Sample records for infrared imaging applications

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA


    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  2. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto


    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  3. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications. (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J


    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  4. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz


    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd


    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  6. Retinex enhancement of infrared images. (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili


    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance.

  7. Infrared image enhancement with learned features (United States)

    Fan, Zunlin; Bi, Duyan; Ding, Wenshan


    Due to the variation of imaging environment and limitations of infrared imaging sensors, infrared images usually have some drawbacks: low contrast, few details and indistinct edges. Hence, to promote the applications of infrared imaging technology, it is essential to improve the qualities of infrared images. To enhance image details and edges adaptively, we propose an infrared image enhancement method under the proposed image enhancement scheme. On the one hand, on the assumption of high-quality image taking more evident structure singularities than low-quality images, we propose an image enhancement scheme that depends on the extractions of structure features. On the other hand, different from the current image enhancement algorithms based on deep learning networks that try to train and build the end-to-end mappings on improving image quality, we analyze the significance of first layer in Stacked Sparse Denoising Auto-encoder and propose a novel feature extraction for the proposed image enhancement scheme. Experiment results prove that the novel feature extraction is free from some artifacts on the edges such as blocking artifacts, ;gradient reversal;, and pseudo contours. Compared with other enhancement methods, the proposed method achieves the best performance in infrared image enhancement.

  8. A review on the application of medical infrared thermal imaging in hands (United States)

    Sousa, Elsa; Vardasca, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sérgio; Seixas, Adérito; Mendes, Joaquim; Costa-Ferreira, António


    Infrared Thermal (IRT) imaging is a medical imaging modality to study skin temperature in real time, providing physiological information about the underlining structures. One of the most accessible body sites to be investigated using such imaging method is the hands, which can reflect valuable information about conditions affecting the upper limbs. The aim of this review is to acquaint the successful applications of IRT in the hands with a medical scope, opening horizons for future applications based in the achieved results. A systematic literature review was performed in order to assess in which applications medical IRT imaging was applied to the hands. The literature search was conducted in the reference databases: PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Science, making use of keywords (hand, thermography, infrared imaging, thermal imaging) combination that were present at the title and abstract. No temporal restriction was made. As a result, 4260 articles were identified, after removal of duplicates, 3224 articles remained and from first title and abstract filtering, a total of 388 articles were considered. After application of exclusion criteria (non-availability, non-clinical applications, reviews, case studies, written in other languages than English and using liquid crystal thermography), 146 articles were considered for this review. It can be verified that thermography provides useful diagnostic and monitoring information of conditions that directly or indirectly related to hands, as well as aiding in the treatment assessment. Trends and future challenges for IRT applications on hands are provided to stimulate researchers and clinicians to explore and address them.

  9. Thermoelectric infrared imager and automotive applications (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Satou, Fuminori; Saito, Masanori; Kishi, Youichi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Makato


    This paper describes a newly developed thermoelectric infrared imager having a 48 X 32 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) and an experimental vehicle featuring a blind spot pedestrian warning system, which employs four infrared imagers. The imager measures 100 mm in width, 60 mm in height and 80 mm in depth, weighs 400 g, and has an overall field of view (FOV) of 40 deg X 20 deg. The power consumption of the imager is 3 W. The pedestrian detection program is stored in a CPU chip on a printed circuit board (PCB). The FPA provides high responsivity of 2,100 V/W, a time constant of 25 msec, and a low cost potential. Each element has external dimensions of 190 μm x 190 μm, and consists of six pairs of thermocouples and an Au-black absorber that is precisely patterned by low-pressure evaporation and lift-off technologies. The experimental vehicle is called the Nissan ASV-2 (Advanced Safety Vehicle-2), which incorporates a wide range of integrated technologies aimed at reducing traffic accidents. The blind spot pedestrian warning system alerts the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person's body. This system also prevents the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian.

  10. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl


    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  11. Advanced techniques in dynamic infrared imaging research and application for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggio, Esteban F.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.


    Infrared Imaging for biomedical applications is a non-invasive technique employed to visualize the distribution of infrared radiance coming from the subject under study, either in a static or a dynamic mode. The main difference is that while with the static method basal situations are studied, in the dynamic approach a sequence of thermograms, using thermal stimuli applied onto the patient are acquired, following the temperature evolution throughout the time. Since tumors possess abnormal metabolic activity, a structure and a vascular distribution essentially different from healthy tissue, and a lack of response to homeostatic signals, thermal stresses enhance even more their presence. For this reason, a completely non-invasive system, referred to as Enhancement and Stimulation System (ESS) was constructed, capable of imparting a cool or hot convective air flow onto the surface to examine and permitting to include in the study the time-course of the thermal stress application. In this work, the design of the Dynamic Infrared Imaging-ESS prototype, its characterization and optimization will be presented. In addition, examples of biomedical interest employing small animals will be shown as well. (author)

  12. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications. (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit


    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in release and therapeutic applications. We explore near-infrared light-sensitive liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  13. Infrared and visible image fusion using discrete cosine transform and swarm intelligence for surveillance applications (United States)

    Paramanandham, Nirmala; Rajendiran, Kishore


    A novel image fusion technique is presented for integrating infrared and visible images. Integration of images from the same or various sensing modalities can deliver the required information that cannot be delivered by viewing the sensor outputs individually and consecutively. In this paper, a swarm intelligence based image fusion technique using discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain is proposed for surveillance application which integrates the infrared image with the visible image for generating a single informative fused image. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used in the fusion process for obtaining the optimized weighting factor. These optimized weighting factors are used for fusing the DCT coefficients of visible and infrared images. Inverse DCT is applied for obtaining the initial fused image. An enhanced fused image is obtained through adaptive histogram equalization for a better visual understanding and target detection. The proposed framework is evaluated using quantitative metrics such as standard deviation, spatial frequency, entropy and mean gradient. The experimental results demonstrate the outperformance of the proposed algorithm over many other state- of- the- art techniques reported in literature.

  14. Miniature infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for airborne applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl


    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4 lenslet array on a 1024 x 1024 pixel element focal plane array which gives 16 spectral images of 256 x 256 pixel resolution each

  15. Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier


    We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

  16. Applications of optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, E.


    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  17. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter


    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  18. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images (United States)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao


    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  19. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  20. Ship detection based on rotation-invariant HOG descriptors for airborne infrared images (United States)

    Xu, Guojing; Wang, Jinyan; Qi, Shengxiang


    Infrared thermal imagery is widely used in various kinds of aircraft because of its all-time application. Meanwhile, detecting ships from infrared images attract lots of research interests in recent years. In the case of downward-looking infrared imagery, in order to overcome the uncertainty of target imaging attitude due to the unknown position relationship between the aircraft and the target, we propose a new infrared ship detection method which integrates rotation invariant gradient direction histogram (Circle Histogram of Oriented Gradient, C-HOG) descriptors and the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In details, the proposed method uses HOG descriptors to express the local feature of infrared images to adapt to changes in illumination and to overcome sea clutter effects. Different from traditional computation of HOG descriptor, we subdivide the image into annular spatial bins instead of rectangle sub-regions, and then Radial Gradient Transform (RGT) on the gradient is applied to achieve rotation invariant histogram information. Considering the engineering application of airborne and real-time requirements, we use SVM for training ship target and non-target background infrared sample images to discriminate real ships from false targets. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good performance in both the robustness and run-time for infrared ship target detection with different rotation angles.

  1. Processing Infrared Images For Fire Management Applications (United States)

    Warren, John R.; Pratt, William K.


    The USDA Forest Service has used airborne infrared systems for forest fire detection and mapping for many years. The transfer of the images from plane to ground and the transposition of fire spots and perimeters to maps has been performed manually. A new system has been developed which uses digital image processing, transmission, and storage. Interactive graphics, high resolution color display, calculations, and computer model compatibility are featured in the system. Images are acquired by an IR line scanner and converted to 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit frames for transmission to the ground at a 1.544 M bit rate over a 14.7 GHZ carrier. Individual frames are received and stored, then transferred to a solid state memory to refresh the display at a conventional 30 frames per second rate. Line length and area calculations, false color assignment, X-Y scaling, and image enhancement are available. Fire spread can be calculated for display and fire perimeters plotted on maps. The performance requirements, basic system, and image processing will be described.

  2. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.


    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability

  3. Low-cost near-infrared imaging device for inspection of historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid


    Near-infrared (NIR) or sometimes called black light is a waveform beyond visible light and it is not detectable by human eyes. However electronic sensors such as the type used in digital cameras are able to detect signals in the infrared band. To avoid distortion in the pictures obtained near-infrared is blocked by optical filters inserted in digital cameras. By carrying out minor modification allowing near-infrared signal to be imaged while blocking the visible signal, the camera is turned into a low-cost NIR imaging instrument. NIR imaging can be a useful tool in historical manuscript study or restoration. A few applications have been successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiment using the instrument available in MINT. However, due to unavailability of historical items, easily available texts and paintings are used in the demonstrations. This paper reports achievements of early work on the application of digital camera in the detection of damaged prints or writings. (Author)

  4. Near-infrared spectral imaging Michelson interferometer for astronomical applications (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.


    The design and operation of an imaging Michelson interferometer-spectrometer used for near-infrared (0.8 micron to 2.5 microns) spectral imaging are reported. The system employs a rapid scan interferometer modified for stable low resolution (250/cm) performance and a 42 element PbS linear detector array. A microcomputer system is described which provides data acquisition, coadding, and Fourier transformation for near real-time presentation of the spectra of all 42 scene elements. The electronic and mechanical designs are discussed and telescope performance data presented.

  5. Graphene metamaterial spatial light modulator for infrared single pixel imaging. (United States)

    Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan Y; Padilla, Willie J


    High-resolution and hyperspectral imaging has long been a goal for multi-dimensional data fusion sensing applications - of interest for autonomous vehicles and environmental monitoring. In the long wave infrared regime this quest has been impeded by size, weight, power, and cost issues, especially as focal-plane array detector sizes increase. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrated a new approach based on a metamaterial graphene spatial light modulator (GSLM) for infrared single pixel imaging. A frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) imaging technique is designed and implemented, and relies entirely on the electronic reconfigurability of the GSLM. We compare our approach to the more common raster-scan method and directly show FDM image frame rates can be 64 times faster with no degradation of image quality. Our device and related imaging architecture are not restricted to the infrared regime, and may be scaled to other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The study presented here opens a new approach for fast and efficient single pixel imaging utilizing graphene metamaterials with novel acquisition strategies.

  6. A time-gated near-infrared spectroscopic imaging device for clinical applications. (United States)

    Poulet, Patrick; Uhring, Wilfried; Hanselmann, Walter; Glazenborg, René; Nouizi, Farouk; Zint, Virginie; Hirschi, Werner


    A time-resolved, spectroscopic, diffuse optical tomography device was assembled for clinical applications like brain functional imaging. The entire instrument lies in a unique setup that includes a light source, an ultrafast time-gated intensified camera and all the electronic control units. The light source is composed of four near infrared laser diodes driven by a nanosecond electrical pulse generator working in a sequential mode at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. The light pulses are less than 80 ps FWHM. They are injected in a four-furcated optical fiber ended with a frontal light distributor to obtain a uniform illumination spot directed towards the head of the patient. Photons back-scattered by the subject are detected by the intensified CCD camera. There are resolved according to their time of flight inside the head. The photocathode is powered by an ultrafast generator producing 50 V pulses, at 100 MHz and a width corresponding to a 200 ps FWHM gate. The intensifier has been specially designed for this application. The whole instrument is controlled by an FPGA based module. All the acquisition parameters are configurable via software through an USB plug and the image data are transferred to a PC via an Ethernet link. The compactness of the device makes it a perfect device for bedside clinical applications. The instrument will be described and characterized. Preliminary data recorded on test samples will be presented.

  7. Wavelet-Based Visible and Infrared Image Fusion: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel D. Sappa


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR.

  8. An improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared images based on adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Li, Yiyang


    Infrared thermal images can reflect the thermal-radiation distribution of a particular scene. However, the contrast of the infrared images is usually low. Hence, it is generally necessary to enhance the contrast of infrared images in advance to facilitate subsequent recognition and analysis. Based on the adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization, this paper presents an improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared thermal images. In the proposed algorithm, the normalized coefficient of variation of the histogram, which characterizes the level of contrast enhancement, is introduced as feedback information to adjust the upper and lower plateau thresholds. The experiments on actual infrared images show that compared to the three typical contrast-enhancement algorithms, the proposed algorithm has better scene adaptability and yields better contrast-enhancement results for infrared images with more dark areas or a higher dynamic range. Hence, it has high application value in contrast enhancement, dynamic range compression, and digital detail enhancement for infrared thermal images.

  9. Applications of infrared technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, London, England, June 9, 10, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.L.


    Recent developments in thermal imaging and other infrared systems relating to military, industrial, medical, and scientific applications are reviewed. Papers are presented on a new thermal imager using a linear pyroelectric detector array; multichannel near infrared spectroradiometer; technological constraints on the use of thermal imagery for remote sensing; and infrared optical system of the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder. Other topics discussed include infrared thermography development for composite material evaluation; infrared process linescanner, and optical infrared starting radiometer

  10. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, Sicco A.

    Background: Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the

  11. Reflective all-sky thermal infrared cloud imager. (United States)

    Redman, Brian J; Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Clark, R Trevor; Piazzolla, Sabino


    A reflective all-sky imaging system has been built using a long-wave infrared microbolometer camera and a reflective metal sphere. This compact system was developed for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of clouds and their optical depth in support of applications including Earth-space optical communications. The camera is mounted to the side of the reflective sphere to leave the zenith sky unobstructed. The resulting geometric distortion is removed through an angular map derived from a combination of checkerboard-target imaging, geometric ray tracing, and sun-location-based alignment. A tape of high-emissivity material on the side of the reflector acts as a reference that is used to estimate and remove thermal emission from the metal sphere. Once a bias that is under continuing study was removed, sky radiance measurements from the all-sky imager in the 8-14 μm wavelength range agreed to within 0.91 W/(m 2 sr) of measurements from a previously calibrated, lens-based infrared cloud imager over its 110° field of view.

  12. TIRCIS: A Thermal Infrared, Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Small Satellite Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate how hyperspectral thermal infrared (TIR; 8-14 microns) image data, with a spectral resolution of up to 8 wavenumbers, can be acquired...

  13. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M.; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M.; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jö rg; Reiner, Thomas


    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Büchel, Gabriel E.


    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani; Hall, Donald; Jacobson, Shane; Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Law, Nicholas M., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)


    Infrared avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays represent a panacea for many branches of astronomy by enabling extremely low-noise, high-speed, and even photon-counting measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. We recently demonstrated the use of an early engineering-grade infrared APD array that achieves a correlated double sampling read noise of 0.73 e{sup −} in the lab, and a total noise of 2.52 e{sup −} on sky, and supports simultaneous high-speed imaging and tip-tilt wavefront sensing with the Robo-AO visible-light laser adaptive optics (AO) system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5 m telescope. Here we report on the improved image quality simultaneously achieved at visible and infrared wavelengths by using the array as part of an image stabilization control loop with AO-sharpened guide stars. We also discuss a newly enabled survey of nearby late M-dwarf multiplicity, as well as future uses of this technology in other AO and high-contrast imaging applications.

  16. Infrared hot-electron NbN superconducting photodetectors for imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, K.S.; Gol'tsman, G.N.; Verevkin, A.A.; Sobolewski, Roman


    We report an effective quantum efficiency of 340, responsivity >200 A W -1 (>10 4 V W -1 ) and response time of 27±5 ps at temperatures close to the superconducting transition for NbN superconducting hot-electron photodetectors (HEPs) in the near-infrared and optical ranges. Our studies were performed on a few nm thick NbN films deposited on sapphire substrates and patterned into μm-size multibridge detector structures, incorporated into a coplanar transmission line. The time-resolved photoresponse was studied by means of subpicosecond electro-optic sampling with 100 fs wide laser pulses. The quantum efficiency and responsivity studies of our photodetectors were conducted using an amplitude-modulated infrared beam, fibre-optically coupled to the device. The observed picosecond response time and the very high efficiency and sensitivity of the NbN HEPs make them an excellent choice for infrared imaging photodetectors and input optical-to-electrical transducers for superconducting digital circuits. (author)

  17. Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a Solmirus Corp. All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer. The IRSI is an automatic, continuously operating, digital imaging and software system designed to capture hemispheric sky images and provide time series retrievals of fractional sky cover during both the day and night. The instrument provides diurnal, radiometrically calibrated sky imagery in the mid-infrared atmospheric window and imagery in the visible wavelengths for cloud retrievals during daylight hours. The software automatically identifies cloudy and clear regions at user-defined intervals and calculates fractional sky cover, providing a real-time display of sky conditions.

  18. Monitoring machining conditions by infrared images (United States)

    Borelli, Joao E.; Gonzaga Trabasso, Luis; Gonzaga, Adilson; Coelho, Reginaldo T.


    During machining process the knowledge of the temperature is the most important factor in tool analysis. It allows to control main factors that influence tool use, life time and waste. The temperature in the contact area between the piece and the tool is resulting from the material removal in cutting operation and it is too difficult to be obtained because the tool and the work piece are in motion. One way to measure the temperature in this situation is detecting the infrared radiation. This work presents a new methodology for diagnosis and monitoring of machining processes with the use of infrared images. The infrared image provides a map in gray tones of the elements in the process: tool, work piece and chips. Each gray tone in the image corresponds to a certain temperature for each one of those materials and the relationship between the gray tones and the temperature is gotten by the previous of infrared camera calibration. The system developed in this work uses an infrared camera, a frame grabber board and a software composed of three modules. The first module makes the image acquisition and processing. The second module makes the feature image extraction and performs the feature vector. Finally, the third module uses fuzzy logic to evaluate the feature vector and supplies the tool state diagnostic as output.

  19. Image processing system design for microcantilever-based optical readout infrared arrays (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Weiyu


    Compared with the traditional infrared imaging technology, the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS has many advantages, such as low cost, small size, producing simple. In addition, the theory proves that the technology's high thermal detection sensitivity. So it has a very broad application prospects in the field of high performance infrared detection. The paper mainly focuses on an image capturing and processing system in the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS. The image capturing and processing system consists of software and hardware. We build our image processing core hardware platform based on TI's high performance DSP chip which is the TMS320DM642, and then design our image capturing board based on the MT9P031. MT9P031 is Micron's company high frame rate, low power consumption CMOS chip. Last we use Intel's company network transceiver devices-LXT971A to design the network output board. The software system is built on the real-time operating system DSP/BIOS. We design our video capture driver program based on TI's class-mini driver and network output program based on the NDK kit for image capturing and processing and transmitting. The experiment shows that the system has the advantages of high capturing resolution and fast processing speed. The speed of the network transmission is up to 100Mbps.

  20. Detail Enhancement for Infrared Images Based on Propagated Image Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Peng


    Full Text Available For displaying high-dynamic-range images acquired by thermal camera systems, 14-bit raw infrared data should map into 8-bit gray values. This paper presents a new method for detail enhancement of infrared images to display the image with a relatively satisfied contrast and brightness, rich detail information, and no artifacts caused by the image processing. We first adopt a propagated image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base layer and the detail layer. Then, we refine the base layer by using modified histogram projection for compressing. Meanwhile, the adaptive weights derived from the layer decomposition processing are used as the strict gain control for the detail layer. The final display result is obtained by recombining the two modified layers. Experimental results on both cooled and uncooled infrared data verify that the proposed method outperforms the method based on log-power histogram modification and bilateral filter-based detail enhancement in both detail enhancement and visual effect.

  1. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.


    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery was obtained of the Space Shuttle s reentry during STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128 missions. The infrared imagery was collected using a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. The slant ranges between the Space Shuttle and Cast Glance were approximately 26-41 nautical miles at point of closest approach. The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. HYTHIRM required several mission tools to acquire the imagery. These tools include pre-mission acquisition simulations of the Shuttle trajectory in relationship to the Cast Glance aircraft flight path, radiance modeling to predict the infrared response of the Shuttle, and post mission analysis tools to process the infrared imagery to quantitative temperature maps. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Shuttle s hypersonic reentry provides valuable flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is considered critical for the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. This paper will provide the motivation and details behind the use of an upgraded NIR imaging system used onboard a Navy Cast Glance aircraft and describe the characterizations and procedures performed to obtain quantitative temperature maps. A brief description and assessment will be provided of the previously used analog NIR camera along with image examples from Shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and solar tower test. These thermal

  2. Comparison of image deconvolution algorithms on simulated and laboratory infrared images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    We compare Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Entropy, Accelerated Lucy-Richardson, Weighted Goodness of Fit, and Pixon reconstructions of simple scenes as a function of signal-to-noise ratio for simulated images with randomly generated noise. Reconstruction results of infrared images taken with the TAISIR (Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed) are also discussed.

  3. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications. (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A


    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB


    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  5. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan


    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  6. Standard software for automated testing of infrared imagers, IRWindows, in practical applications (United States)

    Irwin, Alan; Nicklin, Robert L.


    In the past, ad-hoc and manual testing of infrared images hasn't been a deterrent to the characterization of these systems due to the low volume of production and high ratio of skilled personnel to the quantity of units under test. However, with higher volume production, increasing numbers of development labs in emerging markets, and the push towards less expensive, faster development cycles, there is a strong need for standardized testing that is quickly configurable by test engineers, which can be run by less experienced test technicians, and which produce repeatable, accurate results. The IRWindowsTM system addresses these needs using a standard computing platform and existing automated IR test equipment. This paper looks at the general capabilities of the IRWindowsTM system, and then examines the specific results from its application in the PalmIR and Automotive IR production environments.

  7. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei


    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  8. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin


    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  9. The evaluation of non-ionizing radiation (near-infrared radiation) based medical imaging application: Diabetes foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheol Won; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Jun Yong; Ahn, Yun Jin; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)


    Near-infrared radiation (NIR) is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and deep tissue penetration in biological material, thereby increasing research interests as a medical imaging technique in the world. However, the use of current near-infrared medical image is extremely limited in Korea (ROK) since it is not well known among radiologic technologists and radiological researchers. Therefore to strengthen the knowledge for NIR medical imaging is necessary so as to prepare a qualified radiological professionals to serve medical images in high-quality on the clinical sites. In this study, an overview of the features and principles of N IR imaging was demonstrated. The latest research topics and worldwide research trends were introduced for radiologic technologist to reinforce their technical skills. In particular, wound care and diabetic foot which have high feasibility for clinical translation were introduced in order to contribute to accelerating NIR research for developing the field of radiological science.

  10. The evaluation of non-ionizing radiation (near-infrared radiation) based medical imaging application: Diabetes foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Jin; Shin, Cheol Won; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Jun Yong; Ahn, Yun Jin; Lim, Cheong Hwan


    Near-infrared radiation (NIR) is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and deep tissue penetration in biological material, thereby increasing research interests as a medical imaging technique in the world. However, the use of current near-infrared medical image is extremely limited in Korea (ROK) since it is not well known among radiologic technologists and radiological researchers. Therefore to strengthen the knowledge for NIR medical imaging is necessary so as to prepare a qualified radiological professionals to serve medical images in high-quality on the clinical sites. In this study, an overview of the features and principles of N IR imaging was demonstrated. The latest research topics and worldwide research trends were introduced for radiologic technologist to reinforce their technical skills. In particular, wound care and diabetic foot which have high feasibility for clinical translation were introduced in order to contribute to accelerating NIR research for developing the field of radiological science

  11. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda J.; Hoveling, Richelle J. M.; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.


    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of

  12. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin


    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version...... parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled...

  13. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing


    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  14. Electrowetting Variable Optics for Visible and Infrared Applications (United States)

    Watson, Alexander Maxwell

    Miniaturized variable optical devices are important for the fields of medical technology, optical communication, and consumer imaging devices. Areas ranging from endoscopy and optogenetics to atomic clocks and imaging all benefit from versatile optical systems. These applications all require precise and rapid control of imaging focal depth and lateral scanning. Electrowetting variable optics is one emergent technology that has the capability to provide focus tuning, beam steering, and even phase modulation in a small and robust package which requires no moving parts. Furthermore, electrowetting based devices there are attractive due to their transmissive nature, polarization insensitivity, low insertion loss, low electrical power requirements, and high optical quality. These features mean that electrowetting adaptive optical components are an attractive solution, compared with MEMS and liquid crystal optical components. Electrowetting is a technique that enables control of the shape of a liquid droplet with applied voltage. A conductive droplet on a dielectric surface alters its contact angle due to charges that build up between an underlying electrode and the surface of the droplet. This effect can be used to tune the curvature and tilt of liquids within cavities. The liquid boundary creates a high quality surface to use for lensing or steering applications. This thesis will focus on the development of electrowetting based lenses and prisms and applications in imaging for both visible and infrared wavelengths. Within this dissertation is the first demonstration of electrowetting lenses for phase control, as well as the investigation of non-aqueous electrowetting lens liquids for electrowetting lenses operation in the infrared. Key considerations that affect the performance and reliability are dielectric material and thickness, liquid selection and source of ionic conduction. The optical devices presented herein utilize judicious selection of dielectric material

  15. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology. (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis


    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu


    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  17. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Enabling Routine Functional Brain Imaging. (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette J; Huppert, Theodore J; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A


    Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) maps human brain function by measuring and imaging local changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the brain that arise from the modulation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by neural activity. Since its advent over 20 years ago, researchers have exploited and continuously advanced the ability of near infrared light to penetrate through the scalp and skull in order to non-invasively monitor changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentrations that reflect brain activity. We review recent advances in signal processing and hardware that significantly improve the capabilities of fNIRS by reducing the impact of confounding signals to improve statistical robustness of the brain signals and by enhancing the density, spatial coverage, and wearability of measuring devices respectively. We then summarize the application areas that are experiencing rapid growth as fNIRS begins to enable routine functional brain imaging.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu


    Full Text Available In order to realize the analysis of thermal energy of the objects in 3D vision, the registration approach of thermal infrared images and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner point cloud was studied. The original data was pre-processed. For the sake of making the scale and brightness contrast of the two kinds of data meet the needs of basic matching, the intensity image of point cloud was produced and projected to spherical coordinate system, histogram equalization processing was done for thermal infrared image.This paper focused on the research of registration approaches of thermal infrared images and intensity images of point cloud based on SIFT,EOH-SIFT and PIIFD operators. The latter of which is usually used for medical image matching with different spectral character. The comparison results of the experiments showed that PIIFD operator got much more accurate feature point correspondences compared to SIFT and EOH-SIFT operators. The thermal infrared image and intensity image also have ideal overlap results by quadratic polynomial transformation. Therefore, PIIFD can be used as the basic operator for the registration of thermal infrared images and intensity images, and the operator can also be further improved by incorporating the iteration method.

  19. No Reference Prediction of Quality Metrics for H.264 Compressed Infrared Image Sequences for UAV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Kabir; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    The framework for this research work is the acquisition of Infrared (IR) images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). In this paper we consider the No-Reference (NR) prediction of Full Reference Quality Metrics for Infrared (IR) video sequences which are compressed and thus distorted by an H.264...

  20. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.


    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759

  1. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  2. Thermal Imaging Systems for Real-Time Applications in Smart Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Nielsen, Søren Zebitz


    of thermal imaging in real-time Smart City applications. Thermal cameras operate independently of light and measure the radiated infrared waves representing the temperature of the scene. In order to showcase the possibilities, we present five different applications which use thermal imaging only...

  3. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng


    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  4. Multichannel far-infrared phase imaging for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.E.; Neikirk, D.P.; Tong, P.P.; Rutledge, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.


    A 20-channel far-infrared imaging interferometer system has been used to obtain single-shot density profiles in the UCLA Microtor tokamak. This system differs from conventional multichannel interferometers in that the phase distribution produced by the plasma is imaged onto a single, monolithic, integrated microbolometer linear detector array and provides significantly more channels than previous far-infrared interferometers. The system has been demonstrated to provide diffraction-limited phase images of dielectric targets

  5. Pyroelectric Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Processing, Properties, and Applications (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, P.; Edwards, M. E.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.


    Uncooled pyroelectric detectors find applications in diverse and wide areas such as industrial production; automotive; aerospace applications for satellite-borne ozone sensors assembled with an infrared spectrometer; health care; space exploration; imaging systems for ships, cars, and aircraft; and military and security surveillance systems. These detectors are the prime candidates for NASA s thermal infrared detector requirements. In this Technical Memorandum, the physical phenomena underlying the operation and advantages of pyroelectric infrared detectors is introduced. A list and applications of important ferroelectrics is given, which is a subclass of pyroelectrics. The basic concepts of processing of important pyroelectrics in various forms are described: single crystal growth, ceramic processing, polymer-composites preparation, and thin- and thick-film fabrications. The present status of materials and their characteristics and detectors figures-of-merit are presented in detail. In the end, the unique techniques demonstrated for improving/enhancing the performance of pyroelectric detectors are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on recent advances and emerging technologies such as thin-film array devices and novel single crystal sensors.

  6. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics. (United States)

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo


    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity.

  7. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense (United States)

    Hornberger, Chris


    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at an ever increasing pace, uncooled infrared cameras are widely deployed serving society in meaningful ways; from preventative maintenance and process inspection to law enforcement and rescue operations. Following last years terrorist attacks in New York and Virginia, President Bush appointed Governor Ridge to lead federal coordination efforts for defense of the homeland. While uncooled microbolometer sensors served in Homeland Security long before September 2001, it is certain that new applications will be identified for surveillance, security, law enforcement and protection needs. In this paper we will describe advances in military uncooled infrared sensor technology and how these sensors can serve in the role of Homeland Defense. Developments in uncooled sensors that will be described include the rugged performance validation of a thermal weapon sight and head-mounted imager. We will look at those areas of Homeland Defense that are most likely to benefit from the application of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: a) search & rescue camera systems, b) handheld surveillance systems and c) hands-free camera systems.

  8. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John


    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  9. 110 °C range athermalization of wavefront coding infrared imaging systems (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Shi, Zelin; Chang, Zheng; Liu, Haizheng; Zhao, Yaohong


    110 °C range athermalization is significant but difficult for designing infrared imaging systems. Our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system adopts an optical phase mask with less manufacturing errors and a decoding method based on shrinkage function. The qualitative experiments prove that our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has three prominent merits: (1) working well over a temperature range of 110 °C; (2) extending the focal depth up to 15.2 times; (3) achieving a decoded image being approximate to its corresponding in-focus infrared image, with a mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) value greater than 0.85.

  10. Infrared Image Segmentation by Combining Fractal Geometry with Wavelet Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionggang Tu


    Full Text Available An infrared image is decomposed into three levels by discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT. Noise is reduced by wiener filter in the high resolution levels in the DSWT domain. Nonlinear gray transformation operation is used to enhance details in the low resolution levels in the DSWT domain. Enhanced infrared image is obtained by inverse DSWT. The enhanced infrared image is divided into many small blocks. The fractal dimensions of all the blocks are computed. Region of interest (ROI is extracted by combining all the blocks, which have similar fractal dimensions. ROI is segmented by global threshold method. The man-made objects are efficiently separated from the infrared image by the proposed method.

  11. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang


    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  12. Automatic recognition of ship types from infrared images using superstructure moment invariants (United States)

    Li, Heng; Wang, Xinyu


    Automatic object recognition is an active area of interest for military and commercial applications. In this paper, a system addressing autonomous recognition of ship types in infrared images is proposed. Firstly, an approach of segmentation based on detection of salient features of the target with subsequent shadow removing is proposed, as is the base of the subsequent object recognition. Considering the differences between the shapes of various ships mainly lie in their superstructures, we then use superstructure moment functions invariant to translation, rotation and scale differences in input patterns and develop a robust algorithm of obtaining ship superstructure. Subsequently a back-propagation neural network is used as a classifier in the recognition stage and projection images of simulated three-dimensional ship models are used as the training sets. Our recognition model was implemented and experimentally validated using both simulated three-dimensional ship model images and real images derived from video of an AN/AAS-44V Forward Looking Infrared(FLIR) sensor.

  13. Comparison of time-series registration methods in breast dynamic infrared imaging (United States)

    Riyahi-Alam, S.; Agostini, V.; Molinari, F.; Knaflitz, M.


    Automated motion reduction in dynamic infrared imaging is on demand in clinical applications, since movement disarranges time-temperature series of each pixel, thus originating thermal artifacts that might bias the clinical decision. All previously proposed registration methods are feature based algorithms requiring manual intervention. The aim of this work is to optimize the registration strategy specifically for Breast Dynamic Infrared Imaging and to make it user-independent. We implemented and evaluated 3 different 3D time-series registration methods: 1. Linear affine, 2. Non-linear Bspline, 3. Demons applied to 12 datasets of healthy breast thermal images. The results are evaluated through normalized mutual information with average values of 0.70 ±0.03, 0.74 ±0.03 and 0.81 ±0.09 (out of 1) for Affine, Bspline and Demons registration, respectively, as well as breast boundary overlap and Jacobian determinant of the deformation field. The statistical analysis of the results showed that symmetric diffeomorphic Demons' registration method outperforms also with the best breast alignment and non-negative Jacobian values which guarantee image similarity and anatomical consistency of the transformation, due to homologous forces enforcing the pixel geometric disparities to be shortened on all the frames. We propose Demons' registration as an effective technique for time-series dynamic infrared registration, to stabilize the local temperature oscillation.

  14. Infrared hyperspectral upconversion imaging using spatial object translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    In this paper hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared wavelength region is realised using nonlinear frequency upconversion. The infrared light is converted to the near-infrared region for detection with a Si-based CCD camera. The object is translated in a predefined grid by motorized actuators...

  15. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992 (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    This volume discusses today's thermal imaging systems, modeling of thermal imaging systems, sampling and aliasing, and systems and testing. Individual papers are on single-frame multispectral thermal imagery, measurement of the MTF of IR staring-array imaging systems, IRC-64 infrared focal-plane-array camera, performance and application of serial-scan FLIRs, and nondestructive thermal analysis with portable pyroelectric television camera. Attention is also given to standard night vision thermal modeling parameters, the analysis of a proposed infrared sensor focal plane, spatial aliasing effects in ground vehicle IR imagery, spatial sampling effects of multipixel sensors on the guided-missile system performance, and the perception of unwanted signals in displayed imagery. Other papers are on the assessment of environment-driven infrared intensity components, measurements of optical transfer function of discretely sampled thermal imaging systems, and the status of uncooled infrared imagers.

  16. The application of near-infrared spectra micro-image in the imaging analysis of biology samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang


    Full Text Available In this research, suitable imaging methods were used for acquiring single compound images of biology samples of chicken pectorales tissue section, tobacco dry leaf, fresh leaf and plant glandular hair, respectively. The adverse effects caused by the high water content and the thermal effect of near infrared (NIR light were effectively solved during the experiment procedures and the data processing. PCA algorithm was applied to the NIR micro-image of chicken pectorales tissue. Comparing the loading vector of PC3 with the NIR spectrum of dry albumen, the information of PC3 was confirmed to be provided mainly by protein, i.e., the 3rd score image represents the distribution trend of protein mainly. PCA algorithm was applied to the NIR micro-image of tobacco dry leaf. The information of PC2 was confirmed to be provided by carbohydrate including starch mainly. Compared to the 2nd score image of tobacco dry leaf, the compared correlation image with the reference spectrum of starch had the same distribution trend as the 2nd score image. The comparative correlation images with the reference spectra of protein, glucose, fructose and the total plant alkaloid were acquired to confirm the distribution trend of these compounds in tobacco dry leaf respectively. Comparative correlation images of fresh leaf with the reference spectra of protein, starch, fructose, glucose and water were acquired to confirm the distribution trend of these compounds in fresh leaf. Chemimap imaging of plant glandular hair was acquired to show the tubular structure clearly.

  17. Near-infrared quantum dots for HER2 localization and imaging of cancer cells. (United States)

    Rizvi, Sarwat B; Rouhi, Sepideh; Taniguchi, Shohei; Yang, Shi Yu; Green, Mark; Keshtgar, Mo; Seifalian, Alexander M


    Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that allow them to be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic agents, particularly in medical and surgical oncology. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots can be visualized in deep tissues because the biological window is transparent to these wavelengths. Their small sizes and free surface reactive groups that can be conjugated to biomolecules make them ideal probes for in vivo cancer localization, targeted chemotherapy, and image-guided cancer surgery. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is overexpressed in 25%-30% of breast cancers. The current methods of detection for HER2 status, including immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, are used ex vivo and cannot be used in vivo. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots for HER2 localization in fixed and live cancer cells as a first step prior to their in vivo application. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots were characterized and their in vitro toxicity was established using three cancer cell lines, ie, HepG2, SK-BR-3 (HER2-overexpressing), and MCF7 (HER2-underexpressing). Mouse antihuman anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody was conjugated to the near-infrared-emitting quantum dots. In vitro toxicity studies showed biocompatibility of SK-BR-3 and MCF7 cell lines with near-infrared-emitting quantum dots at a concentration of 60 μg/mL after one hour and 24 hours of exposure. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot antiHER2-antibody bioconjugates successfully localized HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 cells. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot bioconjugates can be used for rapid localization of HER2 receptors and can potentially be used for targeted therapy as well as image-guided surgery.

  18. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei


    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  19. Thin-Film Quantum Dot Photodiode for Monolithic Infrared Image Sensors. (United States)

    Malinowski, Pawel E; Georgitzikis, Epimitheas; Maes, Jorick; Vamvaka, Ioanna; Frazzica, Fortunato; Van Olmen, Jan; De Moor, Piet; Heremans, Paul; Hens, Zeger; Cheyns, David


    Imaging in the infrared wavelength range has been fundamental in scientific, military and surveillance applications. Currently, it is a crucial enabler of new industries such as autonomous mobility (for obstacle detection), augmented reality (for eye tracking) and biometrics. Ubiquitous deployment of infrared cameras (on a scale similar to visible cameras) is however prevented by high manufacturing cost and low resolution related to the need of using image sensors based on flip-chip hybridization. One way to enable monolithic integration is by replacing expensive, small-scale III-V-based detector chips with narrow bandgap thin-films compatible with 8- and 12-inch full-wafer processing. This work describes a CMOS-compatible pixel stack based on lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QD) with tunable absorption peak. Photodiode with a 150-nm thick absorber in an inverted architecture shows dark current of 10 -6 A/cm² at -2 V reverse bias and EQE above 20% at 1440 nm wavelength. Optical modeling for top illumination architecture can improve the contact transparency to 70%. Additional cooling (193 K) can improve the sensitivity to 60 dB. This stack can be integrated on a CMOS ROIC, enabling order-of-magnitude cost reduction for infrared sensors.

  20. Invariant Face recognition Using Infrared Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, E.G.


    Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and

  1. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning (United States)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund


    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  2. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries. (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan


    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Image reconstruction of dynamic infrared single-pixel imaging system (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Jiang, Yilin; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Limin


    Single-pixel imaging technique has recently received much attention. Most of the current single-pixel imaging is aimed at relatively static targets or the imaging system is fixed, which is limited by the number of measurements received through the single detector. In this paper, we proposed a novel dynamic compressive imaging method to solve the imaging problem, where exists imaging system motion behavior, for the infrared (IR) rosette scanning system. The relationship between adjacent target images and scene is analyzed under different system movement scenarios. These relationships are used to build dynamic compressive imaging models. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the reconstruction quality of IR image and enhance the contrast between the target and the background in the presence of system movement.

  4. Effect of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction for the infrared optical imaging (United States)

    Lu, Chunlian; Lv, He; Cao, Yang; Cai, Zhisong; Tan, Xiaojun


    With the development of infrared optics, infrared optical imaging systems play an increasingly important role in modern optical imaging systems. Infrared optical imaging is used in industry, agriculture, medical, military and transportation. But in terms of infrared optical imaging systems which are exposed for a long time, some contaminations will affect the infrared optical imaging. When the contamination contaminate on the lens surface of the optical system, it would affect diffraction. The lens can be seen as complementary multiple circular holes screen happen Fraunhofer diffraction. According to Babinet principle, you can get the diffraction of the imaging system. Therefore, by studying the multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of infrared imaging. This paper mainly studies the effect of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction for the optical imaging. Firstly, we introduce the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction and Point Spread Function. Point Spread Function is a basic tool to evaluate the image quality of the optical system. Fraunhofer diffraction will affect Point Spread Function. Then, the results of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction are given for different hole size and hole spacing. We choose the hole size from 0.1mm to 1mm and hole spacing from 0.3mm to 0.8mm. The infrared wavebands of optical imaging are chosen from 1μm to 5μm. We use the MATLAB to simulate light intensity distribution of multiple circular holes Fraunhofer diffraction. Finally, three-dimensional diffraction maps of light intensity are given to contrast.

  5. Advances in Contactless Silicon Defect and Impurity Diagnostics Based on Lifetime Spectroscopy and Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt


    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent developments in the field of contactless silicon wafer characterization techniques based on lifetime spectroscopy and infrared imaging. In the first part of the contribution, we outline the status of different lifetime spectroscopy approaches suitable for the identification of impurities in silicon and discuss—in more detail—the technique of temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of infrared cameras to analyze spatial inhomogeneities in silicon wafers. By measuring the infrared signal absorbed or emitted from light-generated free excess carriers, high-resolution recombination lifetime mappings can be generated within seconds to minutes. In addition, mappings of non-recombination-active trapping centers can be deduced from injection-dependent infrared lifetime images. The trap density has been demonstrated to be an important additional parameter in the characterization and assessment of solar-grade multicrystalline silicon wafers, as areas of increased trap density tend to deteriorate during solar cell processing.

  6. Super resolution reconstruction of infrared images based on classified dictionary learning (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Han, Pingli; Wang, Yi; Li, Xuan; Bai, Lu; Shao, Xiaopeng


    Infrared images always suffer from low-resolution problems resulting from limitations of imaging devices. An economical approach to combat this problem involves reconstructing high-resolution images by reasonable methods without updating devices. Inspired by compressed sensing theory, this study presents and demonstrates a Classified Dictionary Learning method to reconstruct high-resolution infrared images. It classifies features of the samples into several reasonable clusters and trained a dictionary pair for each cluster. The optimal pair of dictionaries is chosen for each image reconstruction and therefore, more satisfactory results is achieved without the increase in computational complexity and time cost. Experiments and results demonstrated that it is a viable method for infrared images reconstruction since it improves image resolution and recovers detailed information of targets.

  7. Forensic applications of infrared imaging for the detection and recording of latent evidence. (United States)

    Lin, Apollo Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Tsai, Li-Chin; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I


    We report on a simple method to record infrared (IR) reflected images in a forensic science context. Light sources using ultraviolet light have been used previously in the detection of latent prints, but the use of infrared light has been subjected to less investigation. IR light sources were used to search for latent evidence and the images were captured by either video or using a digital camera with a CCD array sensitive to IR wavelength. Bloodstains invisible to the eye, inks, tire prints, gunshot residue, and charred document on dark background are selected as typical matters that may be identified during a forensic investigation. All the evidence types could be detected and identified using a range of photographic techniques. In this study, a one in eight times dilution of blood could be detected on 10 different samples of black cloth. When using 81 black writing inks, the observation rates were 95%, 88% and 42% for permanent markers, fountain pens and ball-point pens, respectively, on the three kinds of dark cloth. The black particles of gunshot residue scattering around the entrance hole under IR light were still observed at a distance of 60 cm from three different shooting ranges. A requirement of IR reflectivity is that there is a contrast between the latent evidence and the background. In the absence of this contrast no latent image will be detected, which is similar to all light sources. The use of a video camera allows the recording of images either at a scene or in the laboratory. This report highlights and demonstrates the robustness of IR to detect and record the presence of latent evidence.

  8. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror. (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng


    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  9. Development and application of a far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazuya; Okajima, Shigeki; Kawahata, Kazuo


    There has been a 40 years history on the application of an infrared laser to interference, polarization and scattering light sources in fusion plasma diagnostics. It is one of important light sources in ITER plasma diagnostics too. In the present review, authors recall the history of the infrared laser development especially of cw infrared lasers. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology for infrared lasers, infrared components and its applications to plasma diagnostics are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  10. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul


    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  11. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review. (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin


    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  12. Near-infrared image guidance in cancer surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, B.E.


    Intraoperative imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a fast developing imaging modality as it provides real-time visual information during surgery (Chapter 1). The ability to detect lymph nodes and tumours that need to be resected can assist the surgeon to improve surgery by reducing

  13. Coarse to fine aircraft detection from front-looking infrared images (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Tan, Yihua; Tian, Jinwen


    Due to the weak feature and wide angle of long-distance aircraft targeting in the parking apron from front-looking infrared images, there are always false alarms in aircraft targeting detection. This leads to relatively poor reliability for detection results. In this paper, we present a scene-driven coarse-to-fine aircraft target detection method. First, we preprocess the image by combining the sharpened and enhanced images. Second, the region of interest (ROI) is segmented by using the local mean variance of the image and a series of subsequent processing. Then, target candidate areas are located by using the feature of local marginal distributions. Lastly, aircrafts can be detected accurately by a novel aircraft shape filter. Experiments on three infrared image sequences have shown that the presented method is effective and robust in detecting long-distance aircraft from front-looking infrared images and can also improve the reliability of the detection results.

  14. Research on Methods of Infrared and Color Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Rentao


    Full Text Available There is significant difference in the imaging features of infrared image and color image, but their fusion images also have very good complementary information. In this paper, based on the characteristics of infrared image and color image, first of all, wavelet transform is applied to the luminance component of the infrared image and color image. In multi resolution the relevant regional variance is regarded as the activity measure, relevant regional variance ratio as the matching measure, and the fusion image is enhanced in the process of integration, thus getting the fused images by final synthesis module and multi-resolution inverse transform. The experimental results show that the fusion image obtained by the method proposed in this paper is better than the other methods in keeping the useful information of the original infrared image and the color information of the original color image. In addition, the fusion image has stronger adaptability and better visual effect.

  15. Use of infrared hyperspectral imaging as an aid for paint identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polak


    Full Text Available Art authentication is a complicated process that often requires the extensive study of high value objects. Although a series of non-destructive techniques is already available for art scientists, new techniques, extending current possibilities, are still required. In this paper, the use of a novel mid-infrared tunable imager is proposed as an active hyperspectral imaging system for art work analysis. The system provides access to a range of wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum (2500–3750 nm which are otherwise difficult to access using conventional hyperspectral imaging (HSI equipment. The use of such a tool could be beneficial if applied to the paint classification problem and could help analysts map the diversity of pigments within a given painting. The performance of this tool is demonstrated and compared with a conventional, off-the-shelf HSI system operating in the near infrared spectral region (900–1700 nm. Various challenges associated with laser-based imaging are demonstrated and solutions to these challenges as well as the results of applying classification algorithms to datasets captured using both HSI systems are presented. While the conventional HSI system provides data in which more pigments can be accurately classified, the result of applying the proposed laser-based imaging system demonstrates the validity of this technique for application in art authentication tasks.

  16. Particle swarm optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization for infrared image enhancement (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan; Chen, Qian; Maldague, Xavier


    Infrared image enhancement plays a significant role in intelligent urban surveillance systems for smart city applications. Unlike existing methods only exaggerating the global contrast, we propose a particle swam optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization which involves the enhancement of both local details and fore-and background contrast. First of all, a novel local entropy weighted histogram depicting the distribution of detail information is calculated based on a modified hyperbolic tangent function. Then, the histogram is divided into two parts via a threshold maximizing the inter-class variance in order to improve the contrasts of foreground and background, respectively. To avoid over-enhancement and noise amplification, double plateau thresholds of the presented histogram are formulated by means of particle swarm optimization algorithm. Lastly, each sub-image is equalized independently according to the constrained sub-local entropy weighted histogram. Comparative experiments implemented on real infrared images prove that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of both visual and quantized evaluations.

  17. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero


    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  18. Near infrared spatial frequency domain fluorescence imaging of tumor phantoms containing erythrocyte-derived optical nanoplatforms (United States)

    Burns, Joshua M.; Schaefer, Elise; Anvari, Bahman


    Light-activated theranostic constructs provide a multi-functional platform for optical imaging and phototherapeutic applications. Our group has engineered nano-sized vesicles derived from erythrocytes that encapsulate the FDAapproved near infrared (NIR) absorber indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these constructs as NIR erythrocytemimicking transducers (NETs). Once photo-excited by NIR light these constructs can transduce the photons energy to emit fluorescence, generate heat, or induce chemical reactions. In this study, we investigated fluorescence imaging of NETs embedded within tumor phantoms using spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). Using SFDI, we were able to fluorescently image simulated tumors doped with different concentration of NETs. These preliminary results suggest that NETs can be used in conjunction with SFDI for potential tumor imaging applications.

  19. The Development of a Low-Cost, Near Infrared, High-Temperature Thermal Imaging System and Its Application to the Retrieval of Accurate Lava Lake Temperatures at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Charles Wilkes


    Full Text Available Near infrared thermal cameras can provide useful low-cost imaging systems for high temperature applications, as an alternative to ubiquitous mid-/long-wavelength infrared systems. Here, we present a new Raspberry Pi-based near infrared thermal camera for use at temperatures of ≈>500 °C. We discuss in detail the building of the optical system, calibration using a Sakuma-Hattori model and quantification of uncertainties in remote temperature retrievals. We then present results from the deployment of the system on Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, where the active lava lake was imaged. Temperatures reached a maximum of 1104 ± 14 °C and the lake radiative power output was found to range between 30 and 45 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published ground-based data on the thermal characteristics of this relatively nascent lava lake, which became visible in late 2015.

  20. The Physics of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K K


    In the past, infrared imaging has been used exclusively for military applications. In fact, it can also be useful in a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. However, its wide spread use was impeded by the scarcity of the imaging systems and its high cost. Recently, there is an emerging infrared technology based on quantum well intersubband transition in III-V compound semiconductors. With the new technology, these impedances can be eliminated and a new era of infrared imaging is in sight. This book is designed to give a systematic description on the underlying physics of the ne

  1. Light-leaking region segmentation of FOG fiber based on quality evaluation of infrared image (United States)

    Liu, Haoting; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng; Shan, Lianjie; Ma, Yuzhou; Ge, Wenqian


    To improve the assembly reliability of Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG), a light leakage detection system and method is developed. First, an agile movement control platform is designed to implement the pose control of FOG optical path component in 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Second, an infrared camera is employed to capture the working state images of corresponding fibers in optical path component after the manual assembly of FOG; therefore the entire light transmission process of key sections in light-path can be recorded. Third, an image quality evaluation based region segmentation method is developed for the light leakage images. In contrast to the traditional methods, the image quality metrics, including the region contrast, the edge blur, and the image noise level, are firstly considered to distinguish the image characters of infrared image; then the robust segmentation algorithms, including graph cut and flood fill, are all developed for region segmentation according to the specific image quality. Finally, after the image segmentation of light leakage region, the typical light-leaking type, such as the point defect, the wedge defect, and the surface defect can be identified. By using the image quality based method, the applicability of our proposed system can be improved dramatically. Many experiment results have proved the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  2. Stream temperature estimated in situ from thermal-infrared images: best estimate and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, F; Todisco, M T


    The paper aims to show a technique to estimate in situ the stream temperature from thermal-infrared images deepening its best estimate and uncertainty. Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality and nowadays its assessment is important particularly for thermal pollution monitoring in water bodies. Stream temperature changes are especially due to the anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater and from water used as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. The stream temperatures assessment using ordinary techniques (e.g. appropriate thermometers) is limited by sparse sampling in space due to a spatial discretization necessarily punctual. Latest and most advanced techniques assess the stream temperature using thermal-infrared remote sensing based on thermal imagers placed usually on aircrafts or using satellite images. These techniques assess only the surface water temperature and they are suitable to detect the temperature of vast water bodies but do not allow a detailed and precise surface water temperature assessment in limited areas of the water body. The technique shown in this research is based on the assessment of thermal-infrared images obtained in situ via portable thermal imager. As in all thermographic techniques, also in this technique, it is possible to estimate only the surface water temperature. A stream with the presence of a discharge of urban wastewater is proposed as case study to validate the technique and to show its application limits. Since the technique analyzes limited areas in extension of the water body, it allows a detailed and precise assessment of the water temperature. In general, the punctual and average stream temperatures are respectively uncorrected and corrected. An appropriate statistical method that minimizes the errors in the average stream temperature is proposed. The correct measurement of this temperature through the assessment of thermal- infrared images obtained in situ via portable

  3. Design and fabrication of Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared imaging systems. (United States)

    Manaf, Ahmad Rosli Abdul; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Yan, Jiwang


    In this work, novel hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared (IR) optical applications were designed and fabricated. The Fresnel structures were replicated from an ultraprecision diamond-turned aluminum mold to an extremely thin layer (tens of microns) of high-density polyethylene polymer, which was directly bonded onto a flat single-crystal silicon wafer by press molding without using adhesives. Night mode imaging results showed that the fabricated lenses were able to visualize objects in dark fields with acceptable image quality. The capability of the lenses for thermography imaging was also demonstrated. This research provides a cost-effective method for fabricating ultrathin IR optical components.

  4. Book Review: Reiner Salzer and Heinz W. Siesler (Eds.): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging, 2nd ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, David Steven


    This second edition of 'Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging' propels practitioners in that wide-ranging field, as well as other readers, to the current state of the art in a well-produced and full-color, completely revised and updated, volume. This new edition chronicles the expanded application of vibrational spectroscopic imaging from yesterday's time-consuming point-by-point buildup of a hyperspectral image cube, through the improvements afforded by the addition of focal plane arrays and line scan imaging, to methods applicable beyond the diffraction limit, instructs the reader on the improved instrumentation and image and data analysis methods, and expounds on their application to fundamental biomedical knowledge, food and agricultural surveys, materials science, process and quality control, and many others

  5. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence (United States)

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.


    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  6. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs (United States)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.

  7. Improved detection probability of low level light and infrared image fusion system (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Fu, Rongguo; Zhang, Junju; Wang, Wencong; Chang, Benkang


    Low level light(LLL) image contains rich information on environment details, but is easily affected by the weather. In the case of smoke, rain, cloud or fog, much target information will lose. Infrared image, which is from the radiation produced by the object itself, can be "active" to obtain the target information in the scene. However, the image contrast and resolution is bad, the ability of the acquisition of target details is very poor, and the imaging mode does not conform to the human visual habit. The fusion of LLL and infrared image can make up for the deficiency of each sensor and give play to the advantages of single sensor. At first, we show the hardware design of fusion circuit. Then, through the recognition probability calculation of the target(one person) and the background image(trees), we find that the trees detection probability of LLL image is higher than that of the infrared image, and the person detection probability of the infrared image is obviously higher than that of LLL image. The detection probability of fusion image for one person and trees is higher than that of single detector. Therefore, image fusion can significantly enlarge recognition probability and improve detection efficiency.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  9. Residualization Rates of Near Infrared Dyes for the Rational Design of Molecular Imaging Agents (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Liao, Jianshan; Atangcho, Lydia; Thurber, Greg M.


    Purpose Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is widely used for tracking antibodies and biomolecules in vivo. Clinical and preclinical applications include intraoperative imaging, tracking therapeutics, and fluorescent labeling as a surrogate for subsequent radiolabeling. Despite their extensive use, one of the fundamental properties of NIR dyes, the residualization rate within cells following internalization, has not been systematically studied. This rate is required for the rational design of probes and proper interpretation of in vivo results. Procedures In this brief report, we measure the cellular residualization rate of eight commonly used dyes encompassing three core structures (cyanine, BODIPY, and oxazine/thiazine/carbopyronin). Results We identify residualizing (half-life > 24 hrs) and non-residualizing dyes (half-life < 24 hrs) in both the far red (~650-680 nm) and near infrared (~740-800 nm) regions. Conclusions This data will allow researchers to independently and rationally select the wavelength and residualizing nature of dyes for molecular imaging agent design. PMID:25869081

  10. Residualization Rates of Near-Infrared Dyes for the Rational Design of Molecular Imaging Agents. (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Liao, Jianshan; Atangcho, Lydia; Thurber, Greg M


    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is widely used for tracking antibodies and biomolecules in vivo. Clinical and preclinical applications include intraoperative imaging, tracking therapeutics, and fluorescent labeling as a surrogate for subsequent radiolabeling. Despite their extensive use, one of the fundamental properties of NIR dyes, the residualization rate within cells following internalization, has not been systematically studied. This rate is required for the rational design of probes and proper interpretation of in vivo results. In this brief report, we measure the cellular residualization rate of eight commonly used dyes encompassing three core structures (cyanine, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and oxazine/thiazine/carbopyronin). We identify residualizing (half-life >24 h) and non-residualizing (half-life <24 h) dyes in both the far-red (~650-680 nm) and near-infrared (~740-800 nm) regions. This data will allow researchers to independently and rationally select the wavelength and residualizing nature of dyes for molecular imaging agent design.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The diagnosis of bacterial infections remains a major challenge in medicine. Optical imaging of bacterial infection in living animals is usually conducted with genetic reporters such as light-emitting enzymes or fluorescent proteins. However, there are many circumstances where genetic reporters are not applicable, and there is an urgent need for exogenous synthetic probes that can selectively target bacteria. Optical imaging of bacteria in vivo is much less developed than methods such as radioimaging and MRI. Furthermore near-infrared (NIR dyes with emission wavelengths in the region of 650–900 nm can propagate through two or more centimeters of tissue and may enable deeper tissue imaging if sensitive detection techniques are employed. Here we constructed an antimicrobial peptide fragment UBI29-41-based near-infrared fluorescent imaging probe. The probe is composed of UBI29-41 conjugated to a near infrared dye ICG-Der-02. UBI29-41 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that targets the anionic surfaces of bacterial cells. The probe allows detection of Staphylococcus aureus infection (5 × 107 cells in a mouse local infection model using whole animal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the UBI29-41-based imaging probe can selectively accumulate within bacteria. The significantly higher accumulation in bacterial infection suggests that UBI29-41-based imaging probe may be a promising imaging agent to detect bacterial infections.

  12. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.


    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5 0 , 20 0 , and 60 0 field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented

  13. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.


    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect the vacuum vessel internal structures in both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diam fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5 0 , 20 0 , and 60 0 field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35-mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16-mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing rate up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented

  14. Detecting ship targets in spaceborne infrared image based on modeling radiation anomalies (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei; Li, Bo


    Using infrared imaging sensors to detect ship target in the ocean environment has many advantages compared to other sensor modalities, such as better thermal sensitivity and all-weather detection capability. We propose a new ship detection method by modeling radiation anomalies for spaceborne infrared image. The proposed method can be decomposed into two stages, where in the first stage, a test infrared image is densely divided into a set of image patches and the radiation anomaly of each patch is estimated by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and thereby target candidates are obtained from anomaly image patches. In the second stage, target candidates are further checked by a more discriminative criterion to obtain the final detection result. The main innovation of the proposed method is inspired by the biological mechanism that human eyes are sensitive to the unusual and anomalous patches among complex background. The experimental result on short wavelength infrared band (1.560 - 2.300 μm) and long wavelength infrared band (10.30 - 12.50 μm) of Landsat-8 satellite shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection accuracy with higher recall than other classical ship detection methods.

  15. Embedded clusters in NGC1808 central starburst - Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy


    Galliano, E.; Alloin, D.


    In the course of a mid-infrared imaging campaign of close-by active galaxies, we discovered the mid-infrared counterparts of bright compact radio sources in the central star-forming region of NGC1808. We aim at confirming that these sources are deeply embedded, young star clusters and at deriving some of their intrinsic properties. To complement the mid-infrared data, we have collected a set of near-infrared data with ISAAC at the VLT: J, Ks, and L' images, as well as low-resolution, long-sli...

  16. Gastric cancer target detection using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging with chemometrics (United States)

    Yi, Weisong; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Houmin; Zhang, Niya


    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world due to its high morbidity and mortality. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging, non-destructive, cutting edge analytical technology that combines conventional imaging and spectroscopy in one single system. The manuscript has investigated the application of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (900-1700 nm) (NIR-HSI) for gastric cancer detection with algorithms. Major spectral differences were observed in three regions (950-1050, 1150-1250, and 1400-1500 nm). By inspecting cancerous mean spectrum three major absorption bands were observed around 975, 1215 and 1450 nm. Furthermore, the cancer target detection results are consistent and conformed with histopathological examination results. These results suggest that NIR-HSI is a simple, feasible and sensitive optical diagnostic technology for gastric cancer target detection with chemometrics.

  17. A Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Method for the Detection of Oral Cancers in Mice Using an Indocyanine Green-Labeled Podoplanin Antibody. (United States)

    Ito, Akihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Inada, Shunko; Kato, Toshio; Nakata, Susumu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goto, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Yoshida, Kenji


    Podoplanin is distinctively overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma than oral benign neoplasms and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma but its diagnostic application is quite limited. Here, we report a new near-infrared fluorescence imaging method using an indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a desktop/a handheld ICG detection device for the visualization of oral squamous cell carcinoma-xenografted tumors in nude mice. Both near-infrared imaging methods using a desktop (in vivo imaging system: IVIS) and a handheld device (photodynamic eye: PDE) successfully detected oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors in nude mice in a podoplanin expression-dependent manner with comparable sensitivity. Of these 2 devices, only near-infrared imaging methods using a handheld device visualized oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in mice in real time. Furthermore, near-infrared imaging methods using the handheld device (PDE) could detect smaller podoplanin-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors than a non-near-infrared, autofluorescence-based imaging method. Based on these results, a near-infrared imaging method using an ICG-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a handheld detection device (PDE) allows the sensitive, semiquantitative, and real-time imaging of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors and therefore represents a useful tool for the detection and subsequent monitoring of malignant oral neoplasms in both preclinical and some clinical settings.

  18. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.


    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  19. Characterizing process effects on pharmaceutical solid forms using near-infrared spectroscopy and infrared imaging. (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Jent, N; Edmond, A; Chalus, P; Ulmschneider, M


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a widely used analytical technique in the pharmaceutical industry, serving for example to determine the active substance or water content of tablets. Its great advantage lies in the minimal sample preparation required and speed of measurement. In a study designed to detect the effects of process on tablet dissolution, we describe the application of NIRS to the detection and identification of changes in uncoated and coated tablets in response to pilot-scale changes in process parameters during melt granulation, compression, and coating. Beginning with a qualitative comparison between pharmaceutical batches, we show that NIRS and principal component analysis can separate batches produced with different melt granulation parameters and differentiate between cores compressed with different compaction forces. Complementary infrared imaging can also explain the difference in dissolution properties between samples produced with different melt granulation parameters. NIRS is sensitive to changes in coating formulation, the quality of a coating excipient (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), and coating time. In a concluding quantitative analysis, we demonstrate the feasibility of NIRS in a manufacturing context for predicting coating time and detecting production cores failing to meet dissolution test specifications.

  20. Erythrocyte-derived nano-probes functionalized with antibodies for targeted near infrared fluorescence imaging of cancer cells


    Anvari, Bahman; Mac, Jenny T.; Nunez, Vicente; Burns, Joshua M.; Guerrero, Yadir A.


    Constructs derived from mammalian cells are emerging as a new generation of nano-scale platforms for clinical imaging applications. Herein, we report successful engineering of hybrid nano-structures composed of erythrocyte-derived membranes doped with FDA-approved near infrared (NIR) chromophore, indocyanine green (ICG), and surface-functionalized with antibodies to achieve molecular targeting. We demonstrate that these constructs can be used for targeted imaging of cancer cells in vitro. The...

  1. Near-infrared dental imaging using scanning fiber endoscope (United States)

    Zhou, Yaxuan; Lee, Robert; Sadr, Alireza; Seibel, Eric J.


    Near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 1300-1500nm has the potential to outperform or augment other dental imaging modalities such as fluorescence imaging, owing to its lower scattering coefficient in enamel and trans- parency on stains and non-cariogenic plaque. However, cameras in this wavelength range are bulky and expensive, which lead to difficulties for in-vivo use and commercialization. Thus, we have proposed a new imaging device combining the scanning fiber endoscopy (SFE) and NIR imaging technology. The NIR SFE system has the advantage of miniature size (1.6 mm), flexible shaft, video frame rate (7Hz) and expandable wide field-of-view (60 degrees). Eleven extracted human teeth with or without occlusal caries were scanned by micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) to obtain 3D micro-CT images, which serve as the standard for comparison. NIR images in reflection mode were then taken on all the occlusal surfaces, using 1310nm super luminescent diode and 1460nm laser diode respectively. Qualitative comparison was performed between near-infrared im- ages and micro-CT images. Enamel demineralization in NIR appeared as areas of increased reflectivity, and distinguished from non-carious staining at the base of occlusal fissures or developmental defects on cusps. This preliminary work presented proof for practicability of combining NIR imaging technology with SFE for reliable and noninvasive dental imaging with miniaturization and low cost.

  2. SLO-infrared imaging of the macula and its correlation with functional loss and structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease (United States)

    Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A; Lindeman, Martin; Genead, Mohamed A; Zhou, Wensheng


    Purpose To correlate the degree of functional loss with structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods Eighteen eyes of 10 Stargardt patients were studied. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) infrared images were compared to corresponding spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. Additionally, SLO microperimetry was performed and results were superimposed on SLO infrared images and in selected cases on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. Results Seventeen of 18 eyes showed a distinct hypo-reflective foveal and/or perifoveal area with distinct borders on SLO-infrared images which was less evident on funduscopy and incompletely depicted in FAF images. This hypo-reflective zone corresponded to areas of significantly elevated psychophysical thresholds on microperimetry testing, in addition to thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), disorganization or loss of the photoreceptor cell inner-outer segment (IS-OS) junction and external limiting membrane (ELM) on SD-OCT. Conclusion SLO-infrared fundus images are useful for depicting retinal structural changes in Stargardt patients. An SD-OCT/SLO microperimetry device allows for a direct correlation of structural abnormalities with functional defects that will likely be applicable for the determination of retinal areas for potential improvement of retinal function in these patients during future clinical trials and for the monitoring of the diseases' natural history. PMID:21293320

  3. Investigation into the merits of infrared imaging in the investigation of tattoos postmortem. (United States)

    Starkie, Alexandra; Birch, Wendy; Ferllini, Roxana; Thompson, Tim J U


    Infrared imaging has a history of use in the forensic examination of artwork and documents and is investigated here for its wider use in the detection of tattoos on the human body postmortem. Infrared photographic and reflectographic techniques were tested on 18 living individuals, displaying a total of 30 tattoos. It was observed that neither age, sex, age of the tattoo, nor, most significantly, skin color affected the ability to image the tattoos using infrared imaging techniques. Second, a piglet carcass was tattooed and the impact of the decomposition process on the visibility of the tattoos assessed. Changes were recorded for 17 days and decomposition included partial mummification and skin discoloration. Crucially, the discoloration was recorded as greatly affecting the image quality using conventional photography, but was insignificant to the infrared recording of these tattoos. It was concluded that infrared reflectography was beneficial in the investigation into tattoos postmortem. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. High-speed infrared imaging for material characterization in experimental mechanics experiments (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Marcotte, Frédérick; Lagueux, Philippe; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Morton, Vince


    Heat transfers are involved in many phenomena such as friction, tensile stress, shear stress and material rupture. Among the challenges encountered during the characterization of such thermal patterns is the need for both high spatial and temporal resolution. Infrared imaging provides information about surface temperature that can be attributed to the stress response of the material and breaking of chemical bounds. In order to illustrate this concept, tensile and shear tests were carried out on steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composite materials and monitored using high-speed (Telops FASTM2K) and high-definition (Telops HD-IR) infrared imaging. Results from split-Hopkinson experiments carried out on a polymer material at high strain-rate are also presented. The results illustrate how high-speed and high-definition infrared imaging in the midwave infrared (MWIR, 3 - 5 μm) spectral range can provide detailed information about the thermal properties of materials undergoing mechanical testing.

  5. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for quality analysis of agricultural and food products (United States)

    Singh, C. B.; Jayas, D. S.; Paliwal, J.; White, N. D. G.


    Agricultural and food processing industries are always looking to implement real-time quality monitoring techniques as a part of good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure high-quality and safety of their products. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is gaining popularity as a powerful non-destructive tool for quality analysis of several agricultural and food products. This technique has the ability to analyse spectral data in a spatially resolved manner (i.e., each pixel in the image has its own spectrum) by applying both conventional image processing and chemometric tools used in spectral analyses. Hyperspectral imaging technique has demonstrated potential in detecting defects and contaminants in meats, fruits, cereals, and processed food products. This paper discusses the methodology of hyperspectral imaging in terms of hardware, software, calibration, data acquisition and compression, and development of prediction and classification algorithms and it presents a thorough review of the current applications of hyperspectral imaging in the analyses of agricultural and food products.

  6. DSP+FPGA-based real-time histogram equalization system of infrared image (United States)

    Gu, Dongsheng; Yang, Nansheng; Pi, Defu; Hua, Min; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruolan


    Histogram Modification is a simple but effective method to enhance an infrared image. There are several methods to equalize an infrared image's histogram due to the different characteristics of the different infrared images, such as the traditional HE (Histogram Equalization) method, and the improved HP (Histogram Projection) and PE (Plateau Equalization) method and so on. If to realize these methods in a single system, the system must have a mass of memory and extremely fast speed. In our system, we introduce a DSP + FPGA based real-time procession technology to do these things together. FPGA is used to realize the common part of these methods while DSP is to do the different part. The choice of methods and the parameter can be input by a keyboard or a computer. By this means, the function of the system is powerful while it is easy to operate and maintain. In this article, we give out the diagram of the system and the soft flow chart of the methods. And at the end of it, we give out the infrared image and its histogram before and after the process of HE method.

  7. Line-Scan Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Food Safety and Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Qin


    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging technologies in the food and agricultural area have been evolving rapidly over the past 15 years owing to tremendous interest from both academic and industrial fields. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging is a major method that has been intensively researched and developed using different physical principles (e.g., reflectance, transmittance, fluorescence, Raman, and spatially resolved spectroscopy and wavelength regions (e.g., visible (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging systems are mainly developed and used for surface inspection of food and agricultural products using area or line light sources. Some of these systems can also be configured to conduct spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements for internal or subsurface food inspection using point light sources. This paper reviews line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques, with introduction, demonstration, and summarization of existing and emerging techniques for food and agricultural applications. The main topics include related spectroscopy techniques, line-scan measurement methods, hardware components and systems, system calibration methods, and spectral and image analysis techniques. Applications in food safety and quality are also presented to reveal current practices and future trends of line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  8. Information hiding techniques for infrared images: exploring the state-of-the art and challenges (United States)

    Pomponiu, Victor; Cavagnino, Davide; Botta, Marco; Nejati, Hossein


    The proliferation of Infrared technology and imaging systems enables a different perspective to tackle many computer vision problems in defense and security applications. Infrared images are widely used by the law enforcement, Homeland Security and military organizations to achieve a significant advantage or situational awareness, and thus is vital to protect these data against malicious attacks. Concurrently, sophisticated malware are developed which are able to disrupt the security and integrity of these digital media. For instance, illegal distribution and manipulation are possible malicious attacks to the digital objects. In this paper we explore the use of a new layer of defense for the integrity of the infrared images through the aid of information hiding techniques such as watermarking. In this context, we analyze the efficiency of several optimal decoding schemes for the watermark inserted into the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain of the IR images using an additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding framework. In order to use the singular values (SVs) of the IR images with the SS embedding we adopt several restrictions that ensure that the values of the SVs will maintain their statistics. For both the optimal maximum likelihood decoder and sub-optimal decoders we assume that the PDF of SVs can be modeled by the Weibull distribution. Furthermore, we investigate the challenges involved in protecting and assuring the integrity of IR images such as data complexity and the error probability behavior, i.e., the probability of detection and the probability of false detection, for the applied optimal decoders. By taking into account the efficiency and the necessary auxiliary information for decoding the watermark, we discuss the suitable decoder for various operating situations. Experimental results are carried out on a large dataset of IR images to show the imperceptibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme against various attack scenarios.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications. (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.


    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  10. Passive thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantitative imaging of shale gas leaks (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Morton, Vince; Giroux, Jean; Chamberland, Martin


    There are many types of natural gas fields including shale formations that are common especially in the St-Lawrence Valley (Canada). Since methane (CH4), the major component of shale gas, is odorless, colorless and highly flammable, in addition to being a greenhouse gas, methane emanations and/or leaks are important to consider for both safety and environmental reasons. Telops recently launched on the market the Hyper-Cam Methane, a field-deployable thermal infrared hyperspectral camera specially tuned for detecting methane infrared spectral features under ambient conditions and over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of this novel research instrument for natural gas imaging, the instrument was brought on a site where shale gas leaks unexpectedly happened during a geological survey near the Enfant-Jesus hospital in Quebec City, Canada, during December 2014. Quantitative methane imaging was carried out based on methane's unique infrared spectral signature. Optical flow analysis was also carried out on the data to estimate the methane mass flow rate. The results show how this novel technique could be used for advanced research on shale gases.

  11. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection. (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei


    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (ppolarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  12. Hexabundles: imaging fibre arrays for low-light astronomical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julie; Robertson, Gordon


    We demonstrate for the first time an imaging fibre bundle (“hexabundle”) that is suitable for low-light applications in astronomy. The most successful survey instruments at optical-infrared wavelengths today have obtained data on up to a million celestial sources using hundreds of multimode fibre...

  13. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian


    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of ∼150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  15. Small-target leak detection for a closed vessel via infrared image sequences (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Hongjiu


    This paper focus on a leak diagnosis and localization method based on infrared image sequences. Some problems on high probability of false warning and negative affect for marginal information are solved by leak detection. An experimental model is established for leak diagnosis and localization on infrared image sequences. The differential background prediction is presented to eliminate the negative affect of marginal information on test vessel based on a kernel regression method. A pipeline filter based on layering voting is designed to reduce probability of leak point false warning. A synthesize leak diagnosis and localization algorithm is proposed based on infrared image sequences. The effectiveness and potential are shown for developed techniques through experimental results.

  16. Imaging of solid tumor using near-infrared emitting purple bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sun A; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung


    Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is α-3 purple nonsulfur eubacterium with an extensive metabolism. Under anaerobic conditions, it is able to grow by photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation. When grown photosynthetically, it uses wavelengths of light in the near-infrared and contains a reaction center that is the peripheral light-harvesting (LH2) complex. These molecules absorb and emit near-infrared light. Using this near-infrared fluorescent bacterial we investigated its targeting capacity of solid tumor in small animals. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 strains were cultured in sistrons minimal medium A (SIS) at 32 C. Xenograft tumor model has been established by subcutaneous injection of CT26 mouse colon cancer cell line. 1X10 8 Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells suspended in 100 ul of PBS were injected via tail vein with 1-cc insulin syringe into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo fluorescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 30 days of purple bacteria using indocyanine (ICG) emission filter (Em=810∼835 nm). Near-infrared imaging signal from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was initially detected at liver for 3 days but at the necrotic region of tumor mass thereafter. Total photon flux measured 5.5X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at Day 1. Also it was increased to 7.8X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at 12 day. One of important characteristic is that the signal appeared only at central necrosis area. It has been monitored for 36 day. We successfully imaged cancer with near-infrared fluorescence bacteria. Our result indicate that near-infrared fluorescence purple bacteria are able to be used to monitor bacterial trafficking in living tumor models

  17. Learning-based compressed sensing for infrared image super resolution (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Wu, Shaochi


    This paper presents an infrared image super-resolution method based on compressed sensing (CS). First, the reconstruction model under the CS framework is established and a Toeplitz matrix is selected as the sensing matrix. Compared with traditional learning-based methods, the proposed method uses a set of sub-dictionaries instead of two coupled dictionaries to recover high resolution (HR) images. And Toeplitz sensing matrix allows the proposed method time-efficient. Second, all training samples are divided into several feature spaces by using the proposed adaptive k-means classification method, which is more accurate than the standard k-means method. On the basis of this approach, a complex nonlinear mapping from the HR space to low resolution (LR) space can be converted into several compact linear mappings. Finally, the relationships between HR and LR image patches can be obtained by multi-sub-dictionaries and HR infrared images are reconstructed by the input LR images and multi-sub-dictionaries. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quantitatively and qualitatively more effective than other state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Diverse Near-Infrared Resonant Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng


    The ability of near-infrared (NIR) light to penetrate tissues deeply and to target malignant sites with high specificity via precise temporal and spatial control of light illumination makes it useful for diagnosing and treating diseases. Owing to their unique biocompatibility, surface chemistry and optical properties, gold nanostructures offer advantages as in vivo NIR photosensitizers. This chapter describes the recent progress in the varied use of NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for NIR-light-mediated diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We begin by describing the unique biological, chemical and physical properties of gold nanostructures that make them excellent candidates for biomedical applications. From here, we make an account of the basic principles involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications where gold nanostructures have set foot. Finally, we review recent developments in the fabrication and use of diverse NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for cancer imaging and cancer therapy.

  19. Infrared imaging and photometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campins, H.


    Infrared images and photometry were obtained to determine the spatial distribution and physical characteristics (temperature, albedo, size distribution, total mass, etc.) of the grains in the coma of Comet GZ. A 10.8 m image of Comet GZ obtained on August 4 represents the first ground-based thermal-infrared image of a Comet. Among the most significant results are: (1) an estimate of the number of grains that the ICE spacecraft must have encountered, which led the plasma wave team to conclude that they could only detect impacts on the antennae and not on the whole body of the ICE spacecraft; (2) the discovery of a population of large grains (radius > 100 micrometer), not observed in most other comets, which formed a curved tail near the nucleus (within 80 arcsec or 34,000 km); and (3) the detection of structure in the spatial distribution in the coma of the particle albedo, which was tentatively attributed to the presence of very fluffy grains which are likely to have multiple internal scattering of incident sunlight. The albedo map of Comet GZ was obtained by combining the 10.8 micrometer image shown with a simultaneous image taken at 0.68 micrometer, a bandpass which isolates the scattered continuum

  20. Edge enhancement and noise suppression for infrared image based on feature analysis (United States)

    Jiang, Meng


    Infrared images are often suffering from background noise, blurred edges, few details and low signal-to-noise ratios. To improve infrared image quality, it is essential to suppress noise and enhance edges simultaneously. To realize it in this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on feature analysis in shearlet domain. Firstly, as one of multi-scale geometric analysis (MGA), we introduce the theory and superiority of shearlet transform. Secondly, after analyzing the defects of traditional thresholding technique to suppress noise, we propose a novel feature extraction distinguishing image structures from noise well and use it to improve the traditional thresholding technique. Thirdly, with computing the correlations between neighboring shearlet coefficients, the feature attribute maps identifying the weak detail and strong edges are completed to improve the generalized unsharped masking (GUM). At last, experiment results with infrared images captured in different scenes demonstrate that the proposed algorithm suppresses noise efficiently and enhances image edges adaptively.

  1. Infrared and visible image fusion based on total variation and augmented Lagrangian. (United States)

    Guo, Hanqi; Ma, Yong; Mei, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jiayi


    This paper proposes a new algorithm for infrared and visible image fusion based on gradient transfer that achieves fusion by preserving the intensity of the infrared image and then transferring gradients in the corresponding visible one to the result. The gradient transfer suffers from the problems of low dynamic range and detail loss because it ignores the intensity from the visible image. The new algorithm solves these problems by providing additive intensity from the visible image to balance the intensity between the infrared image and the visible one. It formulates the fusion task as an l 1 -l 1 -TV minimization problem and then employs variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian to convert the unconstrained problem to a constrained one that can be solved in the framework of alternating the multiplier direction method. Experiments demonstrate that the new algorithm achieves better fusion results with a high computation efficiency in both qualitative and quantitative tests than gradient transfer and most state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems. (United States)

    Kopainsky, B


    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  3. Biometric identification using infrared dorsum hand vein images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Motato Toro


    Full Text Available The evident need for improving access and safety controls has orientated the development of new personal identification systems towards using biometric, physiological and behavioral features guaranteeing increasing greater levels of performance. Motivated by this trend, the development and implementation of a computational tool for recording and validating people’s identity using dorsum hand vein images is presented here. A low-cost hardware module for acquiring infrared images was thus designed; it consisted of a conventional video-camera, optical lenses, controlled infrared illumination sources and a frame grabber. The accompanying software module was concerned with visualizing and capturing images, selecting regions of interest, pattern seg-mentation in the region and extracting, describing and classifying these features. An artificial neuron network approach was im-plemented for pattern recognition, resulting in it proving the biometric indicator to be sufficiently discriminating, and a corre-lation-based approach using a 100 image database for static characterisation, determined the system’s maximum efficiency to be 95.72% at a threshold equal to 65. False acceptance rate (FAR was 8.57% and false rejection rate (FRR was 0% at this threshold.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R


    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  5. System overview and applications of a panoramic imaging perimeter sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.A.


    This paper presents an overview of the design and potential applications of a 360-degree scanning, multi-spectral intrusion detection sensor. This moderate-resolution, true panoramic imaging sensor is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters. This Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) simultaneously uses three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) along with advanced data processing methods to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection, tracking, and immediate visual assessment. The images from the infrared and visible detector sets and the radar range data are updated as the sensors rotate once per second. The radar provides range data with one-meter resolution. This sensor has been designed for easy use and rapid deployment to cover wide areas beyond or in place of typical perimeters, and tactical applications around fixed or temporary high-value assets. AES prototypes are in development. Applications discussed in this paper include replacements, augmentations, or new installations at fixed sites where topological features, atmospheric conditions, environmental restrictions, ecological regulations, and archaeological features limit the use of conventional security components and systems

  6. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with a mobile phone (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Bohan; Wang, Jianting; Wang, Quanzeng; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua


    Mobile phone cameras employ sensors with near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity, yet this capability has not been exploited for biomedical purposes. Removing the IR-blocking filter from a phone-based camera opens the door to a wide range of techniques and applications for inexpensive, point-of-care biophotonic imaging and sensing. This study provides proof of principle for one of these modalities - phone-based NIR fluorescence imaging. An imaging system was assembled using a 780 nm light source along with excitation and emission filters with 800 nm and 825 nm cut-off wavelengths, respectively. Indocyanine green (ICG) was used as an NIR fluorescence contrast agent in an ex vivo rodent model, a resolution test target and a 3D-printed, tissue-simulating vascular phantom. Raw and processed images for red, green and blue pixel channels were analyzed for quantitative evaluation of fundamental performance characteristics including spectral sensitivity, detection linearity and spatial resolution. Mobile phone results were compared with a scientific CCD. The spatial resolution of CCD system was consistently superior to the phone, and green phone camera pixels showed better resolution than blue or green channels. The CCD exhibited similar sensitivity as processed red and blue pixels channels, yet a greater degree of detection linearity. Raw phone pixel data showed lower sensitivity but greater linearity than processed data. Overall, both qualitative and quantitative results provided strong evidence of the potential of phone-based NIR imaging, which may lead to a wide range of applications from cancer detection to glucose sensing.

  7. Adaptive coded aperture imaging in the infrared: towards a practical implementation (United States)

    Slinger, Chris W.; Gilholm, Kevin; Gordon, Neil; McNie, Mark; Payne, Doug; Ridley, Kevin; Strens, Malcolm; Todd, Mike; De Villiers, Geoff; Watson, Philip; Wilson, Rebecca; Dyer, Gavin; Eismann, Mike; Meola, Joe; Rogers, Stanley


    An earlier paper [1] discussed the merits of adaptive coded apertures for use as lensless imaging systems in the thermal infrared and visible. It was shown how diffractive (rather than the more conventional geometric) coding could be used, and that 2D intensity measurements from multiple mask patterns could be combined and decoded to yield enhanced imagery. Initial experimental results in the visible band were presented. Unfortunately, radiosity calculations, also presented in that paper, indicated that the signal to noise performance of systems using this approach was likely to be compromised, especially in the infrared. This paper will discuss how such limitations can be overcome, and some of the tradeoffs involved. Experimental results showing tracking and imaging performance of these modified, diffractive, adaptive coded aperture systems in the visible and infrared will be presented. The subpixel imaging and tracking performance is compared to that of conventional imaging systems and shown to be superior. System size, weight and cost calculations indicate that the coded aperture approach, employing novel photonic MOEMS micro-shutter architectures, has significant merits for a given level of performance in the MWIR when compared to more conventional imaging approaches.

  8. Infrared photothermal imaging of trace explosives on relevant substrates (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Borchert, James; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew


    We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect small increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes on relevant substrates is critical for stand-off applications, but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes recent PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate (AN) and sucrose on relevant substrates (steel, polyethylene, glass and painted steel panels). We demonstrate that these analytes can be detected on these substrates at relevant surface mass loadings (10 μg/cm2 to 100 μg/cm2) even at the single pixel level.

  9. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis (United States)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.


    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  10. Circumnuclear Regions In Barred Spiral Galaxies. 1; Near-Infrared Imaging (United States)

    Perez-Ramirez, D.; Knapen, J. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Laine, S.; Doyon, R.; Nadeau, D.


    We present sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based near-infrared images of the central regions of a sample of twelve barred galaxies with circumnuclear star formation activity, which is organized in ring-like regions typically one kiloparsec in diameter. We also present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared images of ten of our sample galaxies, and compare them with our ground-based data. Although our sample galaxies were selected for the presence of circumnuclear star formation activity, our broad-band near-infrared images are heterogeneous, showing a substantial amount of small-scale structure in some galaxies, and practically none in others. We argue that, where it exists, this structure is caused by young stars, which also cause the characteristic bumps or changes in slope in the radial profiles of ellipticity, major axis position angle, surface brightness and colour at the radius of the circumnuclear ring in most of our sample galaxies. In 7 out of 10 HST images, star formation in the nuclear ring is clearly visible as a large number of small emitting regions, organised into spiral arm fragments, which are accompanied by dust lanes. NIR colour index maps show much more clearly the location of dust lanes and, in certain cases, regions of star formation than single broad-band images. Circumnuclear spiral structure thus outlined appears to be common in barred spiral galaxies with circumnuclear star formation.

  11. A Brazing Defect Detection Using an Ultrasonic Infrared Imaging Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jung, Seung Ho; Jung, Hyun Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    When a high-energy ultrasound propagates through a solid body that contains a crack or a delamination, the two faces of the defect do not ordinarily vibrate in unison, and dissipative phenomena such as friction, rubbing and clapping between the faces will convert some of the vibrational energy to heat. By combining this heating effect with infrared imaging, one can detect a subsurface defect in material in real time. In this paper a realtime detection of the brazing defect of thin Inconel plates using the UIR (ultrasonic infrared imaging) technology is described. A low frequency (23 kHz) ultrasonic transducer was used to infuse the welded Inconel plates with a short pulse of sound for 280 ms. The ultrasonic source has a maximum power of 2 kW. The surface temperature of the area under inspection is imaged by an infrared camera that is coupled to a fast frame grabber in a computer. The hot spots, which are a small area around the bound between the two faces of the Inconel plates near the defective brazing point and heated up highly, are observed. And the weak thermal signal is observed at the defect position of brazed plate also. Using the image processing technology such as background subtraction average and image enhancement using histogram equalization, the position of defective brazing regions in the thin Inconel plates can be located certainly

  12. Design of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements towards ultrafast mid-infrared time-stretched imaging and spectroscopy (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Ren, Delun; Wang, Chao; Mao, Chensheng; Yang, Lei


    Ultrafast time stretch imaging offers unprecedented imaging speed and enables new discoveries in scientific research and engineering. One challenge in exploiting time stretch imaging in mid-infrared is the lack of high-quality diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which encode the image information into mid-infrared optical spectrum. This work reports the design and optimization of mid-infrared DOE with high diffraction-efficiency, broad bandwidth and large field of view. Using various typical materials with their refractive indices ranging from 1.32 to 4.06 in ? mid-infrared band, diffraction efficiencies of single-layer and double-layer DOEs have been studied in different wavelength bands with different field of views. More importantly, by replacing the air gap of double-layer DOE with carefully selected optical materials, one optimized ? triple-layer DOE, with efficiency higher than 95% in the whole ? mid-infrared window and field of view greater than ?, is designed and analyzed. This new DOE device holds great potential in ultrafast mid-infrared time stretch imaging and spectroscopy.

  13. History of infrared detectors (United States)

    Rogalski, A.


    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  14. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien


    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  15. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie


    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  16. Estimation of water content in the leaves of fruit trees using infra-red images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, N.; Hiraoka, K.


    A method was developed to evaluate water contents of fruit trees using infra-red photography. The irrigation of potted satsuma mandarin trees and grapevines was suppressed to induce water stress. During the drought treatment the leaf edges of basal parts of the shoots of grapevines became necrotic and the area of necrosis extended as the duration of stress increased. Necrosis was clearly distinguished from the viable areas on infra-red images. In satsuma mandarin, an abscission layer formed at the basal part of the petiole, then the leaves fell. Thus, detailed analysis was indispensable for detecting of the leaf water content. After obtaining infra-red images of satsuma mandarin leaves with or without water stress, a background treatment (subtraction of the background image) was performed on the images, then the average brightness of the leaf was determined using image analyzing software (Image Pro-plus). Coefficient correlation between the water status index using the infra-red camera and water content determined from dry weight and fresh weight of leaves was significant (r = 0.917 for adaxial surface data and r = 0.880 for abaxial surface data). These data indicate that infra-red photography is useful for detecting the degree of plant water stress

  17. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins (United States)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.


    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  18. Device model for pixelless infrared image up-converters based on polycrystalline graphene heterostructures (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Otsuji, T.


    We developed a device model for pixelless converters of far/mid-infrared radiation (FIR/MIR) images into near-infrared/visible (NIR/VIR) images. These converters use polycrystalline graphene layers (PGLs) immersed in the van der Waals materials integrated with a light emitting diode (LED). The PGL serves as an element of the PGL infrared photodetector (PGLIP) sensitive to the incoming FIR/MIR due to the interband absorption. The spatially non-uniform photocurrent generated in the PGLIP repeats (mimics) the non-uniform distribution (image) created by the incident FIR/MIR. The injection of the nonuniform photocurrent into the LED active layer results in the nonuniform NIR/VIR image reproducing the FIR/MIR image. The PGL and the entire layer structure are not deliberately partitioned into pixels. We analyze the characteristics of such pixelless PGLIP-LED up-converters and show that their image contrast transfer function and the up-conversion efficiency depend on the PGL lateral resistivity. The up-converter exhibits high photoconductive gain and conversion efficiency when the lateral resistivity is sufficiently high. Several teams have successfully demonstrated the large area PGLs with the resistivities varying in a wide range. Such layers can be used in the pixelless PGLIP-LED image up-converters. The PGLIP-LED image up-converters can substantially surpass the image up-converters based on the quantum-well infrared photodetector integrated with the LED. These advantages are due to the use of the interband FIR/NIR absorption and a high photoconductive gain in the GLIPs.

  19. Infrared and visible image fusion based on robust principal component analysis and compressed sensing (United States)

    Li, Jun; Song, Minghui; Peng, Yuanxi


    Current infrared and visible image fusion methods do not achieve adequate information extraction, i.e., they cannot extract the target information from infrared images while retaining the background information from visible images. Moreover, most of them have high complexity and are time-consuming. This paper proposes an efficient image fusion framework for infrared and visible images on the basis of robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and compressed sensing (CS). The novel framework consists of three phases. First, RPCA decomposition is applied to the infrared and visible images to obtain their sparse and low-rank components, which represent the salient features and background information of the images, respectively. Second, the sparse and low-rank coefficients are fused by different strategies. On the one hand, the measurements of the sparse coefficients are obtained by the random Gaussian matrix, and they are then fused by the standard deviation (SD) based fusion rule. Next, the fused sparse component is obtained by reconstructing the result of the fused measurement using the fast continuous linearized augmented Lagrangian algorithm (FCLALM). On the other hand, the low-rank coefficients are fused using the max-absolute rule. Subsequently, the fused image is superposed by the fused sparse and low-rank components. For comparison, several popular fusion algorithms are tested experimentally. By comparing the fused results subjectively and objectively, we find that the proposed framework can extract the infrared targets while retaining the background information in the visible images. Thus, it exhibits state-of-the-art performance in terms of both fusion effects and timeliness.

  20. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl


    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  1. Infrared spectromicroscopy and magneto-optical imaging stations at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, S; Sada, T; Okuno, M; Matsunami, M; Shinoda, K; Kimura, H; Moriwaki, T; Yamagata, M; Kondo, Y; Yoshimatsu, Y; Takahashi, T; Fukui, K; Kawamoto, T; Ishikawa, T


    At the BL43IR of SPring-8, infrared microanalysis on various kinds of solid specimens under multiple environments with a spatial resolution smaller than 10 mu m in diameter is planned in the infrared region. In order to perform such analysis, two different stations, a multipurpose spectromicroscopy apparatus and a magneto-optical imaging one have been constructed. Measurements on the spatial two-dimensional cross-section of the infrared beam at the spectromicroscopy station have proven that the stations have a good prospective feature in the performance.

  2. Liposomal encapsulation of a near-infrared fluorophore enhances fluorescence quenching and reliable whole body optical imaging upon activation in vivo. (United States)

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Rabenhold, Markus; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Kaiser, Werner A; Hilger, Ingrid


    In the past decade, there has been significant progress in the development of water soluble near-infrared fluorochromes for use in a wide range of imaging applications. Fluorochromes with high photo and thermal stability, sensitivity, adequate pharmacological properties and absorption/emission maxima within the near infrared window (650-900 nm) are highly desired for in vivo imaging, since biological tissues show very low absorption and auto-fluorescence at this spectrum window. Taking these properties into consideration, a myriad of promising near infrared fluorescent probes has been developed recently. However, a hallmark of most of these probes is a rapid clearance in vivo, which hampers their application. It is hypothesized that encapsulation of the near infrared fluorescent dye DY-676-COOH, which undergoes fluorescence quenching at high concentrations, in the aqueous interior of liposomes will result in protection and fluorescence quenching, which upon degradation by phagocytes in vivo will lead to fluorescence activation and enable imaging of inflammation. Liposomes prepared with high concentrations of DY-676-COOH reveal strong fluorescence quenching. It is demonstrated that the non-targeted PEGylated fluorescence-activatable liposomes are taken up predominantly by phagocytosis and degraded in lysosomes. Furthermore, in zymosan-induced edema models in mice, the liposomes are taken up by monocytes and macrophages which migrate to the sites of inflammation. Opposed to free DY-676-COOH, prolonged stability and retention of liposomal-DY-676-COOH is reflected in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of edema. Thus, protected delivery and fluorescence quenching make the DY-676-COOH-loaded liposomes a highly promising contrast agent for in vivo optical imaging of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quantitative image fusion in infrared radiometry (United States)

    Romm, Iliya; Cukurel, Beni


    Towards high-accuracy infrared radiance estimates, measurement practices and processing techniques aimed to achieve quantitative image fusion using a set of multi-exposure images of a static scene are reviewed. The conventional non-uniformity correction technique is extended, as the original is incompatible with quantitative fusion. Recognizing the inherent limitations of even the extended non-uniformity correction, an alternative measurement methodology, which relies on estimates of the detector bias using self-calibration, is developed. Combining data from multi-exposure images, two novel image fusion techniques that ultimately provide high tonal fidelity of a photoquantity are considered: ‘subtract-then-fuse’, which conducts image subtraction in the camera output domain and partially negates the bias frame contribution common to both the dark and scene frames; and ‘fuse-then-subtract’, which reconstructs the bias frame explicitly and conducts image fusion independently for the dark and the scene frames, followed by subtraction in the photoquantity domain. The performances of the different techniques are evaluated for various synthetic and experimental data, identifying the factors contributing to potential degradation of the image quality. The findings reflect the superiority of the ‘fuse-then-subtract’ approach, conducting image fusion via per-pixel nonlinear weighted least squares optimization.

  4. Infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging of the macula and its correlation with functional loss and structural changes in patients with stargardt disease. (United States)

    Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A; Lindeman, Martin; Genead, Mohamed A; Zhou, Wensheng


    To correlate the degree of functional loss with structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. Eighteen eyes of 10 patients with Stargardt disease were studied. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images were compared with corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans. Additionally, scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry was performed, and results were superimposed on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images and in selected cases on fundus autofluorescence images. Seventeen of 18 eyes showed a distinct hyporeflective foveal and/or perifoveal area with distinct borders on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images, which was less evident on funduscopy and incompletely depicted in fundus autofluorescence images. This hyporeflective zone corresponded to areas of significantly elevated psychophysical thresholds on microperimetry testing, in addition to thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium and disorganization or loss of the photoreceptor cell inner segment-outer segment junction and external-limiting membrane on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared fundus images are useful for depicting retinal structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry device allows for a direct correlation of structural abnormalities with functional defects that will likely be applicable for the determination of retinal areas for potential improvement of retinal function in these patients during future clinical trials and for the monitoring of the diseases' natural history.

  5. Real time imaging and infrared background scene analysis using the Naval Postgraduate School infrared search and target designation (NPS-IRSTD) system (United States)

    Bernier, Jean D.


    The imaging in real time of infrared background scenes with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) System was achieved through extensive software developments in protected mode assembly language on an Intel 80386 33 MHz computer. The new software processes the 512 by 480 pixel images directly in the extended memory area of the computer where the DT-2861 frame grabber memory buffers are mapped. Direct interfacing, through a JDR-PR10 prototype card, between the frame grabber and the host computer AT bus enables each load of the frame grabber memory buffers to be effected under software control. The protected mode assembly language program can refresh the display of a six degree pseudo-color sector in the scanner rotation within the two second period of the scanner. A study of the imaging properties of the NPS-IRSTD is presented with preliminary work on image analysis and contrast enhancement of infrared background scenes.

  6. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver. (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L


    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographic atrophy segmentation in infrared and autofluorescent retina images using supervised learning. (United States)

    Devisetti, K; Karnowski, T P; Giancardo, L; Li, Y; Chaum, E


    Geographic Atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an advanced form of atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and is responsible for about 20% of AMD-related legal blindness in the United States. Two different imaging modalities for retinas, infrared imaging and autofluorescence imaging, serve as interesting complimentary technologies for highlighting GA. In this work we explore the use of neural network classifiers in performing segmentation of GA in registered infrared (IR) and autofluorescence (AF) images. Our segmentation achieved a performance level of 82.5% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity on a per-pixel basis using hold-one-out validation testing. The algorithm, feature extraction, data set and experimental results are discussed and shown.

  8. Near-infrared imaging of white dwarfs with candidate debris disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Tziamtzis, Anestis; Wang, Xuebing


    We have carried out JHK s imaging of 12 white dwarf debris disk candidates from the WIRED Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, aiming to confirm or rule out disks among these sources. On the basis of positional identification and the flux density spectra, we find that seven white dwarfs have excess infrared emission, but mostly at Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 bands. Four are due to nearby red objects consistent with background galaxies or very low mass dwarfs, and one exhibits excess emission at JHK s consistent with an unresolved L0 companion at the correct distance. While our photometry is not inconsistent with all seven excesses arising from disks, the stellar properties are distinct from the known population of debris disk white dwarfs, making the possibility questionable. In order to further investigate the nature of these infrared sources, warm Spitzer imaging is needed, which may help resolve galaxies from the white dwarfs and provide more accurate flux measurements.

  9. Near-infrared imaging survey of faint companions around young dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoichi; Funayama, Hitoshi; Hashiguchi, Toshio; Oasa, Yumiko; Hayashi, Masahiko; Fukagawa, Misato; Currie, Thayne


    We conducted a near-infrared imaging survey of 11 young dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster using the Subaru Telescope and the near-infrared coronagraph imager. We found ten faint point sources, with magnitudes as faint as 20 mag in the K-band, with around seven dwarfs. Comparison with the Spitzer archive images revealed that a pair of the faint sources around V 1171 Tau is very red in infrared wavelengths, which indicates very low-mass young stellar objects. However, the results of our follow-up proper motion measurements implied that the central star and the faint sources do not share common proper motions, suggesting that they are not physically associated.

  10. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  11. An image analysis system for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence lymph imaging (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.


    Quantitative analysis of lymphatic function is crucial for understanding the lymphatic system and diagnosing the associated diseases. Recently, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system is developed for real-time imaging lymphatic propulsion by intradermal injection of microdose of a NIR fluorophore distal to the lymphatics of interest. However, the previous analysis software3, 4 is underdeveloped, requiring extensive time and effort to analyze a NIR image sequence. In this paper, we develop a number of image processing techniques to automate the data analysis workflow, including an object tracking algorithm to stabilize the subject and remove the motion artifacts, an image representation named flow map to characterize lymphatic flow more reliably, and an automatic algorithm to compute lymph velocity and frequency of propulsion. By integrating all these techniques to a system, the analysis workflow significantly reduces the amount of required user interaction and improves the reliability of the measurement.

  12. Color Segmentation Approach of Infrared Thermography Camera Image for Automatic Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho; Ari Satmoko; Budhi Cynthia Dewi


    Predictive maintenance based on fault diagnosis becomes very important in current days to assure the availability and reliability of a system. The main purpose of this research is to configure a computer software for automatic fault diagnosis based on image model acquired from infrared thermography camera using color segmentation approach. This technique detects hot spots in equipment of the plants. Image acquired from camera is first converted to RGB (Red, Green, Blue) image model and then converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key for Black) image model. Assume that the yellow color in the image represented the hot spot in the equipment, the CMYK image model is then diagnosed using color segmentation model to estimate the fault. The software is configured utilizing Borland Delphi 7.0 computer programming language. The performance is then tested for 10 input infrared thermography images. The experimental result shows that the software capable to detect the faulty automatically with performance value of 80 % from 10 sheets of image input. (author)

  13. Infrared photothermal imaging spectroscopy for detection of trace explosives on surfaces. (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; Andrew McGill, R


    We are developing a technique for the standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photothermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, which are tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes at standoff on relevant substrates is critical for security applications but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes a series of PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose on steel, polyethylene, glass, and painted steel panels. We demonstrate detection at surface mass loadings comparable with fingerprint depositions ( 10μg/cm2 to 100μg/cm2) from an area corresponding to a single pixel within the thermal image.

  14. A survey of infrared technology for special nuclear materials control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbro, W.D.; Leonard, R.S.; Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.


    This report reviews some aspects of current infrared measurement technology and suggests two applications in which it may be used in nuclear safeguards. These applications include both materials control and materials accounting. In each case, the measurements rely on passive detection of infrared radiation generated from the heat produced by the radioactive decay of plutonium. Both imaging and non-imaging techniques are discussed

  15. Infrared image background modeling based on improved Susan filtering (United States)

    Yuehua, Xia


    When SUSAN filter is used to model the infrared image, the Gaussian filter lacks the ability of direction filtering. After filtering, the edge information of the image cannot be preserved well, so that there are a lot of edge singular points in the difference graph, increase the difficulties of target detection. To solve the above problems, the anisotropy algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the anisotropic Gauss filter is used instead of the Gauss filter in the SUSAN filter operator. Firstly, using anisotropic gradient operator to calculate a point of image's horizontal and vertical gradient, to determine the long axis direction of the filter; Secondly, use the local area of the point and the neighborhood smoothness to calculate the filter length and short axis variance; And then calculate the first-order norm of the difference between the local area of the point's gray-scale and mean, to determine the threshold of the SUSAN filter; Finally, the built SUSAN filter is used to convolution the image to obtain the background image, at the same time, the difference between the background image and the original image is obtained. The experimental results show that the background modeling effect of infrared image is evaluated by Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity (SSIM) and local Signal-to-noise Ratio Gain (GSNR). Compared with the traditional filtering algorithm, the improved SUSAN filter has achieved better background modeling effect, which can effectively preserve the edge information in the image, and the dim small target is effectively enhanced in the difference graph, which greatly reduces the false alarm rate of the image.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of Sulfhydryl-Reactive Near-Infrared Cyanine Fluorochromes for Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Lin


    Full Text Available Near-infrared fluorochromes (NIRF are useful compounds for diverse biotechnology applications and for in vivo biomedical imaging. Such NIRF must have high quantum yield, be biocompatible, and be conjugatable to a wide variety of proteins, peptides, and other affinity ligands. Here, we describe the synthesis of four new nonsymmetrical sulfhydryl-reactive cyanine NIRF with excellent optical and chemical properties. Each fluorochrome was designed to contain an iodoacetamido group that reacts specifically with sulfhydryl-containing molecules. The synthesized fluorochromes were used to label model peptides and sulfhydryl-containing biomolecules.

  17. Applicability of active infrared thermography for screening of human breast: a numerical study (United States)

    Dua, Geetika; Mulaveesala, Ravibabu


    Active infrared thermography is a fast, painless, noncontact, and noninvasive imaging method, complementary to mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. This technique plays an important role in early detection of breast cancer to women of all ages, including pregnant or nursing women, with different sizes of breast, irrespective of either fatty or dense breast. This proposed complementary technique makes use of infrared emission emanating from the breast. Emanating radiations from the surface of the breast under test are detected with an infrared camera to map the thermal gradients over it, in order to reveal hidden tumors inside it. One of the reliable active infrared thermographic technique, linear frequency modulated thermal wave imaging is adopted to detect tumors present inside the breast. Further, phase and amplitude images are constructed using frequency and time-domain data analysis schemes. Obtained results show the potential of the proposed technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer in fatty as well as dense breasts.

  18. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences. (United States)

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W


    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Simultaneous high-speed spectral and infrared imaging of engine combustion (United States)

    Jansons, Marcis


    A novel and unique diagnostic apparatus has been developed and applied to combustion gas mixtures in engine cylinders. The computer-controlled system integrates a modified Fastie-Ebert type spectrophotometer with four infrared CCD imagers, allowing the simultaneous acquisition of the spectrum and four spatial images, each at a discrete wavelength. Data buffering allows continuous imaging of the power stroke over consecutive engine cycles at framing rates of 1850 frames/second. Spectral resolution is 28nm with an uncertainty better than 58nm. The nominal response of the instrument is in the range 1.8--4.5mum, with a peak responsivity near the important 2.7mum bands of CO2 and H2O. The spectral range per scan is approximately 1.78mum. To interpret the measured data, a line-by-line radiation model was created utilizing the High-Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) database of molecular parameters, incorporating soot and wall emission effects. Although computationally more intensive, this model represents an improvement in accuracy over the NASA single-line-group (SLG) model which does not include the 'hot' CO2 lines of the 3.8mum region. Methane/air combustion mixture thermodynamic parameters are estimated by the iteration of model variables to yield a synthetic spectrum that, when corrected for wall effects, instrument function, responsivity, window and laboratory path transmissivity, correspond to the measured spectrum. The values of the model variables are used to interpret the corresponding spatial images. For the first time in the infrared an entire engine starting sequence has been observed over consecutive cycles. Preflame spectra measured during the compression stroke of a spark-ignition engine operating with various fuels correlate well with the synthetic spectra of the particular hydrocarbon reactants. The ability to determine concentration and spatial distribution of fuel in the engine cylinder prior to ignition has applications in stratified charge studies and

  20. Industrial application of thermal image processing and thermal control (United States)

    Kong, Lingxue


    Industrial application of infrared thermography is virtually boundless as it can be used in any situations where there are temperature differences. This technology has particularly been widely used in automotive industry for process evaluation and system design. In this work, thermal image processing technique will be introduced to quantitatively calculate the heat stored in a warm/hot object and consequently, a thermal control system will be proposed to accurately and actively manage the thermal distribution within the object in accordance with the heat calculated from the thermal images.

  1. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony


    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  2. A color fusion method of infrared and low-light-level images based on visual perception (United States)

    Han, Jing; Yan, Minmin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa


    The color fusion images can be obtained through the fusion of infrared and low-light-level images, which will contain both the information of the two. The fusion images can help observers to understand the multichannel images comprehensively. However, simple fusion may lose the target information due to inconspicuous targets in long-distance infrared and low-light-level images; and if targets extraction is adopted blindly, the perception of the scene information will be affected seriously. To solve this problem, a new fusion method based on visual perception is proposed in this paper. The extraction of the visual targets ("what" information) and parallel processing mechanism are applied in traditional color fusion methods. The infrared and low-light-level color fusion images are achieved based on efficient typical targets learning. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The fusion images achieved by our algorithm can not only improve the detection rate of targets, but also get rich natural information of the scenes.

  3. Infrared (United States)

    Vollmer, M.


    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  4. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi


    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  5. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique


    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging and its applications (United States)

    Serranti, S.; Bonifazi, G.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that combines the imaging properties of a digital camera with the spectroscopic properties of a spectrometer able to detect the spectral attributes of each pixel in an image. For these characteristics, HSI allows to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of the interactions of light with organic and/or inorganic materials. The results of this interaction are usually displayed as a spectral signature characterized by a sequence of energy values, in a pre-defined wavelength interval, for each of the investigated/collected wavelength. Following this approach, it is thus possible to collect, in a fast and reliable way, spectral information that are strictly linked to chemical-physical characteristics of the investigated materials and/or products. Considering that in an hyperspectral image the spectrum of each pixel can be analyzed, HSI can be considered as one of the best nondestructive technology allowing to perform the most accurate and detailed information extraction. HSI can be applied in different wavelength fields, the most common are the visible (VIS: 400-700 nm), the near infrared (NIR: 1000-1700 nm) and the short wave infrared (SWIR: 1000-2500 nm). It can be applied for inspections from micro- to macro-scale, up to remote sensing. HSI produces a large amount of information due to the great number of continuous collected spectral bands. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterized by lower costs, if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off-line and/or on-line analytical approaches. More and more applications have been thus developed and tested, in these last years, especially in food inspection, with a large range of investigated products, such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and cereals, but also in medicine and pharmaceutical sector, in cultural heritage, in material characterization and in

  7. Infrared: A Key Technology for Security Systems


    Corsi, Carlo


    Infrared science and technology has been, since the first applications, mainly dedicated to security and surveillance especially in military field, besides specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical diagnostic and building structures and recently in energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the security applications were mainly based on thermal imaging as surveillance and warning military systems. In all these applications the advent of room temperature, more reliable due...

  8. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.


    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  9. Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy: study, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvalet, Adeline


    This work has been devoted to the development and the applications of a new technique of infrared (5-20 μm) spectroscopy allowing a temporal resolution of 100 fs. This technique relies on a source of ultrashort infrared pulses obtained by frequency mixing in a nonlinear material. In particular, the optical rectification of 12-fs visible pulses in gallium arsenide has allowed us to obtain 40-fs infrared pulses with a spectrum extending from 5 pm up to 15 μm. Spectral resolution has been achieved by Fourier transform spectroscopy, using a novel device we have called Diffracting FTIR. These developments allow to study inter-subband transitions in quantum-well structures. The inter-subband relaxation time has been measured by a pump-probe experiment, in which the sample was excited with a visible pulse, and the variations of inter-subband absorption probed with an infrared pulse. Besides, we have developed a method of coherent emission spectroscopy allowing to monitor the electric field emitted by coherent charge oscillations in quantum wells. The decay of the oscillations due to the loss of coherence between excited levels yields a direct measurement of the dephasing time between these levels. Other applications include biological macromolecules like reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria. We have shown that we were able to monitor variations of infrared absorption of about 10 -4 optical densities with a temporal resolution of 100 fs. This would constitute a relevant tool to study the role of molecular vibrations during the primary steps of biological processes. (author) [fr

  10. Tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for small target detection in infrared images (United States)

    Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Jingzhuo; Yang, Huizhen; Gong, Chenglong; Zhou, Yuanshen; Liu, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Shuli


    Infrared small targets detection plays a crucial role in warning and tracking systems. Some novel methods based on pattern recognition technology catch much attention from researchers. However, those classic methods must reshape images into vectors with the high dimensionality. Moreover, vectorizing breaks the natural structure and correlations in the image data. Image representation based on tensor treats images as matrices and can hold the natural structure and correlation information. So tensor algorithms have better classification performance than vector algorithms. Fukunaga-Koontz transform is one of classification algorithms and it is a vector version method with the disadvantage of all vector algorithms. In this paper, we first extended the Fukunaga-Koontz transform into its tensor version, tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform. Then we designed a method based on tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for detecting targets and used it to detect small targets in infrared images. The experimental results, comparison through signal-to-clutter, signal-to-clutter gain and background suppression factor, have validated the advantage of the target detection based on the tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform over that based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transform.

  11. Infrared Imaging of Cotton Fiber Bundles Using a Focal Plane Array Detector and a Single Reflectance Accessory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santiago Cintrón


    Full Text Available Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report on the use of an infrared instrument equipped with a reflection accessory and an array detector system for the examination of cotton fiber bundles. Cotton vibrational spectra and chemical images were acquired by grouping pixels in the detector array. This technique reduced spectral noise and was employed to visualize cell wall development in cotton fibers bundles. Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal band changes in the C–O bending region that matched previous studies. Imaging studies were quick, relied on small amounts of sample and provided a distribution of the cotton fiber cell wall composition. Thus, imaging of cotton bundles with an infrared detector array has potential for use in cotton fiber examinations.

  12. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  13. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund


    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  14. SIBI: A compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Domel, Roland; Coudrain, Christophe; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; D'Almeida, Oscar; Bousquet, Marc; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé


    Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles have increased the demand for more and more compact optical systems. In order to bring solutions to this demand, several infrared systems are being developed at ONERA such as spectrometers, imaging devices, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems. In the field of compact infrared hyperspectral imaging devices, ONERA and Sagem Défense et Sécurité have collaborated to develop a prototype called SIBI, which stands for "Spectro-Imageur Birefringent Infrarouge". It is a static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer which operates in the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range and uses a birefringent lateral shearing interferometer. Up to now, birefringent interferometers have not been often used for hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared because of the lack of crystal manufacturers, contrary to the visible spectral domain where the production of uniaxial crystals like calcite are mastered for various optical applications. In the following, we will present the design and the realization of SIBI as well as the first experimental results.

  15. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewald, C.A. (Peter Rassloff Instruments and Services, Norwood, South Africa)

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories.

  16. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewald, C.A.


    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.; Howard, D. R.; Ringermacher, H. I.; Hudson, L. D.


    Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF (Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight) methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. This methodology as applied to large C/SiC flight components at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will be described.

  18. Infrared Imaging of Carbon and Ceramic Composites: Data Reproducibility (United States)

    Knight, B.; Howard, D. R.; Ringermacher, H. I.; Hudson, L. D.


    Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF (Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight) methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. This methodology as applied to large C/SiC flight components at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will be described.

  19. A debugging method of the Quadrotor UAV based on infrared thermal imaging (United States)

    Cui, Guangjie; Hao, Qian; Yang, Jianguo; Chen, Lizhi; Hu, Hongkang; Zhang, Lijun


    High-performance UAV has been popular and in great need in recent years. The paper introduces a new method in debugging Quadrotor UAVs. Based on the infrared thermal technology and heat transfer theory, a UAV is under debugging above a hot-wire grid which is composed of 14 heated nichrome wires. And the air flow propelled by the rotating rotors has an influence on the temperature distribution of the hot-wire grid. An infrared thermal imager below observes the distribution and gets thermal images of the hot-wire grid. With the assistance of mathematic model and some experiments, the paper discusses the relationship between thermal images and the speed of rotors. By means of getting debugged UAVs into test, the standard information and thermal images can be acquired. The paper demonstrates that comparing to the standard thermal images, a UAV being debugging in the same test can draw some critical data directly or after interpolation. The results are shown in the paper and the advantages are discussed.

  20. Effects of salicylic acid elicitor against aphids on wheat and detection of infestation using infrared thermal imaging technique in Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum sativum L. is one of the most important cereal crops in Egypt. Insect pests, such as aphids, are major threats in terms of yield reduction. Induced resistance in wheat using salicylic acid as a foliar application was tested on the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Three wheat cultivars, Gemeza 9, Sakha 93 and Giza 168, were sprayed three times with two concentrations of salicylic acid (SA, 200 mg/l and 100 mg/l, after early detection of aphid infestation by infrared thermal imaging. The infrared thermal imaging technique is based on significant differences in surface temperature between infested and healthy leaves. Imaging data are digital, and a computer program can be used to detect infestation rapidly. The results showed that aphid infestation raised the temperature of infested leaves, compared to healthy leaves. The range temperature difference between maximum and minimum temperatures (At was 1.1 ºC in healthy leaves and 3.9 ºC in infected leaves. The results of SA application showed significant differences in the mean number of aphids and in reduction of infestation among treatments and cultivars. The higher of the two SA rates (200 mg/l gave higher efficacy in the three cultivars than the lower rate (100 mg/l over the five weeks of trial. The highest efficacy against aphids was reached one week after application (86.28% for Giza, 85.89% for Gemesa and 70.54% for Sakha. Moreover, SA treatment enhanced the wheat yield of all three cultivars, compared with control plants. The three cultivars (Giza, Gemesa and Sakha produced higher yields than the control when sprayed with 200 mg/l SA. Their grain yield was 2,491.5, 2,455.0, and 2,327.25 kg/feddan (1 fed = 0.42 ha, respectively. In conclusion, infrared thermal imaging can be employed in identification of infected leaves. Also, the application of SA on wheat induced plant resistance to aphids.

  1. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo


    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  2. Recursive estimation techniques for detection of small objects in infrared image data (United States)

    Zeidler, J. R.; Soni, T.; Ku, W. H.


    This paper describes a recursive detection scheme for point targets in infrared (IR) images. Estimation of the background noise is done using a weighted autocorrelation matrix update method and the detection statistic is calculated using a recursive technique. A weighting factor allows the algorithm to have finite memory and deal with nonstationary noise characteristics. The detection statistic is created by using a matched filter for colored noise, using the estimated noise autocorrelation matrix. The relationship between the weighting factor, the nonstationarity of the noise and the probability of detection is described. Some results on one- and two-dimensional infrared images are presented.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging with near-infrared-enabled mobile phones for tissue oximetry (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan L.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua


    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging clinical tool for characterizing spatial and temporal variations in blood perfusion and oxygenation for applications such as burn assessment, wound healing, retinal exams and intraoperative tissue viability assessment. Since clinical HRI-based oximeters often use near-infrared (NIR) light, NIR-enabled mobile phones may provide a useful platform for future point-of-care devices. Furthermore, quantitative NIR imaging on mobile phones may dramatically increase the availability and accessibility of medical diagnostics for low-resource settings. We have evaluated the potential for phone-based NIR oximetry imaging and elucidated factors affecting performance using devices from two different manufacturers, as well as a scientific CCD. A broadband light source and liquid crystal tunable filter were used for imaging at 10 nm bands from 650 to 1000 nm. Spectral sensitivity measurements indicated that mobile phones with standard NIR blocking filters had minimal response beyond 700 nm, whereas one modified phone showed sensitivity to 800 nm and another to 1000 nm. Red pixel channels showed the greatest sensitivity up to 800 nm, whereas all channels provided essentially equivalent sensitivity at longer wavelengths. Referencing of blood oxygenation levels was performed with a CO-oximeter. HRI measurements were performed using cuvettes filled with hemoglobin solutions of different oxygen saturation levels. Good agreement between absorbance spectra measured with mobile phone and a CCD cameras were seen for wavelengths below 900 nm. Saturation estimates showed root-mean-squared-errors of 5.2% and 4.5% for the CCD and phone, respectively. Overall, this work provides strong evidence of the potential for mobile phones to provide quantitative spectral imaging in the NIR for applications such as oximetry, and generates practical insights into factors that impact performance as well as test methods for performance assessment.

  4. Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Nano-Therapeutics and Photo-Thermal Evaluation (United States)

    Vats, Mukti; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Baghini, Mahdieh Shojaei; Chauhan, Deepak S.; Srivastava, Rohit; De, Abhijit


    The unresolved and paramount challenge in bio-imaging and targeted therapy is to clearly define and demarcate the physical margins of tumor tissue. The ability to outline the healthy vital tissues to be carefully navigated with transection while an intraoperative surgery procedure is performed sets up a necessary and under-researched goal. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, there is a need to optimize design considerations in order to not only obtain an effective imaging agent but to also achieve attributes like favorable water solubility, biocompatibility, high molecular brightness, and a tissue specific targeting approach. The emergence of near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF) light for tissue scale imaging owes to the provision of highly specific images of the target organ. The special characteristics of near infra-red window such as minimal auto-fluorescence, low light scattering, and absorption of biomolecules in tissue converge to form an attractive modality for cancer imaging. Imparting molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent is the most beneficial attribute of NIRF light as a clinical imaging technology. Additionally, many such agents also display therapeutic potentials as photo-thermal agents, thus meeting the dual purpose of imaging and therapy. Here, we primarily discuss molecular imaging and therapeutic potentials of two such classes of materials, i.e., inorganic NIR dyes and metallic gold nanoparticle based materials. PMID:28452928

  5. Upconversion imaging using short-wave infrared picosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Rodrigo, Peter John; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    beam diameter to upconvert a wider range of signal spatial frequencies in the crystal. The 1877 nm signal is converted into 849 nm—enabling an image to be acquired by a silicon CCD camera. The measured size of the smallest resolvable element of this imaging system is consistent with the value predicted...... repetition rate of 21.7 MHz. Due to synchronization of high peak-power pulses, efficient upconversion is achieved in a single-pass setup that employs a bulk lithium niobate crystal. Optimizing the temporal overlap of the pulses for high upconversion efficiency enables us to exploit a relatively large pump...... by an improved model that considers the combined image blurring effect due to finite pump beam size, thick nonlinear crystal, and polychromatic infrared illumination....

  6. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.


    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases. (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G


    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed.......264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  9. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)


    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  10. Application of infrared spectroscopy for diagnosis of kidney tumor tissue


    Bandzevičiūtė, Rimantė


    Application of Infrared Spectroscopy for Diagnosis of Kidney Tumor Tissue It is possible to apply the technique of an attenuated total reflection of infrared radiation (ATR IR) for the characterisation of the removed tissues during the surgery. Application of this method for interstitium of the removed tissue does not require any specific sample preparation. For this reason ATR IR technique applied for the interstitium allows to get information about tissues immediately after surgical operati...

  11. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Technique for the Analysis of Polymer Laminates. (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Sommer, André J


    Until recently, the analysis of polymer laminates using infrared microspectroscopy involved the painstaking separation of individual layers by dissection or by obtaining micrometer thin cross-sections. The latter usually requires the expertise of an individual trained in microtomy and even then, the very structure of the laminate could affect the outcome of the spectral results. The recent development of attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared microspectroscopy imaging has provided a new avenue for the analysis of these multilayer structures. This report compares ATR infrared microspectroscopy imaging with conventional transmission infrared microspectroscopy imaging. The results demonstrate that the ATR method offers improved spatial resolution, eliminates a variety of competing optical processes, and requires minimal sample preparation relative to transmission measurements. These advantages were illustrated using a polymer laminate consisting of 11 different layers whose thickness ranged in size from 4-20 μm. The spatial resolution achieved by using an ATR-FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) imaging technique was diffraction limited. Contrast in the ATR images was enhanced by principal component analysis.

  12. Performance of InGaAs short wave infrared avalanche photodetector for low flux imaging (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder


    Opto-electronic performance of the InGaAs/i-InGaAs/InP short wavelength infrared focal plane array suitable for high resolution imaging under low flux conditions and ranging is presented. More than 85% quantum efficiency is achieved in the optimized detector structure. Isotropic nature of the wet etching process poses a challenge in maintaining the required control in the small pitch high density detector array. Etching process is developed to achieve low dark current density of 1 nA/cm2 in the detector array with 25 µm pitch at 298 K. Noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable showing single photon detection capability. The reported photodiode with low photon flux is suitable for active cum passive imaging, optical information processing and quantum computing applications.

  13. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas


    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  14. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging (United States)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent


    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  15. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging. (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli


    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  16. The application of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody fluorescent probe in ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging in mice with pulmonary tuberculosis. (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Zhang, Haoling; Zhu, Zhaoqin; Li, Cong; Shi, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiyong


    Here, we aimed to assess the feasibility of anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupling with IR783 and rhodamine fluorescent probe in the detection of ESAT-6 expression in tuberculosis tissue of mice using near-infrared fluorescence imaging. IR783 and rhodamine were conjugated to the anti-ESAT-6 mAb or IgG. Mice in the experimental group were injected with fluorescence-labeled mAb probe, and mice in the control group were injected with fluorescence-labeled non-specific IgG antibody. Twenty-four hours later, the lung tissue of mice was examined using ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. In addition, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated by measuring the signal intensities of the pulmonary lesions, normal lung tissue and background noise. The frozen lung tissue section was examined under fluorescence microscopy and compared with hemoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging showed that the fluorescence signal in the lung tuberculosis lesions in the experimental group was significantly enhanced, whereas there was only a weak fluorescence signal or even no fluorescence signal in the control group. CNR values were 64.40 ± 7.02 (n = 6) and 8.75 ± 3.87 (n = 6), respectively (t = 17.01, p fluorescence accumulation distribution detected under fluorescence microscopy was consistent with HE staining of the tuberculosis region. In conclusion, anti-ESAT-6 mAb fluorescent probe could target and be applied in specific ex vivo imaging of mice tuberculosis, and may be of further use in tuberculosis in living mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bilayered near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles based on low molecular weight PEI for tumor-targeted in vivo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ke [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology (China); Xu, Liang [The University of Kansas, Department of Molecular Biosciences (United States); Wu, Daocheng, E-mail: [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology (China)


    To improve the tumor fluorescent imaging results in vivo, bilayered nanoparticles encapsulating a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindotri-carbocyanine iodide (DiR) were prepared using low molecular weight stearic acid-grafted polyethyleneimine and hyaluronic acid (DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles), which were investigated as a novel NIR fluorescent nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted optical imaging. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared (IR) spectra, UV-visual absorption, and fluorescent emission spectra. Their cytotoxicity in vitro and hepatotoxicity in vivo were tested by MTT assay and histological study, respectively. In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging of the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was performed using a Carestream imaging system. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles were sphere shaped with a diameter of approximately 50 nm according to the TEM images. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles had a low cytotoxicity in vitro according to the MTT assay and low hepatotoxicity in vivo as determined in histological studies. The fluorescent emission of DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was stable in pH values of 5–9 in solution, with only slight blue-shifts of the emission maxima at the basic pH range. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles exhibited a substantial tumor-targeting ability in the optical imaging with the use of tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrated that the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticle is an excellent biocompatible nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted NIR fluorescence imaging with a potential for clinical applications.

  18. Bilayered near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles based on low molecular weight PEI for tumor-targeted in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ke; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng


    To improve the tumor fluorescent imaging results in vivo, bilayered nanoparticles encapsulating a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindotri-carbocyanine iodide (DiR) were prepared using low molecular weight stearic acid-grafted polyethyleneimine and hyaluronic acid (DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles), which were investigated as a novel NIR fluorescent nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted optical imaging. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared (IR) spectra, UV-visual absorption, and fluorescent emission spectra. Their cytotoxicity in vitro and hepatotoxicity in vivo were tested by MTT assay and histological study, respectively. In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging of the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was performed using a Carestream imaging system. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles were sphere shaped with a diameter of approximately 50 nm according to the TEM images. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles had a low cytotoxicity in vitro according to the MTT assay and low hepatotoxicity in vivo as determined in histological studies. The fluorescent emission of DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles was stable in pH values of 5–9 in solution, with only slight blue-shifts of the emission maxima at the basic pH range. The DiR-PgSHA nanoparticles exhibited a substantial tumor-targeting ability in the optical imaging with the use of tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrated that the DiR-PgSHA nanoparticle is an excellent biocompatible nano-probe for in vivo tumor-targeted NIR fluorescence imaging with a potential for clinical applications

  19. Handheld hyperspectral imager system for chemical/biological and environmental applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob


    A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

  20. Hand-held hyperspectral imager for chemical/biological and environmental applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob


    A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

  1. Role of Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging in Cancer Diagnosis. (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Nikolajeff, Fredrik


    Cancer is a major global health issue. It causes extensive individual suffering and gives a huge burden on the health care in society. Despite extensive research and different tools have been developed it still remains a challenge for early detection of this disease. FTIR imaging has been used to diagnose and differentiate the molecular differences between normal and diseased tissues. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is able to measure biochemical changes in tissue, cell and biofluids based on the vibrational signature of their components. This technique enables to the distribution and structure of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids as well as other metabolites. These differences depended on the type and the grade of cancer. We emphasize here, that the FTIR spectroscopy and imaging can be considered as a promising technique and will find its place on the detection of this dreadful disease because of high sensitivity, accuracy and inexpensive technique. Now the medical community started using and accepting this technique for early stage cancer detection. We discussed this technique and the several challenges in its application for the diagnosis of cancer in regards of sample preparations, data interpretation, and data analysis. The sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs on individual specific has also discussed. So far progressed has done with the FTIR imaging in understanding of cancer disease pathology. However, more research is needed in this field and it is necessary to understand the morphology and biology of the sample before using the spectroscopy and imaging because invaluable information to be figured out. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. Application of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in food


    D Jafarpour; M Alizadeh; F Siamak


    BACKGROUND: There are many uses of radiation in the food industry. Radiation can be considered as one of the new processes and usage of it can offer new features of food. This process in most food doesn’t leave any physical or sensory changes. Therefore, in this review article, the application of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in food was studied. Methods: Search by the keywords “Ultraviolet Radiation Infrared Radiation Food” in databases Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Sci...

  3. SAR and Infrared Image Fusion in Complex Contourlet Domain Based on Joint Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yiquan


    Full Text Available To investigate the problems of the large grayscale difference between infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images and their fusion image not being fit for human visual perception, we propose a fusion method for SAR and infrared images in the complex contourlet domain based on joint sparse representation. First, we perform complex contourlet decomposition of the infrared and SAR images. Then, we employ the KSingular Value Decomposition (K-SVD method to obtain an over-complete dictionary of the low-frequency components of the two source images. Using a joint sparse representation model, we then generate a joint dictionary. We obtain the sparse representation coefficients of the low-frequency components of the source images in the joint dictionary by the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP method and select them using the selection maximization strategy. We then reconstruct these components to obtain the fused low-frequency components and fuse the high-frequency components using two criteria——the coefficient of visual sensitivity and the degree of energy matching. Finally, we obtain the fusion image by the inverse complex contourlet transform. Compared with the three classical fusion methods and recently presented fusion methods, e.g., that based on the Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT and another based on sparse representation, the method we propose in this paper can effectively highlight the salient features of the two source images and inherit their information to the greatest extent.

  4. Multiscale infrared and visible image fusion using gradient domain guided image filtering (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Han, Zhenghao; Wang, Xia


    For better surveillance with infrared and visible imaging, a novel hybrid multiscale decomposition fusion method using gradient domain guided image filtering (HMSD-GDGF) is proposed in this study. In this method, hybrid multiscale decomposition with guided image filtering and gradient domain guided image filtering of source images are first applied before the weight maps of each scale are obtained using a saliency detection technology and filtering means with three different fusion rules at different scales. The three types of fusion rules are for small-scale detail level, large-scale detail level, and base level. Finally, the target becomes more salient and can be more easily detected in the fusion result, with the detail information of the scene being fully displayed. After analyzing the experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art fusion methods, the HMSD-GDGF method has obvious advantages in fidelity of salient information (including structural similarity, brightness, and contrast), preservation of edge features, and human visual perception. Therefore, visual effects can be improved by using the proposed HMSD-GDGF method.

  5. Infrared sensing techniques for adaptive robotic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.T.; Groom, K.; Madsen, N.H.; Chin, B.A.


    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using infrared sensors to monitor the welding process. Data were gathered using an infrared camera which was trained on the molten metal pool during the welding operation. Several types of process perturbations which result in weld defects were then intentionally induced and the resulting thermal images monitored. Gas tungsten arc using ac and dc currents and gas metal arc welding processes were investigated using steel, aluminum and stainless steel plate materials. The thermal images obtained in the three materials and different welding processes revealed nearly identical patterns for the same induced process perturbation. Based upon these results, infrared thermography is a method which may be very applicable to automation of the welding process

  6. Fusion of infrared and visible images based on BEMD and NSDFB (United States)

    Zhu, Pan; Huang, Zhanhua; Lei, Hai


    This paper presents a new fusion method based on the adaptive multi-scale decomposition of bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and the flexible directional expansion of nonsubsampled directional filter banks (NSDFB) for visible-infrared images. Compared with conventional multi-scale fusion methods, BEMD is non-parametric and completely data-driven, which is relatively more suitable for non-linear signals decomposition and fusion. NSDFB can provide direction filtering on the decomposition levels to capture more geometrical structure of the source images effectively. In our fusion framework, the entropies of the two patterns of source images are firstly calculated and the residue of the image whose entropy is larger is extracted to make it highly relevant with the other source image. Then, the residue and the other source image are decomposed into low-frequency sub-bands and a sequence of high-frequency directional sub-bands in different scales by using BEMD and NSDFB. In this fusion scheme, two relevant fusion rules are used in low-frequency sub-bands and high-frequency directional sub-bands, respectively. Finally, the fused image is obtained by applying corresponding inverse transform. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion algorithm can obtain state-of-the-art performance for visible-infrared images fusion in both aspects of objective assessment and subjective visual quality even for the source images obtained in different conditions. Furthermore, the fused results have high contrast, remarkable target information and rich details information that are more suitable for human visual characteristics or machine perception.

  7. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng


    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  8. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging. (United States)

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E


    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  9. Treatment of Reflex sympathetic dystrophy with Bee venom -Using Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-jang Lim


    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this case is to report the patient with Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, who is improved by Bee venom. Method : We treated the patient with Bee venom who was suffering from Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, using Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging and Verbal Numerical Rating Scale(VNRS to evaluate the therapeutic effects. We compared the temperature of the patient body before and after treatment. Result and Conclusion : We found that Bee venom had excellent outcome to relieve pain, atrophy and ankle joint ROM, and that Bee venom also had clinical effect on hypothermia on the Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging.

  10. An infrared upconverter for astronomical imaging (United States)

    Boyd, R. W.; Townes, C. H.


    An imaging upconverter has been constructed which is suitable for use in the study of the thermal 10-micron radiation from astronomical sources. The infrared radiation is converted to visible radiation by mixing in a 1-cm-long proustite crystal. The phase-matched 2-kayser bandpass is tunable from 9 to 11 microns. The conversion efficiency is 2 by 10 to the -7th power and the field of view of 40 arc seconds on the sky contains several hundred picture elements, approximately diffraction-limited resolution in a large telescope. The instrument has been used in studies of the sun, moon, Mercury, and VY Canis Majoris.

  11. The utilization of infrared imaging for occupational disease study in industrial work. (United States)

    Brioschi, Marcos Leal; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia Leite Ribeiro; Vargas, José Viriato Coelho


    Infrared imaging has been used to visualize superficial temperatures in industrial employers standing and working in an indoor environment at 22°C. Temperature distributions and changes have been recorded digitally and analyzed. Mean skin temperatures determined by this method have been compared with superficial temperatures obtained with a probe thermocouple. During working hours, surface temperatures were higher over extensor muscles than over other structures and their spatial distributions differed dramatically from those observed before working hours. The authors also analyzed the cold water immersion of the hands during work. This paper showed that working generates different thermal effects on human skin that reflect physiological and pathological occupational conditions and can be monitored by infrared imaging.

  12. Discussion on the application potential of thermal infrared remote sensing technology in uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhu; Zhang Jielin; Liu Dechang


    With the continual development of new thermal infrared sensors and thermal radiation theory, the technology of thermal infrared remote sensing has shown great potential for applications in resources exploration, especially in the field of uranium exploration. The paper makes a systemic summary of the theoretical basis and research status of the thermal infrared remote sensing applications in resources exploration from the surface temperature, thermal inertia and thermal infrared spectrum. What's more, the research objective and the research content of thermal infrared remote sensing in the uranium deposits exploration applications are discussed in detail. Besides, based on the thermal infrared ASTER data, the paper applies this technology to the granite-type uranium deposits in South China and achieves good result. Above all, the practice proves that the thermal infrared remote sensing technology has a good application prospects and particular value in the field of uranium prospecting and will play an important role in the prospecting target of the uranium deposits. (authors)

  13. Salient man-made structure detection in infrared images (United States)

    Li, Dong-jie; Zhou, Fu-gen; Jin, Ting


    Target detection, segmentation and recognition is a hot research topic in the field of image processing and pattern recognition nowadays, among which salient area or object detection is one of core technologies of precision guided weapon. Many theories have been raised in this paper; we detect salient objects in a series of input infrared images by using the classical feature integration theory and Itti's visual attention system. In order to find the salient object in an image accurately, we present a new method to solve the edge blur problem by calculating and using the edge mask. We also greatly improve the computing speed by improving the center-surround differences method. Unlike the traditional algorithm, we calculate the center-surround differences through rows and columns separately. Experimental results show that our method is effective in detecting salient object accurately and rapidly.

  14. Portable Long-Wavelength Infrared Camera for Civilian Application (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Krabach, T. N.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.


    In this paper, we discuss the performance of this portable long-wavelength infrared camera in quantum efficiency, NEAT, minimum resolvable temperature differnce (MRTD), uniformity, etc. and its application in science, medicine and defense.

  15. Quantum dots in imaging, drug delivery and sensor applications. (United States)

    Matea, Cristian T; Mocan, Teodora; Tabaran, Flaviu; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Puia, Cosmin; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian


    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as nanoscale semiconductor crystals, are nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties such as bright and intensive fluorescence. Since most conventional organic label dyes do not offer the near-infrared (>650 nm) emission possibility, QDs, with their tunable optical properties, have gained a lot of interest. They possess characteristics such as good chemical and photo-stability, high quantum yield and size-tunable light emission. Different types of QDs can be excited with the same light wavelength, and their narrow emission bands can be detected simultaneously for multiple assays. There is an increasing interest in the development of nano-theranostics platforms for simultaneous sensing, imaging and therapy. QDs have great potential for such applications, with notable results already published in the fields of sensors, drug delivery and biomedical imaging. This review summarizes the latest developments available in literature regarding the use of QDs for medical applications.

  16. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography (United States)

    Snyder, Mark


    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  17. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method]. (United States)

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua


    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  18. Correcting the effect of refraction and dispersion of light in FT-IR spectroscopic imaging in transmission through thick infrared windows. (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G


    Transmission mode is one of the most common sampling methods for FT-IR spectroscopic imaging because the spectra obtained generally have a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. However, dispersion and refraction of infrared light occurs when samples are sandwiched between infrared windows or placed underneath a layer of liquid. Dispersion and refraction cause infrared light to focus with different focal lengths depending on the wavelength (wavenumber) of the light. As a result, images obtained are in focus only at a particular wavenumber while they are defocused at other wavenumber values. In this work, a solution to correct this spread of focus by means of adding a lens on top of the infrared transparent window, such that a pseudo hemisphere is formed, has been investigated. Through this lens (or pseudo hemisphere), refraction of light is removed and the light across the spectral range has the same focal depth. Furthermore, the lens acts as a solid immersion objective and an increase of both magnification and spatial resolution (by 1.4 times) is demonstrated. The spatial resolution was investigated using an USAF resolution target, showing that the Rayleigh criterion can be achieved, as well as a sample with a sharp polymer interface to indicate the spatial resolution that can be expected in real samples. The reported approach was used to obtain chemical images of cross sections of cancer tissue and hair samples sandwiched between infrared windows showing the versatility and applicability of the method. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, the results reported herein also demonstrate that the lens can reduce the effect of scattering near the edges of tissue samples. The advantages of the presented approach, obtaining FT-IR spectroscopic images in transmission mode with the same focus across all wavenumber values and simultaneous improvement in spatial resolution, will have wide implications ranging from studies of live cells to sorption of drugs into tissues.

  19. Hyper-Spectral Imager in visible and near-infrared band for lunar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, will have a Hyper-Spectral Imager in the visible and near-infrared spectral ... mapping of the Moon's crust in a large number of spectral channels. The planned .... In-flight verification may be done.

  20. Image enhancement technology research for army applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Schutte, K.


    Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared

  1. Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS). ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of...

  2. Suppression of fixed pattern noise for infrared image system (United States)

    Park, Changhan; Han, Jungsoo; Bae, Kyung-Hoon


    In this paper, we propose suppression of fixed pattern noise (FPN) and compensation of soft defect for improvement of object tracking in cooled staring infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. FPN appears an observable image which applies to non-uniformity compensation (NUC) by temperature. Soft defect appears glittering black and white point by characteristics of non-uniformity for IR detector by time. This problem is very important because it happen serious problem for object tracking as well as degradation for image quality. Signal processing architecture in cooled staring IRFPA imaging system consists of three tables: low, normal, high temperature for reference gain and offset values. Proposed method operates two offset tables for each table. This is method which operates six term of temperature on the whole. Proposed method of soft defect compensation consists of three stages: (1) separates sub-image for an image, (2) decides a motion distribution of object between each sub-image, (3) analyzes for statistical characteristic from each stationary fixed pixel. Based on experimental results, the proposed method shows an improved image which suppresses FPN by change of temperature distribution from an observational image in real-time.

  3. Generation of Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs for Spectroscopic Applications (United States)

    Maser, Daniel L.

    Mid-infrared laser sources prove to be a valuable tool in exploring a vast array of phenomena, finding their way into applications ranging from trace gas detection to X-ray generation and carbon dating. Mid-infrared frequency combs, in particular, are well-suited for many of these applications, owing to their inherent low-noise and broadband nature. Frequency comb technology is well-developed in the near-infrared as a result of immense technological development by the telecommunication industry in silica fiber and the existence of readily-available glass dopants such as ytterbium and erbium that enable oscillators at 1 and 1.5 ?m. However, options become substantially more limited at longer wavelengths, as silica is no longer transparent and the components required in a mid-infrared frequency comb system (oscillators, fibers, and both fiber and free-space components) are far less technologically mature. This thesis explores several different approaches to generating frequency comb sources in the mid-infrared region, and the development of sources used in the nonlinear processes implemented to reach these wavelengths. An optical parametric oscillator, two approaches to difference frequency generation, and nonlinear spectral broadening in chip-scale waveguides are developed, characterized, and spectroscopic potential for these techniques is demonstrated. The source used for these nonlinear processes, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier, is also studied and discussed throughout the design and optimization process. The nonlinear optical processes critical to this work are numerically modeled and used to confirm and predict experimental behavior.

  4. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis (United States)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  5. A new strategy for synthesizing AgInS2 quantum dots emitting brightly in near-infrared window for in vivo imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Lianjiang; Liu, Shuiping; Li, Xiaoqiang


    A new strategy for fabricating water-dispersible AgInS2 quantum dots (QDs) with bright near-infrared (NIR) emission is demonstrated. A type of multidentate polymer (MDP) was synthesized and utilized as a compact capping ligand for the AgInS2 QDs. Using silver nitrate, indium acetate and sulfur-hy...... cytotoxicity. Nude mice photoluminescence imaging shows that the MDP-capping AgInS2 QDs can be well applied to in vivo imaging. These readily prepared NIR fluorescent nanocrystals have huge potential for biomedical applications....

  6. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China (United States)

    Lei, Shuyu


    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Kryger; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard


    We investigate methods for improving the visual quality of in vivo images of blood vessels in the human forearm. Using a near-infrared light source and a dual CCD chip camera system capable of capturing images at visual and nearinfrared spectra, we evaluate three fusion methods in terms...... of their capability of enhancing the blood vessels while preserving the spectral signature of the original color image. Furthermore, we investigate a possibility of removing hair in the images using a fusion rule based on the "a trous" stationary wavelet decomposition. The method with the best overall performance...... with both speed and quality in mind is the Intensity Injection method. Using the developed system and the methods presented in this article, it is possible to create images of high visual quality with highly emphasized blood vessels....

  8. The application of infrared chemical imaging to the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints: method optimization and further findings. (United States)

    Tahtouh, Mark; Despland, Pauline; Shimmon, Ronald; Kalman, John R; Reedy, Brian J


    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging allows the collection of fingerprint images from backgrounds that have traditionally posed problems for conventional fingerprint detection methods. In this work, the suitability of this technique for the imaging of fingerprints on a wider range of difficult surfaces (including polymer banknotes, various types of paper, and aluminum drink cans) has been tested. For each new surface, a systematic methodology was employed to optimize settings such as spectral resolution, number of scans, and pixel aggregation in order to reduce collection time and file-size without compromising spatial resolution and the quality of the final fingerprint image. The imaging of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on polymer banknotes has been improved, with shorter collection times for larger image areas. One-month-old fingerprints on polymer banknotes have been successfully fumed and imaged. It was also found that FTIR chemical imaging gives high quality images of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on aluminum drink cans, regardless of the printed background. Although visible and UV light sources do not yield fingerprint images of the same quality on difficult, nonporous backgrounds, in many cases they can be used to locate a fingerprint prior to higher quality imaging by the FTIR technique. Attempts to acquire FTIR images of fingerprints on paper-based porous surfaces that had been treated with established reagents such as ninhydrin were all unsuccessful due to the swamping effect of the cellulose constituents of the paper.

  9. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging. (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V


    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  10. Evaluation of extractable polyphenols released to wine from cooperage byproduct by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. (United States)

    Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José


    Extractable total phenolic content of American non-toasted oak (Quercus alba L.) shavings has been determined using near infrared hyperspectral imaging. A like-wine model solution was used for the simulated maceration procedure. Calibrations were performed by partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments. The coefficient of determination of wood for extractable total phenolic content was 0.89, and the standard error of prediction was 6.3 mg g -1 . Thus, near infrared hyperspectral imaging arises as an attractive strategy for predicting extractable total phenolic content in the range of 0-65 mg g -1 , of great relevance from the point of view of quality assurance regarding wood used in the wine sector. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging arises as an attractive strategy for the feasibility of enhancing the value of cooperage byproduct through the fast determination of extractable bioactive molecules, such as polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral imaging applications: Remote sensing, environmental monitoring, medicine, military operations, factory automation and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Toomarian, N. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)


    This paper reviews the activities at OKSI related to imaging spectroscopy presenting current and future applications of the technology. The authors discuss the development of several systems including hardware, signal processing, data classification algorithms and benchmarking techniques to determine algorithm performance. Signal processing for each application is tailored by incorporating the phenomenology appropriate to the process, into the algorithms. Pixel signatures are classified using techniques such as principal component analyses, generalized eigenvalue analysis and novel very fast neural network methods. The major hyperspectral imaging systems developed at OKSI include the Intelligent Missile Seeker (IMS) demonstration project for real-time target/decoy discrimination, and the Thermal InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (TIRIS) for detection and tracking of toxic plumes and gases. In addition, systems for applications in medical photodiagnosis, manufacturing technology, and for crop monitoring are also under development.

  12. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus (United States)

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.


    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  13. Camac interface for digitally recording infrared camera images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, G.R.


    An instrument has been built to store the digital signals from a modified imaging infrared scanner directly in a digital memory. This procedure avoids the signal-to-noise degradation and dynamic range limitations associated with successive analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions and the analog recording method normally used to store data from the scanner. This technique also allows digital data processing methods to be applied directly to recorded data and permits processing and image reconstruction to be done using either a mainframe or a microcomputer. If a suitable computer and CAMAC-based data collection system are already available, digital storage of up to 12 scanner images can be implemented for less than $1750 in materials cost. Each image is stored as a frame of 60 x 80 eight-bit pixels, with an acquisition rate of one frame every 16.7 ms. The number of frames stored is limited only by the available memory. Initially, data processing for this equipment was done on a VAX 11-780, but images may also be displayed on the screen of a microcomputer. Software for setting the displayed gray scale, generating contour plots and false-color displays, and subtracting one image from another (e.g., background suppression) has been developed for IBM-compatible personal computers

  14. Results from the Two-Year Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at ARM's NSA Observatory in Barrow, Alaska (United States)

    Shaw, J. A.; Nugent, P. W.


    Ground-based longwave-infrared (LWIR) cloud imaging can provide continuous cloud measurements in the Arctic. This is of particular importance during the Arctic winter when visible wavelength cloud imaging systems cannot operate. This method uses a thermal infrared camera to observe clouds and produce measurements of cloud amount and cloud optical depth. The Montana State University Optical Remote Sensor Laboratory deployed an infrared cloud imager (ICI) at the Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring North Slope of Alaska site at Barrow, AK from July 2012 through July 2014. This study was used to both understand the long-term operation of an ICI in the Arctic and to study the consistency of the ICI data products in relation to co-located active and passive sensors. The ICI was found to have a high correlation (> 0.92) with collocated cloud instruments and to produce an unbiased data product. However, the ICI also detects thin clouds that are not detected by most operational cloud sensors. Comparisons with high-sensitivity actively sensed cloud products confirm the existence of these thin clouds. Infrared cloud imaging systems can serve a critical role in developing our understanding of cloud cover in the Arctic by provided a continuous annual measurement of clouds at sites of interest.

  15. Application of Infrared Thermal Imaging in a Violinist with Temporomandibular Disorder. (United States)

    Clemente, M; Coimbra, D; Silva, A; Aguiar Branco, C; Pinho, J C


    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) consist of a group of pathologies that affect the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ), and/or related structures. String instrumentalists, like many orchestra musicians, can spend hours with head postures that may influence the biomechanical behavior of the TMJ and the muscles of the craniocervicomandibular complex (CCMC). The adoption of abnormal postures acquired during performance by musicians can lead to muscular hyperactivity of the head and cervical muscles, with the possible appearance of TMD. Medical infrared thermography is a non-invasive procedure that can monitor the changes in the superficial tissue related to blood circulation and may serve as a complement to the clinical examination. The objective of this study was to use infrared thermography to evaluate, in one subject, the cutaneous thermal changes adjacent to the CCMC that occur before, during, and after playing a string instrument.

  16. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey


    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  17. Applications of infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy for wood samples (United States)

    Mon-Lin Kuo; John F. McClelland; Siquan Luo; Po-Liang Chien; R.D. Walker; Chung-Yun Hse


    Various infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of wood samples are briefly discussed. Theories and instrumentation of the newly developed photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) technique for measuring absorbance spectra of solids are presented. Some important applications of the PAS technique in wood science research are discussed. The application of the...

  18. pH-stimuli-responsive near-infrared optical imaging nanoprobe based on poly(γ-glutamic acid)/poly(β-amino ester) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Mi Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Lim, Yong Taik; Sung, Moon Hee; Poo, Haryoung; Hong, Kwan Soo


    pH-stimuli-responsive near-infrared optical imaging nanoprobes are designed and synthesized in this study in a facile one-step synthesis process based on the use of the biocompatible and biodegradable polymer poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA)/poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE). PBAE has good transfection efficiency and promotes degradation properties under acidic conditions. This pH-responsive degradability can be used for the effective release of encapsulating materials after cellular uptake. As an optical imaging probe, indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved near-infrared fluorescent dye with a quenching property at a high concentration. In this regard, we focus here on the rapid degradation of PBAE in an acidic environment, in which the nanoparticles are disassembled. This allows the ICG dyes to show enhanced fluorescence signals after being releasing from the particles. We demonstrated this principle in cellular uptake experiments. We expect that the developed pH-stimuli-responsive smart nanoprobes can be applied in intracellular delivery signaling applications.

  19. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector (United States)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  20. Noninvasive near-infrared live imaging of human adult mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossolasco P


    site for up to 14 days after intrastriatal transplantation. Conversely, following intranasal delivery, a strong near-infrared signal was immediately visible, but rapidly faded and was completely lost within 1 hour. After sacrifice, imaging data were confirmed by presence/absence of the Hoechst signal ex vivo in coronal brain sections. Semiquantitative analysis and precise localization of transplanted hMSCs were further performed ex vivo using near-infrared imaging.Conclusion: Near-infrared technology allowed longitudinal detection of fluorescent-tagged cells in living animals giving immediate information on how different delivery routes affect cell distribution in the brain. Near-infrared imaging represents a valuable tool to evaluate multiple outcomes of transplanted cells, including their survival, localization, and migration over time within the host brain. This procedure considerably reduces the number of animal experiments needed, as well as interindividual variability, and may favor the development of efficient therapeutic strategies promptly applicable to patients.Keywords: 6-hydroxydopamine, intranasal, intrastriatal, neurodegeneration, cell tracking

  1. Novel mid-infrared imaging system based on single-mode quantum cascade laser illumination and upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomko, Jan; Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Compared to the visible or near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions, there is a lack of very high sensitivity detectors in the mid-infrared (MIR) that operate near room temperature. Upconversion of the MIR light to NIR light that is imaged using affordable, fast, and sensitive NIR detectors or camera...

  2. Dilute bismides for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Ye, Hong


    Dilute bismides are a group of emerging materials with unique properties. Incorporation of a small amount of Bi in common III–V host materials results in large band-gap reduction and strong spin-orbit splitting, leading to potential applications in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR......) optoelectronics. Recent progresses on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of novel III-Sb-Bi, i.e. GaSbBi and InSbBi thin films from our group are summarised in this paper. Quantum well structures based on GaSbBi and InGaAsBi aiming for the optical communication window were grown and characterized....

  3. A hybrid peptide PTS that facilitates transmembrane delivery and its application for the rapid in vivo imaging via near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao eYan


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Intravital imaging provides invaluable readouts for clinical diagnoses and therapies and shows great potential in the design of individualized drug dosage regimes. Ts is a mammalian free cell membrane-penetrating peptide. This study aimed to introduce a novel approach to the design of a cancer-selective peptide on the basis of a membrane-penetrating peptide and to explore its potential as a carrier of medical substances. Experimental approach: Ts was linked with a αvβ3-binding peptide P1c to create a hybrid referred to as PTS. The hybrid was labeled with an FITC or Cy5.5 as an imaging indicator to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Key results: Hemolysis tests proved that in comparison with Ts, PTS caused similar or even less leakage of human erythrocytes at concentrations of up to 1 mmol/L. Flow cytometry assay and confocal microscopy demonstrated the following. 1 P1c alone could target and mostly halt at the cancer cell membrane. 2 Ts alone could not bind to the membrane sufficiently. 3 P1c greatly enhanced the binding affinity of PTS with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that upregulated αvβ3. 4 Ts conferred PTS with the ability to traverse a cell membrane and thus facilitate the transmembrane delivery of imaging probes. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging demonstrated that the imaging probes were rapidly concentrated in a MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue within 1 h after intravenous injection. Conclusions and implications: PTS exhibited the capability of targeting specific tumors and greatly facilitating the transmembrane delivery of imaging probes.

  4. Near-infrared (NIR) emitting conjugated polymers for biomedical applications (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Repenko, Tatjana; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.


    Fluorescent biomedical markers of today such as dye-infiltrated colloids, microgels and quantum dots suffer from fast bleaching, lack surface functionality (for targets or pharmaceutical agents) and potentially leach heavy metals in case of quantum dots (e.g. Cd). By contrast, conjugated polymer particles are non-cytotoxic, exhibit reduced bleaching, as the entire particle consists of fluorophore, they are hydrophobic and show high quantum yields. Consequently, conjugated polymer particles represent ideal materials for biological applications and imaging. However currently, conjugated polymer particles for biomedical imaging usually lack near-infrared (NIR) emission and are polydisperse. Fluorescent agents with emission in the NIR spectrum are interesting for biomedical applications due to their low photo-damage towards biological species and the ability of NIR radiation to penetrate deep into biological tissue.. I will present the development and synthesis of new conjugated polymers particles with fluorescence in the NIR spectral region for bio-imaging and clinical diagnosis. The particle synthesis proceeds in a one-step Pd or Ni-catalyzed dispersion polymerization of functional NIR emitters. The resulting monodisperse conjugated polymer particles are obtained as a dispersion in a non-hazardous solvent. Different sizes in the sub-micrometer range with a narrow size distribution can be produced. Furthermore biological recognition motifs can be easily attached to the conjugated polymers via thiol-yne click-chemistry providing specific tumor targeting without quenching of the fluorescence. References [1] Kuehne AJC, Gather MC, Sprakel J., Nature Commun. 2012, 3, 1088. [2] Repenko T, Fokong S, De Laporte L, Go D, Kiessling F, Lammers T, Kuehne AJC.,Chem Commun 2015, accepted.

  5. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging (United States)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  6. Detection of leaks in buried rural water pipelines using thermal infrared images (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.


    Leakage is a major problem in many pipelines. Minor leaks called 'seeper leaks', which generally range from 2 to 10 m3 per day, are common and are difficult to detect using conventional ground surveys. The objective of this research was to determine whether airborne thermal-infrared remote sensing could be used in detecting leaks and monitoring rural water pipelines. This study indicates that such leaks can be detected using low-altitude 8.7- to 11.5. micrometer wavelength, thermal infrared images collected under proper conditions.

  7. Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Based on Different Constraints in the Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform Domain (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Bi, Duyan; Wu, Dongpeng


    There are many artificial parameters when fuse infrared and visible images, to overcome the lack of detail in the fusion image because of the artifacts, a novel fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images that is based on different constraints in non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) domain is proposed. There are high bands and low bands of images that are decomposed by the NSST. After analyzing the characters of the bands, fusing the high level bands by the gradient constraint, the fused image can obtain more details; fusing the low bands by the constraint of saliency in the images, the targets are more salient. Before the inverse NSST, the Nash equilibrium is used to update the coefficient. The fused images and the quantitative results demonstrate that our method is more effective in reserving details and highlighting the targets when compared with other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:29641505

  8. Exogenous near-infrared fluorophores and their applications in cancer diagnosis: biological and clinical perspectives. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Uselman, Ryan R; Yee, Douglas


    Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging is a rapidly growing research field which has the potential to be an important imaging modality in cancer diagnosis. Various exogenous NIR fluorophores have been developed for the technique, including small molecule fluorophores and nanoparticles. NIRF imaging has been used in animal models for the detection of cancer overthe last twenty years and has in recent years been used in human clinical trials. This article describes the types and characteristics of exogenous fluorophores available for in vivo fluorescent cancer imaging. The article also discusses the progression of NIRF cancer imaging over recent years and its future challenges, from both a biological and clinical perspective. in The review also looks at its application for lymph node mapping, tumor targeting and characterization, and tumor margin definition for surgical guidance. NIRF imaging is not in routine clinical cancer practice; yet, the authors predict that techniques using NIR fluorophores for tumor margin definition and lymph node mapping will enter clinical practice in the near future. The authors also anticipate that NIRF imaging research will lead to the development of flurophores with 'high brightness' that will overcome the limited penetration of this modality and be better suited for non invasive tumor targeting.

  9. Pedestrian detection in infrared image using HOG and Autoencoder (United States)

    Chen, Tianbiao; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Wenjie; Zhang, Yu


    In order to guarantee the safety of driving at night, vehicle-mounted night vision system was used to detect pedestrian in front of cars and send alarm to prevent the potential dangerous. To decrease the false positive rate (FPR) and increase the true positive rate (TPR), a pedestrian detection method based on HOG and Autoencoder (HOG+Autoencoder) was presented. Firstly, the HOG features of input images were computed and encoded by Autoencoder. Then the encoded features were classified by Softmax. In the process of training, Autoencoder was trained unsupervised. Softmax was trained with supervision. Autoencoder and Softmax were stacked into a model and fine-tuned by labeled images. Experiment was conducted to compare the detection performance between HOG and HOG+Autoencoder, using images collected by vehicle-mounted infrared camera. There were 80000 images for training set and 20000 for the testing set, with a rate of 1:3 between positive and negative images. The result shows that when TPR is 95%, FPR of HOG+Autoencoder is 0.4%, while the FPR of HOG is 5% with the same TPR.

  10. A Tentative Application Of Morphological Filters To Time-Varying Images (United States)

    Billard, D.; Poquillon, B.


    In this paper, morphological filters, which are commonly used to process either 2D or multidimensional static images, are generalized to the analysis of time-varying image sequence. The introduction of the time dimension induces then interesting prop-erties when designing such spatio-temporal morphological filters. In particular, the specification of spatio-temporal structuring ele-ments (equivalent to time-varying spatial structuring elements) can be adjusted according to the temporal variations of the image sequences to be processed : this allows to derive specific morphological transforms to perform noise filtering or moving objects discrimination on dynamic images viewed by a non-stationary sensor. First, a brief introduction to the basic principles underlying morphological filters will be given. Then, a straightforward gener-alization of these principles to time-varying images will be pro-posed. This will lead us to define spatio-temporal opening and closing and to introduce some of their possible applications to process dynamic images. At last, preliminary results obtained us-ing a natural forward looking infrared (FUR) image sequence are presented.

  11. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.


    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  12. Application of infrared thermography in sports science

    CERN Document Server


    This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .

  13. Near-Infrared Imaging for Spatial Mapping of Organic Content in Petroleum Source Rocks (United States)

    Mehmani, Y.; Burnham, A. K.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Tchelepi, H.


    Natural gas from unconventional petroleum source rocks (shales) plays a key role in our transition towards sustainable low-carbon energy production. The potential for carbon storage (in adsorbed state) in these formations further aligns with efforts to mitigate climate change. Optimizing production and development from these resources requires knowledge of the hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of the rock, which are often strong functions of organic content. This work demonstrates the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectral imaging in mapping the spatial distribution of organic content with O(100µm) resolution on cores that can span several hundred feet in depth (Mehmani et al., 2017). We validate our approach for the immature oil shale of the Green River Formation (GRF), USA, and show its applicability potential in other formations. The method is a generalization of a previously developed optical approach specialized to the GRF (Mehmani et al., 2016a). The implications of this work for spatial mapping of hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of excavated cores, in particular thermal conductivity, are discussed (Mehmani et al., 2016b). References:Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, H. Tchelepi, "Quantification of organic content in shales via near-infrared imaging: Green River Formation." Fuel, (2017). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, F. Gelin, and H. Tchelepi. "Quantification of kerogen content in organic-rich shales from optical photographs." Fuel, (2016a). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, H. Tchelepi, "From optics to upscaled thermal conductivity: Green River oil shale." Fuel, (2016b).

  14. High-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, and infrared reflectance imaging in Sjögren reticular dystrophy. (United States)

    Schauwvlieghe, Pieter-Paul; Torre, Kara Della; Coppieters, Frauke; Van Hoey, Anneleen; De Baere, Elfride; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Leroy, Bart P; Brodie, Scott E


    To describe the phenotype of three cases of Sjögren reticular dystrophy in detail, including high-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Two unrelated teenagers were independently referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Both underwent a full ophthalmologic workup, including electrophysiologic and extensive imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. In addition, mutation screening of ABCA4, PRPH2, and the mitochondrial tRNA gene was performed in Patient 1. Subsequently, the teenage sister of Patient 2 was examined. Strikingly similar phenotypes were present in these three patients. Fundoscopy showed bilateral foveal pigment alterations, and a lobular network of deep retinal, pigmented deposits throughout the posterior pole, tapering toward the midperiphery, with relative sparing of the immediate perifoveal macula and peripapillary area. This network is mildly to moderately hyperautofluorescent on autofluorescence and bright on near-infrared reflectance imaging. Optical coherence tomography showed abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex, photoreceptor outer segments, and photoreceptor inner/outer segment interface. The results of retinal function test were entirely normal. No molecular cause was detected in Patient 1. Imaging suggested that the lobular network of deep retinal deposits in Sjögren reticular dystrophy is the result of accumulation of both pigment and lipofuscin between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  15. Visualization of Anatomical Information in Near-Infrared Imaging for Robotic Urological Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Minnillo, Brian; Taylor, Russels


    investigation of nerves, blood vessels, and tumors has received prior attention, we present a new prototype system for real-time multimodal image registration that focuses on the visualization of the urinary tract. By providing an accurate registration between stereo video images and a near infrared imager, we......Commercial telerobotic surgery systems for soft tissue surgery are generally limited to visual imaging, though it is possible to simultaneously view picture-in-picture visualization of another workstation. However, it is not easy to correlate such information with the primary endoscopic view since...

  16. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations (United States)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Walth, Gregory; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M.; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S.; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R.; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L.; Wincentsen, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai


    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefly discuss the necessity of an advanced data management system and data reduction pipeline.

  17. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.


    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  18. Mid-wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging of Kilauea's Active Halema'uma'u Pit Crater (United States)

    Honniball, C. I.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.


    The Mid-Wave InfraRed (MWIR) from 3 to 5 microns carries a wealth of information for both earth and planetary science applications. Molecules like methane and carbon dioxide exhibit prominent spectral features in the MWIR allowing us to detect their presences in the atmosphere after being released from volcanic vents, industrial gas leaks or biomass burning events. Energy released by wildfires at 4 μm is an important measurement for quantifying fire radiative power (FRP); an important climate variable that allows estimates of the amount of carbon liberated into the Earth's atmosphere during a burning event. FRP can also be used to estimate lava flow cooling rates and forecasting lava flow hazards. This spectral region also allows the derivation of temperatures from hot spots like the ones on Jupiter's moon Io, which provide important insights into the formation and evolution of Io. In the MWIR region there is limited signal available to measure for low temperature targets. This presents technical challenges on achieving high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR); therefore, acquiring adequate data in the MWIR is difficult without cryogenically cooling the instrument. Recent improvements to microbolometer technology and emerging interferometric techniques have allowed us to acquire good thermal infrared (TIR) data without the need for cooling. By coupling an uncooled microbolometer with a Sagnac interferometer we have demonstrated in the TIR that high SNR's can be obtained for hyperspectral imaging. To explore if this imaging technique holds in the MWIR, with funding from NASA, we have built, tested and compared two MWIR hyperspectral instruments, an uncooled microbolometer version and a liquid nitrogen cooled photon detector version with the same optical design. We demonstrate that using the aforementioned imaging technique we can achieve good SNR's for hyperspectral MWIR imaging using an uncooled instrument for targets 20°C above ambient. In late July 2017, we field

  19. The use of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgical procedures. (United States)

    Kahramangil, Bora; Berber, Eren


    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgery is a new, yet highly investigated area. It involves indocyanine green use as well as parathyroid autofluorescence. Several groups have described their technique and reported on the observed utility. However, there is no consensus on technical details. Furthermore, the correlation between intraoperative findings and postoperative outcomes is unclear. With this study, we aim to review the current literature on fluorescence imaging and share our insights on technical details. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exploring the use of thermal infrared imaging in human stress research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Engert

    Full Text Available High resolution thermal infrared imaging is a pioneering method giving indices of sympathetic activity via the contact-free recording of facial tissues (thermal imprints. Compared to established stress markers, the great advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness. The goal of our study was to pilot the use of thermal infrared imaging in the classical setting of human stress research. Thermal imprints were compared to established stress markers (heart rate, heart rate variability, finger temperature, alpha-amylase and cortisol in 15 participants undergoing anticipation, stress and recovery phases of two laboratory stress tests, the Cold Pressor Test and the Trier Social Stress Test. The majority of the thermal imprints proved to be change-sensitive in both tests. While correlations between the thermal imprints and established stress markers were mostly non-significant, the thermal imprints (but not the established stress makers did correlate with stress-induced mood changes. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that in contrast to the established stress markers the thermal imprints could not disambiguate anticipation, stress and recovery phases of both tests. Overall, these results suggest that thermal infrared imaging is a valuable method for the estimation of sympathetic activity in the stress laboratory setting. The use of this non-invasive method may be particularly beneficial for covert recordings, in the study of special populations showing difficulties in complying with the standard instruments of data collection and in the domain of psychophysiological covariance research. Meanwhile, the established stress markers seem to be superior when it comes to the characterization of complex physiological states during the different phases of the stress cycle.

  1. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors


    Tan Chee Leong; Mohseni Hooman


    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as...

  2. Infrared and visible images registration with adaptable local-global feature integration for rail inspection (United States)

    Tang, Chaoqing; Tian, Gui Yun; Chen, Xiaotian; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Kongjing; Meng, Hongying


    Active thermography provides infrared images that contain sub-surface defect information, while visible images only reveal surface information. Mapping infrared information to visible images offers more comprehensive visualization for decision-making in rail inspection. However, the common information for registration is limited due to different modalities in both local and global level. For example, rail track which has low temperature contrast reveals rich details in visible images, but turns blurry in the infrared counterparts. This paper proposes a registration algorithm called Edge-Guided Speeded-Up-Robust-Features (EG-SURF) to address this issue. Rather than sequentially integrating local and global information in matching stage which suffered from buckets effect, this algorithm adaptively integrates local and global information into a descriptor to gather more common information before matching. This adaptability consists of two facets, an adaptable weighting factor between local and global information, and an adaptable main direction accuracy. The local information is extracted using SURF while the global information is represented by shape context from edges. Meanwhile, in shape context generation process, edges are weighted according to local scale and decomposed into bins using a vector decomposition manner to provide more accurate descriptor. The proposed algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively validated using eddy current pulsed thermography scene in the experiments. In comparison with other algorithms, better performance has been achieved.

  3. Imaging breast adipose and fibroglandular tissue molecular signatures by using hybrid MRI-guided near-infrared spectral tomography (United States)

    Brooksby, Ben; Pogue, Brian W.; Jiang, Shudong; Dehghani, Hamid; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Kogel, Christine; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weaver, John; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared spectral tomography was developed and used to image adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue of 11 normal female subjects, recruited under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Images of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water fraction, and subcellular scattering were reconstructed and show that fibroglandular fractions of both blood and water are higher than in adipose tissue. Variation in adipose and fibroglandular tissue composition between individuals was not significantly different across the scattered and dense breast categories. Combined MR and near-infrared tomography provides fundamental molecular information about these tissue types with resolution governed by MR T1 images. hemoglobin | magnetic resonance imaging | water | fat | oxygen saturation


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Daehyeon; Yang, Yi [Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [Astrobiology Center of NINS 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Janson, Markus [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Uyama, Taichi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Currie, Thayne [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Coted’azur 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Köonigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D.; Feldt, Markus [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, NJ (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitats-Sternwarte Munchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munchen (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others


    We present high-contrast H -band polarized intensity (PI) images of the transitional disk around the young solar-like star GM Aur. The near-infrared direct imaging of the disk was derived by polarimetric differential imaging using the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope and HiCIAO. An angular resolution and an inner working angle of 0.″07 and r ∼ 0.″05, respectively, were obtained. We clearly resolved a large inner cavity, with a measured radius of 18 ± 2 au, which is smaller than that of a submillimeter interferometric image (28 au). This discrepancy in the cavity radii at near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths may be caused by a 3–4 M {sub Jup} planet about 20 au away from the star, near the edge of the cavity. The presence of a near-infrared inner cavity is a strong constraint on hypotheses for inner cavity formation in a transitional disk. A dust filtration mechanism has been proposed to explain the large cavity in the submillimeter image, but our results suggest that this mechanism must be combined with an additional process. We found that the PI slope of the outer disk is significantly different from the intensity slope obtained from HST /NICMOS, and this difference may indicate the grain growth process in the disk.

  5. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter. (United States)

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto


    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.

  6. The application of infrared thermometric technology in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjin


    In the process of bituminization of low level waste liquid, to measure the surface temperature of a moving barrel filled with waste liquid and bitumen is essential. Thus, a special infrared thermometer is developed. The property of radiation resistance for the lithium tantalate prober which is a main part of the thermometer was carefully tested. The test results show that in the nuclear industry the infrared thermometric technology is applicable

  7. Near-infrared optical imaging of nucleic acid nanocarriers in vivo. (United States)

    Rome, Claire; Gravier, Julien; Morille, Marie; Divita, Gilles; Bolcato-Bellemin, Anne-Laure; Josserand, Véronique; Coll, Jean-Luc


    Noninvasive, real-time optical imaging methods are well suited to follow the in vivo distribution of nucleic acid nanocarriers, their dissociation, and the resulting gene expression or inhibition. Indeed, most small animal imaging devices perform bioluminescence and fluorescence measurements without moving the animal, allowing a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method of investigation of several parameters at a time, in longitudinal experiments that can last for days or weeks.Here we help the reader in choosing adapted near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores or pairs of fluorophores for Förster resonance energy transfer assays, imaging of reporter genes, as well as nanocarriers for in vivo gene and siRNA delivery. In addition, we present the labeling methods of these macromolecules and of their payload and the protocols to detect them using bioluminescence and NIR fluorescence imaging in mice.

  8. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared imaging of large areas using inverted prism crystals and combining imaging and mapping. (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G


    Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) imaging is a very useful tool for capturing chemical images of various materials due to the simple sample preparation and the ability to measure wet samples or samples in an aqueous environment. However, the size of the array detector used for image acquisition is often limited and there is usually a trade off between spatial resolution and the field of view (FOV). The combination of mapping and imaging can be used to acquire images with a larger FOV without sacrificing spatial resolution. Previous attempts have demonstrated this using an infrared microscope and a Germanium hemispherical ATR crystal to achieve images of up to 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm but with varying spatial resolution and depth of penetration across the imaged area. In this paper, we demonstrate a combination of mapping and imaging with a different approach using an external optics housing for large ATR accessories and inverted ATR prisms to achieve ATR-FT-IR images with a large FOV and reasonable spatial resolution. The results have shown that a FOV of 10 mm x 14 mm can be obtained with a spatial resolution of approximately 40-60 microm when using an accessory that gives no magnification. A FOV of 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm can be obtained with spatial resolution of approximately 15-20 microm when using a diamond ATR imaging accessory with 4x magnification. No significant change in image quality such as spatial resolution or depth of penetration has been observed across the whole FOV with this method and the measurement time was approximately 15 minutes for an image consisting of 16 image tiles.

  9. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    .264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  10. Optical and near-infrared imaging of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; de Bruyn, AG; Miley, GK; Rottgering, HJA; McMahon, RG; Fournon, IP


    A sample of 47 faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources selected from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been imaged in the optical and near-infrared, resulting in an identification fraction of 87 per cent. The R - I and R - K colours of the faint optical counterparts are as

  11. Near-infrared luminescent cubic silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo biomarker applications: an ab initio Study (United States)

    Gali, Adam; Zólyomi, Viktor; Somogyi, Bálint


    Small molecule-sized fluorescent emitters are needed as probes to image and track the locations of targeted nano-sized objects with minimal perturbation, and are much sought-after to probe biomolecules in living cells. For in vivo biological imaging, fluorescent biomarkers have to meet the following stringent requirements: (i) they should be non-toxic and bioinert, (ii) their hydrodynamical size should be sufficiently small for clearance, (iii) they should be photo-stable. Furthermore, it is highly desirable that (iv) they have intense, stable emission in the near-infrared range, and (v) they can be produced in relatively large amount for biological studies. Here we report time-density functional calculations on SiC-based QDs in the aspect of in vivo biological imaging applications. We find that Si-vacancy, divacancy, as well as single metal dopants such as Vanadium (V), Molybdenum (Mo) and Tungsten (W) in molecule-sized (1-2 nm) SiC QDs emit light efficiently in the near-infrared range. Furthermore, their emission wavelength varies on the size of host SiC QDs at less extent than that of pristine SiC QDs, thus sharper emission spectrum is expected even in a disperse size distribution of these QDs. These fluorescent SiC QDs are paramagnetic in the ground state. EU FP7 DIAMANT (Grant No. 270197)

  12. Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Hielscher


    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT is emerging as a viable new biomedical imaging modality. Using near-infrared (NIR light, this technique probes absorption as well as scattering properties of biological tissues. First commercial instruments are now available that allow users to obtain cross-sectional and volumetric views of various body parts. Currently, the main applications are brain, breast, limb, joint, and fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging. Although the spatial resolution is limited when compared with other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or X-ray computerized tomography (CT, DOT provides access to a variety of physiological parameters that otherwise are not accessible, including sub-second imaging of hemodynamics and other fast-changing processes. Furthermore, DOT can be realized in compact, portable instrumentation that allows for bedside monitoring at relatively low cost. In this paper, we present an overview of current state-of-the -art technology, including hardware and image-reconstruction algorithms, and focus on applications in brain and joint imaging. In addition, we present recent results of work on optical tomographic imaging in small animals.

  13. The first VLBI image of an infrared-faint radio source (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Tingay, S.; Mao, M. Y.; Phillips, C. J.; Hotan, A. W.


    Context: We investigate the joint evolution of active galactic nuclei and star formation in the Universe. Aims: In the 1.4 GHz survey with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the Chandra Deep Field South and the European Large Area ISO Survey - S1 we have identified a class of objects which are strong in the radio but have no detectable infrared and optical counterparts. This class has been called Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS. 53 sources out of 2002 have been classified as IFRS. It is not known what these objects are. Methods: To address the many possible explanations as to what the nature of these objects is we have observed four sources with the Australian Long Baseline Array. Results: We have detected and imaged one of the four sources observed. Assuming that the source is at a high redshift, we find its properties in agreement with properties of Compact Steep Spectrum sources. However, due to the lack of optical and infrared data the constraints are not particularly strong.

  14. Exploration of the Infrared Sensitivity for a ZnSe Electrode of an IR Image Converter (United States)

    Kurt, H. Hilal


    Significant improvement has been carried out in the field of the II-VI group semiconductor device technology. Semiconductors based on the II-VI group are attractive due to their alternative uses for thermal imaging systems and photonic applications. This study focuses on experimental work on the optical, electrical and structural characterization of an infrared (IR) photodetector zinc selenide (ZnSe). In addition, the IR sensitivity of the ZnSe has primarily been investigated by exploiting the IR responses of the material for various gas pressures, p, and interelectrode distances, d, in the IR converter. The experimental findings include the results of plasma current and plasma discharge emission under various illumination conditions in the IR region. The electron density distributions inside the gas discharge gap have also been simulated in two-dimensional media. Experimentally, the current-voltage, current-time, and discharge light emission plots are produced for a wide experimental parameter range. Consequently, the structural and optical properties have been studied through atomic force microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the material.

  15. SPECT Perfusion Imaging Demonstrates Improvement of Traumatic Brain Injury With Transcranial Near-infrared Laser Phototherapy. (United States)

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern affecting civilians and military personnel. Near-infrared (NIR) light has shown benefits in animal models and human trials for stroke and in animal models for TBI. Diodes emitting low-level NIR often have lacked therapeutic efficacy, perhaps failing to deliver sufficient radiant energy to the necessary depth. In this case report, a patient with moderate TBI documented in anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) received 20 NIR treatments in the course of 2 mo using a high-power NIR laser. Symptoms were monitored by clinical examination and a novel patient diary system specifically designed for this patient population. Clinical application of these levels of infrared energy for this patient with TBI yielded highly favorable outcomes with decreased depression, anxiety, headache, and insomnia, whereas cognition and quality of life improved. Neurological function appeared to improve based on changes in the SPECT by quantitative analysis. NIR in the power range of 10-15 W at 810 and 980 nm can safely and effectively treat chronic symptoms of TBI.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artigau, Etienne; Martin, John C.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Chesneau, Olivier; Smith, Nathan


    Near-infrared adaptive optics imaging with the Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) and NaCO reveal what appears to be a three-winged or lobed pattern, the 'butterfly nebula', outlined by bright Brγ and H 2 emission and light scattered by dust. In contrast, the [Fe II] emission does not follow the outline of the wings, but shows an extended bipolar distribution which is tracing the Little Homunculus ejected in η Car's second or lesser eruption in the 1890s. Proper motions measured from the combined NICI and NaCO images together with radial velocities show that the knots and filaments that define the bright rims of the butterfly were ejected at two different epochs corresponding approximately to the great eruption and the second eruption. Most of the material is spatially distributed 10 0 -20 0 above and below the equatorial plane apparently behind the Little Homunculus and the larger SE lobe. The equatorial debris either has a wide opening angle or the clumps were ejected at different latitudes relative to the plane. The butterfly is not a coherent physical structure or equatorial torus but spatially separate clumps and filaments ejected at different times, and now 2000-4000 AU from the star.

  17. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging (United States)

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.


    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  18. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Bremer, Christoph; Weissleder, Ralph


    A recent development in biomedical imaging is the non-invasive mapping of molecular events in intact tissues using fluorescence. Underpinning to this development is the discovery of bio-compatible, specific fluorescent probes and proteins and the development of highly sensitive imaging technologies for in vivo fluorescent detection. Of particular interest are fluorochromes that emit in the near infrared (NIR), a spectral window, whereas hemoglobin and water absorb minimally so as to allow photons to penetrate for several centimetres in tissue. In this review article we concentrate on optical imaging technologies used for non-invasive imaging of the distribution of such probes. We illuminate the advantages and limitations of simple photographic methods and turn our attention to fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography (FMT), a technique that can three-dimensionally image gene expression by resolving fluorescence activation in deep tissues. We describe theoretical specifics, and we provide insight into its in vivo capacity and the sensitivity achieved. Finally, we discuss its clinical feasibility. (orig.)

  19. Infrared Thermography Characterization of Defects in Seamless Pipes Using an Infrared Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Jae Jung; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Bo Young


    Infrared thermography uses infrared energy radiated from any objects above absolute zero temperature, and the range of its application has been constantly broadened. As one of the active test techniques detecting radiant energy generated when energy is applied to an object, ultrasound infrared thermography is a method of detecting defects through hot spots occurring at a defect area when 15-100 kHz of ultrasound is excited to an object. This technique is effective in detecting a wide range affected by ultrasound and vibration in real time. Especially, it is really effective when a defect area is minute. Therefore, this study conducted thermography through lock-in signal processing when an actual defect exists inside the austenite STS304 seamless pipe, which simulates thermal fatigue cracks in a nuclear power plant pipe. With ultrasound excited, this study could detect defects on the rear of a pipe by using an aluminium reflector. Besides, by regulating the angle of the aluminium reflector, this study could detect both front and rear defects as a single infrared thermography image.

  20. Research on simulated infrared image utility evaluation using deep representation (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiheng; Mu, Chengpo; Yang, Yu; Xu, Lixin


    Infrared (IR) image simulation is an important data source for various target recognition systems. However, whether simulated IR images could be used as training data for classifiers depends on the features of fidelity and authenticity of simulated IR images. For evaluation of IR image features, a deep-representation-based algorithm is proposed. Being different from conventional methods, which usually adopt a priori knowledge or manually designed feature, the proposed method can extract essential features and quantitatively evaluate the utility of simulated IR images. First, for data preparation, we employ our IR image simulation system to generate large amounts of IR images. Then, we present the evaluation model of simulated IR image, for which an end-to-end IR feature extraction and target detection model based on deep convolutional neural network is designed. At last, the experiments illustrate that our proposed method outperforms other verification algorithms in evaluating simulated IR images. Cross-validation, variable proportion mixed data validation, and simulation process contrast experiments are carried out to evaluate the utility and objectivity of the images generated by our simulation system. The optimum mixing ratio between simulated and real data is 0.2≤γ≤0.3, which is an effective data augmentation method for real IR images.

  1. Comparison of infrared and 3D digital image correlation techniques applied for mechanical testing of materials (United States)

    Krstulović-Opara, Lovre; Surjak, Martin; Vesenjak, Matej; Tonković, Zdenko; Kodvanj, Janoš; Domazet, Željko


    To investigate the applicability of infrared thermography as a tool for acquiring dynamic yielding in metals, a comparison of infrared thermography with three dimensional digital image correlation has been made. Dynamical tension tests and three point bending tests of aluminum alloys have been performed to evaluate results obtained by IR thermography in order to detect capabilities and limits for these two methods. Both approaches detect pastification zone migrations during the yielding process. The results of the tension test and three point bending test proved the validity of the IR approach as a method for evaluating the dynamic yielding process when used on complex structures such as cellular porous materials. The stability of the yielding process in the three point bending test, as contrary to the fluctuation of the plastification front in the tension test, is of great importance for the validation of numerical constitutive models. The research proved strong performance, robustness and reliability of the IR approach when used to evaluate yielding during dynamic loading processes, while the 3D DIC method proved to be superior in the low velocity loading regimes. This research based on two basic tests, proved the conclusions and suggestions presented in our previous research on porous materials where middle wave infrared thermography was applied.

  2. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Sano, Ryuichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Enokuchi, Akito; Takeyama, Norihide


    An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ 0 = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details

  3. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  4. Nighttime Environmental Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite: Science Rationale (United States)

    Roman, M. O.; Wang, Z.; Kalb, V.; Cole, T.; Oda, T.; Stokes, E.; Molthan, A.


    A new generation of satellite instruments, represented by the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), offer global measurements of nocturnal visible and near-infrared light suitable for urban science research. While many promising urban-focused applications have been developed using nighttime satellite imagery in the past 25 years, most studies to-date have been limited by the quality of the captured imagery and the retrieval methods used in heritage (DMSP/OLS) products. Instead, science-quality products that are temporally consistent, global in extent, and local in resolution were needed to monitor human settlements worldwide —particularly for studies within dense urban areas. Since the first-light images from the VIIRS were received in January 2012, the NASA Land Science Investigator-led Processing System (Land SIPS) team has worked on maximizing the capabilities of these low-light measurements to generate a wealth of new information useful for understanding urbanization processes, urban functions, and the vulnerability of urban areas to climate hazards. In a recent case study, our team demonstrated that tracking daily dynamic VIIRS nighttime measurements can provide valuable information about the character of the human activities and behaviors that shape energy consumption and vulnerability (Roman and Stokes, 2015). Moving beyond mapping the physical qualities of urban areas (e.g. land cover and impervious area), VIIRS measurements provide insight into the social, economic, and cultural activities that shape energy and infrastructure use. Furthermore, as this time series expands and is merged with other sources of optical remote sensing data (e.g., Landsat-8 and Sentinel 2), VIIRS has the potential to increase our understanding of changes in urban form, structure, and infrastructure—factors that may also influence urban resilience—and how the increasing frequency and severity of climate


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Cooray, A.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Smidt, J. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Lam, A. C.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, K. [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); and others


    We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies to a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.

  6. Computationally Efficient Automatic Coast Mode Target Tracking Based on Occlusion Awareness in Infrared Images. (United States)

    Kim, Sohyun; Jang, Gwang-Il; Kim, Sungho; Kim, Junmo


    This paper proposes the automatic coast mode tracking of centroid trackers for infrared images to overcome the target occlusion status. The centroid tracking method, using only the brightness information of an image, is still widely used in infrared imaging tracking systems because it is difficult to extract meaningful features from infrared images. However, centroid trackers are likely to lose the track because they are highly vulnerable to screened status by the clutter or background. Coast mode, one of the tracking modes, maintains the servo slew rate with the tracking rate right before the loss of track. The proposed automatic coast mode tracking method makes decisions regarding entering coast mode by the prediction of target occlusion and tries to re-lock the target and resume the tracking after blind time. This algorithm comprises three steps. The first step is the prediction process of the occlusion by checking both matters which have target-likelihood brightness and which may screen the target despite different brightness. The second step is the process making inertial tracking commands to the servo. The last step is the process of re-locking a target based on the target modeling of histogram ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is addressed by presenting experimental results based on computer simulation with various test imagery sequences compared to published tracking algorithms. The proposed algorithm is tested under a real environment with a naval electro-optical tracking system (EOTS) and airborne EO/IR system.

  7. Computationally Efficient Automatic Coast Mode Target Tracking Based on Occlusion Awareness in Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyun Kim


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic coast mode tracking of centroid trackers for infrared images to overcome the target occlusion status. The centroid tracking method, using only the brightness information of an image, is still widely used in infrared imaging tracking systems because it is difficult to extract meaningful features from infrared images. However, centroid trackers are likely to lose the track because they are highly vulnerable to screened status by the clutter or background. Coast mode, one of the tracking modes, maintains the servo slew rate with the tracking rate right before the loss of track. The proposed automatic coast mode tracking method makes decisions regarding entering coast mode by the prediction of target occlusion and tries to re-lock the target and resume the tracking after blind time. This algorithm comprises three steps. The first step is the prediction process of the occlusion by checking both matters which have target-likelihood brightness and which may screen the target despite different brightness. The second step is the process making inertial tracking commands to the servo. The last step is the process of re-locking a target based on the target modeling of histogram ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is addressed by presenting experimental results based on computer simulation with various test imagery sequences compared to published tracking algorithms. The proposed algorithm is tested under a real environment with a naval electro-optical tracking system (EOTS and airborne EO/IR system.

  8. Recent applications of Chemical Imaging to pharmaceutical process monitoring and quality control. (United States)

    Gowen, A A; O'Donnell, C P; Cullen, P J; Bell, S E J


    Chemical Imaging (CI) is an emerging platform technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Vibrational spectroscopic methods, such as Near Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy, combined with imaging are particularly useful for analysis of biological/pharmaceutical forms. The rapid, non-destructive and non-invasive features of CI mark its potential suitability as a process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry, for both process monitoring and quality control in the many stages of drug production. This paper provides an overview of CI principles, instrumentation and analysis. Recent applications of Raman and NIR-CI to pharmaceutical quality and process control are presented; challenges facing CI implementation and likely future developments in the technology are also discussed.

  9. Molecular Imaging of β-Amyloid Plaques with Near-Infrared Boron Dipyrromethane (BODIPY-Based Fluorescent Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Watanabe


    Full Text Available The formation of β-amyloid (Aβ plaques is a critical neurodegenerative change in Alzheimer disease (AD. We designed and synthesized novel boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY-based Aβ probes (BAPs and evaluated their utility for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain. In binding experiments in vitro, BAPs showed high affinity for synthetic Aβ aggregates (Kd = 18–149 nM. Furthermore, BAPs clearly stained Aβ plaques in sections of Tg2576 mice. In mouse brain tissue, BAPs showed sufficient uptake for optical imaging. In addition, ex vivo fluorescent staining of brain sections from Tg2576 mice after the injection of BAP-2 showed selective binding of Aβ plaques with little nonspecific binding. BAPs may be useful as a near-infrared fluorescent probe for imaging Aβ plaques.

  10. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson


    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  11. Automatic internal crack detection from a sequence of infrared images with a triple-threshold Canny edge detector (United States)

    Wang, Gaochao; Tse, Peter W.; Yuan, Maodan


    Visual inspection and assessment of the condition of metal structures are essential for safety. Pulse thermography produces visible infrared images, which have been widely applied to detect and characterize defects in structures and materials. When active thermography, a non-destructive testing tool, is applied, the necessity of considerable manual checking can be avoided. However, detecting an internal crack with active thermography remains difficult, since it is usually invisible in the collected sequence of infrared images, which makes the automatic detection of internal cracks even harder. In addition, the detection of an internal crack can be hindered by a complicated inspection environment. With the purpose of putting forward a robust and automatic visual inspection method, a computer vision-based thresholding method is proposed. In this paper, the image signals are a sequence of infrared images collected from the experimental setup with a thermal camera and two flash lamps as stimulus. The contrast of pixels in each frame is enhanced by the Canny operator and then reconstructed by a triple-threshold system. Two features, mean value in the time domain and maximal amplitude in the frequency domain, are extracted from the reconstructed signal to help distinguish the crack pixels from others. Finally, a binary image indicating the location of the internal crack is generated by a K-means clustering method. The proposed procedure has been applied to an iron pipe, which contains two internal cracks and surface abrasion. Some improvements have been made for the computer vision-based automatic crack detection methods. In the future, the proposed method can be applied to realize the automatic detection of internal cracks from many infrared images for the industry.

  12. Protoplanetary disks around intermediate-mass stars: the asset of imaging in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Coralie


    The accrued efficiency of the instruments in many wavelengths has allowed to show that most young stellar objects were surrounded by circumstellar matter distributed in a disk. Direct imaging of such systems is very difficult because of their narrow angular size and their weak luminosity in comparison with the star. Nowadays, 50 % of low-mass pre-main sequence stars, i.e. T Tauri stars, are surrounded by a disk. This proportion is less obvious for intermediate-mass stars, like Herbig Ae stars, that are less numerous and whose direct disk detection is more difficult. Until now, only the interpretation of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of such objects allows to have access to the geometry of the disk. But the solutions are degenerated and several parameters fit the same SED. It is essential to have direct images of the objects, the only evidence of the presence of disks. This PhD allows to show that mid-infrared imaging could rise a part of the degeneracy of the disk's parameters linked to the fit of the SED for several objects and gives constraints on the minimum external radius and inclination of the disk. We present a new observation mode with VISIR, the mid-infrared imager and spectrometer on the VLT (ESO, Chile): the so-called BURST mode. This mode allows to reach the diffraction limit of the telescope. Thanks to mid-infrared imaging with this instrument, we were able, for the first time, to have access to the geometry of a disk (flared structure) around a massive star that was, until now, only deduced from the SED modelling. (author) [fr

  13. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging, High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Detection of Single Cancer Cells and Single Viral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu,I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T


    Single Cancer Cells from Human tumors are being detected and imaged by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR)Hyperspectral Imaging and Fluorescence Correlation Microspectroscopy. The first FT-NIR chemical, microscopic images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are here reported. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are also presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos as well as 99% accurate calibrations are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such high-resolution, 400 MHz H-1 NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. >~20%) compared to the average levels in non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monito...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, M.


    The last 15 years have seen a surge of new multi-chip optical and near-IR imagers. While some of them are accompanied by specific reduction pipelines, user-friendly and generic reduction tools are uncommon. In this paper I introduce THELI, an easy-to-use graphical interface driving an end-to-end pipeline for the reduction of any optical, near-IR, and mid-IR imaging data. The advantages of THELI when compared to other approaches are highlighted. Combining a multitude of processing algorithms and third party software, THELI provides researchers with a single, homogeneous tool. A short learning curve ensures quick success for new and more experienced observers alike. All tasks are largely automated, while at the same time a high level of flexibility and alternative reduction schemes ensure that widely different scientific requirements can be met. Over 90 optical and infrared instruments at observatories world-wide are pre-configured, while more can be added by the user. The Appendices contain three walk-through examples using public data (optical, near-IR, and mid-IR). Additional extensive documentation for training and troubleshooting is available online

  15. The application of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangjian; Yu Fei; Li Kai; Zhou Jing


    Terahertz (THz) science and technology is gaining increasing attention in the biomedical field. Compared with traditional medical diagnosis methods using infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-rays or ultrasound, THz radiation has low energy, high spatial resolution, a broad spectral range, and is a reliable means of imaging for the human body. Terahertz waves have strong penetration and high fingerprint specificity, so they can play an important role in drug detection and identification. This paper reviews the special techniques based on conventional THz time-domain setups in disease detection and drug identification. With regard to the biomedical fields, we focus on the application of THz radiation in studies of skin tissue, gene expression, cells, cancer imaging, the quantitative analysis of drugs, and so on. We also present an overview of the future challenges and prospects of THz research in medicine. (authors)

  16. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.


    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  17. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de; Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario; Poppi, Ronei J.


    Highlights: → Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. → Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. → Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  18. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario [Zelus Servicos para Industria Farmaceutica Ltda., Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n. 2242, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei J., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: {yields} Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. {yields} Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. {yields} Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  19. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.


    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  20. Design and Fabrication of Large Diameter Gradient-Index Lenses for Dual-Band Visible to Short-Wave Infrared Imaging Applications (United States)

    Visconti, Anthony Joseph

    The fabrication of gradient-index (GRIN) optical elements is quite challenging, which has traditionally restricted their use in many imaging systems; consequently, commercial-level GRIN components usually exist in one particular market or niche application space. One such fabrication technique, ion exchange, is a well-known process used in the chemical strengthening of glass, the fabrication of waveguide devices, and the production of small diameter GRIN optical relay systems. However, the manufacturing of large diameter ion-exchanged GRIN elements has historically been limited by long diffusion times. For example, the diffusion time for a 20 mm diameter radial GRIN lens in commercially available ion exchange glass for small diameter relays, is on the order of a year. The diffusion time can be dramatically reduced by addressing three key ion exchange process parameters; the composition of the glass, the diffusion temperature, and the composition of the salt bath. Experimental work throughout this thesis aims to (1) scale up the ion exchange diffusion process to 20 mm diameters for a fast-diffusing titania silicate glass family in both (2) sodium ion for lithium ion (Na+ for Li+) and lithium ion for sodium ion (Li+ for Na+) exchange directions, while (3) utilizing manufacturing friendly salt bath compositions. In addition, optical design studies have demonstrated that an important benefit of gradient-index elements in imaging systems is the added degree of freedom introduced with a gradient's optical power. However, these studies have not investigated the potential usefulness of GRIN materials in dual-band visible to short-wave infrared (vis-SWIR) imaging systems. The unique chromatic properties of the titania silicate ion exchange glass become a significant degree of freedom in the design process for these color-limited, broadband imaging applications. A single GRIN element can replace a cemented doublet or even a cemented triplet, without loss in overall system

  1. Investigation of carbonates in the Sutter's Mill meteorite grains with hyperspectral infrared imaging micro-spectroscopy (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet


    Synchrotron-based high spatial resolution hyperspectral infrared imaging technique provides thousands of infrared spectra with high resolution, thus allowing us to acquire detailed spatial maps of chemical molecular structures for many grains in short times. Utilizing this technique, thousands of infrared spectra were analyzed at once instead of inspecting each spectrum separately. Sutter's Mill meteorite is a unique carbonaceous type meteorite with highly heterogeneous chemical composition. Multiple grains from the Sutter's Mill meteorite have been studied using this technique and the presence of both hydrous and anhydrous silicate minerals have been observed. It is observed that the carbonate mineralogy varies from simple to more complex carbonates even within a few microns in the meteorite grains. These variations, the type and distribution of calcite-like vs. dolomite-like carbonates are presented by means of hyperspectral FTIR imaging spectroscopy with high resolution. Various scenarios for the formation of different carbonate compositions in the Sutter's Mill parent body are discussed.

  2. Infrared imaging microscopy of bone: illustrations from a mouse model of Fabry disease. (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L; Goldberg, Michel; Kulkarni, Ashok; Gomez, Santiago


    Bone is a complex tissue whose composition and properties vary with age, sex, diet, tissue type, health and disease. In this review, we demonstrate how infrared spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopic imaging can be applied to the study of these variations. A specific example of mice with Fabry disease (a lipid storage disease) is presented in which it is demonstrated that the bones of these young animals, while showing typical spatial variation in mineral content, mineral crystal size, and collagen maturity, do not differ from the bones of age- and sex-matched wild type animals.

  3. Infrared image processing devoted to thermal non-contact characterization-Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation, Microfluidics and 2D source term distribution for multispectral tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Pradere, Christophe


    The cost of IR cameras is more and more decreasing. Beyond the preliminary calibration step and the global instrumentation, the infrared image processing is then one of the key step for achieving in very broad domains.Generally the IR images are coming from the transient temperature field related to the emission of a black surface in response to an external or internal heating (active IR thermography). The first applications were devoted to the so called thermal Non-Destructive Evaluation methods by considering a thin sample and 1D transient heat diffusion through the sample (transverse diffusion). With simplified assumptions related to the transverse diffusion, the in-plane diffusion and transport phenomena can be also considered.A general equation can be applied in order to balance the heat transfer at the pixel scale or between groups of pixels in order to estimate several fields of thermophysical properties (heterogeneous field of in-plane diffusivity, flow distributions, source terms).There is a lot of possible strategies to process the space and time distributed big amount of data (previous integral transformation of the images, compression, elimination of the non useful areas...), generally based on the necessity to analyse the derivative versus space and time of the temperature field. Several illustrative examples related to the Non-Destructive Evaluation of heterogeneous solids, the thermal characterization of chemical reactions in microfluidic channels and the design of systems for multispectral tomography, will be presented. (paper)

  4. Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu'an; Yang Kai; Li Zhigang; Zhao Cheng; Yang Jia; Shi Chunmeng


    Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.

  5. Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Pastor, Daniel; Pérez, Daniel; Doménech, José David; Fernández, Juan; Baños, Rocío; Alemany, Rubén; Sánchez, Ana M.; Cirera, Josep M.; Mas, Roser


    Silicon nitride photonics is on the rise owing to the broadband nature of the material, allowing applications of biophotonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing, from visible, through near to mid-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, a review of the state of the art of silicon nitride strip waveguide platforms is provided, alongside the experimental results on the development of a versatile 300 nm guiding film height silicon nitride platform. PMID:28895906

  6. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection. (United States)

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian


    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  7. Characterization of image converter tubes and photodiodes in the infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleurot, N.; Nail, M.; Verrecchia, R.; Clement, G.


    The detection of near infrared picosecond luminous events is of the highest interest in the laser fusion research. The temporal profile of the 1.06 μm laser pulse, has to be carefully measured with S1 streak cameras which present limitations in the picosecond range. We have undertaken measurement on S1 photodiodes to situate their fatigue threshold and try to understand the limitations of image converter tubes we also present the work undertaken at R.T.C./L.E.P. to produce stable and highly sensitive image converter tubes in the micron range with the ''transfer sensitization method''. (author)

  8. Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography. (United States)

    Locatelli, M; Pugliese, E; Paturzo, M; Bianco, V; Finizio, A; Pelagotti, A; Poggi, P; Miccio, L; Meucci, R; Ferraro, P


    The ability to see behind flames is a key challenge for the industrial field and particularly for the safety field. Development of new technologies to detect live people through smoke and flames in fire scenes is an extremely desirable goal since it can save human lives. The latest technologies, including equipment adopted by fire departments, use infrared bolometers for infrared digital cameras that allow users to see through smoke. However, such detectors are blinded by flame-emitted radiation. Here we show a completely different approach that makes use of lensless digital holography technology in the infrared range for successful imaging through smoke and flames. Notably, we demonstrate that digital holography with a cw laser allows the recording of dynamic human-size targets. In this work, easy detection of live, moving people is achieved through both smoke and flames, thus demonstrating the capability of digital holography at 10.6 μm.

  9. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.


    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  10. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using near-infrared contrast agents. (United States)

    Nothdurft, R; Sarder, P; Bloch, S; Culver, J; Achilefu, S


    Although single-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is widely used to image molecular processes using a wide range of excitation wavelengths, the captured emission of this technique is confined to the visible spectrum. Here, we explore the feasibility of utilizing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes with emission >700 nm for FLIM of live cells. The confocal microscope is equipped with a 785 nm laser diode, a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube, and a time-correlated single photon counting card. We demonstrate that our system reports the lifetime distributions of NIR fluorescent dyes, cypate and DTTCI, in cells. In cells labelled separately or jointly with these dyes, NIR FLIM successfully distinguishes their lifetimes, providing a method to sort different cell populations. In addition, lifetime distributions of cells co-incubated with these dyes allow estimate of the dyes' relative concentrations in complex cellular microenvironments. With the heightened interest in fluorescence lifetime-based small animal imaging using NIR fluorophores, this technique further serves as a bridge between in vitro spectroscopic characterization of new fluorophore lifetimes and in vivo tissue imaging. © 2012 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric volumes from infrared limb-imager measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungermann, Joern


    State-of-the art nadir and limb-sounders, but also in situ measurements, do not offer the capability to highly resolve the atmosphere in all three dimensions. This leaves an observational gap with respect to small-scale structures that arise frequently in the atmosphere and that still lack a quantitative understanding. For instance, filaments and tropopause folds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are crucial for its composition and variability. One way to achieve a highly resolved three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the atmosphere is the tomographic evaluation of limb-imager measurements. This thesis presents a methodology for the tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric constituents. To be able to deal with the large increase of observations and unknowns compared to conventional retrievals, great care is taken to reduce memory consumption and processing time. This method is used to evaluate the performance of two upcoming infrared limb-imager instruments and to prepare their missions. The first examined instrument is the infrared limb-imager on board of PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetrewave Emitted Radiation), one of three remaining candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission. Scientific goals of PREMIER are, among others, the examination of gravity waves and the quantification of processes controlling atmospheric composition in the UTLS, a region of particular importance for climate change. Simulations based on the performance requirements of this instrument deliver a vertical resolution that is slightly better than its vertical field-of-view (about 0.75 km) and a horizontal resolution of {approx}25km x 70 km. Non-linear end-to-end simulations for various gravity wave patterns demonstrate that the high 3-D resolution of PREMIER considerably extends the range of detectable gravity waves in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength compared to previous observations. The second examined

  12. Tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric volumes from infrared limb-imager measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungermann, Joern


    State-of-the art nadir and limb-sounders, but also in situ measurements, do not offer the capability to highly resolve the atmosphere in all three dimensions. This leaves an observational gap with respect to small-scale structures that arise frequently in the atmosphere and that still lack a quantitative understanding. For instance, filaments and tropopause folds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are crucial for its composition and variability. One way to achieve a highly resolved three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the atmosphere is the tomographic evaluation of limb-imager measurements. This thesis presents a methodology for the tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric constituents. To be able to deal with the large increase of observations and unknowns compared to conventional retrievals, great care is taken to reduce memory consumption and processing time. This method is used to evaluate the performance of two upcoming infrared limb-imager instruments and to prepare their missions. The first examined instrument is the infrared limb-imager on board of PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetrewave Emitted Radiation), one of three remaining candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission. Scientific goals of PREMIER are, among others, the examination of gravity waves and the quantification of processes controlling atmospheric composition in the UTLS, a region of particular importance for climate change. Simulations based on the performance requirements of this instrument deliver a vertical resolution that is slightly better than its vertical field-of-view (about 0.75 km) and a horizontal resolution of {approx}25km x 70 km. Non-linear end-to-end simulations for various gravity wave patterns demonstrate that the high 3-D resolution of PREMIER considerably extends the range of detectable gravity waves in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength compared to previous observations. The second examined instrument

  13. A Fast Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Simulator for Cloudy Atmopheres (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yang, Ping; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; Wang, Chen Xi; Ding, Shouguo


    A fast instrument simulator is developed to simulate the observations made in cloudy atmospheres by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The correlated k-distribution (CKD) technique is used to compute the transmissivity of absorbing atmospheric gases. The bulk scattering properties of ice clouds used in this study are based on the ice model used for the MODIS Collection 6 ice cloud products. Two fast radiative transfer models based on pre-computed ice cloud look-up-tables are used for the VIIRS solar and infrared channels. The accuracy and efficiency of the fast simulator are quantify in comparison with a combination of the rigorous line-by-line (LBLRTM) and discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) models. Relative errors are less than 2 for simulated TOA reflectances for the solar channels and the brightness temperature differences for the infrared channels are less than 0.2 K. The simulator is over three orders of magnitude faster than the benchmark LBLRTM+DISORT model. Furthermore, the cloudy atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures from the fast VIIRS simulator compare favorably with those from VIIRS observations.

  14. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  15. Feasibility of Stereo-Infrared Tracking to Monitor Patient Motion During Cardiac SPECT Imaging


    Beach, Richard D.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Boening, Guido; Bruyant, Philippe P.; Feng, Bing; Fulton, Roger R.; Gennert, Michael A.; Nadella, Suman; King, Michael A.


    Patient motion during cardiac SPECT imaging can cause diagnostic imaging artifacts. We investigated the feasibility of monitoring patient motion using the Polaris motion-tracking system. This system uses passive infrared reflection from small spheres to provide real-time position data with vendor stated 0.35 mm accuracy and 0.2 mm repeatability. In our configuration, the Polaris system views through the SPECT gantry toward the patient's head. List-mode event data was temporally synchronized w...

  16. Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Scott B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Skoch, Jesse; Hills, Ivory D.; Swager, Timothy M.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.


    Near-infrared fluorescent probes for amyloid-beta (Aβ) are an exciting option for molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease research and may translate to clinical diagnostics. However, Aβ-targeted optical probes often suffer from poor specificity and slow clearance from the brain. We are designing smart optical probes that emit characteristic fluorescence signal only when bound to Aβ. We synthesized a family of dyes and tested Aβ-binding sensitivity with fluorescence spectroscopy and tissue-staining. Select compounds exhibited Aβ-dependent changes in fluorescence quantum yield, lifetime, and emission spectra that may be imaged microscopically or in vivo using new lifetime and spectral fluorescence imaging techniques. Smart optical probes that turn on when bound to Aβ will improve amyloid detection and may enable quantitative molecular imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  17. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K


    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  18. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang


    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  19. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L.; Özel, Tuğba; Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania


    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract

  20. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L. [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Özel, Tuğba [Texas State University, Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program (United States); Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania, E-mail: [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)


    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract.

  1. Miniature Uncooled Infrared Sensitive Detectors for in Vivo Biomedical Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, P. G.; Demos, S. G.; Rajic, S.


    Broadband infrared (OR) radiation detectors have been developed using miniature, inexpensive, mass produced microcantilevers capable of detecting temperature differences as small as lea(-6) K. Microcantilevers made out of semiconductor materials can be used either as uncurled photon or thermal detectors. Mounted on a probe mm in diameter a number of microcantilevers can be accommodated in the working channel of existing endoscopes for in vivo proximity focus measurements inside the human body.

  2. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy (United States)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.


    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  3. Imaging Brain Function with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Unconstrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Balardin


    Full Text Available Assessing the neural correlates of motor and cognitive processes under naturalistic experimentation is challenging due to the movement constraints of traditional brain imaging technologies. The recent advent of portable technologies that are less sensitive to motion artifacts such as Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS have been made possible the study of brain function in freely-moving participants. In this paper, we describe a series of proof-of-concept experiments examining the potential of fNIRS in assessing the neural correlates of cognitive and motor processes in unconstrained environments. We show illustrative applications for practicing a sport (i.e., table tennis, playing a musical instrument (i.e., piano and violin alone or in duo and performing daily activities for many hours (i.e., continuous monitoring. Our results expand upon previous research on the feasibility and robustness of fNIRS to monitor brain hemodynamic changes in different real life settings. We believe that these preliminary results showing the flexibility and robustness of fNIRS measurements may contribute by inspiring future work in the field of applied neuroscience.

  4. Sea-land segmentation for infrared remote sensing images based on superpixels and multi-scale features (United States)

    Lei, Sen; Zou, Zhengxia; Liu, Dunge; Xia, Zhenghuan; Shi, Zhenwei


    Sea-land segmentation is a key step for the information processing of ocean remote sensing images. Traditional sea-land segmentation algorithms ignore the local similarity prior of sea and land, and thus fail in complex scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new sea-land segmentation method for infrared remote sensing images to tackle the problem based on superpixels and multi-scale features. Considering the connectivity and local similarity of sea or land, we interpret the sea-land segmentation task in view of superpixels rather than pixels, where similar pixels are clustered and the local similarity are explored. Moreover, the multi-scale features are elaborately designed, comprising of gray histogram and multi-scale total variation. Experimental results on infrared bands of Landsat-8 satellite images demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain more accurate and more robust sea-land segmentation results than the traditional algorithms.

  5. Assessment of pesticide coating on cereal seeds by near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. Vermeulen


    Full Text Available Classical chromatographic methods, such as ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, are used as reference methods to assess seed quality and homogeneous pesticide coating of seeds. These methods have some important drawbacks since they are time consuming, expensive, destructive and require a substantial amount of solvent, among others. Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy seems to be an interesting alternative technique for the determination of the quality of seed treatment and avoids most of these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of pesticide coating treatment by near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI by analysing, on a seed-by-seed basis, several seeds simultaneously in comparison to NIR spectroscopy and UPLC as the reference method. To achieve this goal, discrimination—partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA—models and regression—partial least squares (PLS—models were developed. The results obtained by NIR-HSI are compared to the results obtained with NIR spectroscopy and UPLC instruments. This study has shown the potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging to assess the quality/homogeneity of the pesticide coating on seeds.

  6. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria


    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  7. Imaging and polarimetry of the Galactic Centre in the near-infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J; Hough, J H; Axon, D J


    Infrared images of the Galactic Centre with 2.25 arcsec resolution have been obtained at wavelengths of 1.64 (H), 2.2 (K), 3.8 (L') and 4.8 (M). From these, the positions, magnitudes and colours for 35 sources have been measured. The observed sources can be divided into two classes: those whose colours are typical of reddened stars and those with much redder colours which dominate at 3.8 and 4.8 whose infrared radiation is due to dust emission. Polarization measurements for a number of the brighter sources have been made at J, H, and K. Most of the sources with stellar colours show wavelength dependence typical of interstellar polarization with polarizations at K of about 6 per cent.

  8. Imaging and polarimetry of the Galactic Centre in the near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Hough, J.H.; Axon, D.J.


    Infrared images of the Galactic Centre with 2.25 arcsec resolution have been obtained at wavelengths of 1.64 μm (H), 2.2 μm (K), 3.8 μm (L') and 4.8 μm (M). From these, the positions, magnitudes and colours for 35 sources have been measured. The observed sources can be divided into two classes: those whose colours are typical of reddened stars and those with much redder colours which dominate at 3.8 and 4.8 μm whose infrared radiation is due to dust emission. Polarization measurements for a number of the brighter sources have been made at J, H, and K. Most of the sources with stellar colours show wavelength dependence typical of interstellar polarization with polarizations at K of about 6 per cent. (author)

  9. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng


    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  10. Robust Small Target Co-Detection from Airborne Infrared Image Sequences. (United States)

    Gao, Jingli; Wen, Chenglin; Liu, Meiqin


    In this paper, a novel infrared target co-detection model combining the self-correlation features of backgrounds and the commonality features of targets in the spatio-temporal domain is proposed to detect small targets in a sequence of infrared images with complex backgrounds. Firstly, a dense target extraction model based on nonlinear weights is proposed, which can better suppress background of images and enhance small targets than weights of singular values. Secondly, a sparse target extraction model based on entry-wise weighted robust principal component analysis is proposed. The entry-wise weight adaptively incorporates structural prior in terms of local weighted entropy, thus, it can extract real targets accurately and suppress background clutters efficiently. Finally, the commonality of targets in the spatio-temporal domain are used to construct target refinement model for false alarms suppression and target confirmation. Since real targets could appear in both of the dense and sparse reconstruction maps of a single frame, and form trajectories after tracklet association of consecutive frames, the location correlation of the dense and sparse reconstruction maps for a single frame and tracklet association of the location correlation maps for successive frames have strong ability to discriminate between small targets and background clutters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed small target co-detection method can not only suppress background clutters effectively, but also detect targets accurately even if with target-like interference.

  11. Discrete parametric band conversion in silicon for mid-infrared applications. (United States)

    Tien, En-Kuang; Huang, Yuewang; Gao, Shiming; Song, Qi; Qian, Feng; Kalyoncu, Salih K; Boyraz, Ozdal


    Silicon photonics has great potential for mid-wave-infrared applications. The dispersion of waveguide can be manipulated by waveguide dimension and cladding materials. Simulation shows that <3 μm wide conversion can be achieved by tuning the pump wavelength.

  12. An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Yuan, W.; Zhao, J.; Dai, J. Y.; Guo, T. C.; Liang, J.; Xu, G. Y.; Cheng, Q.; Cui, T. J.


    We present a thin metasurface with large microwave absorptivity and low infrared emissivity simultaneously. By properly tuning the resonance peaks and impedance of the meta-atom, broadband microwave absorptivity greater than 90% from 8.2 to 16.0 GHz is achieved. In the meantime, owing to large coverage of periodic metal patches on the top surface, low infrared emissivity is exhibited in the infrared region (IR) of 8 µm-14 µm. The excellent agreement between numerical simulation and experimental result demonstrates the good performance of the proposed metasurface. Due to the usage of polymethacrylimide (PMI) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as the substrate, the metasurface is especially advantageous for the light weight, making it a favorite in real engineering applications.

  13. Benefit of infrared images in visibility appreciation for fog conditions (United States)

    Boucher, V.; Dumoulin, J.; Marchetti, M.


    Fog situations induce an increase in both accident probability and severity. They constitue a significant part in accident rate. There is very few means to forecast fog, nor to appreciate its density, and its associated visibility decrease. An approach consists in developing on-board tools to qualify and to quantify the fog, and to improve the visibility within each vehicle. Infrared technology is now more common, so solutions based on this specific spectral band could be considered. LW infrared has demonstrated its value in the case of passenger cars. Its use could be discussed too, in particular in the case of obstacles detection. The study presented here deals mainly with the extraction of a visbility distance from LW thermal images in the presence of fog. A French facility in Clermont-Ferrand allows the generation of fog. It can be generated in day or night conditions. The facility is 30 m long, for a 220 m3 volume. The fog is generated spraying water micro droplets, which size is controlled and measured. Experimental conditions could be adapted through water pressure, water nature as an example. Visibility is appreciated with a device measuring light transmission. In the case of infrared, visibility is obtained through the definition of contrast of an object on a given background. On such a basis, infrared spectral band provides a factor 2 benefit on a conventional roadsign, and of a factor 4 in the case of a heated one, with meteorological visibilty of 20 m. Some theoritical aspects will be described, along with a description of the whole experimental setup.

  14. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging (United States)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.


    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  15. Far-infrared imaging arrays for fusion plasma density and magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, D.P.; Rutledge, D.B.


    Far-infrared imaging detector arrays are required for the determination of density and local magnetic field in fusion plasmas. Analytic calculations point out the difficulties with simple printed slot and dipole antennas on ungrounded substrates for use in submillimeter wave imaging arrays because of trapped surface waves. This is followed by a discussion of the use of substrate-lens coupling to eliminate the associated trapped surface modes responsible for their poor performance. This integrates well with a modified bow-tie antenna and permits diffraction-limited imaging. Arrays using bismuth microbolometers have been successfully fabricated and tested at 1222μm and 119μm. A 100 channel pilot experiment designed for the UCLA Microtor tokamak is described. (author)

  16. Recent applications and current trends in Cultural Heritage Science using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean


    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  17. Physics meets fine arts: a project-based learning path on infrared imaging (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Sapia, P.


    Infrared imaging represents a noninvasive tool for cultural heritage diagnostics, based on the capability of IR radiation to penetrate the most external layers of different objects (as for example paintings), revealing hidden features of artworks. From an educational viewpoint, this diagnostic technique offers teachers the opportunity to address manifold topics pertaining to the physics and technology of electromagnetic radiation, with particular emphasis on the nature of color and its physical correlates. Moreover, the topic provides interesting interdisciplinary bridges towards the human sciences. In this framework, we present a hands-on learning sequence, suitable for both high school students and university freshmen, inspired by the project-based learning (PBL) paradigm, designed and implemented in the context of an Italian national project aimed at offering students the opportunity to participate in educational activities within a real working context. In a preliminary test we involved a group of 23 high school students while they were working as apprentices in the Laboratory of Applied Physics for Cultural Heritage (ArcheoLab) at the University of Calabria. Consistently with the PBL paradigm, students were given well-defined practical goals to be achieved. As final goals they were asked (i) to construct and to test a low cost device (based on a disused commercial camera) appropriate for performing educational-grade IR investigations on paintings, and (ii) to prepare a device working as a simple spectrometer (recycling the optical components of a disused video projector), suitable for characterizing various light sources in order to identify the most appropriate for infrared imaging. The proposed learning path has shown (in the preliminary test) to be effective in fostering students’ interest towards physics and its technological applications, especially because pupils perceived the context (i.e. physics applied to the protection and restoration of cultural

  18. Integrative Multi-Spectral Sensor Device for Far-Infrared and Visible Light Fusion (United States)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Chen, Lulu; Pang, Yusong; Yan, Gaowei


    Infrared and visible light image fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of multi-sensor fusion technology in recent years. Existing infrared and visible light fusion technologies need to register before fusion because of using two cameras. However, the application effect of the registration technology has yet to be improved. Hence, a novel integrative multi-spectral sensor device is proposed for infrared and visible light fusion, and by using the beam splitter prism, the coaxial light incident from the same lens is projected to the infrared charge coupled device (CCD) and visible light CCD, respectively. In this paper, the imaging mechanism of the proposed sensor device is studied with the process of the signals acquisition and fusion. The simulation experiment, which involves the entire process of the optic system, signal acquisition, and signal fusion, is constructed based on imaging effect model. Additionally, the quality evaluation index is adopted to analyze the simulation result. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor device is effective and feasible.

  19. Discrimination between sedimentary rocks from close-range visible and very-near-infrared images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozo, Susana Del; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Blom, J.C.; González-Aguilera, Diego


    Variation in the mineral composition of rocks results in a change of their spectral response capable of being studied by imaging spectroscopy. This paper proposes the use of a low-cost handy sensor, a calibrated visible-very near infrared (VIS-VNIR) multispectral camera for the recognition of

  20. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Physics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Harald


    Addressed to both students as a learning text and scientists/engineers as a reference, this book discusses the physics and applications of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). It is assumed that the reader has a basic background in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, and semiconductor devices. To make this book as widely accessible as possible, the treatment and presentation of the materials is simple and straightforward. The topics for the book were chosen by the following criteria: they must be well-established and understood; and they should have been, or potentially will be, used in practical applications. The monograph discusses most aspects relevant for the field but omits, at the same time, detailed discussions of specialized topics such as the valence-band quantum wells.

  1. A brief history of 25 years (or more) of infrared imaging radiometers (United States)

    Lyon, Bernard R., Jr.; Orlove, Gary L.


    Modern thermal imaging radiometers are infrared systems usually endowed with some means of making surface temperature measurements of objects, as well as providing an image. These devices have evolved considerably over the past few decades, and are continuing to do so at an accelerating rate. Changes are not confined to merely camera size and user interface, but also include critical parameters, such as sensitivity, accuracy, dynamic range, spectral response, capture rates, storage media, and numerous other features, options, and accessories. Familiarity with this changing technology is much more than an academic topic. A misunderstanding or false assumption concerning system differences, could lead to misinterpretation of data, inaccurate temperature measurements, or disappointing, ambiguous results. Marketing demands have had considerable influence in the design and operation of these systems. In the past, many thermographers were scientists, engineers and researchers. Today, however, the majorities of people using these instruments work in the industrial sector and are involved in highly technical skilled trades. This change of operating personnel has effectively changed the status of these devices from a 'scientific instrument', to an 'essential tool'. Manufacturers have recognized this trend and responded accordingly, as seen in their product designs. This paper explores the history of commercial infrared imaging systems and accessories. Emphasis is placed on, but not confined to, real time systems with video output, capable of temperature measurements.

  2. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide


    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others


    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  4. Molded, wafer level optics for long wave infra-red applications (United States)

    Franks, John


    For many years, the Thermal Imaging market has been driven by the high volume consumer market. The first signs of this came with the launch of night vision systems for cars, first by Cadillac and Honda and then, more successfully by BMW, Daimler and Audi. For the first time, simple thermal imaging systems were being manufactured at the rate of more than 10,000 units a year. This step change in volumes enabled a step change in system costs, with thermal imaging moving into the consumer's price range. Today we see that the consumer awareness and the consumer market continues to increase with the launch of a number of consumer focused smart phone add-ons. This has brought a further step change in system costs, with the possibility to turn your mobile phone into a thermal imager for under $250. As the detector technology has matured, the pixel pitches have dropped from 50μm in 2002 to 12 μm or even 10μm in today's detectors. This dramatic shrinkage in size has had an equally dramatic effect on the optics required to produce the image on the detector. A moderate field of view that would have required a focal length of 40mm in 2002 now requires a focal length of 8mm. For wide field of view applications and small detector formats, focal lengths in the range 1mm to 5mm are becoming common. For lenses, the quantity manufactured, quality and costs will require a new approach to high volume Infra-Red (IR) manufacturing to meet customer expectations. This, taken with the SwaP-C requirements and the emerging requirement for very small lenses driven by the new detectors, suggests that wafer scale optics are part of the solution. Umicore can now present initial results from an intensive research and development program to mold and coat wafer level optics, using its chalcogenide glass, GASIR®.

  5. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application]. (United States)

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing


    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application.

  6. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  7. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  8. Low-cost thermo-electric infrared FPAs and their automotive applications (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Ohta, Yoshimi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro


    This paper describes three low-cost infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 elements and experimental vehicle systems. They have a low-cost potential because each element consists of p-n polysilicon thermocouples, which allows the use of low-cost ultra-fine microfabrication technology commonly employed in the conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes. To increase the responsivity of FPA, we have developed a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that has high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%. The FPA having a 2,304 elements achieved high resposivity of 4,300 V/W. In order to reduce package cost, we developed a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a molded ZnS lens. The camera aiming the temperature measurement of a passenger cabin is compact and light weight devices that measures 45 x 45 x 30 mm and weighs 190 g. The camera achieves a noise equivalent temperature deviation (NETD) of less than 0.7°C from 0 to 40°C. In this paper, we also present a several experimental systems that use infrared cameras. One experimental system is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared cameras. It can detect the infrared radiation emitted from a human body and alerts the driver when a pedestrian is in a blind spot. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. Another system uses a visible-light camera and infrared sensors to detect the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot and alerts the driver. The third system is a new type of human-machine interface system that enables the driver to control the car's audio system without letting go of the steering wheel. Uncooled infrared cameras are still costly, which limits their automotive use to high-end luxury cars at present. To promote widespread use of IR imaging sensors on vehicles, we need to reduce their cost further.

  9. Overview of benefits, challenges, and requirements of wheeled-vehicle mounted infrared sensors (United States)

    Miller, John Lester; Clayton, Paul; Olsson, Stefan F.


    Requirements for vehicle mounted infrared sensors, especially as imagers evolve to high definition (HD) format will be detailed and analyzed. Lessons learned from integrations of infrared sensors on armored vehicles, unarmored military vehicles and commercial automobiles will be discussed. Comparisons between sensors for driving and those for situation awareness, targeting and other functions will be presented. Conclusions will be drawn regarding future applications and installations. New business requirements for more advanced digital image processing algorithms in the sensor system will be discussed. Examples of these are smarter contrast/brightness adjustments algorithms, detail enhancement, intelligent blending (IR-Vis) modes, and augmented reality.

  10. Near-Infrared Optical Imaging of Integrin αvβ3 in Human Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available In vivo optical imaging is potentially useful for evaluating the presence of tumor markers that are targets of molecular medicine. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of integrin αvβ3-targeted peptide cyclo(Lys–Arg–Gly–Asp–Phe [c(KRGDf] labeled with fluorescence dyes with wavelength spanning from the visible/near infrared (Cy5.5 to the true near infrared (IRDye800 for optical imaging. In vitro, the peptide–dye conjugates bound specifically to tumor cells expressing αvβ3. When administered intravenously into mice at a dose of 6 nmol/mouse, the conjugates accumulated in tumors expressing αvβ3. The tumor-to-background ratios for human KS1767 Kaposi's sarcoma in mice injected with Cy5.5–c(KRGDf and Cy5.5 were 5.5 and 1.5, respectively. Preinjection of c(KRGDf blocked the uptake of Cy5.5–c(KRGDf in tumors by 89%. In αvβ3-positive M21 and αvβ3-negative M21-L human melanoma, fluorescence intensity in the tumor of mice injected with IRDye800–c(KRGDf was 2.3 and 1.3 times that in normal tissue, respectively. Dynamic imaging revealed that Cy5.5–c(KRGDf was rapidly taken up by KS1767 tumor immediately after bolus injection. The rate of its uptake in the tumor was reduced by preinjection of c(KRGDf in an interval time-dependent manner. Our data suggest that near-infrared fluorescence imaging may be applied to the detection of tumors expressing integrin αvβ3 and to the assessment of the optimal biological dose and schedule of targeted therapies.

  11. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System (United States)


    understanding of the formation of solar-type stars and planetary systems from the interstellar medium. However, in most cases the large difference of brightness between the young star and its surrounding material makes it impossible to image directly the circumstellar disk. But when the disk is seen nearly edge-on, the light from the central star will be blocked out by the dust grains in the disk. Other grains below and above the disk midplane scatter the stellar light, producing a typical pattern of a dark lane between two reflection nebulae. The first young stellar object (YSO) found to display this typical pattern, HH 30 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud at a distance of about 500 light-years (140 pc), was imaged by the Hubble Space telescope (HST) in 1996. Edge-on disks have since also been observed with ground-based telescopes in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, sometimes by means of adaptive optics techniques or speckle imaging, or under very good sky image quality, cf. ESO PR Photo 03d/01 with a VLT image of such an object in the Orion Nebula. A surprise discovery ESO PR Photo 12a/02 ESO PR Photo 12a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 459 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 918 pix - 352k] Caption : PR Photo 12a/02 shows a three-colour reproduction of the discovery image of strange-looking object (nicknamed the "Flying Saucer" by the astronomers), obtained with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. Compared to the unresolved stars in the field, the image of this object appears extended. Two characteristic reflection nebulae are barely visible, together with a marginally resolved dark dust lane in front of the star and oriented East-West. Technical information about the photo is available below. Last year, a group of astronomers [1] carried out follow-up observations of new X-ray sources found by the ESA XMM-Newton and NASA Chandra X-ray satellites. They were looking at the periphery of the so-called Rho

  12. Development of plenoptic infrared camera using low dimensional material based photodetectors (United States)

    Chen, Liangliang

    Infrared (IR) sensor has extended imaging from submicron visible spectrum to tens of microns wavelength, which has been widely used for military and civilian application. The conventional bulk semiconductor materials based IR cameras suffer from low frame rate, low resolution, temperature dependent and highly cost, while the unusual Carbon Nanotube (CNT), low dimensional material based nanotechnology has been made much progress in research and industry. The unique properties of CNT lead to investigate CNT based IR photodetectors and imaging system, resolving the sensitivity, speed and cooling difficulties in state of the art IR imagings. The reliability and stability is critical to the transition from nano science to nano engineering especially for infrared sensing. It is not only for the fundamental understanding of CNT photoresponse induced processes, but also for the development of a novel infrared sensitive material with unique optical and electrical features. In the proposed research, the sandwich-structured sensor was fabricated within two polymer layers. The substrate polyimide provided sensor with isolation to background noise, and top parylene packing blocked humid environmental factors. At the same time, the fabrication process was optimized by real time electrical detection dielectrophoresis and multiple annealing to improve fabrication yield and sensor performance. The nanoscale infrared photodetector was characterized by digital microscopy and precise linear stage in order for fully understanding it. Besides, the low noise, high gain readout system was designed together with CNT photodetector to make the nano sensor IR camera available. To explore more of infrared light, we employ compressive sensing algorithm into light field sampling, 3-D camera and compressive video sensing. The redundant of whole light field, including angular images for light field, binocular images for 3-D camera and temporal information of video streams, are extracted and

  13. Cy5.5 conjugated MnO nanoparticles for magnetic resonance/near-infrared fluorescence dual-modal imaging of brain gliomas. (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Shao, Chen; Li, Shuai; Wang, Zihao; Qu, Yanming; Gu, Wei; Yu, Chunjiang; Ye, Ling


    The fusion of molecular and anatomical modalities facilitates more reliable and accurate detection of tumors. Herein, we prepared the PEG-Cy5.5 conjugated MnO nanoparticles (MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs) with magnetic resonance (MR) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging modalities. The applicability of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs as a dual-modal (MR/NIRF) imaging nanoprobe for the detection of brain gliomas was investigated. In vivo MR contrast enhancement of the MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 nanoprobe in the tumor region was demonstrated. Meanwhile, whole-body NIRF imaging of glioma bearing nude mouse exhibited distinct tumor localization upon injection of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs. Moreover, ex vivo CLSM imaging of the brain slice hosting glioma indicated the preferential accumulation of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs in the glioma region. Our results therefore demonstrated the potential of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs as a dual-modal (MR/NIRF) imaging nanoprobe in improving the diagnostic efficacy by simultaneously providing anatomical information from deep inside the body and more sensitive information at the cellular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas


    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  15. Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati, Vidya; Schoenfelder, Stephan; Castellanos, Sergio; Oener, Sebastian; Koepge, Ringo; Sampson, Aaron; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Morhenn, Humphrey; Hahn, Giso; Bagdahn, Joerg; Buonassisi1, Tonio


    This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to date, and advance four closely related topics. (1) We present a method to decouple macroscopic thermally-induced residual stresses and microscopic bulk defect related stresses. In contrast to previous reports, thermally-induced residual stresses in wafer-sized samples are generally found to be less than 5 MPa, while defect-related stresses can be several times larger. (2) We describe the unique IR birefringence signatures, including stress magnitudes and directions, of common microdefects in mc-Si solar cell materials including: {beta}-SiC and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} microdefects, twin bands, nontwin grain boundaries, and dislocation bands. In certain defects, local stresses up to 40 MPa can be present. (3) We relate observed stresses to other topics of interest in solar cell manufacturing, including transition metal precipitation, wafer mechanical strength, and minority carrier lifetime. (4) We discuss the potential of IBI as a quality-control technique in industrial solar cell manufacturing.

  16. High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sasmaz


    Full Text Available Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.

  17. Estimating top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiance using MERRA-2 atmospheric data (United States)

    Kleynhans, Tania; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Kanan, Christopher


    Thermal infrared satellite images have been widely used in environmental studies. However, satellites have limited temporal resolution, e.g., 16 day Landsat or 1 to 2 day Terra MODIS. This paper investigates the use of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product, produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to predict global topof-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance. The high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product presents opportunities for novel research and applications. Various methods were applied to estimate TOA radiance from MERRA-2 variables namely (1) a parameterized physics based method, (2) Linear regression models and (3) non-linear Support Vector Regression. Model prediction accuracy was evaluated using temporally and spatially coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared data as reference data. This research found that Support Vector Regression with a radial basis function kernel produced the lowest error rates. Sources of errors are discussed and defined. Further research is currently being conducted to train deep learning models to predict TOA thermal radiance

  18. Rotation and Noise Invariant Near-Infrared Face Recognition by means of Zernike Moments and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.; Khansari, M.; Jafari-Khouzani, K.


    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-11 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : face recognition * infrared imaging * image moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 and noise invariant near-infrared face recognition by means of zernike moments and spectral regression discriminant analysis.pdf

  19. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, Anthony B.; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: [Air Force Research Laboratory, Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate (United States)


    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Analysis and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) via infrared imaging (United States)

    Flores-Sahagun, J. H.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.


    In this work, a structured methodology is proposed and tested through infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges and of basal cell carcinoma patients (a type of skin cancer) previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. A method of conjugated gradients is proposed to compare measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ) between two symmetric regions of the patient's body, that takes into account the skin, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures and doing so, the limitation of the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and nonsubjective. The range of normal temperatures in different regions of the body for seven healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the human skin exhibits a unimodal normal distribution, the normal range for each region was considered to be the mean dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements (Δθ±2σ) in order to represent 95% of the population. Eleven patients with previously diagnosed basal cell carcinoma through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting skin abnormalities in all cases. Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective in the identification of the basal cell carcinoma through infrared imaging even with the use of a low optical resolution camera (160 × 120 pixels) and a thermal resolution of 0.1 °C. The method could also be used to scan a larger area around the lesion in order to detect the presence of other lesions still not perceptible in the clinical exam. However, it is necessary that a temperature differences mesh-like mapping of the healthy human body skin is produced, so that the comparison of the patient Δ θ could be made with the exact region of such mapping in order to possibly make a more effective diagnosis. Finally, the infrared image analyzed through the

  1. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan; Nagpal, Prashant


    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in biological imaging and photovoltaics. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb3+) , and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er3+ states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increases the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14 fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared, and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong columbic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  2. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep C; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Nagpal, Prashant


    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in photovoltaics and biological imaging. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb(3+)), and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er(3+) states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increase the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Er(3+) ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14-fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong Coulombic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  3. Integrating two spectral imaging systems in an automated mineralogy application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, D


    Full Text Available is treated in batches, with trays of mono-layered material presented to various imaging systems. The identification of target grains is achieved by means of spectral imaging in two wavelength bands (Visible, and Long Wave Infrared). Target grains...

  4. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie


    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  5. Bio-analytical applications of mid-infrared spectroscopy using silver halide fiber-optic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H.M.; Kuepper, L.; Butvina, L.N.


    Infrared-spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful method for the study of various biomedical samples, in particular for in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and for non-invasive diagnostics. In general, the analysis of biofluids such as whole blood, urine, microdialysates and bioreactor broth media takes advantage of the fact that a multitude of analytes can be quantified simultaneously and rapidly without the need for reagents. Progress in the quality of infrared silver halide fibers enabled us to construct several flexible fiber-optic probes of different geometries, which are particularly suitable for the measurement of small biosamples. Recent trends show that dry film measurements by mid-infrared spectroscopy could revolutionize analytical tools in the clinical chemistry laboratory, and an example is given. Infrared diagnostic tools show a promising potential for patients, and minimal-invasive blood glucose assays or skin tissue pathology in particular cannot be left out using mid-infrared fiber-based probes. Other applications include the measurement of skin samples including penetration studies of vitamins and constituents of cosmetic cream formulations. A further field is the micro-domain analysis of biopsy samples from bog mummified corpses, and recent results on the chemistry of dermis and hair samples are reported. Another field of application, for which results are reported, is food analysis and bio-reactor monitoring

  6. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian


    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  8. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef


    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  9. Development of the infrared instrument for gas detection (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Chen, Chia-Ray


    MWIR (Mid-Wave Infrared) spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications, such as gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization. It opens this technique to the fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture and environmental monitoring. However, a major barrier, which is the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost uncooled detectors, have held it back from its widespread use. In this paper an uncooled MWIR detector combined with image enhancement technique is reported. This investigation shows good results in gas leakage detection test. It also verify the functions of self-developed MWIR lens and optics. A good agreement in theoretical design and experiment give us the lessons learned for the potential application in infrared satellite technology. A brief discussions will also be presented in this paper.

  10. Multispectral Applications of Infrared Thermography in the Diagnosis and Protection of Built Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Moropoulou


    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT is a powerful non contact imaging technique, appropriate for the protection of cultural heritage. The National Technical University of Athens research team (scientist responsible: A. Moropoulou, started to use this technique in the early 1990s, in all stages of a conservation project, from decay diagnosis to assessment of conservation interventions and monitoring. The monuments investigated with the aid of this technique belonged to different historical periods, dating from antiquity to modern times. The main products of IRT, thermal maps of surfaces, were evaluated and exploited, based on the demands, special needs and requirements of each application. Additionally, in laboratory scale, many IRT measurements were performed in order to investigate the applicability and limitations of this technique for measuring a material’s thermophysical properties. All these data and accumulated knowledge and experience contributed to a set of recommendations, which enabled us to compile a protocol for the application of this technique in a more standardized way. Moreover, the added value of this practice permitted the successful application and integration of this technique in large-scale conservation projects, such as the Pythian Apollo Temple in Acropolis of Rhodes, during the diagnostic study phase, or at the Holy Aedicule, of the Holy Selphuchre in Jerusalem, during the rehabilitation works.

  11. Near-infrared intraoperative imaging during resection of an anterior mediastinal soft tissue sarcoma. (United States)

    Predina, Jarrod D; Newton, Andrew D; Desphande, Charuhas; Singhal, Sunil


    Sarcomas are rare malignancies that are generally treated with multimodal therapy protocols incorporating complete local resection, chemotherapy and radiation. Unfortunately, even with this aggressive approach, local recurrences are common. Near-infrared intraoperative imaging is a novel technology that provides real-time visual feedback that can improve identification of disease during resection. The presented study describes utilization of a near-infrared agent (indocyanine green) during resection of an anterior mediastinal sarcoma. Real-time fluorescent feedback provided visual information that helped the surgeon during tumor localization, margin assessment and dissection from mediastinal structures. This rapidly evolving technology may prove useful in patients with primary sarcomas arising from other locations or with other mediastinal neoplasms.

  12. Fourier emission infrared microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. I - Application to lubrication problems (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.; King, V. W.


    A far-infrared interferometer was converted into an emission microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. To cover the mid-infrared as well as the far-infrared the Mylar beamsplitter was made replaceable by a germanium-coated salt plate, and the Moire fringe counting system used to locate the moveable Michelson mirror was improved to read 0.5 micron of mirror displacement. Digital electronics and a dedicated minicomputer were installed for data collection and processing. The most critical element for the recording of weak emission spectra from small areas was, however, a reflecting microscope objective and phase-locked signal detection with simultaneous referencing to a blackbody source. An application of the technique to lubrication problems is shown.

  13. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Snow Cover Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of snow cover from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  14. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  15. Fluorescent Bisphosphonate and Carboxyphosphonate Probes: A Versatile Imaging Toolkit for Applications in Bone Biology and Biomedicine. (United States)

    Sun, Shuting; Błażewska, Katarzyna M; Kadina, Anastasia P; Kashemirov, Boris A; Duan, Xuchen; Triffitt, James T; Dunford, James E; Russell, R Graham G; Ebetino, Frank H; Roelofs, Anke J; Coxon, Fraser P; Lundy, Mark W; McKenna, Charles E


    A bone imaging toolkit of 21 fluorescent probes with variable spectroscopic properties, bone mineral binding affinities, and antiprenylation activities has been created, including a novel linking strategy. The linking chemistry allows attachment of a diverse selection of dyes fluorescent in the visible to near-infrared range to any of the three clinically important heterocyclic bisphosphonate bone drugs (risedronate, zoledronate, and minodronate or their analogues). The resultant suite of conjugates offers multiple options to "mix and match" parent drug structure, fluorescence emission wavelength, relative bone affinity, and presence or absence of antiprenylation activity, for bone-related imaging applications.

  16. A method to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Hu, Rui; Wang, Rui-xin


    A simple method has been set up to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance according to the theory of measuring temperature by infrared system, which is based on the Planck radiation law and Lambert-beer law. The object's temperature is promoted and held on by a heater while a temperature difference has been formed between the target and environment. The emissivity of human skin, galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water has been tested under the condition that the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1m. According to the invariance of human's body temperature, a testing curve is established to describe that the thermal imaging temperatures various with the emissivity which is set in from 0.9 to 1.0. As a result, the method has been verified. The testing results show that the emissivity of human skin is 0.95. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water decreases with the increase of object's temperature. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate is far smaller than the one of human skin, black rubber or water. The emissivity of water slowly linearly decreases with the increase of its temperature. By the study, within a small distance and clean atmosphere, the infrared emissivity of objects may be expediently tested with an infrared thermal imaging system according to the method, which is promoting the object's temperature to make it different from the environment temperature, then simultaneously measures the environmental temperature, the real temperature and thermal imaging temperature of the object when the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1.0m.

  17. Noninvasive near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the human retina using adaptive optics. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jung, HaeWon; Liu, Jianfei; Droettboom, Michael; Tam, Johnny


    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contain intrinsic fluorophores that can be visualized using infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). Although IRAF is routinely utilized in the clinic for visualizing retinal health and disease, currently, it is not possible to discern cellular details using IRAF due to limits in resolution. We demonstrate that the combination of adaptive optics (AO) with IRAF (AO-IRAF) enables higher-resolution imaging of the IRAF signal, revealing the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Quantitative analysis of visualized RPE cells in 10 healthy subjects across various eccentricities demonstrates the possibility for in vivo density measurements of RPE cells, which range from 6505 to 5388 cells/mm 2 for the areas measured (peaking at the fovea). We also identified cone photoreceptors in relation to underlying RPE cells, and found that RPE cells support on average up to 18.74 cone photoreceptors in the fovea down to an average of 1.03 cone photoreceptors per RPE cell at an eccentricity of 6 mm. Clinical application of AO-IRAF to a patient with retinitis pigmentosa illustrates the potential for AO-IRAF imaging to become a valuable complementary approach to the current landscape of high resolution imaging modalities.

  18. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases


    G. Heinemann; P. Preusse; R. Spang; S. Adams


    Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI) mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tr...

  19. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud masks from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard...

  20. Role of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the resection of metastatic lymph nodes in an optimized orthotopic animal model of HNSCC. (United States)

    Atallah, I; Milet, C; Quatre, R; Henry, M; Reyt, E; Coll, J-L; Hurbin, A; Righini, C A


    To study the role of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the detection and resection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer. CAL33 head and neck cancer cells of human origin were implanted in the oral cavity of nude mice. The mice were followed up after tumor resection to detect the development of lymph node metastases. A specific fluorescent tracer for αvβ3 integrin expressed by CAL33 cells was injected intravenously in the surviving mice between the second and the fourth month following tumor resection. A near-infrared fluorescence-imaging camera was used to detect tracer uptake in metastatic cervical lymph nodes, to guide of lymph-node resection for histological analysis. Lymph node metastases were observed in 42.8% of surviving mice between the second and the fourth month following orthotopic tumor resection. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging provided real-time intraoperative detection of clinical and subclinical lymph node metastases. These results were confirmed histologically. Near infrared fluorescence imaging provides real-time contrast between normal and malignant tissue, allowing intraoperative detection of metastatic lymph nodes. This preclinical stage is essential before testing the technique in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements (United States)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  2. The Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Mauser


    Full Text Available The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectralimager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which wasconstructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfullydeployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrumentdesign and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system’ssecond generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the datais described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  3. Infrared observations of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, G.S.; Baines, K.H.; Bergstralh, J.T.


    The goal of this research in to obtain infrared data on planetary atmospheres which provide information on several aspects of structure and composition. Observations include direct mission real-time support as well as baseline monitoring preceding mission encounters. Besides providing a broader information context for spacecraft experiment data analysis, observations will provide the quantitative data base required for designing optimum remote sensing sequences and evaluating competing science priorities. In the past year, thermal images of Jupiter and Saturn were made near their oppositions in order to monitor long-term changes in their atmospheres. Infrared images of the Jovian polar stratospheric hot spots were made with IUE observations of auroral emissions. An exploratory 5-micrometer spectrum of Uranus was reduced and accepted for publication. An analysis of time-variability of temperature and cloud properties of the Jovian atomsphere was made. Development of geometric reduction programs for imaging data was initiated for the sun workstation. Near-infrared imaging observations of Jupiter were reduced and a preliminary analysis of cloud properties made. The first images of the full disk of Jupiter with a near-infrared array camera were acquired. Narrow-band (10/cm) images of Jupiter and Saturn were obtained with acousto-optical filters

  4. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation. (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R


    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Deep convective cloud characterizations from both broadband imager and hyperspectral infrared sounder measurements (United States)

    Ai, Yufei; Li, Jun; Shi, Wenjing; Schmit, Timothy J.; Cao, Changyong; Li, Wanbiao


    Deep convective storms have contributed to airplane accidents, making them a threat to aviation safety. The most common method to identify deep convective clouds (DCCs) is using the brightness temperature difference (BTD) between the atmospheric infrared (IR) window band and the water vapor (WV) absorption band. The effectiveness of the BTD method for DCC detection is highly related to the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the WV band. In order to understand the sensitivity of BTD to spectral resolution and SNR for DCC detection, a BTD to noise ratio method using the difference between the WV and IR window radiances is developed to assess the uncertainty of DCC identification for different instruments. We examined the case of AirAsia Flight QZ8501. The brightness temperatures (Tbs) over DCCs from this case are simulated for BTD sensitivity studies by a fast forward radiative transfer model with an opaque cloud assumption for both broadband imager (e.g., Multifunction Transport Satellite imager, MTSAT-2 imager) and hyperspectral IR sounder (e.g., Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instruments; we also examined the relationship between the simulated Tb and the cloud top height. Results show that despite the coarser spatial resolution, BTDs measured by a hyperspectral IR sounder are much more sensitive to high cloud tops than broadband BTDs. As demonstrated in this study, a hyperspectral IR sounder can identify DCCs with better accuracy.

  6. A Method for Quantification of Penetration of Nanoparticles through Skin Layers Using Near-Infrared Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Stees


    Full Text Available Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin and incubated either for three or 24 h post-application, skin tissue was clipped between glass slides prior to imaging for signal intensity across the skin thickness using an optical imaging system. The data show that nanoparticles penetrate through all the layers of the skin but there is almost an exponential decay in the signal intensity from epidermis to dermis. Depending upon the incubation time, about 55%–59% of the total signal was seen in the epidermis and the remaining through dermis and hypodermis. The advantage of the method is that it allows quantitative analysis of the extent of penetration of nanoparticles through different layers of the skin without interference of any background signal from skin tissue, and without requiring extensive tissue processing. Our method could potentially be used to study the effect of nanoparticle properties and/or the use of different formulation additives on penetration of nanoparticles through different skin layers.

  7. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.


    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  8. Firefly: A HOT camera core for thermal imagers with enhanced functionality (United States)

    Pillans, Luke; Harmer, Jack; Edwards, Tim


    Raising the operating temperature of mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors from 80K to above 160K creates new applications for high performance infrared imagers by vastly reducing the size, weight and power consumption of the integrated cryogenic cooler. Realizing the benefits of Higher Operating Temperature (HOT) requires a new kind of infrared camera core with the flexibility to address emerging applications in handheld, weapon mounted and UAV markets. This paper discusses the Firefly core developed to address these needs by Selex ES in Southampton UK. Firefly represents a fundamental redesign of the infrared signal chain reducing power consumption and providing compatibility with low cost, low power Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) computing technology. This paper describes key innovations in this signal chain: a ROIC purpose built to minimize power consumption in the proximity electronics, GPU based image processing of infrared video, and a software customisable infrared core which can communicate wirelessly with other Battlespace systems.

  9. Near-infrared Fluorescence Optical Imaging in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparison to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography. (United States)

    Krohn, Michaela; Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Schicke, Bernd; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Hamm, Bernd; Backhaus, Marina; Hermann, Kay-Geert A


    Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is a novel imaging technology in the detection and evaluation of different arthritides. FOI was validated in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), greyscale ultrasonography (GSUS), and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hands of 31 patients with early RA were examined by FOI, MRI, and US. In each modality, synovitis of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) 2-5, and proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) 2-5 were scored on a 4-point scale (0-3). Sensitivity and specificity of FOI were analyzed in comparison to MRI and US as reference methods, differentiating between 3 phases of FOI enhancement (P1-3). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the agreement of FOI with MRI and US. A total of 279 joints (31 wrists, 124 MCP and 124 PIP joints) were evaluated. With MRI as the reference method, overall sensitivity/specificity of FOI was 0.81/0.00, 0.49/0.84, and 0.86/0.38 for wrist, MCP, and PIP joints, respectively. Under application of PDUS as reference, sensitivity was even higher, while specificity turned out to be low, except for MCP joints (0.88/0.15, 0.81/0.76, and 1.00/0.27, respectively). P2 appears to be the most sensitive FOI phase, while P1 showed the highest specificity. The best agreement of FOI was shown for PDUS, especially with regard to MCP and PIP joints (ICC of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively), while correlation with MRI was slightly lower. FOI remains an interesting diagnostic tool for patients with early RA, although this study revealed limitations concerning the detection of synovitis. Further research is needed to evaluate its full diagnostic potential in rheumatic diseases.

  10. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees (United States)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol


    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  11. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  12. Quantitative assessment of pain-related thermal dysfunction through clinical digital infrared thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frize Monique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some nociceptive and most neuropathic pain pathologies are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to study the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with pain. Assessing thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerised techniques. Methods This paper presents techniques for automated computerised assessment of thermal images of pain, in order to facilitate the physician's decision making. First, the thermal images are pre-processed to reduce the noise introduced during the initial acquisition and to extract the irrelevant background. Then, potential regions of interest are identified using fixed dermatomal subdivisions of the body, isothermal analysis and segmentation techniques. Finally, we assess the degree of asymmetry between contralateral regions of interest using statistical computations and distance measures between comparable regions. Results The wavelet domain-based Poisson noise removal techniques compared favourably against Wiener and other wavelet-based denoising methods, when qualitative criteria were used. It was shown to improve slightly the subsequent analysis. The automated background removal technique based on thresholding and morphological operations was successful for both noisy and denoised images with a correct removal rate of 85% of the images in the database. The automation of the regions of interest (ROIs delimitation process was achieved successfully for images with a good contralateral symmetry. Isothermal division complemented well the fixed ROIs division based on dermatomes, giving a more accurate map of potentially abnormal regions. The measure

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R


    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  14. Reconstructing Face Image from the Thermal Infrared Spectrum to the Visible Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmastro Kresnaraman


    Full Text Available During the night or in poorly lit areas, thermal cameras are a better choice instead of normal cameras for security surveillance because they do not rely on illumination. A thermal camera is able to detect a person within its view, but identification from only thermal information is not an easy task. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the face image of a person from the thermal spectrum to the visible spectrum. After the reconstruction, further image processing can be employed, including identification/recognition. Concretely, we propose a two-step thermal-to-visible-spectrum reconstruction method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. The reconstruction is done by utilizing the relationship between images in both thermal infrared and visible spectra obtained by CCA. The whole image is processed in the first step while the second step processes patches in an image. Results show that the proposed method gives satisfying results with the two-step approach and outperforms comparative methods in both quality and recognition evaluations.

  15. Recent advances in near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging surgery using indocyanine green. (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Takayuki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has better tissue penetration, allowing for the effective rejection of excitation light and detection deep inside organs. Indocyanine green (ICG) generates NIR fluorescence after illumination by an NIR ray, enabling real-time intraoperative visualization of superficial lymphatic channels and vessels transcutaneously. The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) can simultaneously detect NIR rays under room light to provide color imaging, which enables visualization under bright light. Thus, NIR fluorescence imaging using ICG can provide for excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting sentinel lymph nodes in cancer and microvascular circulation in various ischemic diseases, to assist us with intraoperative decision making. Including HEMS in this system could further improve the sentinel lymph node mapping and intraoperative identification of blood supply in reconstructive organs and ischemic diseases, making it more attractive than conventional imaging. Moreover, the development of new laparoscopic imaging systems equipped with NIR will allow fluorescence-guided surgery in a minimally invasive setting. Future directions, including the conjugation of NIR fluorophores to target specific cancer markers might be realistic technology with diagnostic and therapeutic benefits.

  16. A cyanobenzo[a]phenoxazine-based near infrared lysosome-tracker for in cellulo imaging. (United States)

    Sun, Ru; Liu, Wu; Xu, Yu-Jie; Lu, Jian-Mei; Ge, Jian-Feng; Ihara, Masataka


    A cyanobenzo[a]phenoxazine-based pH probe with pKa = 5.0 exhibits OFF-ON emission at 625-850 nm upon excitation at 600 nm in aqueous buffers. The in cellulo imaging experiments with HeLa cells indicate that the probe can serve as a lysosome-specific probe under red light excitation (633 nm) with near infrared emission (650-790 nm).

  17. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.


    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  18. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng


    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Pfood with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which indicated that helping to decrease serum lipid is only part of the health function of Shengyi. The physiology and pathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as

  19. Mid-infrared fiber-coupled supercontinuum spectroscopic imaging using a tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber (United States)

    Rosenberg Petersen, Christian; Prtljaga, Nikola; Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Napier, Bruce; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Bang, Ole


    We present the first demonstration of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of human tissue using a fiber-coupled supercontinuum source spanning from 2-7.5 μm. The supercontinuum was generated in a tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber in order to obtain broad bandwidth, high average power, and single-mode output for good imaging properties. Tissue imaging was demonstrated in transmission by raster scanning over a sub-mm region of paraffinized colon tissue on CaF2 substrate, and the signal was measured using a fiber-coupled grating spectrometer. This demonstration has shown that we can distinguish between epithelial and surrounding connective tissues within a paraffinized section of colon tissue by imaging at discrete wavelengths related to distinct chemical absorption features.

  20. Infrared sensing and the measurement of oil slick thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Goodman, R.H.


    The issue of whether infrared images can be used to detect the thickness of a marine oil spill was discussed. Infrared images of oil spills on water show density variations because of variations in oil temperature and emissivity. These observations have been used to determine thickness variations in the oil. Experiments were conducted in a large wave basin using two typical crude oils in the thickness range of 1 mm to 10 mm. Infrared images of oil spills were recorded and simultaneous thickness measurements were made using an acoustic thickness gauge. The study showed that there is no relationship between infrared image pixel greyness and the thickness measured with an acoustic probe. It was not possible to determine the volume of a spill using infrared images. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Background suppression of infrared small target image based on inter-frame registration (United States)

    Ye, Xiubo; Xue, Bindang


    We propose a multi-frame background suppression method for remote infrared small target detection. Inter-frame information is necessary when the heavy background clutters make it difficult to distinguish real targets and false alarms. A registration procedure based on points matching in image patches is used to compensate the local deformation of background. Then the target can be separated by background subtraction. Experiments show our method serves as an effective preliminary of target detection.

  2. Infrared laser transillumination CT imaging system using parallel fiber arrays and optical switches for finger joint imaging (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Emori, Ryota; Inage, Hiroki; Goto, Masaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Devaraj, Balasigamani; Akatsuka, Takao


    The heterodyne detection technique, on which the coherent detection imaging (CDI) method founds, can discriminate and select very weak, highly directional forward scattered, and coherence retaining photons that emerge from scattering media in spite of their complex and highly scattering nature. That property enables us to reconstruct tomographic images using the same reconstruction technique as that of X-Ray CT, i.e., the filtered backprojection method. Our group had so far developed a transillumination laser CT imaging method based on the CDI method in the visible and near-infrared regions and reconstruction from projections, and reported a variety of tomographic images both in vitro and in vivo of biological objects to demonstrate the effectiveness to biomedical use. Since the previous system was not optimized, it took several hours to obtain a single image. For a practical use, we developed a prototype CDI-based imaging system using parallel fiber array and optical switches to reduce the measurement time significantly. Here, we describe a prototype transillumination laser CT imaging system using fiber-optic based on optical heterodyne detection for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by demonstrating the tomographic imaging of acrylic phantom as well as the fundamental imaging properties. We expect that further refinements of the fiber-optic-based laser CT imaging system could lead to a novel and practical diagnostic tool for rheumatoid arthritis and other joint- and bone-related diseases in human finger.

  3. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites. (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong


    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  4. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) of 3D printed pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad; Edinger, Magnus; Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar


    Hot-melt extrusion and 3D printing are enabling manufacturing approaches for patient-centred medicinal products. Hot-melt extrusion is a flexible and continuously operating technique which is a crucial part of a typical processing cycle of printed medicines. In this work we use hot-melt extrusion...... for manufacturing of medicinal films containing indomethacin (IND) and polycaprolactone (PCL), extruded strands with nitrofurantoin monohydrate (NFMH) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), and feedstocks for 3D printed dosage forms with nitrofurantoin anhydrate (NFAH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA......). These feedstocks were printed into a prototype solid dosage form using a desktop 3D printer. These model formulations were characterized using near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and, more specifically, the image analytical data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR...

  5. Applications and Lessons Learned using Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsen, E. T.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Pagano, T. S.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.


    Applications and Lessons Learned using Data from the Atmospheric Infrared SounderSharon Ray, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. AIRS' involvement in applications is two years in, so what have we learned and what are the pitfalls? AIRS has made gains in drought applications with products under consideration for inclusion in the U.S. Drought Monitor national map, as also with volcano rapid response with an internal alert system and automated products to help characterize plume extent. Efforts are underway with cold air aloft for aviation, influenza outbreak prediction, and vector borne disease. But challenges have occurred both in validation and in crossing the "valley of death" between products and decision makers. AIRS now has improved maps of standard products to be distributed in near real-time via NASA LANCE and by the Goddard DAAC as part of the Obama's administration Big Earth Data Initiative. In addition internal tools have been developed to support development and distribution of our application products. This talk will communicate the status of the AIRS applications effort along with lessons learned, and provide examples of new product imagery designed to best communicate AIRS data.

  6. Dangerous gas detection based on infrared video (United States)

    Ding, Kang; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun


    As the gas leak infrared imaging detection technology has significant advantages of high efficiency and remote imaging detection, in order to enhance the detail perception of observers and equivalently improve the detection limit, we propose a new type of gas leak infrared image detection method, which combines background difference methods and multi-frame interval difference method. Compared to the traditional frame methods, the multi-frame interval difference method we proposed can extract a more complete target image. By fusing the background difference image and the multi-frame interval difference image, we can accumulate the information of infrared target image of the gas leak in many aspect. The experiment demonstrate that the completeness of the gas leakage trace information is enhanced significantly, and the real-time detection effect can be achieved.

  7. Infrared and visual image fusion method based on discrete cosine transform and local spatial frequency in discrete stationary wavelet transform domain (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Lee, Shin-Jye; He, Kangjian


    In order to promote the performance of infrared and visual image fusion and provide better visual effects, this paper proposes a hybrid fusion method for infrared and visual image by the combination of discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and local spatial frequency (LSF). The proposed method has three key processing steps. Firstly, DSWT is employed to decompose the important features of the source image into a series of sub-images with different levels and spatial frequencies. Secondly, DCT is used to separate the significant details of the sub-images according to the energy of different frequencies. Thirdly, LSF is applied to enhance the regional features of DCT coefficients, and it can be helpful and useful for image feature extraction. Some frequently-used image fusion methods and evaluation metrics are employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The experiments indicate that the proposed method can achieve good fusion effect, and it is more efficient than other conventional image fusion methods.

  8. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in golf turfgrass management]. (United States)

    Li, Shu-Ying; Han, Jian-Guo


    The management of golf course is different from other turfs. Its particularity lies in its higher and more precise requirement during maintenance compare with other turfs. In case something happened to turf of golf course, more effective and higher speed detecting and resolution are required. Only the data about turf growth and environment were mastered precisely in time, the friendly environmental and scientific management goal could be completed effectively and economically. The near infrared spectroscopy is a new kind of effective, convenient and non-destructive analytical method in the turfgrass management of golf course in recent years. Many factors of turf-soil system in golf course could be determined by near infrared spectroscopy at the same time. In this paper, the existing literature that use of near infrared spectroscopy to study turfgrass and soil nutrient content, soil hygroscopic moisture, feasible fertilizer application time and rate, to fix the time and volume of irrigation, turfgrass visual quality evaluation, turfgrass disease prediction and prevention were reviewed. Most researchers considered the nutrition condition of turf impacted the visual and playing quality of golf course directly and then indirectly influenced most of assistant cultivation such as fertilization, mowing and irrigation and so on. The using of NIRS can detect the nutrient content of turfgrass effectively and estimate the nutrient is excessive or deficient quickly. And then the feasible time and rate of fertilizers can be decided. Comparing with the common judgment ways based on the season fertilization and visual estimation, the using of NIRS can reduce the application of fertilizers on the base of keeping the same turf quality simultaneously. NIRS can analysis many items of soil such as moisture, elements concentration, textures on the spot by the thousands. This method can get lots of cover-all data non-destructively. What's more, NIRS can analysis soil betimes quickly

  9. Near-infrared II fluorescence for imaging hindlimb vessel regeneration with dynamic tissue perfusion measurement. (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Lee, Jerry C; Jha, Arshi; Diao, Shuo; Nakayama, Karina H; Hou, Luqia; Doyle, Timothy C; Robinson, Joshua T; Antaris, Alexander L; Dai, Hongjie; Cooke, John P; Huang, Ngan F


    Real-time vascular imaging that provides both anatomic and hemodynamic information could greatly facilitate the diagnosis of vascular diseases and provide accurate assessment of therapeutic effects. Here, we have developed a novel fluorescence-based all-optical method, named near-infrared II (NIR-II) fluorescence imaging, to image murine hindlimb vasculature and blood flow in an experimental model of peripheral arterial disease, by exploiting fluorescence in the NIR-II region (1000-1400 nm) of photon wavelengths. Because of the reduced photon scattering of NIR-II fluorescence compared with traditional NIR fluorescence imaging and thus much deeper penetration depth into the body, we demonstrated that the mouse hindlimb vasculature could be imaged with higher spatial resolution than in vivo microscopic computed tomography. Furthermore, imaging during 26 days revealed a significant increase in hindlimb microvascular density in response to experimentally induced ischemia within the first 8 days of the surgery (Pimaging make it a useful imaging tool for murine models of vascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas


    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  11. Clinical application of photodynamic medicine technology using light-emitting fluorescence imaging based on a specialized luminous source. (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Fujisawa, Kazune; Munekage, Eri; Iwabu, Jun; Uemura, Sunao; Tsujii, Shigehiro; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuhara, Hideo; Inoue, Keiji; Sato, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging. The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) can visualize ICG fluorescence as color images simultaneously projected with visible light in real time. This ICG fluorescence method is widely applicable, including for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes, visualization of blood vessels in organ resection, and blood flow evaluation during surgery. Fluorescence navigation by ALA-PDD and NIR using ICG imaging provides good visualization and detection of the target lesions that is not possible with the naked eye. We propose that this technique should be used in fundamental research on the relationship among cellular dynamics, metabolic enzymes, and tumor tissues, and to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety in multicenter cooperative clinical trials.

  12. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir


    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  13. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk† (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi


    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  14. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk† (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi


    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  15. An Application for the Quantitative Analysis of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using a Rapid Switching System Between a Near-Infrared Spectrometer and a Portable Near-Infrared Imaging System Equipped with Fiber Optics. (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Genkawa, Takuma; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    We present a rapid switching system between a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer and its imaging system to select the spot size of a diffuse reflectance (DR) probe. In a previous study, we developed a portable NIR imaging system, known as D-NIRs, which has significant advantages over other systems. Its high speed, high spectral resolution, and portability are particularly useful in the process of monitoring pharmaceutical tablets. However, the spectral accuracies relating to the changes in the formulation of the pharmaceutical tablets have not been fully discussed. Therefore, we improved the rapid optical switching system and present a new model of D-NIRs (ND-NIRs) here. This system can automatically switch the optical paths of the DR and NIR imaging probes, greatly contributing to the simultaneous measurement of both the imaging and spot. The NIR spectra of the model tablets, including 0-10% ascorbic acid, were measured and simultaneous NIR images of the tablets were obtained. The predicted results using spot sizes for the DR probe of 1 and 5 mm diameter, resulted in concentrations of R2 = 0.79 and 0.94, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 1.78 and 0.89, respectively. For tablets with a high concentration of ascorbic acid, the NIR imaging results showed inhomogeneity in concentration. However, the predicted values for the low concentration samples appeared higher than the known concentration of the tablets, although the homogeneity of the concentration was confirmed. In addition, the optimal spot size using NIR imaging data was estimated to be 5-7 mm. The results obtained in this study show that the spot size of the fiber probe, attached to a spectrometer, is important in developing a highly reliable model to determine the component concentration of a tablet.

  16. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Mapped Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  17. Practical protocols for fast histopathology by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (United States)

    Keith, Frances N.; Reddy, Rohith K.; Bhargava, Rohit


    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that combines the molecular selectivity of spectroscopy with the spatial specificity of optical microscopy. We demonstrate a new concept in obtaining high fidelity data using commercial array detectors coupled to a microscope and Michelson interferometer. Next, we apply the developed technique to rapidly provide automated histopathologic information for breast cancer. Traditionally, disease diagnoses are based on optical examinations of stained tissue and involve a skilled recognition of morphological patterns of specific cell types (histopathology). Consequently, histopathologic determinations are a time consuming, subjective process with innate intra- and inter-operator variability. Utilizing endogenous molecular contrast inherent in vibrational spectra, specially designed tissue microarrays and pattern recognition of specific biochemical features, we report an integrated algorithm for automated classifications. The developed protocol is objective, statistically significant and, being compatible with current tissue processing procedures, holds potential for routine clinical diagnoses. We first demonstrate that the classification of tissue type (histology) can be accomplished in a manner that is robust and rigorous. Since data quality and classifier performance are linked, we quantify the relationship through our analysis model. Last, we demonstrate the application of the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform to improve tissue segmentation.

  18. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.


    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  19. Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence. (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Dang, Xiangnan; Huang, Xing; Muzumdar, Mandar D; Xu, Eric S; Bardhan, Neelkanth Manoj; Song, Haiqin; Qi, Ruogu; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Ting; Wei, Wei; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Birrer, Michael J; Belcher, Angela M; Ghoroghchian, P Peter


    Cell-intrinsic reporters such as luciferase (LUC) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) have been commonly utilized in preclinical studies to image tumor growth and to monitor therapeutic responses. While extrinsic reporters that emit near infrared I (NIR-I: 650-950 nm) or near-infrared II (NIR-II: 1000-1700 nm) optical signals have enabled minimization of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, it has remained unclear as to whether their use has afforded more accurate tumor imaging in small animals. Here, we developed a novel optical imaging construct comprised of rare earth lanthanide nanoparticles coated with biodegradable diblock copolymers and doped with organic fluorophores, generating NIR-I and NIR-II emissive bands upon optical excitation. Simultaneous injection of multiple spectrally-unique nanoparticles into mice bearing tumor implants established via intraperitoneal dissemination of LUC + /RFP + OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells enabled direct comparisons of imaging with extrinsic vs. intrinsic reporters, NIR-II vs. NIR-I signals, as well as targeted vs. untargeted exogenous contrast agents in the same animal and over time. We discovered that in vivo optical imaging at NIR-II wavelengths facilitates more accurate detection of smaller and earlier tumor deposits, offering enhanced sensitivity, improved spatial contrast, and increased depths of tissue penetration as compared to imaging with visible or NIR-I fluorescent agents. Our work further highlights the hitherto underappreciated enhancements in tumor accumulation that may be achieved with intraperitoneal as opposed to intravenous administration of nanoparticles. Lastly, we found discrepancies in the fidelity of tumor uptake that could be obtained by utilizing small molecules for in vivo as opposed to in vitro targeting of nanoparticles to disseminated tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...

  1. IRDye78 Conjugates for Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Zaheer


    Full Text Available The detection of human malignancies by near-infrared (NIR fluorescence will require the conjugation of cancer-specific ligands to NIR fluorophores that have optimal photoproperties and pharmacokinetics. IRDye78, a tetra-sulfonated heptamethine indocyanine NIR fluorophore, meets most of the criteria for an in vivo imaging agent, and is available as an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for conjugation to low-molecular-weight ligands. However, IRDye78 has a high charge-to-mass ratio, complicating purification of conjugates. It also has a potentially labile linkage between fluorophore and ligand. We have developed an ion-pairing purification strategy for IRDye78 that can be performed with a standard C18 column under neutral conditions, thus preserving the stability of fluorophore, ligand, and conjugate. By employing parallel evaporative light scatter and absorbance detectors, all reactants and products are identified, and conjugate purity is maximized. We describe reversible and irreversible conversions of IRDye78 that can occur during sample purification, and describe methods for preserving conjugate stability. Using seven ligands, spanning several classes of small molecules and peptides (neutral, charged, and/or hydrophobic, we illustrate the robustness of these methods, and confirm that IRDye78 conjugates so purified retain bioactivity and permit NIR fluorescence imaging of specific targets.

  2. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Meyer, Elliot; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc


    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82μm (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19-1.37μm (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000. The center wavelengths for each grating are 1.629μm and 1.27μm, and the groove densities are 177l/mm and 440l/mm for H-band R=4000 and J-band R=8000, respectively. We directly measure the efficiencies in the lab and find that the peak efficiencies of these two types of gratings are quite good with a peak efficiency of ~88% at the Bragg angle in both TM and TE modes at H-band, and 90.23% in TM mode, 79.91% in TE mode at J-band for the best vendor. We determine the drop in efficiency off the Bragg angle, with a 20-23% decrease in efficiency at H-band when 2.5° deviation from the Bragg angle, and 25%-28% decrease at J-band when 5° deviation from the Bragg angle.

  3. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data (United States)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)


    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  4. SCC500: next-generation infrared imaging camera core products with highly flexible architecture for unique camera designs (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Roy N.; Grealish, Kevin; Kacir, Tom; Arsenault, Barry; Murphy, Robert H.; Miller, Scott


    A new 4th generation MicroIR architecture is introduced as the latest in the highly successful Standard Camera Core (SCC) series by BAE SYSTEMS to offer an infrared imaging engine with greatly reduced size, weight, power, and cost. The advanced SCC500 architecture provides great flexibility in configuration to include multiple resolutions, an industry standard Real Time Operating System (RTOS) for customer specific software application plug-ins, and a highly modular construction for unique physical and interface options. These microbolometer based camera cores offer outstanding and reliable performance over an extended operating temperature range to meet the demanding requirements of real-world environments. A highly integrated lens and shutter is included in the new SCC500 product enabling easy, drop-in camera designs for quick time-to-market product introductions.

  5. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Daytime Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties (DCOMP) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of daytime cloud optical and microphysical properties (DCOMP) from the Visible Infrared Imaging...

  6. Research of Infrared Imaging at Atmospheric Pressure Using a Substrate-Free Focal Plane Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian-Xiong; Cheng Teng; Zhang Qing-Chuan; Zhang Yong; Mao Liang; Gao Jie; Wu Xiao-Ping; Chen Da-Peng


    An equivalent circuit model to the substrate-free focal plane array (FPA) is established. Using this fast and effective model, the performance of infrared (IR) imaging at atmospheric pressure is investigated and it is found that the substrate-free FPA has the ability of IR imaging at atmospheric pressure, whereas it has a slightly degraded noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) as compared with IR imaging under a high vacuum. This feature is also identified experimentally by a substrate-free FPA with pixel size of 50 × 50 μm 2 . The NETDs are measured to be 160 mK at 10 −2 Pa pressure and 1.08 K at atmospheric pressure

  7. Zinc Phthalocyanine Labelled Polyethylene Glycol: Preparation, Characterization, Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin and Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Liu


    Full Text Available Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method.

  8. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena


    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  9. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder. (United States)

    Xiong, Yabo; Huang, Shaoyun; Wang, Wenqi; Liu, Xinghai; Li, Houbin


    Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR) composite films were not significantly influenced ( p ≥ 0.05) by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.

  10. SU-E-P-10: Imaging in the Cardiac Catheterization Lab - Technologies and Clinical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, K


    Purpose: Diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is often aided by a multitude of imaging technologies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the contributions to patient care offered by the various imaging systems used during cardiovascular interventional procedures. Methods: Imaging technologies used in the cardiac catheterization lab were characterized by their fundamental technology and by the clinical applications for which they are used. Whether the modality is external to the patient, intravascular, or intracavity was specified. Specific clinical procedures for which multiple modalities are routinely used will be highlighted. Results: X-ray imaging modalities include fluoroscopy/angiography and angiography CT. Ultrasound imaging is performed with external, trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE), and intravascular (IVUS) transducers. Intravascular infrared optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is used to assess vessel endothelium. Relatively large (>0.5 mm) anatomical structures are imaged with x-ray and ultrasound. IVUS and IVOCT provide high resolution images of vessel walls. Cardiac CT and MRI images are used to plan complex cardiovascular interventions. Advanced applications are used to spatially and temporally merge images from different technologies. Diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease frequently utilizes angiography and intra-vascular imaging, and treatment of complex structural heart conditions routinely includes use of multiple imaging modalities. Conclusion: There are several imaging modalities which are routinely used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to diagnose and treat both coronary artery and structural heart disease. Multiple modalities are frequently used to enhance the quality and safety of procedures. The cardiac catheterization laboratory includes many opportunities for medical physicists to contribute substantially toward advancing patient care

  11. A review of performance of near-infrared fluorescence imaging devices used in clinical studies (United States)

    Zhu, B


    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging holds great promise as a new “point-of-care” medical imaging modality that can potentially provide the sensitivity of nuclear medicine techniques, but without the radioactivity that can otherwise place limitations of usage. Recently, NIRF imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged in the market and in investigational clinical studies using indocyanine green (ICG) as a non-targeting NIRF contrast agent to demark the blood and lymphatic vasculatures both non-invasively and intraoperatively. Approved in the USA since 1956 for intravenous administration, ICG has been more recently used off label in intradermal or subcutaneous administrations for fluorescence imaging of the lymphatic vasculature and lymph nodes. Herein, we summarize the devices of a variety of designs, summarize their performance in lymphatic imaging in a tabular format and comment on necessary efforts to develop standards for device performance to compare and use these emerging devices in future, NIRF molecular imaging studies. PMID:25410320

  12. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy


    Birarda, Giovanni


    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  13. A novel duct-lobular segmentectomy for breast tumors with nipple discharge using near-infrared indocyanine green fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohno


    Full Text Available A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pathological nipple discharge from her left breast. Ultrasonography revealed a solid tumor beneath her left areola that measured 17 mm in diameter with a dilated mammary duct. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed an early-enhanced cystic tumor and a dilated mammary duct. We performed a duct-lobular segmentectomy using near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG-fluorescence imaging. Under general anesthesia, a silicone tube was inserted into an orifice of a fluid-discharging mammary duct, and 1 mL dye-fluorescence liquid containing ICG and indigo carmine was injected into the mammary duct. A periareolar incision was made, and the fluorescence image of the demarcated mammary duct segment was obtained. The mammary duct segment was dissected, along with the demarcation line. The cystic lesion and dilated mammary duct were fully resected, and the pathological diagnosis was intraductal papilloma of the breast. We report that near-infrared ICG fluorescence could be applied for imaging of the mammary duct segment, and the fluorescence image allowed for easier duct-lobular segmentectomy for nipple discharge.

  14. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.


    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  15. WE-FG-202-01: Early Prediction of Radiotherapy Induced Skin Reactions Using Dynamic Infrared Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, N [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Cifter, G [Boston, MA (United States); Sun, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Sen, N; Wang, D; Diaz, A; Griem, K [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Oak Brook, IL (United States)


    Purpose: To predict radiotherapy induced skin reactions using dynamic infrared imaging. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our homebuilt system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 oC from ∼1 ms flashes. The camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image, a baseline skin temperature was recorded for 0.5sec before heat impulse. The temporal temperature gradients were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point 9sec after that. Thermal effusivity, an intrinsic thermal property of a material, was calculated from the surface temperature decay of skin. We present experimental data in five patients undergoing radiation therapy, of which 2 were Head & Neck, 1 was Sarcoma and 2 were Breast cancer patients. The prescribed doses were 45 – 60 Gy in 25 – 30 fractions. Each patient was imaged before treatment and after every fifth fraction until end of the treatment course. An area on the skin, outside the radiation field, was imaged as control region. During imaging, each patient’s irradiated skins were scored based on RTOG skin morbidity scoring criteria. Results: Temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue. It was observed that, the skin temperature and temporal temperature gradient increases with delivered radiation dose and skin RTOG score. The treatment does not change effusivity of superficial skin layer, however there was a significant difference in effusivity between treated and control areas at depth of ∼ 1.5 – 1.8 mm, increases with dose. Conclusion: The higher temporal temperature gradient and effusivity from irradiated areas suggest that there is more fluid under the irradiated skin, which causes faster temperature recovery. The mentioned effects may be predictors of Moist Desquamation.

  16. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.


    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  17. Design of a compact athermalized infrared seeker (United States)

    Gao, Qing-jia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang


    In order to meet the application requirement of a certain long wavelength infrared (LWIR) seeker, a small volume, light weight and passively athermalized infrared (IR) objective is designed in this paper. The two-lens telephoto structure is adopted by merely using aluminum alloy as the housing material. By balancing the thermo-optical coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of materials, an athermalized IR seeker with effective focal length of 90 mm and F number of 1.2 is achieved. The whole optical length is 75 mm, and the weight is only 234 g. The objective can remain fine imaging quality under temperature range from -40 °C to 60 °C, which is beneficial to the lightweight design of IR seekers.

  18. A matter of collection and detection for intraoperative and noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging: To see or not to see? (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.


    Purpose: Although fluorescence molecular imaging is rapidly evolving as a new combinational drug/device technology platform for molecularly guided surgery and noninvasive imaging, there remains no performance standards for efficient translation of “first-in-humans” fluorescent imaging agents using these devices. Methods: The authors employed a stable, solid phantom designed to exaggerate the confounding effects of tissue light scattering and to mimic low concentrations (nM–pM) of near-infrared fluorescent dyes expected clinically for molecular imaging in order to evaluate and compare the commonly used charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems employed in preclinical studies and in human investigational studies. Results: The results show that intensified CCD systems offer greater contrast with larger signal-to-noise ratios in comparison to their unintensified CCD systems operated at clinically reasonable, subsecond acquisition times. Conclusions: Camera imaging performance could impact the success of future “first-in-humans” near-infrared fluorescence imaging agent studies. PMID:24506637

  19. Detector with internal gain for short-wave infrared ranging applications (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman


    Abstarct.Highly sensitive photon detectors are regarded as the key enabling elements in many applications. Due to the low photon energy at the short-wave infrared (SWIR), photon detection and imaging at this band are very challenging. As such, many efforts in photon detector research are directed toward improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. To solve these problems, we have developed an electron-injection (EI) technique. The significance of this detection mechanism is that it can provide both high efficiency and high sensitivity at room temperature, a condition that is very difficult to achieve in conventional SWIR detectors. An EI detector offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement due to a feedback stabilized internal avalanche-free gain. Devices exhibit an excess noise of unity, operate in linear mode, require bias voltage of a few volts, and have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. We review the material system, operating principle, and development of EI detectors. The shortcomings of the first-generation devices were addressed in the second-generation detectors. Measurement on second-generation devices showed a high-speed response of ˜6 ns rise time, low jitter of less than 20 ps, high amplification of more than 2000 (at optical power levels larger than a few nW), unity excess noise factor, and low leakage current (amplified dark current ˜10 nA at a bias voltage of -3 V and at room temperature. These characteristics make EI detectors a good candidate for high-resolution flash light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications with millimeter scale depth resolution at longer ranges compared with conventional p-i-n diodes. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, we compare the performance of the EI detector with commercially available linear mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) as well as a p-i-n diode using a theoretical model. Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model show that the EI

  20. Gaussian mixture models-based ship target recognition algorithm in remote sensing infrared images (United States)

    Yao, Shoukui; Qin, Xiaojuan


    Since the resolution of remote sensing infrared images is low, the features of ship targets become unstable. The issue of how to recognize ships with fuzzy features is an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ship target recognition algorithm based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). In the proposed algorithm, there are mainly two steps. At the first step, the Hu moments of these ship target images are calculated, and the GMMs are trained on the moment features of ships. At the second step, the moment feature of each ship image is assigned to the trained GMMs for recognition. Because of the scale, rotation, translation invariance property of Hu moments and the power feature-space description ability of GMMs, the GMMs-based ship target recognition algorithm can recognize ship reliably. Experimental results of a large simulating image set show that our approach is effective in distinguishing different ship types, and obtains a satisfactory ship recognition performance.

  1. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development. (United States)

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G


    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Visualization and analysis of pulsed ion beam energy density profile with infrared imaging (United States)

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.


    Infrared imaging technique was used as a surface temperature-mapping tool to characterize the energy density distribution of intense pulsed ion beams on a thin metal target. The technique enables the measuring of the total ion beam energy and the energy density distribution along the cross section and allows one to optimize the operation of an ion diode and control target irradiation mode. The diagnostics was tested on the TEMP-4M accelerator at TPU, Tomsk, Russia and on the TEMP-6 accelerator at DUT, Dalian, China. The diagnostics was applied in studies of the dynamics of the target cooling in vacuum after irradiation and in the experiments with target ablation. Errors caused by the target ablation and target cooling during measurements have been analyzed. For Fluke Ti10 and Fluke Ti400 infrared cameras, the technique can achieve surface energy density sensitivity of 0.05 J/cm2 and spatial resolution of 1-2 mm. The thermal imaging diagnostics does not require expensive consumed materials. The measurement time does not exceed 0.1 s; therefore, this diagnostics can be used for the prompt evaluation of the energy density distribution of a pulsed ion beam and during automation of the irradiation process.

  3. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos (United States)


    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  4. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings. (United States)

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva


    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  5. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance. (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M Laird


    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum dots and gold particles, since most existing carbon-based nanoparticles, including fluorescent nanodiamonds, do not have sufficient optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range. A new DND by He+ ion beam irradiation with very high NIR absorption was synthesized. These DNDs produced a 71-fold higher PA signal on a molar basis than similarly dimensioned gold nanorods, and 7.1 fmol of DNDs injected into rodents could be clearly imaged 3 mm below the skin surface with PA signal enhancement of 567% using an 820-nm laser wavelength.

  6. An embedded face-classification system for infrared images on an FPGA (United States)

    Soto, Javier E.; Figueroa, Miguel


    We present a face-classification architecture for long-wave infrared (IR) images implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact and low power, can recognize faces in real time and be embedded in a larger image-processing and computer vision system operating locally on an IR camera. The algorithm uses Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to perform feature extraction on each IR image. First, each pixel in the image is represented as an LBP pattern that encodes the similarity between the pixel and its neighbors. Uniform LBP codes are then used to reduce the number of patterns to 59 while preserving more than 90% of the information contained in the original LBP representation. Then, the image is divided into 64 non-overlapping regions, and each region is represented as a 59-bin histogram of patterns. Finally, the algorithm concatenates all 64 regions to create a 3,776-bin spatially enhanced histogram. We reduce the dimensionality of this histogram using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), which improves clustering and enables us to store an entire database of 53 subjects on-chip. During classification, the circuit applies LBP and LDA to each incoming IR image in real time, and compares the resulting feature vector to each pattern stored in the local database using the Manhattan distance. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx Artix-7 XC7A100T FPGA and tested it with the UCHThermalFace database, which consists of 28 81 x 150-pixel images of 53 subjects in indoor and outdoor conditions. The circuit achieves a 98.6% hit ratio, trained with 16 images and tested with 12 images of each subject in the database. Using a 100 MHz clock, the circuit classifies 8,230 images per second, and consumes only 309mW.

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Surface Temperature (IST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  8. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Height (CTH) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  10. JPSS NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  12. Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-infrared tomographic images: Part I--Theory and simulations. (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W; Song, Xiaomei; Tosteson, Tor D; McBride, Troy O; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D


    Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse tomography is an emerging method for imaging the interior of tissues to quantify concentrations of hemoglobin and exogenous chromophores non-invasively in vivo. It often exploits an optical diffusion model-based image reconstruction algorithm to estimate spatial property values from measurements of the light flux at the surface of the tissue. In this study, mean-squared error (MSE) over the image is used to evaluate methods for regularizing the ill-posed inverse image reconstruction problem in NIR tomography. Estimates of image bias and image standard deviation were calculated based upon 100 repeated reconstructions of a test image with randomly distributed noise added to the light flux measurements. It was observed that the bias error dominates at high regularization parameter values while variance dominates as the algorithm is allowed to approach the optimal solution. This optimum does not necessarily correspond to the minimum projection error solution, but typically requires further iteration with a decreasing regularization parameter to reach the lowest image error. Increasing measurement noise causes a need to constrain the minimum regularization parameter to higher values in order to achieve a minimum in the overall image MSE.

  13. Imaging of phase change materials below a capping layer using correlative infrared near-field microscopy and electron microscopy (United States)

    Lewin, M.; Hauer, B.; Bornhöfft, M.; Jung, L.; Benke, J.; Michel, A.-K. U.; Mayer, J.; Wuttig, M.; Taubner, T.


    Phase Change Materials (PCM) show two stable states in the solid phase with significantly different optical and electronic properties. They can be switched reversibly between those two states and are promising candidates for future non-volatile memory applications. The development of phase change devices demands characterization tools, yielding information about the switching process at high spatial resolution. Scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) allows for spectroscopic analyses of the different optical properties of the PCMs on the nm-scale. By correlating the optical s-SNOM images with transmission electron microscopy images of the same sample, we unambiguously demonstrate the correlation of the infrared optical contrast with the structural state of the phase change material. The investigated sample consists of sandwiched amorphous and crystalline regions of Ag 4 In 3 Sb 67 Te 26 below a 100 nm thick ( ZnS ) 80 - ( SiO2 ) 20 capping layer. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of s-SNOM to small dielectric near-field contrasts even below a comparably thick capping layer ( 100 nm ).

  14. Real time imaging of infrared scene data generated by the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system (United States)

    Baca, Michael J.


    A system to display images generated by the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (a modified AN/SAR-8 Advanced Development Model) in near real time was developed using a 33 MHz NIC computer as the central controller. This computer was enhanced with a Data Translation DT2861 Frame Grabber for image processing and an interface board designed and constructed at NPS to provide synchronization between the IRSTD and Frame Grabber. Images are displayed in false color in a video raster format on a 512 by 480 pixel resolution monitor. Using FORTRAN, programs have been written to acquire, unscramble, expand and display a 3 deg sector of data. The time line for acquisition, processing and display has been analyzed and repetition periods of less than four seconds for successive screen displays have been achieved. This represents a marked improvement over previous methods necessitating slower Direct Memory Access transfers of data into the Frame Grabber. Recommendations are made for further improvements to enhance the speed and utility of images produced.

  15. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.


    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  16. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  17. Clinical trials in near infrared fluorescence imaging with IRDye 800CW (United States)

    Draney, Daniel R.


    A monofunctional, heptamethine dye, IRDye® 800CW, is being manufactured under GMP conditions for use in human clinical trials. When attached to a suitable targeting agent and paired with an appropriate camera system, the dye allows Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of tumor tissue during surgery. The talk will describe the properties of the dye and give an overview of current and planned clinical trials in Europe and the USA. The dye is available in both the NHS ester and carboxylate forms for conjugation to targeting molecules. A GMP toxicology study of the dye was described in a previous publication.

  18. Size selectivity of magnetite core- (Ag/Au) shell nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications (United States)

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan


    The magnetic and optical properties of nanomaterials play a significant role in the selection of the materials to be used for contrast enhancement in different biological and cell imaging techniques. These nanoparticles can also be used as drug delivery agents. The calculation of absorption efficiency and surface plasmon resonance wavelength has been performed using Mie theory and MATLAB programs. The study of spectrum calculated indicates the dependence of several optical properties such as resonance and absorption efficiency peak on ratio of core radius to the thickness of shell. A systematic study on the effect of nanoparticle dimension has been presented which clearly indicates that the optical properties can be modulated across the visible and near infrared range by changing these parameters. These properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for their application as multimodal imaging agents as they are also magnetically active and biocompatible.

  19. Field Imaging Spectroscopy. Applications in Earthquake Geology (United States)

    Ragona, D.; Minster, B.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fialko, Y.; Jussila, J.; Blom, R.


    Field Imaging Spectroscopy in the visible and infrared sections of the spectrum can be used as a technique to assist paleoseismological studies. Submeter range hyperspectral images of paleoseismic excavations can assist the analyisis and interpretation of the earthquake history of a site. They also provide an excellent platform for storage of the stratigraphic and structural information collected from such a site. At the present, most field data are collected descriptively. This greatly enhances the range of information that can be recorded in the field. The descriptions are documented on hand drawn field logs and/or photomosaics constructed from individual photographs. Recently developed portable hyperspectral sensors acquire high-quality spectroscopic information at high spatial resolution (pixel size ~ 0.5 mm at 50 cm) over frequencies ranging from the visible band to short wave infrared. The new data collection and interpretation methodology that we are developing (Field Imaging Spectroscopy) makes available, for the first time, a tool to quantitatively analyze paleoseismic and stratigraphic information. The reflectance spectra of each sub-millimeter portion of the material are stored in a 3-D matrix (hyperspectral cube) that can be analyzed by visual inspection, or by using a large variety of algorithms. The reflectance spectrum is related to the chemical composition and physical properties of the surface therefore hyperspectral images are capable of revealing subtle changes in texture, composition and weathering. For paleoseismic studies, we are primarily interested in distinguishing changes between layers at a given site (spectral stratigraphy) rather than the precise composition of the layers, although this is an added benefit. We have experimented with push-broom (panoramic) portable scanners, and acquired data form portions of fault exposures and cores. These images were processed using well-known imaging processing algorithms, and the results have being

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Base Height (CBH) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Base Heights (CBH) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  1. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  2. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Cover Layer (CCL) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Cover Layers (CCL) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  3. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  4. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  5. [Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging]. (United States)

    Schmitz-Valckenberg, S


    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging allows for non-invasive mapping of changes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium/photoreceptor complex and of alterations of macular pigment distribution. This imaging method is based on the visualisation of intrinsic fluorophores and may be easily and rapidly used in routine patient care. Main applications include degenerative disorders of the outer retina such as age-related macular degeneration, hereditary and acquired retinal diseases. FAF imaging is particularly helpful for differential diagnosis, detection and extent of involved retinal areas, structural-functional correlations and monitoring of changes over time. Recent developments include - in addition to the original application of short wavelength light for excitation ("blue" FAF imaging) - the use of other wavelength ranges ("green" or "near-infrared" FAF imaging), widefield imaging for visualisation of peripheral retinal areas and quantitative FAF imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Long-term reduction in infrared autofluorescence caused by infrared light below the maximum permissible exposure. (United States)

    Masella, Benjamin D; Williams, David R; Fischer, William S; Rossi, Ethan A; Hunter, Jennifer J


    Many retinal imaging instruments use infrared wavelengths to reduce the risk of light damage. However, we have discovered that exposure to infrared illumination causes a long-lasting reduction in infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). We have characterized the dependence of this effect on radiant exposure and investigated its origin. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to obtain IRAF images from two macaques before and after exposure to 790-nm light (15-450 J/cm(2)). Exposures were performed with either raster-scanning or uniform illumination. Infrared autofluorescence images also were obtained in two humans exposed to 790-nm light in a separate study. Humans were assessed with direct ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann visual fields, multifocal ERG, and photopic microperimetry to determine whether these measures revealed any effects in the exposed locations. A significant decrease in IRAF after exposure to infrared light was seen in both monkeys and humans. In monkeys, the magnitude of this reduction increased with retinal radiant exposure. Partial recovery was seen at 1 month, with full recovery within 21 months. Consistent with a photochemical origin, IRAF decreases caused by either raster-scanning or uniform illumination were not significantly different. We were unable to detect any effect of the light exposure with any measure other than IRAF imaging. We cannot exclude the possibility that changes could be detected with more sensitive tests or longer follow-up. This long-lasting effect of infrared illumination in both humans and monkeys occurs at exposure levels four to five times below current safety limits. The photochemical basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) as a process monitoring solution for a production line of roll compaction and tableting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Sun, Changquan Calvin


    In the present study the application of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) supported by chemometric modeling as non-destructive tool for monitoring and assessing the roller compaction and tableting processes was investigated. Based on preliminary risk-assessment, discussion with experts...... compound for both roller compacted ribbons and corresponding tablets. In order to select the optimal process, setting the standard deviation of tablet tensile strength and tablet weight for each tablet batch was considered. Strong linear correlation between tablet tensile strength and amount of fines...... and granule size was established, respectively. These approaches are considered to have a potentially large impact on quality monitoring and control of continuously operating manufacturing lines, such as roller compaction and tableting processes....

  8. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.


    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  9. Visualization and prediction of porosity in roller compacted ribbonswith near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Sonnergaard, Jørn


    The porosity of roller compacted ribbon is recognized as an important critical quality attribute which has a huge impact on the final product quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) for porosity estimation of ribbons produced...... and control of continuously operating roller compaction line....

  10. Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in Nanodiamonds: Cathodoluminescence Imaging Marker in the Near Infrared


    Zhang, Huiliang; Aharonovich, Igor; Glenn, David R.; Schalek, R.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.


    We demonstrate that nanodiamonds fabricated to incorporate silicon-vacancy (Si-V) color centers provide bright, spectrally narrow, and stable cathodoluminescence (CL) in the near-infrared. Si-V color centers containing nanodiamonds are promising as non-bleaching optical markers for correlated CL and secondary electron microscopy, including applications to nanoscale bioimaging.

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Type and Phase Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud type and phase from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Thickness and Age Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ice Thickness and Age from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  13. Using infrared HOG-based pedestrian detection for outdoor autonomous searching UAV with embedded system (United States)

    Shao, Yanhua; Mei, Yanying; Chu, Hongyu; Chang, Zhiyuan; He, Yuxuan; Zhan, Huayi


    Pedestrian detection (PD) is an important application domain in computer vision and pattern recognition. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a major field of research in recent years. In this paper, an algorithm for a robust pedestrian detection method based on the combination of the infrared HOG (IR-HOG) feature and SVM is proposed for highly complex outdoor scenarios on the basis of airborne IR image sequences from UAV. The basic flow of our application operation is as follows. Firstly, the thermal infrared imager (TAU2-336), which was installed on our Outdoor Autonomous Searching (OAS) UAV, is used for taking pictures of the designated outdoor area. Secondly, image sequences collecting and processing were accomplished by using high-performance embedded system with Samsung ODROID-XU4 and Ubuntu as the core and operating system respectively, and IR-HOG features were extracted. Finally, the SVM is used to train the pedestrian classifier. Experiment show that, our method shows promising results under complex conditions including strong noise corruption, partial occlusion etc.

  14. Background Registration-Based Adaptive Noise Filtering of LWIR/MWIR Imaging Sensors for UAV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Hak Kim


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are equipped with optical systems including an infrared (IR camera such as electro-optical IR (EO/IR, target acquisition and designation sights (TADS, or forward looking IR (FLIR. However, images obtained from IR cameras are subject to noise such as dead pixels, lines, and fixed pattern noise. Nonuniformity correction (NUC is a widely employed method to reduce noise in IR images, but it has limitations in removing noise that occurs during operation. Methods have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the NUC method, such as two-point correction (TPC and scene-based NUC (SBNUC. However, these methods still suffer from unfixed pattern noise. In this paper, a background registration-based adaptive noise filtering (BRANF method is proposed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods. The proposed BRANF method utilizes background registration processing and robust principle component analysis (RPCA. In addition, image quality verification methods are proposed that can measure the noise filtering performance quantitatively without ground truth images. Experiments were performed for performance verification with middle wave infrared (MWIR and long wave infrared (LWIR images obtained from practical military optical systems. As a result, it is found that the image quality improvement rate of BRANF is 30% higher than that of conventional NUC.

  15. Background Registration-Based Adaptive Noise Filtering of LWIR/MWIR Imaging Sensors for UAV Applications (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Min Young; Chae, You Seong


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are equipped with optical systems including an infrared (IR) camera such as electro-optical IR (EO/IR), target acquisition and designation sights (TADS), or forward looking IR (FLIR). However, images obtained from IR cameras are subject to noise such as dead pixels, lines, and fixed pattern noise. Nonuniformity correction (NUC) is a widely employed method to reduce noise in IR images, but it has limitations in removing noise that occurs during operation. Methods have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the NUC method, such as two-point correction (TPC) and scene-based NUC (SBNUC). However, these methods still suffer from unfixed pattern noise. In this paper, a background registration-based adaptive noise filtering (BRANF) method is proposed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods. The proposed BRANF method utilizes background registration processing and robust principle component analysis (RPCA). In addition, image quality verification methods are proposed that can measure the noise filtering performance quantitatively without ground truth images. Experiments were performed for performance verification with middle wave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) images obtained from practical military optical systems. As a result, it is found that the image quality improvement rate of BRANF is 30% higher than that of conventional NUC. PMID:29280970

  16. Background Registration-Based Adaptive Noise Filtering of LWIR/MWIR Imaging Sensors for UAV Applications. (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Min Young; Chae, You Seong


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are equipped with optical systems including an infrared (IR) camera such as electro-optical IR (EO/IR), target acquisition and designation sights (TADS), or forward looking IR (FLIR). However, images obtained from IR cameras are subject to noise such as dead pixels, lines, and fixed pattern noise. Nonuniformity correction (NUC) is a widely employed method to reduce noise in IR images, but it has limitations in removing noise that occurs during operation. Methods have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the NUC method, such as two-point correction (TPC) and scene-based NUC (SBNUC). However, these methods still suffer from unfixed pattern noise. In this paper, a background registration-based adaptive noise filtering (BRANF) method is proposed to overcome the limitations of conventional methods. The proposed BRANF method utilizes background registration processing and robust principle component analysis (RPCA). In addition, image quality verification methods are proposed that can measure the noise filtering performance quantitatively without ground truth images. Experiments were performed for performance verification with middle wave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) images obtained from practical military optical systems. As a result, it is found that the image quality improvement rate of BRANF is 30% higher than that of conventional NUC.

  17. Optics Alignment of a Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared Interferometer BETTII (United States)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Mundy, Lee; Sampler, Henry; Juanola Parramon, Roser; Veach, Todd; Fixsen, Dale; Vila Hernandez De Lorenzo, Jor; Silverberg, Robert F.


    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-m baseline far-infrared (FIR: 30 90 micrometer) interferometer providing spatially resolved spectroscopy. The initial scientific focus of BETTII is on clustered star formation, but this capability likely has a much broader scientific application.One critical step in developing an interferometer, such as BETTII, is the optical alignment of the system. We discuss how we determine alignment sensitivities of different optical elements on the interferogram outputs. Accordingly, an alignment plan is executed that makes use of a laser tracker and theodolites for precise optical metrology of both the large external optics and the small optics inside the cryostat. We test our alignment on the ground by pointing BETTII to bright near-infrared sources and obtaining their images in the track