pressure field deteriorated with a large feedback gain. However, by properly compensating the effects of the feedback signals on the pressure, the error in the pressure field was reduced, exhibiting improvement of the computational accuracy. It is thus concluded that the UMI simulation with pressure compensation allows for the reproduction of both velocity and pressure fields of blood flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Thermal management in MoS{sub 2} based integrated device using near-field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jiebin [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Zhang, Gang, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Recently, wafer-scale growth of monolayer MoS{sub 2} films with spatial homogeneity is realized on SiO{sub 2} substrate. Together with the latest reported high mobility, MoS{sub 2} based integrated electronic devices are expected to be fabricated in the near future. Owing to the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer MoS{sub 2}, and the increased transistor density accompanied with the increased power density, heat dissipation will become a crucial issue for these integrated devices. In this letter, using the formalism of fluctuation electrodynamics, we explored the near-field radiative heat transfer from a monolayer MoS{sub 2} to graphene. We demonstrate that in resonance, the maximum heat transfer via near-field radiation between MoS{sub 2} and graphene can be ten times higher than the in-plane lattice thermal conduction for MoS{sub 2} sheet. Therefore, an efficient thermal management strategy for MoS{sub 2} integrated device is proposed: Graphene sheet is brought into close proximity, 10–20 nm from MoS{sub 2} device; heat energy transfer from MoS{sub 2} to graphene via near-field radiation; this amount of heat energy then be conducted to contact due to ultra-high lattice thermal conductivity of graphene. Our work sheds light for developing cooling strategy for nano devices constructing with low thermal conductivity materials.

  1. Integrated fiber optic sensors for hot spot detection and temperature field reconstruction in satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S; Baier, H

    2010-01-01

    Large satellites are often equipped with more than 1000 temperature sensors during the test campaign. Hundreds of them are still used for monitoring during launch and operation in space. This means an additional mass and especially high effort in assembly, integration and verification on a system level. So the use of fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors is investigated as they offer several advantages. They are lightweight, small in size and electromagnetically immune, which fits well in space applications. Their multiplexing capability offers the possibility to build extensive sensor networks including dozens of sensors of different types, such as strain sensors, accelerometers and temperature sensors. The latter allow the detection of hot spots and the reconstruction of temperature fields via proper algorithms, which is shown in this paper. A temperature sensor transducer was developed, which can be integrated into satellite sandwich panels with negligible mechanical influence. Mechanical and thermal vacuum tests were performed to verify the space compatibility of the developed sensor system. Proper reconstruction algorithms were developed to estimate the temperature field and detect thermal hot spots on the panel surface. A representative hardware demonstrator has been built and tested, which shows the capability of using an integrated fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor network for temperature field reconstruction and hot spot detection in satellite structures

  2. Integrating Field-Centered, Project Based Activities with Academic Year Coursework: A Curriculum Wide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."

  3. Infrared and Microwave Spectra and Force Field of DBO: The Coriolis Interaction between the nu1 and nu2 + nu3 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima; Colarusso; Zhang; Bernath; Hirota

    1998-11-01

    The nu1 and nu3 bands of D11BO and the nu1 band of D10BO were observed by using an infrared diode laser spectrometer. The DBO molecule was generated by an ac discharge in a mixture of BCl3, D2, O2, and He. As inferred previously, a strong Coriolis interaction was in fact found to take place between the nu1 and nu2 + nu3 states, and an analysis of the observed nu1 spectra, which explicitly took into account this Coriolis interaction, predicted the pure rotational transition frequencies of DBO in the nu1 state. Pure rotational lines were then detected by microwave spectroscopy, confirming the validity of the infrared assignment. In the microwave experiment DBO molecules were generated by a discharge in a mixture of B2D6 and O2. The three fundamental bands and a hot band of D11BO, as well as the nu1 and nu3 bands of D10BO, were subsequently recorded in emission with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. DBO molecules were generated by the reaction of D2 with HBO at temperatures above 800 degreesC in a ceramic tube furnace. All of the observed spectra were simultaneously subjected to a least-squares analysis to obtain molecular parameters in the ground, nu1, nu2, nu3, and nu2 + nu3 states. The results thus obtained improved the force field and molecular structure of the HBO/DBO molecules reported in a previous study (Y. Kawashima, Y. Endo, and E. Hirota, 1989, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 133, 116-127). Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Infrared and Microwave Spectra and Force Field of DBO: The Coriolis Interaction between the ν 1and ν 2+ ν 3States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Colarusso, Pina; Zhang, K. Q.; Bernath, Peter; Hirota, Eizi

    1998-11-01

    The ν1and ν3bands of D11BO and the ν1band of D10BO were observed by using an infrared diode laser spectrometer. The DBO molecule was generated by an ac discharge in a mixture of BCl3, D2, O2, and He. As inferred previously, a strong Coriolis interaction was in fact found to take place between the ν1and ν2+ ν3states, and an analysis of the observed ν1spectra, which explicitly took into account this Coriolis interaction, predicted the pure rotational transition frequencies of DBO in the ν1state. Pure rotational lines were then detected by microwave spectroscopy, confirming the validity of the infrared assignment. In the microwave experiment DBO molecules were generated by a discharge in a mixture of B2D6and O2. The three fundamental bands and a hot band of D11BO, as well as the ν1and ν3bands of D10BO, were subsequently recorded in emission with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. DBO molecules were generated by the reaction of D2with HBO at temperatures above 800°C in a ceramic tube furnace. All of the observed spectra were simultaneously subjected to a least-squares analysis to obtain molecular parameters in the ground, ν1, ν2, ν3, and ν2+ ν3states. The results thus obtained improved the force field and molecular structure of the HBO/DBO molecules reported in a previous study (Y. Kawashima, Y. Endo, and E. Hirota, 1989,J. Mol. Spectrosc.133, 116-127).

  5. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  6. Nondestructive measurement of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork meat by integrating near infrared spectroscopy, computer vision and electronic nose techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-02-15

    Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), computer vision (CV), and electronic nose (E-nose) techniques. In the experiment, 90 pork samples with different freshness were collected for data acquisition by three different techniques, respectively. Then, the individual characteristic variables were extracted from each sensor. Next, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to achieve data fusion based on these characteristic variables from 3 different sensors data. Back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was used to construct the model for TVB-N content prediction, and the top principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of model. The result of the model was achieved as follows: the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 2.73 mg/100g and the determination coefficient (R(p)(2)) = 0.9527 in the prediction set. Compared with single technique, integrating three techniques, in this paper, has its own superiority. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating NIRS, CV and E-nose, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve TVB-N prediction performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Multi-Disciplinary Research Experiences Integrated with Industry –Field Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this environmentally inquiry-based lab was to allow the students to engage into real-world concepts that integrate industry setting (Ohio Aggregate Industrial Mineral Association with the academia setting. Our students are engaged into a field trip where mining occurs to start the problem based learning of how the heavy metals leak in the mining process. These heavy metals such as lead and indium in the groundwater are a serious concern for the environment (Environmental Protection Agency from the mining process. The field experiences at the mining process assist in building our students interest in developing sensors to detect heavy metals of concern such as lead and indium simultaneously by a unique electrochemistry technique called Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV. The field experience assists building the students interest in real –world application and what qualities do they want the electrochemical sensor to possess to be successful for real world usage. During the field trip the students are engaged into learning novel instrumentation such as an SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to study the working electrode sensor developed to understand the sensor surface morphology properties better as well. The integration of industry setting with academia has been a positive experience for our students that has allowed their understanding of real-world science research needs to succeed in an industrial setting of research.

  8. Path integral approach for electron transport in disturbed magnetic field lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Takamaru, Hisanori

    2002-05-01

    A path integral method is developed to investigate statistical property of an electron transport described as a Langevin equation in a statically disturbed magnetic field line structure; especially a transition probability of electrons strongly tied to field lines is considered. The path integral method has advantages that 1) it does not include intrinsically a growing numerical error of an orbit, which is caused by evolution of the Langevin equation under a finite calculation accuracy in a chaotic field line structure, and 2) it gives a method of understanding the qualitative content of the Langevin equation and assists to expect statistical property of the transport. Monte Carlo calculations of the electron distributions under both effects of chaotic field lines and collisions are demonstrated to comprehend above advantages through some examples. The mathematical techniques are useful to study statistical properties of various phenomena described as Langevin equations in general. By using parallel generators of random numbers, the Monte Carlo scheme to calculate a transition probability can be suitable for a parallel computation. (author)

  9. Integral transport theory for charged particles in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffi, V.C.; Molinari, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    An integral transport theory for charged particles which, in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, diffuse by collisions against the atoms (or molecules) of a host medium is proposed. The combined effects of both the external fields and the mechanisms of scattering, removal and creation in building up the distribution function of the charged particles considered are investigated. The eigenvalue problem associated with the sourceless case of the given physical situation is also commented. Applications of the theory to a purely velocity-dependent problem and to a space-dependent problem, respectively, are illustrated for the case of a separable isotropic scattering kernel of synthetic type. Calculations of the distribution function, of the total current density and of relevant electrical conductivity are then carried out for different specializations of the external fields. (author)

  10. The derivation of vector magnetic fields from Stokes profiles - Integral versus least squares fitting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, R. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1987-01-01

    The results of two methods for deriving photospheric vector magnetic fields from the Zeeman effect, as observed in the Fe I line at 6302.5 A at high spectral resolution (45 mA), are compared. The first method does not take magnetooptical effects into account, but determines the vector magnetic field from the integral properties of the Stokes profiles. The second method is an iterative least-squares fitting technique which fits the observed Stokes profiles to the profiles predicted by the Unno-Rachkovsky solution to the radiative transfer equation. For sunspot fields above about 1500 gauss, the two methods are found to agree in derived azimuthal and inclination angles to within about + or - 20 deg.

  11. Explicit higher order symplectic integrator for s-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    We derive second and higher order explicit symplectic integrators for the charged particle motion in an s-dependent magnetic field with the paraxial approximation. The Hamiltonian of such a system takes the form of H (summation) k (p k - a k (rvec q), s) 2 + V((rvec q), s). This work solves a long-standing problem for modeling s-dependent magnetic elements. Important applications of this work include the studies of the charged particle dynamics in a storage ring with strong field wigglers, arbitrarily polarized insertion devices,and super-conducting magnets with strong fringe fields. Consequently, this work will have a significant impact on the optimal use of the above magnetic devices in the light source rings as well as in next generation linear collider damping rings

  12. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  13. Measures of star formation rates from infrared (Herschel) and UV (GALEX) emissions of galaxies in the HerMES fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, V.; Giovannoli, E.; Burgarella, D.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Gear, W.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magdis, G.; Mainetti, G.; Marchetti, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Owen, F. N.; Page, M. J.; Pannella, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sánchez Portal, M.; Schulz, B.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Strazzullo, V.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vaccari, M.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Ward, R.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-11-01

    The reliability of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emissions to measure star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies is investigated for a large sample of galaxies observed with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on Herschel as part of the Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) project. We build flux-limited 250-μm samples of sources at redshift z 500 μm. Dust attenuation is discussed on the basis of commonly used diagnostics: the LIR/LUV ratio and the slope, β, of the UV continuum. A mean dust attenuation AUV of mag is measured in the samples. LIR/LUV is found to correlate with LIR. Galaxies with and 0.5 recipe commonly applied to local starbursts is found to overestimate the dust attenuation correction in our galaxy sample by a factor of ~2-3. The SFRs deduced from LIR are found to account for about 90 per cent of the total SFR; this percentage drops to 71 per cent for galaxies with (or ). For these faint objects, one needs to combine UV and IR emissions to obtain an accurate measure of the SFR.

  14. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  15. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K.; Iwamoto, A.; Asahina, T.; Yamanoi, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH2 evaporation rate. Although LH2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm2, which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  16. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K; Iwamoto, A; Asahina, T; Yamanoi, K; Arikawa, Y; Nagatomo, H; Nakai, M; Norimatsu, T; Azechi, H

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH 2 evaporation rate. Although LH 2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm 2 , which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  17. Extended depth of field integral imaging using multi-focus fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yongri; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Peihua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for depth of field extension in integral imaging by realizing the image fusion method on the multi-focus elemental images. In the proposed method, a camera is translated on a 2D grid to take multi-focus elemental images by sweeping the focus plane across the scene. Simply applying an image fusion method on the elemental images holding rich parallax information does not work effectively because registration accuracy of images is the prerequisite for image fusion. To solve this problem an elemental image generalization method is proposed. The aim of this generalization process is to geometrically align the objects in all elemental images so that the correct regions of multi-focus elemental images can be exacted. The all-in focus elemental images are then generated by fusing the generalized elemental images using the block based fusion method. The experimental results demonstrate that the depth of field of synthetic aperture integral imaging system has been extended by realizing the generation method combined with the image fusion on multi-focus elemental images in synthetic aperture integral imaging system.

  18. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  19. The Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory: Current Status and Progress Towards Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol A.; Bally, John; Brinkmann, Jonathan V.; Bubeck, James; Gong, Qian; Hilton, George M.; Ketzeback, William F.; Lindler, Don; Llop Sayson, Jorge; Malatesta, Michael A.; Norton, Timothy; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Rothe, Johannes; Straka, Lorrie; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Wisniewski, John P.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; York, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status and progress towards photon counting with the Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph (GIFS), a new instrument at the Apache Point Observatory's ARC 3.5m telescope. GIFS is a visible light imager and integral field spectrograph operating from 400-1000 nm over a 2.8' x 2.8' and 14' x 14' field of view, respectively. As an IFS, GIFS obtains over 1000 spectra simultaneously and its data reduction pipeline reconstructs them into an image cube that has 32 x 32 spatial elements and more than 200 spectral channels. The IFS mode can be applied to a wide variety of science programs including exoplanet transit spectroscopy, protostellar jets, the galactic interstellar medium probed by background quasars, Lyman-alpha emission line objects, and spectral imaging of galactic winds. An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector enables photon counting in the high spectral resolution mode to be demonstrated at the ARC 3.5m in early 2015. The EMCCD work builds upon successful operational and characterization tests that have been conducted in the IFS laboratory at NASA Goddard. GIFS sets out to demonstrate an IFS photon-counting capability on-sky in preparation for future exoplanet direct imaging missions such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, Exo-C, and ATLAST mission concepts. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program under RTOP 10-APRA10-0103.

  20. Integrated Design of Superconducting Magnets with the CERN Field Computation Program ROXIE

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, Stephan; Bazan, M; Lucas, J; Ramberger, S; Völlinger, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The program package ROXIE has been developed at CERN for the field computation of superconducting accelerator magnets and is used as an approach towards the integrated design of such magnets. It is also an example of fruitful international collaborations in software development.The integrated design of magnets includes feature based geometry generation, conceptual design using genetic optimization algorithms, optimization of the iron yoke (both in 2d and 3d) using deterministic methods, end-spacer design and inverse field calculation.The paper describes the version 8.0 of ROXIE which comprises an automatic mesh generator, an hysteresis model for the magnetization in superconducting filaments, the BEM-FEM coupling method for the 3d field calculation, a routine for the calculation of the peak temperature during a quench and neural network approximations of the objective function for the speed-up of optimization algorithms, amongst others.New results of the magnet design work for the LHC are given as examples.

  1. Multiscale modeling of interaction of alane clusters on Al(111) surfaces : a reactive force field and infrared absorbtion spectroscopy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojwang, J.G.O.; Chaudhuri, S.; Duin, van A.C.T.; Chabal, Y.J.; Veyan, J.-F.; Santen, van R.A.; Kramer, G.J.; Goddard III, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    We have used reactive force field (ReaxFF) to investigate the mechanism of interaction of alanes on Al(111) surface. Our simulations show that, on the Al(111) surface, alanes oligomerize into larger alanes. In addition, from our simulations, adsorption of atomic hydrogen on Al(111) surface leads to

  2. Multiscale N=2 SUSY field theories, integrable systems and their stringy/brane origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.; Gukov, S.; Mironov, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with multiple scales in the brane language. The issue concerns N=2 SUSY gauge theories with massive fundamental matter including the UV finite case of n f =2n c , theories involving products of SU(n) gauge groups with bifundamental matter, and systems with several parameters similar to Λ QCD . We argue that the proper integrable systems are, accordingly, twisted XXX SL(2) spin chain, SL(p) magnets and degenerations of the spin Calogero system. The issue of symmetries underlying integrable systems is addressed. Relations with the monopole systems are specially discussed. Brane pictures behind all these integrable structures in the IIB and M-theory are suggested. We argue that degrees of freedom in integrable systems are related to KK excitations in M-theory or D-particles in the IIA string theory, which substitute the infinite number of instantons in the field theory. This implies the presence of more BPS states in the low-energy sector. (orig.)

  3. Integrated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for forensic engine lubricating oil and biodiesel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) is commonly used for oil fingerprinting and provides investigators with good forensic data. However, new challenges face oil spill forensic chemistry with the growing use of biodiesel as well as the recycling and reprocessing of used oil, particularly lubricating oils. This paper demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy may be a fast, cost effective and complementary method for forensic analysis of biodiesels (fatty acid methyl esters) and lubricating oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy was shown to be an interesting analytic method because of its use in monitoring and quantifying minor chemical compounds in sample matrices and its ability to identify a broad range or organic compounds. Unlike chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy with ATR can provide results without compound separation or lengthy sample preparation steps. This study described the combined use of GC and ATR-FTIR in environmental oil spill identification through the matching of source lube oil samples with artificially weathered samples. Samples recovered from a biodiesel spill incident were also investigated. ATR-FTIR provided detailed spectral information for rapid lube oil differentiation. This study was part of a continuing effort to develop a methodology to deal with chemical spills of unknown origin, which is an important aspect in environmental protection and emergency preparedness. This method was only successfully applied to the short term artificially weathered and fresh lube oil characterization, and to limited cases of biodiesel spills. It was concluded that further validation tests are needed to determine if this method can be applied to real-world weather lube oil samples. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  4. A flux calibration device for the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Simona; Aldering, Greg; Hoffmann, Akos; Kowalski, Marek; Kuesters, Daniel; Reif, Klaus; Rigault, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Observational cosmology employing optical surveys often require precise flux calibration. In this context we present SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. SCALA consists of a hexagonal array of 18 small parabolic mirrors distributed over the face of, and feeding parallel light to, the telescope entrance pupil. The mirrors are illuminated by integrating spheres and a wavelength-tunable (from UV to IR) light source, generating light beams with opening angles of 1°. These nearly parallel beams are flat and flux-calibrated at a subpercent level, enabling us to calibrate our "telescope + SNIFS system" at the required precision.

  5. Field-Programmable Gate Array-based fluxgate magnetometer with digital integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.

  6. Full control of far-field radiation via photonic integrated circuits decorated with plasmonic nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Zhi; Feng, Li-Shuang; Bachelot, Renaud; Blaize, Sylvain; Ding, Wei

    2017-07-24

    We theoretically develop a hybrid architecture consisting of photonic integrated circuit and plasmonic nanoantennas to fully control optical far-field radiation with unprecedented flexibility. By exploiting asymmetric and lateral excitation from silicon waveguides, single gold nanorod and cascaded nanorod pair can function as component radiation pixels, featured by full 2π phase coverage and nanoscale footprint. These radiation pixels allow us to design scalable on-chip devices in a wavefront engineering fashion. We numerically demonstrate beam collimation with 30° out of the incident plane and nearly diffraction limited divergence angle. We also present high-numerical-aperture (NA) beam focusing with NA ≈0.65 and vector beam generation (the radially-polarized mode) with the mode similarity greater than 44%. This concept and approach constitutes a designable optical platform, which might be a future bridge between integrated photonics and metasurface functionalities.

  7. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul, E-mail: md.arefin@monash.edu; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet [Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  8. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  9. MODEL OF INTEGRATED VALUE OF PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна БОРИСОВА

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy sources requires the implementation of complex problems, the solution of which is necessary to apply the project approach. The uniqueness of alternative energy projects (AEP necessitates individual approach to evaluating the effectiveness of each. The paper contains the results of the project management features's analysis in the field of alternative energy, determining the values and developing of the value management integrated conceptual model of AEP. In assessing the effectiveness of AEP considered the socio-economic and commercial aspects. Value management integrated conceptual model of AEP was obtained by combining the classical model of the project management goals with the project values model "Five "E" and two "A". The classical model of the project management goals have been complemented with risk parameters.

  10. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland

  11. Infrared fluorescence efficiencies for the nu1 and nu5 bands of formaldehyde in the solar radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, D. C.; Mumma, M. J.; Nadler, S.

    1989-01-01

    Formaldehyde scattering strengths have been determined for equilibrium distributions of 100 K, 50 K, 20 K, and for the the non-LTE case of an essentially fully relaxed distribution. Integrated band g factors of 2.89 x 10 to the -4th photons/s per molecule for nu1 and 3.83 x 10 to the -4th for nu 5 are obtained. The results indicate that the most promising regions to search for cometary H2CO are at about 2782/cm, at 2794.5/cm, and at about 2835/cm.

  12. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  13. On the mixed discretization of the time domain magnetic field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2012-09-01

    Time domain magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is discretized using divergence-conforming Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) and curl-conforming Buffa-Christiansen (BC) functions as spatial basis and testing functions, respectively. The resulting mixed discretization scheme, unlike the classical scheme which uses RWG functions as both basis and testing functions, is proper: Testing functions belong to dual space of the basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the marching on-in-time (MOT) solution of the mixed discretized MFIE yields more accurate results than that of classically discretized MFIE. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  15. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Integrated materials design of organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L; Fang, Lei; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications.

  17. Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields in Parallel-Plane Structures: A Unified Contour-Integral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stumpf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A unified reciprocity-based modeling approach for analyzing electromagnetic fields in dispersive parallel-plane structures of arbitrary shape is described. It is shown that the use of the reciprocity theorem of the time-convolution type leads to a global contour-integral interaction quantity from which novel both time- and frequency-domain numerical schemes can be arrived at. Applications of the numerical method concerning the time-domain radiated interference and susceptibility of parallel-plane structures are discussed and illustrated on numerical examples.

  18. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .3. Source counts and P(D) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Franceschini, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 and 15 mu m from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region, reaching 38.6 mu Jy at 6.7 mu m and 255 mu Jy at 15 mu m. These are the first ever extragalactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 mu m, and are three decades fainter than IRAS at 12 mu m. Both...

  19. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Space instruments are designed to be highly optimised, mass efficient hardware required to operate in extreme environments. Building and testing is extremely costly, and damage that appears to have no impact on performance at normal ambient conditions can have disastrous implications when...... to protect the structure from damage. Compatible with space flight requirements, the gauges have been used in both ambient and cryogenic environments and were successfully used to support various tasks including integration to the spacecraft. The article also discusses limitations to using the strain gauge...

  20. Semiclassical quantization of integrable systems of few interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivan, N.; Levit, S.

    1992-01-01

    We present a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field. We derive the appropriate generalization of the WKB quantization conditions and determine the corresponding wave functions for non separable integrable anyonic systems. This theory is applies to a system of two interacting anyons, two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We calculate the dependence of the semiclassical energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical treatment allows to find the correlation between these patterns and the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. We also test the accuracy of the mean field approximation for low and high energy states of the three anyons. (author)

  1. The two-wave X-ray field calculated by means of integral-equation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of calculating the two-wave X-ray field on the basis of the Takagi-Taupin equations is discussed for the general case of curved lattice planes. A two-dimensional integral equation which incorporates the nature of the incoming radiation, the form of the crystal/vacuum boundary, and the curvature of the structure, is deduced. Analytical solutions for the symmetrical Laue case with incoming plane waves are obtained directly for perfect crystals by means of iteration. The same method permits a simple derivation of the narrow-wave Laue and Bragg cases. Modulated wave fronts are discussed, and it is shown that a cut-off in the width of an incoming plane wave leads to lateral oscillations which are superimposed on the Pendelloesung fringes. Bragg and Laue shadow fields are obtained. The influence of a non-zero kernel is discussed and a numerical procedure for calculating wave amplitudes in curved crystals is presented. (Auth.)

  2. analysis of large electromagnetic pulse simulators using the electric field integral equation method in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, J.; Aghajafari, R.; Moini, R.; Sadeghi, H.

    2002-01-01

    A time-domain approach is presented to calculate electromagnetic fields inside a large Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulator. This type of EMP simulator is used for studying the effect of electromagnetic pulses on electrical apparatus in various structures such as vehicles, a reoplanes, etc. The simulator consists of three planar transmission lines. To solve the problem, we first model the metallic structure of the simulator as a grid of conducting wires. The numerical solution of the governing electric field integral equation is then obtained using the method of moments in time domain. To demonstrate the accuracy of the model, we consider a typical EMP simulator. The comparison of our results with those obtained experimentally in the literature validates the model introduced in this paper

  3. Measurements of Integral Cross Section Ratios in Two Dosimetry Benchmark Neutron Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Czock, K.H.

    1974-12-01

    In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh and 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the 115 In(n,n') 115m In cross section in the 235 U thermal dission neutron spectrum and in the MOLΣΣ Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the 235 U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)

  4. Measurements of integral cross section ratios in two dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Czock, K.H.

    1974-12-01

    In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh and 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the 115 In(n,n') 115m In cross section in the 235 U thermal fission neutron spectrum and in the MOL-ΣΣ intermediate-energy standard neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the 235 U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)

  5. Charge Yield at Low Electric Fields: Considerations for Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A significant reduction in total dose damage is observed when bipolar integrated circuits are irradiated at low temperature. This can be partially explained by the Onsager theory of recombination, which predicts a strong temperature dependence for charge yield under low-field conditions. Reduced damage occurs for biased as well as unbiased devices because the weak fringing field in thick bipolar oxides only affects charge yield near the Si/SiO2 interface, a relatively small fraction of the total oxide thickness. Lowering the temperature of bipolar ICs - either continuously, or for time periods when they are exposed to high radiation levels - provides an additional degree of freedom to improve total dose performance of bipolar circuits, particularly in space applications.

  6. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  7. Measurements of integral cross section ratios in two dosimetry benchmark neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A [CEN-SCK, Mol (Belgium); Czock, K H [International Atomic Energy Agency, Laboratory Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)

    1974-12-01

    In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m} In cross section in the {sup 235}U thermal fission neutron spectrum and in the MOL-{sigma}{sigma} intermediate-energy standard neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)

  8. Measurements of Integral Cross Section Ratios in Two Dosimetry Benchmark Neutron Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A. [CEN-SCK, Mol (Belgium); Czock, K. H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1974-12-15

    In the frame of a current interlaboratory effort devoted to the standardization of fuels and materials neutron dosimetry, the {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co integral cross sections have been accurately measured relatively to the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In cross section in the {sup 235}U thermal dission neutron spectrum and in the MOL{Sigma}{Sigma} Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron field. In this last neutron field, the data are related also to the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section. The measurements are extensively documented and the results briefly compared to literature. Most noticeably, decisive support is provided for the selection of a specific {sup 103}Rh(n,n'){sup 103m}Rh differential-energy cross section among the existing, conflicting data. (author)

  9. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee; Lee, Eun Chan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  10. Infrared asymptotics of a gauge-invariant propagator in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Solovtsov, I.l.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of gauge-invariant fields is introduced. For the gauge-invariant propagator of a spinor field the analogue of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is derived. With the help of these equations as well as the functional integration method it is shown that the gauge-invariant spinor propagator has a simple pole singularity in the infrared region

  11. Infrared asymptotics of a gauge-invariant propagator in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A new class of the gauge-invariant field is introduced. For the gauge-invariant propagator of a spinor field the analog of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is derived. By using these equations as well as the functional integration method it is shown that the gauge-invariant spinor propagator has a simple pole singularity in the infrared region

  12. The field-testing of a novel integrated mapping protocol for neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pelletreau

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertical control and elimination programs focused on specific neglected tropical diseases (NTDs can achieve notable success by reducing the prevalence and intensity of infection. However, many NTD-endemic countries have not been able to launch or scale-up programs because they lack the necessary baseline data for planning and advocacy. Each NTD program has its own mapping guidelines to collect missing data. Where geographic overlap among NTDs exists, an integrated mapping approach could result in significant resource savings. We developed and field-tested an innovative integrated NTD mapping protocol (Integrated Threshold Mapping (ITM Methodology for lymphatic filariasis (LF, trachoma, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The protocol is designed to be resource-efficient, and its specific purpose is to determine whether a threshold to trigger public health interventions in an implementation unit has been attained. The protocol relies on World Health Organization (WHO recommended indicators in the disease-specific age groups. For each disease, the sampling frame was the district, but for schistosomiasis, the sub-district rather than the ecological zone was used. We tested the protocol by comparing it to current WHO mapping methodologies for each of the targeted diseases in one district each in Mali and Senegal. Results were compared in terms of public health intervention, and feasibility, including cost. In this study, the ITM methodology reached the same conclusions as the WHO methodologies regarding the initiation of public health interventions for trachoma, LF and STH, but resulted in more targeted intervention recommendations for schistosomiasis. ITM was practical, feasible and demonstrated an overall cost saving compared with the standard, non-integrated, WHO methodologies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This integrated mapping tool could facilitate the implementation of much

  13. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  14. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  15. Electrolocation-based underwater obstacle avoidance using wide-field integration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimble, Kedar D; Faddy, James M; Humbert, J Sean

    2014-01-01

    Weakly electric fish are capable of efficiently performing obstacle avoidance in dark and navigationally challenging aquatic environments using electrosensory information. This sensory modality enables extraction of relevant proximity information about surrounding obstacles by interpretation of perturbations induced to the fish’s self-generated electric field. In this paper, reflexive obstacle avoidance is demonstrated by extracting relative proximity information using spatial decompositions of the perturbation signal, also called an electric image. Electrostatics equations were formulated for mathematically expressing electric images due to a straight tunnel to the electric field generated with a planar electro-sensor model. These equations were further used to design a wide-field integration based static output feedback controller. The controller was implemented in quasi-static simulations for environments with complicated geometries modelled using finite element methods to demonstrate sense and avoid behaviours. The simulation results were confirmed by performing experiments using a computer operated gantry system in environments lined with either conductive or non-conductive objects acting as global stimuli to the field of the electro-sensor. The proposed approach is computationally inexpensive and readily implementable, making underwater autonomous navigation in real-time feasible. (paper)

  16. Electromagnetic field enhancement and spectrum shaping through plasmonically integrated optical vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M

    2012-01-11

    We introduce a new design approach for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates that is based on molding the optical powerflow through a sequence of coupled nanoscale optical vortices "pinned" to rationally designed plasmonic nanostructures, referred to as Vortex Nanogear Transmissions (VNTs). We fabricated VNTs composed of Au nanodiscs by electron beam lithography on quartz substrates and characterized their near- and far-field responses through combination of computational electromagnetism, and elastic and inelastic scattering spectroscopy. Pronounced dips in the far-field scattering spectra of VNTs provide experimental evidence for an efficient light trapping and circulation within the nanostructures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that VNT integration into periodic arrays of Au nanoparticles facilitates the generation of high E-field enhancements in the VNTs at multiple defined wavelengths. We show that spectrum shaping in nested VNT structures is achieved through an electromagnetic feed-mechanism driven by the coherent multiple scattering in the plasmonic arrays and that this process can be rationally controlled by tuning the array period. The ability to generate high E-field enhancements at predefined locations and frequencies makes nested VNTs interesting substrates for challenging SERS applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Infrared transmission study of Pr.sub.2./sub.CuO.sub.4./sub. crystal-field excitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riou, G.; Jandl, S.; Poirier, M.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Diviš, M.; Fournier, P.; Greene, R. L.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Barilo, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2001), s. 179-182 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1602; GA ČR GA202/99/0184 Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 145/2000/B-FYZ; DMR(XX) 9732796 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : optical properties * crystal and ligand fields * other cuprates Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2001

  18. A calderón-preconditioned single source combined field integral equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdé s, Felipe; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a

  19. [Clinical evaluation of female pelvic tumors : Application fields of integrated PET/MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, J; Umutlu, L

    2016-07-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning has recently become established in clinical imaging. Various studies have demonstrated the great potential of this new hybrid imaging procedure for applications in the field of oncology and the diagnostics of inflammatory processes. With initial studies demonstrating the feasibility and high diagnostic potential of PET/MRI comparable to PET-computed tomography (CT), the focus of future studies should be on the identification of application fields with a potential diagnostic benefit of PET/MRI over other established diagnostic tools. Both MRI and PET/CT are widely used in the diagnostic algorithms for malignancies of the female pelvis. A simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data within a single examination provides complementary information which can be used for a more comprehensive evaluation of the primary tumor as well as for whole body staging. Therefore, the aim of this article is to outline potential clinical applications of integrated PET/MRI for the diagnostic work-up of primary or recurrent gynecological neoplasms of the female pelvis.

  20. Cyp26 Enzymes Facilitate Second Heart Field Progenitor Addition and Maintenance of Ventricular Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B Rydeen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although retinoic acid (RA teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs, and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube. Molecularly, excess RA signaling negatively regulates fibroblast growth factor 8a (fgf8a expression and positively regulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9 expression. Although restoring Fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling can partially rescue SHF addition in Cyp26 deficient embryos, attenuating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP function can rescue both ventricular SHF addition and FHF integrity. These novel findings indicate a primary effect of RA-induced OFT defects is disruption of the extracellular environment, which compromises both SHF recruitment and FHF ventricular integrity.