WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared dust bubble

  1. The multiwavelength study of the infrared dust bubble S51

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuan Peng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the environment of the infrared dust bubble S51 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings. We perform a multiwavelength study of the region around S51 with data taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, IRAS and MALT90. We analyze the spectral profile and the distribution of the molecular gas (13CO, C18O, HCN, HNC, HCO+, C2H, N2H+ and HC3N), and dust in the environment of S51. We use mid-infrared emission three-color image to explore the physical environment and GLIMPSE color-color diagram [5.8]-[8.0] versus [3.6]-[4.5] to search for young stellar objects and identify the ionizing star candidates. From a comparison of the morphology of the molecular gas and the Spitzer 8.0 \\mu m emission, we conclude that the dust bubble is interacting with CO at a kinematic distance of 3.4 kpc. The bubble S51 structure, carried with shell and front side, is exhibited with 13CO and C18O emission. Both outflow and inflow may exist in sources in the shell of bubble S51...

  2. Star formation associated with the infrared dust bubble N68

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Peng Zhang; Jun-Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the environment of the infrared dust bubble N68 and searched for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings.We performed a multiwavelength study of the nebula with data taken from several large-scale surveys:GLIMPSE,MIPSGAL,IRAS,NVSS,GRS and JCMT.We analyzed the spectral profile and the distribution of the molecular gas (13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2),and the dust in the environment of N68.The position-velocity diagram clearly shows that N68 may be expanding outward.We used two three-color images of the mid-infrared emission to explore the physical environment,and one color-color diagram to investigate the distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs).We found that the 24 μm emission is surrounded by the 8.0 μm emission.Morphologically,the 1.4 GHz continuum strongly correlates with the 24 μm emission,and the 13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2 emissions correlate well with the 8.0 μm emission.We investigated two compact cores located in the shell of N68.The spectral intensity ratios of 13CO J =3-2 to J =1-0 range from 5 to 0.3.In addition,YSOs,masers,IRAS and UC HII regions are distributed in the shell of the bubble.The active region may be triggered by the expansion of the bubble N68.

  3. The environment of the infrared dust bubble N65: a mutiwavelength study

    CERN Document Server

    Petriella, A; Giacani, E B

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: We investigate the environment of the infrared dust bubble N65 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings. METHODS: We performed a multiwavelength study of the region around N65 with data taken from large-scale surveys: Two Micron All Sky Survey, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, SCUBA, and GRS. We analyzed the distribution of the molecular gas and dust in the environment of N65 and performed infrared photometry and spectral analysis of point sources to search for young stellar objects and identify the ionizing star candidates. RESULTS: We found a molecular cloud that appears to be fragmented into smaller clumps along the N65 PDR. This indicates that the so-called collect and collapse process may be occurring. Several young stellar objects are distributed among the molecular clumps. They may represent a second generation of stars whose formation was triggered by the bubble expanding into the molecular gas. We dentified O-type stars inside N65, which are the most reliable ionizing star candi...

  4. Expanding Shell and Star Formation in the Infrared Dust Bubble N6

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a multi-wavelength study of the infrared dust bubble N6 to extensively investigate the molecular environs and star-forming activities therein. Mapping observations in 12CO J=1-0 and 13CO J=1-0 performed with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7-m telescope have revealed four velocity components. Comparison between distributions of each component and the infrared emission suggests that three components are correlated with N6. There are ten molecular clumps detected. Among them, five have reliable detection in both 12CO and 13CO and have similar LTE and non-LTE masses ranging from 200 to higher than 5,000 M_sun. With larger gas masses than virial masses, these five clumps are gravitationally unstable and have potential to collapse to form new stars. The other five clumps are only reliably detected in 12CO and have relatively small masses. Five clumps are located on the border of the ring structure and four of them are elongated along the shell. This is well in agreement with the collect and ...

  5. Study of a bright-rimmed cloud at the border of the infrared dust bubble CN20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Giacani, E.; Paron, S.; Rubio, M.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize an uncatalogued bright-rimmed cloud located at the border of the infrared dust bubble CN20 with the aim of investigating triggered star formation. In order to do this, we carried out radio continuum observations at 8.9 GHz using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) interferometer with a synthesized beam size of 13 arcsec × 5 arcsec, and molecular observations using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) at the 13CO J = 3-2 and CS J = 7-6 transitions. An analysis of the molecular observations and of Herschel public data revealed the presence of a warm and dense clump with Tdust ˜ 25 K and n(H2) ˜ 3 × 105 cm-3. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the new radio continuum data revealed an arc-like radio filament in excellent correspondence with the illuminated border of the bright-rimmed cloud. This ionized boundary layer has an electron density of 176 cm-3. The spatial distribution of the young stellar object candidates probably related to the bright-rimmed cloud does not show clear evidence of a triggered origin. Finally, based on the evaluation of the pressure balance between the ionized and molecular gas, we conclude that the ionization front has stalled at the surface of the clump.

  6. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  7. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  8. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in H ii regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Haworth, Thomas J.; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within H ii regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within H ii regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the H ii region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the H ii region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the torus code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24 μm through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24 μm intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the H ii region RCW 120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38°11636 in RCW 120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in H ii regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.

  9. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within HII regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within HII regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the HII region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the HII region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the TORUS code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24um through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresp...

  10. N131: A dust bubble was born from the disruption of a gas filament?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Peng

    2017-03-01

    N131 is an infrared dust bubble residing in a molecular filament. We aim to study the formation and fragmentation of this bubble with multi-wavelength dust and gas observations. Towards the bubble N131, we analyzed archival multi-wavelength observations including 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm, 1.1 mm, and 21 cm. In addition, we performed new observations of CO (2-1), CO (1-0), and 13CO (1-0) with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Multi-wavelength dust and gas observations reveal a ringlike shell with compact fragments, two filamentary structures, and a secondary bubble N131-A. The bubble N131 is a rare object with a large hole at 24 μm and 21 cm in the direction of its center. The dust and gas clumps are compact and might have been compressed at the inner edge of the ringlike shell, while they are extended and might be pre-existing at the outer edge. The column density, excitation temperature, and velocity show a potentially hierarchical distribution from the inner to outer edge of the ringlike shell. We also detected the front and back sides of the secondary bubble N131-A in the direction of its center. The derived Lyman-continuum ionizing photon flux within N131-A is equivalent to an O9.5 star. Based on the above, we suggest that the bubble N131 might be triggered by the strong stellar winds from a group of massive stars inside the bubble. We propose a scenario in which the bubble N131 forms from the disruption of a gas filament by expansion of H II region, strong stellar winds, and fragments under self-gravity.

  11. Molecular gas and star formation towards the IR dust bubble S24 and its environs

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C E; Firpo, V; Vasquez, J; López-Caraballo, C H; Rubio, M; Vazzano, M M

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the infrared dust bubble S24, and its environs, with the aim of investigating the characteristics of the molecular gas and the interstellar dust linked to them, and analyzing the evolutionary status of the young stellar objects (YSOs) identified there. Using APEX data, we mapped the molecular emission in the CO(2-1), $^{13}$CO(2-1), C$^{18}$O(2-1), and $^{13}$CO(3-2) lines in a region of about 5'x 5' in size around the bubble. The cold dust distribution was analyzed using ATLASGAL and Herschel images. Complementary IR and radio data were also used.The molecular gas linked to the S24 bubble, G341.220-0.213, and G341.217-0.237 has velocities between -48.0 km sec$^{-1}$ and -40.0 km sec$^{-1}$. The gas distribution reveals a shell-like molecular structure of $\\sim$0.8 pc in radius bordering the bubble. A cold dust counterpart of the shell is detected in the LABOCA and Herschel images.The presence of extended emission at 24 $\\mu$m and radio continuum emission inside the b...

  12. Far-infrared spectroscopy of interstellar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Wilson, A

    2005-01-01

    The composition of interstellar dust is best studied using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the far-infrared can make some unique contributions to this field. This includes studies on the Mg/Fe ratio and the temperature of crystalline silicates, the presence of carbonates, and the precense o

  13. Molecular Lines of 13 Glactic Infrared Bubble Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Q Z; Zhang, B; Lu, D R; Chen, X; Tang, Z H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the physical properties of molecular clouds and star formation processes around infrared bubbles which are essentially expanding HII regions. We performed observations of 13 galactic infrared bubble fields containing 18 bubbles. Five molecular lines, 12CO (J=1-0), 13CO (J=1-0), C18O(J=1-0), HCN (J=1-0), and HCO+ (J=1-0), were observed, and several publicly available surveys, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, ATLASGAL, BGPS, VGPS, MAGPIS, and NVSS, were used for comparison. We find that these bubbles are generally connected with molecular clouds, most of which are giant. Several bubble regions display velocity gradients and broad shifted profiles, which could be due to the expansion of bubbles. The masses of molecular clouds within bubbles range from 100 to 19,000 solar mass, and their dynamic ages are about 0.3-3.7 Myr, which takes into account the internal turbulence pressure of surrounding molecular clouds. Clumps are found in the vicinity of all 18 bubbles, and molecular clouds near four of these bubbles w...

  14. Star formation associated with a large-scale infrared bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jin-Long

    2014-01-01

    Using the data from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), we performed a study for a large-scale infrared bubble with a size of about 16 pc at a distance of 2.0 kpc. We present the 12CO J=1-0, 13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 observations of HII region G53.54-0.01 (Sh2-82) obtained at the the Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope to investigate the detailed distribution of associated molecular material. The large-scale infrared bubble shows a half-shell morphology at 8 um. H II regions G53.54-0.01, G53.64+0.24, and G54.09-0.06 are situated on the bubble. Comparing the radio recombination line velocities and associated 13CO J=1-0 components of the three H II regions, we found that the 8 um emission associated with H II region G53.54-0.01 should belong to the foreground emission, and only overlap with the large-scale infrared bubble in the line of sight. Three extended green objects (EGOs, the candidate massive young stellar objects), ...

  15. High-mass star formation toward southern infrared bubble S10

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Swagat Ranjan; Vig, Sarita; Ghosh, Swarna K; H., Ishwara Chandra C

    2016-01-01

    An investigation in radio and infrared wavelengths of two high-mass star forming regions toward the southern Galactic bubble S10 is presented here. The two regions under study are associated with the broken bubble S10 and Extended Green Object, G345.99-0.02, respectively. Radio continuum emission mapped at 610 and 1280 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India is detected towards both the regions. These regions are estimated to be ionized by early B to late O type stars. Spitzer GLIMPSE mid-infrared data is used to identify young stellar objects associated with these regions. A Class I/II type source, with an estimated mass of 6.2 M{\\sun} , lies {\\sim} 7{\\arcsec} from the radio peak. Pixel-wise, modified blackbody fits to the thermal dust emission using Herschel far-infrared data is performed to construct dust temperature and column density maps. Eight clumps are detected in the two regions using the 250 {\\mu}m image. The masses and linear diameter of these range between {\\sim} 300 - 1600 M{\\sun} a...

  16. Infrared spectroscopy of circumstellar dust: signs of differentiated materials?

    OpenAIRE

    Morlok, A.; Köhler, M; Grady, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared absorption spectra of powdered achondrites are compared with the astronomical spectra of dust around young, evolving stars, to find evidence (or not) of dust formed in collisional cascades of material from planetesimals.

  17. Constraints on the nature of dust particles by infrared observations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Cs.; Abraham, P; Laureijs, R. J.; Moor, A.; Birkmann, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) emissivity of dust is an important parameter characterizing the physical properties of the grains. With the availability of stellar databases and far-infrared data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) it is possible to compare the optical and infrared properties of dust, and derive the far-infrared emissivity with respect to the optical extinction. In this paper we present the results of a systematic analysis of the FIR emissivity of interstellar clouds observed with I...

  18. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  19. Radiation-pressure-driven dust waves inside bursting interstellar bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochsendorf, B.B.; Verdolini, S.; Cox, N.L.J.; Berné, O.; Kaper, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars drive the evolution of the interstellar medium through their radiative and mechanical energy input. After their birth, they form "bubbles" of hot gas surrounded by a dense shell. Traditionally, the formation of bubbles is explained through the input of a powerful stellar wind, even tho

  20. A submillimeter study of the IR dust bubble S 21 and its environs

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C E; Vasquez, J; Rubio, M; Firpo, V; López-Caraballo, C -H; Borissova, J

    2016-01-01

    Based on the molecular emission in the $^{12}$CO(2-1) and $^{13}$CO(2-1) lines, and the continuum emission in the MIR and FIR towards the S21 IR dust bubble, we analyze the physical characteristics of the gas and dust linked to the nebula and the presence of young stellar objects (YSOs) in its environs. The line emission reveals a clumpy molecular shell, 1.4 pc in radius, encircling S21. The total molecular mass in the shell amounts to 2900 solar masses and the original ambient density, 2.1 x 10$^3$ cm$^{-3}$, indicating that the bubble is evolving in a high density interstellar medium. The image at 24 $\\mu$m shows warm dust inside the bubble, while the emission in the range 250 to 870 $\\mu$m reveal cold dust in its outskirts, coincident with the molecular gas. The detection of radio continuun emission indicates that the bubble is a compact HII region. A search for YSOs using photometric criteria allowed to identify many candidates projected onto the molecular clumps. We analize if the collect and collapse pr...

  1. A submillimeter study of the IR dust bubble S 21 and its environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, E. E.; Duronea, N. U.; Vasquez, J.; Rubio, M.; Firpo, V.; López-Caraballo, C.-H.; Borissova, J.

    2017-04-01

    Based on the molecular emission in the 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) lines, and on the continuum emission in the MIR and FIR towards the S 21 IR dust bubble, we analyze the physical characteristics of the gas and dust linked to the nebula and the presence of young stellar objects (YSOs) in its environs. The line emission reveals a clumpy molecular shell, 1.4 pc in radius, encircling S 21. The total molecular mass in the shell amounts to 2900 Mȯ and the original ambient density, 2.1×103 cm-3, indicating that the bubble is evolving in a high density interstellar medium. The image at 24 μm shows warm dust inside the bubble, while the emission in the range 250 to 870 μm reveals cold dust in its outskirts, coincident with the molecular gas. The detection of radio continuum emission indicates that the bubble is a compact HII region. A search for YSOs using photometric criteria allowed to identify many candidates projected onto the molecular clumps. We analize if the collect and collapse process has triggered a new generation of stars.

  2. Infrared emission from dust in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, A. J.; Evans, A.; Pearce, G.

    1985-02-01

    The nonvariable infrared radiation from the nucleus of NGC 4151 is discussed in terms of radiation from circumnuclear dust heated by nuclear radiation. The dust is modeled by a spherical shell and by a torus, both consisting of silicate and graphite dust grains similar to those found in the Galaxy. The model predictions are compared with the observations in an attempt to determine some parameters of the circumnuclear dust. The comparison indicates a spherical shell rather than a torus with a silicate-to-graphite dust-mass ratio of 90:10, an inner radius of about 4 pc, and an outer radius of 20 pc or more. It is proposed that the outer radius could be determined observationally, and that the silicate-to-graphite mass ratio of dust in the spiral arms of NGC 4151 could be determined from far-infrared observations.

  3. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  4. Dust Grain Alignment and Magnetic Field Strength in the Wall of the Local Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Medan, Ilija

    2017-01-01

    We use archival data on polarization (Berdyugin 2014) and extinction in the wall of the Local Bubble to study the grain alignment efficiency and the magnetic field strength. We find that the grain alignment efficiency variations can be directly tied to the location of the known OB-associations within 200pc from the Sun, strongly supporting modern, radiation-driven dust grain alignment. Based on the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, we find a bimodal magnetic field-strength distribution, where the locations of the strongest fields correlate with the directions towards the near-by OB associations. We hypothesize that this strengthening is due to compression of the bubble wall by the opposing outflows in the Local Bubble and from the surrounding OB associations.

  5. Constraints on the nature of dust particles by infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, C; Laureijs, R J; Moor, A; Birkmann, S M; Kiss, Cs.

    2006-01-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) emissivity of dust is an important parameter characterizing the physical properties of the grains. With the availability of stellar databases and far-infrared data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) it is possible to compare the optical and infrared properties of dust, and derive the far-infrared emissivity with respect to the optical extinction. In this paper we present the results of a systematic analysis of the FIR emissivity of interstellar clouds observed with ISOPHOT (the photometer onboard ISO) at least at two infrared wavelengths, one close to ~100um and one at 200um. We constructed FIR emission maps, determined dust temperatures, created extinction maps using 2MASS survey data, and calculated far-infrared emissivity for each of these clouds. We present the largest homogeneously reduced database constructed so far for this purpose. During the data analysis special care was taken on possible systematic errors. We find that far-infrared emissivity has a clear dependence on temp...

  6. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could a...

  7. Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of mipsgal 24 μm compact bubbles: low-resolution observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Département de Physique, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 61 Avenue du Président Wilson, F-94235 Cachan (France); Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Van Dyk, S. D. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Billot, N. [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Local 20, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Paladini, R., E-mail: mathias.nowak@ens-cachan.fr [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 μm Galactic plane survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid-infrared (IR). The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low-excitation spectra, and their 24 μm emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high-excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 μm, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 μm, and [Ne III] 15.5 μm), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50% to almost 100% of the 24 μm emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high-excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae (PNs) with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., Wolf-Rayet [WR] and novae) at their centers. The central stars of the four dust-rich MBs are all massive star candidates. Dust temperatures range from 40 to 100 K in the outer shells. We constrain the extinction along the lines of sight from the IRS spectra. We then derive distance, dust masses, and dust production rate estimates for these objects. These estimates are all consistent with the nature of the central stars. We summarize the identifications of MBs made to date and discuss the correlation between their mid-IR morphologies and natures. Candidate Be/B[e]/luminous blue variable and WR stars are mainly 'rings' with mid-IR central sources, whereas PNs are mostly 'disks' without mid-IR central sources. Therefore we expect that most of the 300 remaining unidentified MBs will be classified as PNs.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: YSO candidates in the IR dust bubble N6 (Yuan+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.-H.; Wu, Y.; Li, J. Z.; Liu, H.

    2016-11-01

    Observations of the infrared dust bubble N6 in J=1-0 transitions of 12CO (115.272 GHz) and 13CO (110.201 GHz) were carried out with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7m telescope on 2012 June 29. The on-the-fly mode was used to map a 21'x25' region with a reference point at RA(J2000)=18 14 39.3, DE(J2000)=-18 24 42.9. The half-power beam width of the PMO 13.7 m telescope was about 52" at both 115GHz and 110GHz. The pointing and tracking accuracies were determined to be better than 5" by scanning planets (e.g., Jupiter and Venus). Public survey data at wavelengths ranging from infrared to centimeter were retrieved from GLIMPSE (Cat. II/293), MIPSGAL (Carey et al., 2009PASP..121...76C), and MAGPIS (Cat. J/AJ/131/2525) surveys. (3 data files).

  9. Gas structure and dynamics towards bipolar infrared bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Yu, Naiping; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan

    2017-09-01

    We present multi-wavelength analysis for four bipolar bubbles (G045.386-0.726, G049.998-0.125, G050.489+0.993, and G051.610-0.357) to probe the structure and dynamics of their surrounding gas. The 12CO J=1-0, 13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 observations are made with the Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope. For the four bipolar bubbles, the bright 8.0 μm emission shows the bipolar structure. Each bipolar bubble is associated with an H ii region. From CO observations we find that G045.386-0.726 is composed of two bubbles with different distances, not a bipolar bubble. Each of G049.998-0.125 and G051.610-0.357 is associated with a filament. The filaments in CO emission divide G049.998-0.125 and G051.610-0.357 into two lobes. We suggest that the exciting stars of both G049.998-0.125 and G051.610-0.357 form in a sheet-like structure clouds. Furthermore, G050.489+0.993 is associated with a clump, which shows a triangle-like shape with a steep integrated intensity gradient towards the two lobes of G050.489+0.993. We suggest that the two lobes of G050.489+0.993 have simultaneously expanded into the clump.

  10. The Milky Way Project and ATLASGAL: The distribution and physical properties of cold clumps near infrared bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Simpson, R; Csengeri, T; Wienen, M; Lintott, C J; Povich, M S; Beaumont, C; Schuller, F

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the distribution and physical properties of cold dense material in and around the inner Galactic Plane near infrared bubbles as catalogued by the Milky Way Project citizen scientists. Using data from the ATLASGAL 870 um survey, we show that 48 +/- 2% of all cold clumps in the studied survey region (|l| <= 65 degrees, |b| <= 1 degree) are found in close proximity to a bubble, and 25 +/- 2% appear directly projected towards a bubble rim. A two-point correlation analysis confirms the strong correlation of massive cold clumps with expanding bubbles. It shows an overdensity of clumps along bubble rims that grows with increasing bubble size, which shows how interstellar medium material is reordered on large scales by bubble expansion around regions of massive star formation. The highest column density clumps appear resistent to the expansion, remaining overdense towards the bubbles' interior rather than being swept up by the expanding edge. Spectroscopic observations in ammon...

  11. Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m compact bubbles : Low resolution observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Billot, N; Carey, S J; Paladini, R; Van Dyk, S D

    2014-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS low resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m Galactic Plane Survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories, and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid- IR. The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low excitation spectra, and their 24 {\\mu}m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 {\\mu}m, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 {\\mu}m, [Ne III] 15.5 {\\mu}m), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50 to almost 100% of the 24 {\\mu}m emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., [WR], novae) at their centers. ...

  12. Star formation around mid-infrared bubble N37: Evidence of cloud-cloud collision

    CERN Document Server

    Baug, T; Ojha, D K; Ninan, J P

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a multi-wavelength analysis of a mid-infrared (MIR) bubble N37 and its surrounding environment. The selected 15$' \\times$15$'$ area around the bubble contains two molecular clouds (N37 cloud; V$_{lsr}\\sim$37-43 km s$^{-1}$, and C25.29+0.31; V$_{lsr}\\sim$43-48 km s$^{-1}$) along the line of sight. A total of seven OB stars are identified towards the bubble N37 using photometric criteria, and two of them are spectroscopically confirmed as O9V and B0V stars. Spectro-photometric distances of these two sources confirm their physical association with the bubble. The O9V star is appeared to be the primary ionizing source of the region, which is also in agreement with the desired Lyman continuum flux analysis estimated from the 20 cm data. The presence of the expanding HII region is revealed in the N37 cloud which could be responsible for the MIR bubble. Using the $^{13}$CO line data and photometric data, several cold molecular condensations as well as clusters of young stellar objects (YSOs) are id...

  13. Hot Dust! Late-Time Infrared Emission From Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori; Skrutskie, M. F.; Chevalier, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Supernovae light curves typically peak and fade in the course of several months. Some supernovae , however, exhibit late-time infrared emission that in some cases can last for several years. These supernovae tend to be of the Type IIn subclass, which is defined by narrow hydrogen and helium emission lines arising from a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium excited by the supernova radiation. Such a late-time ``IR excess'' with respect to the optical blackbody counterpart typically indicates the presence of warm dust. The origin and heating mechanism of the dust is not, however, always well constrained. In this talk, I will explore several scenarios that explain the observed late-time emission. In particular, I will discuss the case of the Type IIn SN 2005ip, which has displayed an ``IR excess'' for over 3 years. The results allow us to interpret the progenitor system and better understand the late stages of stellar evolution. Much of the data used for this analysis were obtained with TripleSpec, a medium-resolution near-infrared spectrograph located at Apache Point Observatory, NM, and FanCam, a JHK imager located at Fan Mountain Observatory, just outside of Charlottesville, VA. These two instruments were designed, fabricated, built, and commissioned by our instrumentation group at the University of Virginia. I will also spend some time discussing these instruments. I would like to thank the following for financial support of this work throughout my graduate career: NASA GSRP, NSF AAG-0607737, Spitzer PID 50256, Achievement Reward for College Scientists (ARCS), and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium.

  14. CO observations and investigation of triggered star formation towards N10 infrared bubble and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Diana; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jinghua; Mendoza, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We studied the environment of the Galactic bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by GLIMPSE at 8.0 $\\mu$m, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the HII region on its surroundings and the possibility of triggered star formation at the border of HII regions. In this work, we present a molecular study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting as it undergoes a burst of star formation while infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered, on the edge of the HII region. We carried out observations of $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7-m towards N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-mm emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding HII region and the molecular gas. Bright CO emission was detected. Two molecular clumps were identified, from which we have derived physical features. Star formation co...

  15. Planck intermediate results: XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combination...... (GNILC) method, which uses spatial information (the angular powerspectra) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. We produce significantly improved all-sky maps of Planck thermal dust emission, with reduced CIB contamination, at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. By reducing the CIB...... contamination of the thermal dust maps, we provide more accurate estimates of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion, especially at high Galactic latitudes above b = ±20°. We find that the dust temperature is T = (19.4 ± 1.3) K and the dust spectral index is β...

  16. New Asia Dust Storm Detection Method Based on the Thermal Infrared Spectral Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As hyperspectral instruments can provide the detailed spectral information, a new spectral similarity method for detecting and differentiating dust from non-dust scenes using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS observations has been developed. The detection is based on a pre-defined Dust Spectral Similarity Index (DSSI, which was calculated from the accumulated brightness temperature differences between selected 16 AIRS observation channels, in the thermal infrared region of 800–1250 cm−1. It has been demonstrated that DSSI can effectively separate the dust from non-dust by elevating dust signals. For underlying surface covered with dust, the DSSI tends to show values close to 1.0. However, the values of DSSI for clear sky surfaces or clouds (ice and water are basically lower than those of dust, as their spectrums have significant differences with dust. To evaluate this new simple DSSI dust detection algorithm, several Asia dust events observed in northern China were analyzed, and the results agree favorably with those from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS and Cloud Aerosol LiDAR with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observations.

  17. Dust models post-Planck: constraining the far-infrared opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciullo, L.; Guillet, V.; Aniano, G.; Jones, A. P.; Ysard, N.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Boulanger, F.; Köhler, M.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We compare the performance of several dust models in reproducing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) per unit extinction in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We use our results to constrain the variability of the optical properties of big grains in the diffuse ISM, as published by the Planck collaboration. Methods: We use two different techniques to compare the predictions of dust models to data from the Planck HFI, IRAS, and SDSS surveys. First, we fit the far-infrared emission spectrum to recover the dust extinction and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Second, we infer the ISRF intensity from the total power emitted by dust per unit extinction, and then predict the emission spectrum. In both cases, we test the ability of the models to reproduce dust emission and extinction at the same time. Results: We identify two issues. Not all models can reproduce the average dust emission per unit extinction: there are differences of up to a factor ~2 between models, and the best accord between model and observation is obtained with the more emissive grains derived from recent laboratory data on silicates and amorphous carbons. All models fail to reproduce the variations in the emission per unit extinction if the only variable parameter is the ISRF intensity: this confirms that the optical properties of dust are indeed variable in the diffuse ISM. Conclusions: Diffuse ISM observations are consistent with a scenario where both ISRF intensity and dust optical properties vary. The ratio of the far-infrared opacity to the V band extinction cross-section presents variations of the order of ~20% (40-50% in extreme cases), while ISRF intensity varies by ~30% (~60% in extreme cases). This must be accounted for in future modelling. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between the

  19. Dust models post-Planck: constraining the far-infrared opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciullo, Lapo; Aniano, Gonzalo; Jones, Anthony P; Ysard, Nathalie; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Boulanger, François; Köhler, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of several dust models in reproducing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) per unit extinction in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We use our results to constrain the variability of the optical properties of big grains in the diffuse ISM, as published by the Planck collaboration. We use two different techniques to compare the predictions of dust models to data from the Planck HFI, IRAS and SDSS surveys. First, we fit the far-infrared emission spectrum to recover the dust extinction and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Second, we infer the ISRF intensity from the total power emitted by dust per unit extinction, and then predict the emission spectrum. In both cases, we test the ability of the models to reproduce dust emission and extinction at the same time. We identify two issues. Not all models can reproduce the average dust emission per unit extinction: there are differences of up to a factor $\\sim2$ between models, and the best accord between ...

  20. INFRARED EMISSION BY DUST AROUND lambda BOOTIS STARS : DEBRIS DISKS OR THERMALLY EMITTING NEBULAE?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Galarza, J. R.; Kamp, I.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gaspar, A.; Rieke, G.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that describes stellar infrared excesses due to heating of the interstellar (IS) dust by a hot star passing through a diffuse IS cloud. This model is applied to six. Bootis stars with infrared excesses. Plausible values for the IS medium (ISM) density and relative velocity between

  1. Near-Infrared Photometry of the Type IIn SN 2005ip: The Case for Dust Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ori; Chevalier, Roger A; Kanneganti, Srikrishna; Park, Chan; Wilson, John; Nelson, Matthew; Amirhadji, Jason; Crump, Danielle; Hoeft, Alexi; Provence, Sydney; Sargeant, Benjamin; Sop, Joel; Tea, Matthew; Thomas, Steven; Woolard, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared photometric observations of the Type IIn SN 2005ip in NGC 2906 reveal large fluxes (>1.3 mJy) in the K_s-band over more than 900 days. While warm dust can explain the late-time K_s-band emission of SN 2005ip, the nature of the dust heating source is ambiguous. Shock heating of pre-existing dust by post-shocked gas is unlikely because the forward shock is moving too slowly to have traversed the expected dust-free cavity by the time observations first reveal the K_s emission. While an infrared light echo correctly predicts a near-infrared luminosity plateau, heating dust to the observed temperatures of ~1400-1600 K at a relatively large distance from the supernova (\\ga 10^{18} cm) requires an extraordinarily high early supernova luminosity (~1 X 10^{11} L_sun). The evidence instead favors condensing dust in the cool, dense shell between the forward and reverse shocks. Both the initial dust temperature and the evolutionary trend towards lower temperatures are consistent with this scenario. We infer...

  2. Infrared emission from tidal disruption events - probing the pc-scale dust content around galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan; Evans, Neal J.

    2016-05-01

    Recent UV-optical surveys have been successful in finding tidal disruption events (TDEs), in which a star is tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole (BH). These TDEs release a huge amount of radiation energy Erad ˜ 1051-1052 erg into the circum-nuclear medium. If the medium is dusty, most of the radiation energy will be absorbed by dust grains within ˜1 pc from the BH and re-radiated in the infrared. We calculate the dust emission light curve from a 1D radiative transfer model, taking into account the time-dependent heating, cooling and sublimation of dust grains. We show that the dust emission peaks at 3-10 μm and has typical luminosities between 1042 and 1043 erg s-1 (with sky covering factor of dusty clouds ranging from 0.1 to 1). This is detectable by current generation of telescopes. In the near future, James Webb Space Telescope will be able to perform photometric and spectroscopic measurements, in which silicate or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features may be found. Dust grains are non-spherical and may be aligned with the magnetic field, so the dust emission may be significantly polarized. Observations at rest-frame wavelength ≥ 2 μm have only been reported from two TDE candidates, SDSS J0952+2143 and SwiftJ1644+57. Although consistent with the dust emission from TDEs, the mid-infrared fluxes of the two events may be from other sources. Long-term monitoring is needed to draw a firm conclusion. We also point out two nearby TDE candidates (ASASSN-14ae and -14li) where the dust emission may be currently detectable. Detection of dust infrared emission from TDEs would provide information regarding the dust content and its distribution in the central pc of non-active galactic nuclei, which is hard to probe otherwise.

  3. Spectrophone measurements of infrared laser energy absorption by atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleusener, S A; Lindberg, J D; White, K O; Johnson, R L

    1976-10-01

    A new method of quantitatively measuring the absorption of atmospheric dust or other particulate matter is described. The system uses a differential-spectrophone KBr pellet technique and should ultimately prove useful from the uv to the far ir wavelength region. Preliminary measurement data on atmospheric dust, quartz, and soot are presented at 1.06-microm, 9.6-microm, and 10.6-microm wavelengths.

  4. Mid-Infrared interferometry of dust around massive evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Jayadev; Wallace, D; Danchi, W C; Chesneau, O; López, B; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Tuthill, P G

    2007-01-01

    We report long-baseline interferometric measurements of circumstellar dust around massive evolved stars with the MIDI instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and provide spectrally dispersed visibilities in the 8-13 micron wavelength band. We also present diffraction-limited observations at 10.7 micron on the Keck Telescope with baselines up to 8.7 m which explore larger scale structure. We have resolved the dust shells around the late type WC stars WR 106 and WR 95, and the enigmatic NaSt1 (formerly WR 122), suspected to have recently evolved from a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stage. For AG Car, the protoypical LBV in our sample, we marginally resolve structure close to the star, distinct from the well-studied detached nebula. The dust shells around the two WC stars show fairly constant size in the 8-13 micron MIDI band, with gaussian half-widths of ~ 25 to 40 mas. The compact dust we detect around NaSt1 and AG Car favors recent or ongoing dust formation. Using the measured visibilities, we bu...

  5. The properties of diffuse interstellar dust clouds as determined from GALEX and infrared (IRAS, Herschel) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    Dust grain properties are known to vary in the interstellar medium depending on the density, the ultraviolet radiation field and the local abundances of metal elements. Though there are plenty of studies addressing the atomic and molecular gas component or the infrared radiation of dust grains, there are very few studies that address the spatial distribution of small large grains and large molecules such as the Polyaromathic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).In this work, we make use of the GALEX survey of the Galaxy to identify the absorption produced in the GALEX far UV (write in the spectral range) and new UV (write in the spectral range) by well know infrared cirrus and compare the absorption produced in the UV by the thin cirrus with the infrared dust emissivity in various bands; (describe the IRAS bands used and whether there is any Herschel band in this study). As the spatial resolution of GALEX images is significantly larger than that of IRAS images data handling has required mosaicking and and rescaling GALEX data as well as transforming the images form equinox 1950 to equinox 2000. We describe in this work the computational procedures used to generate the ultraviolet and infrared maps. Also we present our first results that show there is an anticorrelation between UV and infrared (IR) emission, as other wise expected. The largest concentrations of dust grains radiate IR photons and absorb UV photons.

  6. New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Terry Z.; Richardson, Mark I.

    1993-01-01

    Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known as storm 1977b. Improvements in approach result in greater time resolution and smaller noise than in the earlier work. A strong local storm event filled the Hellas basin at Ls 170 deg, prior to the 1977a storm. Dust is retained in equatorial regions following the 1977b storm far longer than in mid-latitudes. Minor dust events appear to raise the opacity in northern high latitudes during northern spring. Additional mapping with high time resolution has been done for the periods of time near the major storm origins in order to search for clues to the mechanism of storm initiation. The first evidence of the start of the 1977b storm is pushed back to Ls 274.2 deg, preceding signs of the storm in images by about 15 hours.

  7. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  8. Cosmological Constant or Intergalactic Dust? Constraints from the Cosmic Far Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A N; Aguirre, Anthony; Haiman, Zoltan

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations of Type Ia SNe at redshifts 0 ~ 0.1 micron dust grains with a mass density of Omega_dust ~ (few) * 10^{-5} in the intergalactic (IG) medium. The same dust that dims the SNe absorbs the cosmic UV/optical background radiation around ~ 1 micron, and re-emits it at far infrared (FIR) wavelengths. Here we compare the FIR emission from IG dust with observations of the cosmic microwave (CMB) and cosmic far infrared backgrounds (FIRB) by the DIRBE/FIRAS instruments. We find that the emission would not lead to measurable distortion to the CMB, but would represent a substantial fraction (> 50 %) of the measured value of the FIRB in the 300-1000 micron range. This contribution would be consistent with the present unresolved fraction of the observed FIRB in an open universe. However, we find that IG dust probably could not reconcile the standard Omega=1 CDM model with the SN observations, even if the necessary quantity of dust existed. Future observations able to resolve the FIRB to a flux limit of ~ ...

  9. Discovery of Transient Infrared Emission from Dust Heated by Stellar Tidal Disruption Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.; Mendez, A. J.; Krolik, J. H.; Gorjian, V.

    2016-09-01

    Stars that pass within the Roche radius of a supermassive black hole will be tidally disrupted, yielding a sudden injection of gas close to the black hole horizon which produces an electromagnetic flare. A few dozen of these flares have been discovered in recent years, but current observations provide poor constraints on the bolometric luminosity and total accreted mass of these events. Using images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we have discovered transient 3.4 μm emission from several previously known tidal disruption flares. The observations can be explained by dust heated to its sublimation temperature due to the intense radiation of the tidal flare. From the break in the infrared light curve we infer that this hot dust is located ˜0.1 pc from the supermassive black hole. Since the dust has been heated by absorbing UV and (potentially) soft X-ray photons of the flare, the reprocessing light curve yields an estimate of the bolometric flare luminosity. For the flare PTF-09ge, we infer that the most likely value of the luminosity integrated over frequencies at which dust can absorb photons is 8× {10}44 erg s-1, with a factor of 3 uncertainty due to the unknown temperature of the dust. This bolometric luminosity is a factor ˜10 larger than the observed blackbody luminosity. Our work is the first to probe dust in the nuclei of non-active galaxies on sub-parsec scales. The observed infrared luminosity implies a covering factor ˜1% for the nuclear dust in the host galaxies.

  10. An improved radiance simulation for hyperspectral infrared remote sensing of Asian dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyo-Jin; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Huang, Hung-Lung; Weisz, Elisabeth; Saunders, Roger; Takamura, Tamio

    2012-05-01

    The fast Radiative Transfer for Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (RTTOV) (Version 9.3) model was used for simulating the effect of East Asian dust on top of atmosphere radiances. The size distribution of Asian dust was retrieved from nine years of sky radiometer measurements at Dunhunag located in the east of Taklimakan desert of China. The default surface emissivity in RTTOV was replaced by the geographically and monthly varying data from University of Wisconsin (UW)/Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) infrared surface spectral emissivities. For a given size distribution and surface emissivity, the effects of three refractive indices of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral aerosol, dust-like aerosol by Volz, and High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) quartz were examined. Results indicate that the specification of surface emissivity using geographically and monthly varying UW/CIMSS data significantly improved the performance of the simulation of AIRS brightness temperature (TB) difference (BTD) between window channels, in comparison to the results from the use of default emissivity value of 0.98 in the RTTOV model, i.e., increase of the correlation coefficient from 0.1 to 0.83 for BTD between 8.9 μm and 11 μm, and from 0.31 to 0.61 for BTD between 3.8 μm and 11 μm. On the other hand, the use of Asian dust size distributions contributed to a general reduction of radiance biases over dust-sensitive window bands. A further improvement of the TB simulations has been made by considering the Volz refractive index, suggesting that hyperspectral infrared remote sensing of Asian dust can be improved using the proper optical properties of the dust and surface emissivity.

  11. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), I. Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Gehrz, Robert D; Gordon, Karl D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; Meixner, Margaret; Skillman, Evan; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, George; van Loon, Jacco Th; Zijlstra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (-2.7 75% complete at the tip of the Red Giant Branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally-pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in 8 of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  12. Near-infrared emission from sublimating dust in collisionally active debris disks

    CERN Document Server

    van Lieshout, R; Kama, M; Min, M

    2014-01-01

    Hot exozodiacal dust is thought to be responsible for excess near-infrared (NIR) emission emanating from the innermost parts of some debris disks. The origin of this dust, however, is still a matter of debate. We test whether hot exozodiacal dust can be supplied from an exterior parent belt by Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, paying special attention to the pile-up of dust that occurs due to the interplay of P-R drag and dust sublimation. Specifically, we investigate whether pile-ups still occur when collisions are taken into account, and if they can explain the observed NIR excess. We compute the steady-state distribution of dust in the inner disk by solving the continuity equation. First, we derive an analytical solution under a number of simplifying assumptions. Second, we develop a numerical debris disk model that for the first time treats the complex interaction of collisions, P-R drag, and sublimation in a self-consistent way. From the resulting dust distributions we generate thermal emission spectra and ...

  13. Passive Infrared Sensing Using Plasmonic Resonant Dust Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mirotznik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present computational and experimental results of dust particles that can be tuned to preferentially reflect or emit IR radiation within the 8–14 μm band. The particles consist of thin metallic subwavelength gratings patterned on the surface of a simple quarter wavelength cavity. This design creates distinct IR absorption resonances by combining the plasmonic resonance of the grating with the natural resonance of the cavity. We show that the resonance peaks are easily tuned by varying either the geometry of the grating or the thickness of the cavity. Here, we present a computational design algorithm along with experimental results that validate the design methodology.

  14. Far-Infrared Dust Temperatures and Column Densities of the MALT90 Molecular Clump Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Guzmán, Andrés E; Contreras, Yanett; Smith, Howard A; Jackson, James M; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M

    2015-01-01

    We present dust column densities and dust temperatures for $\\sim3000$ young high-mass molecular clumps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey, derived from adjusting single temperature dust emission models to the far-infrared intensity maps measured between 160 and 870 \\micron\\ from the Herschel/Hi-Gal and APEX/ATLASGAL surveys. We discuss the methodology employed in analyzing the data, calculating physical parameters, and estimating their uncertainties. The population average dust temperature of the clumps are: $16.8\\pm0.2$ K for the clumps that do not exhibit mid-infrared signatures of star formation (Quiescent clumps), $18.6\\pm0.2$ K for the clumps that display mid-infrared signatures of ongoing star formation but have not yet developed an HII region (Protostellar clumps), and $23.7\\pm0.2$ and $28.1\\pm0.3$ K for clumps associated with HII and photo-dissociation regions, respectively. These four groups exhibit large overlaps in their temperature distributions, with dispersions rang...

  15. C/O abundance ratios, iron depletions, and infrared dust features in Galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    We study the dust present in 56 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) through their iron depletion factors, their C/O abundance ratios (in 51 objects), and the dust features that appear in their infrared spectra (for 33 objects). Our sample objects have deep optical spectra of good quality, and most of them also have ultraviolet observations. We use these observations to derive the iron abundances and the C/O abundance ratios in a homogeneous way for all the objects. We compile detections of infrared dust features from the literature and we analyze the available Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the PNe have C/O ratios below one and show crystalline silicates in their infrared spectra. The PNe with silicates have C/O < 1, with the exception of Cn 1-5. Most of the PNe with dust features related to C-rich environments (SiC or the 30 {\\mu}m feature usually associated to MgS) have C/O $\\gtrsim$ 0.8. PAHs are detected over the full range of C/O values, including 6 objects that also show silicates. Iron abundances are low...

  16. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  17. C/O abundance ratios, iron depletions, and infrared dust features in galactic planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria; Rodríguez, Mónica, E-mail: gdelgado@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: mrodri@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    We study the dust present in 56 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) through their iron depletion factors, their C/O abundance ratios (in 51 objects), and the dust features that appear in their infrared spectra (for 33 objects). Our sample objects have deep optical spectra of good quality, and most of them also have ultraviolet observations. We use these observations to derive the iron abundances and the C/O abundance ratios in a homogeneous way for all the objects. We compile detections of infrared dust features from the literature and we analyze the available Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the PNe have C/O ratios below one and show crystalline silicates in their infrared spectra. The PNe with silicates have C/O <1, with the exception of Cn 1-5. Most of the PNe with dust features related to C-rich environments (SiC or the 30 μm feature usually associated to MgS) have C/O ≳ 0.8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are detected over the full range of C/O values, including 6 objects that also show silicates. Iron abundances are low in all the objects, implying that more than 90% of their iron atoms are deposited into dust grains. The range of iron depletions in the sample covers about two orders of magnitude, and we find that the highest depletion factors are found in C-rich objects with SiC or the 30 μm feature in their infrared spectra, whereas some of the O-rich objects with silicates show the lowest depletion factors.

  18. Observations of V592 Cassiopeiae with the Spitzer Space Telescope - Dust in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Ciardi, David R; Szkody, Paula; Belle, Kunegunda; Froning, Cynthia; van Belle, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet-optical-infrared spectral energy distribution of the low inclination novalike cataclysmic variable V592 Cassiopeiae, including new mid-infrared observations from 3.5-24 microns obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. At wavelengths shortward of 8 microns, the spectral energy distribution of V592 Cas is dominated by the steady state accretion disk, but there is flux density in excess of the summed stellar components and accretion disk at longer wavelengths. Reproducing the observed spectral energy distribution from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths can be accomplished by including a circumbinary disk composed of cool dust, with a maximum inner edge temperature of ~500 K. The total mass of circumbinary dust in V592 Cas (~10^21 g) is similar to that found from recent studies of infrared excess in magnetic CVs, and is too small to have a significant effect on the long-term secular evolution of the cataclysmic variable. The existence of circumbinary dust in V592 Cas is possibly ...

  19. Infrared Emission by Dust Around lambda Bootis Stars: Debris Disks or Thermally Emitting Nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Galarza, J R; Su, K Y L; Gáspár, A; Rieke, G; Mamajek, E E

    2008-01-01

    We present a model that describes stellar infrared excesses due to heating of the interstellar (IS) dust by a hot star passing through a diffuse IS cloud. This model is applied to six lambda Bootis stars with infrared excesses. Plausible values for the IS medium (ISM) density and relative velocity between the cloud and the star yield fits to the excess emission. This result is consistent with the diffusion/accretion hypothesis that lambda Bootis stars (A- to F-type stars with large underabundances of Fe-peak elements) owe their characteristics to interactions with the ISM. This proposal invokes radiation pressure from the star to repel the IS dust and excavate a paraboloidal dust cavity in the IS cloud, while the metal-poor gas is accreted onto the stellar photosphere. However, the measurements of the infrared excesses can also be fit by planetary debris disk models. A more detailed consideration of the conditions to produce lambda Bootis characteristics indicates that the majority of infrared-excess stars wi...

  20. Planck intermediate results. XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Dusini, S; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Lilley, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature observations, we perform the separation of Galactic thermal dust emission and cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method. This makes use of the spatial information (angular power spectrum) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. A significantly improved all-sky map of the Planck thermal dust, with reduced CIB contamination, is produced at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. From the reduction of the CIB contamination in the thermal dust maps, we are able to provide a more accurate estimate of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion at high latitudes. We find that $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.3)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.1$ on the whole sky, while $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.5)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.2$ on 21 % of the sky at high latitudes, where the error b...

  1. Bayesian method for the analysis of the dust emission in the Far-Infrared and Submillimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziani, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S; Paladini, R; Paradis, D

    2013-01-01

    We present a method, based on Bayesian statistics, to fit the dust emission parameters in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The method estimates the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index, plus their relationship, taking into account properly the statistical and systematic uncertainties. We test it on three sets of simulated sources detectable by the Herschel Space Observatory in the PACS and SPIRE spectral bands (70-500 micron), spanning over a wide range of dust temperatures. The simulated observations are a one-component Interstellar Medium, and two two-component sources, both warm (HII regions) and cold (cold clumps). We first define a procedure to identify the better model, then we recover the parameters of the model and measure their physical correlations by means of a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm adopting multi-variate Gaussian priors. In this process we assess the reliability of the model recovery, and of parameters estimation. We conclude that the model and parameters are ...

  2. Mid-Infrared Spectra of Dust Debris Around Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Furlan, E; Green, J; Sargent, B; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; Barry, J; Hall, P; Herter, T L; Houck, J R; Sloan, G C; Uchida, K; D'Alessio, P; Brandl, B R; Keller, L D; Kemper, F; Morris, P; Najita, J R; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C

    2004-01-01

    We report spectra obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the wavelength range between 14 microns and 35 microns of 19 nearby main-sequence stars with infrared excesses. The six stars with strong dust emission show no recognizable spectral features, suggesting that the bulk of the emitting particles have diameters larger than 10 microns. If the observed dust results from collisional grinding of larger solids, we infer minimum masses of the parent body population between 0.004 of the Earth's mass and 0.06 of the Earth's mass. We estimate grain production rates of 10 Gg/s around lambda Boo and HR 1570; selective accretion of this matter may help explain their peculiar surface abundances. There appear to be inner truncations in the dust clouds at 48 AU, 11 AU, 52 AU and 54 AU around HR 333, HR 506, HR 1082 and HR 3927, respectively.

  3. Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Constraints on Models of Stellar Populations and Dust Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Benjamin D; Seibert, Mark; Treyer, Marie; Martin, D Christopher; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, A S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2007-01-01

    The color of galaxies is a fundamental property, easily measured, that constrains models of galaxies and their evolution. Dust attenuation and star formation history (SFH) are the dominant factors affecting the color of galaxies. Here we explore the empirical relation between SFH, attenuation, and color for a wide range of galaxies, including early types. These galaxies have been observed by GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer, allowing the construction of measures of dust attenuation from the ratio of infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) flux and measures of SFH from the strength of the 4000A break. The empirical relation between these three quantities is compared to models that separately predict the effects of dust and SFH on color. This comparison demonstrates the quantitative consistency of these simple models with the data and hints at the power of multiwavelength data for constraining these models. The UV color is a strong constraint; we find that a Milky Way extinction curve is disfavored, and that the UV emission ...

  4. Obscuration in active galactic nuclei: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, L.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Davies, R. I.; Janssen, A.; Lutz, D.; Rosario, D.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2015-06-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log lmir{} = 42.5 (log lx{} = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near- to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AV^hot = 5 ldots 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AV^hot = 15 ldots 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.

  5. COMET 22P/KOPFF: DUST ENVIRONMENT AND GRAIN EJECTION ANISOTROPY FROM VISIBLE AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Fernando; Pozuelos, Francisco; Aceituno, Francisco; Casanova, Victor; Sota, Alfredo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castellano, Julio; Reina, Esteban, E-mail: fernando@iaa.es [Amateur Association Cometas-Obs (Spain)

    2012-06-20

    We present optical observations and Monte Carlo models of the dust coma, tail, and trail structures of the comet 22P/Kopff during the 2002 and 2009 apparitions. Dust loss rates, ejection velocities, and power-law size distribution functions are derived as functions of the heliocentric distance using pre- and post-perihelion imaging observations during both apparitions. The 2009 post-perihelion images can be accurately fitted by an isotropic ejection model. On the other hand, strong dust ejection anisotropies are required to fit the near-coma regions at large heliocentric distances (both inbound at r{sub h} = 2.5 AU and outbound at r{sub h} = 2.6 AU) for the 2002 apparition. These asymmetries are compatible with a scenario where dust ejection is mostly seasonally driven, coming mainly from regions near subsolar latitudes at far heliocentric distances inbound and outbound. At intermediate to near-perihelion heliocentric distances, the outgassing would affect much more extended latitude regions, the emission becoming almost isotropic near perihelion. We derived a maximum dust production rate of 260 kg s{sup -1} at perihelion, and an averaged production rate over one orbit of 40 kg s{sup -1}. An enhanced emission rate, also accompanied by a large ejection velocity, is predicted at r{sub h} > 2.5 pre-perihelion. The model has also been extended to the thermal infrared in order to be applied to available trail observations of this comet taken with IRAS and Infrared Space Observatory spacecrafts. The modeled trail intensities are in good agreement with those observations, which is remarkable taking into account that those data are sensitive to dust ejection patterns corresponding to several orbits before the 2002 and 2009 apparitions.

  6. Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Infrared Ring around the Magnetar SGR 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, G.; Rea, N.; Lazzati, D.; Perna, R.; Torres, D. F.; Girart, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    A peculiar infrared ring-like structure was discovered by Spitzer around the strongly magnetized neutron star SGR 1900+14. This infrared (IR) structure was suggested to be due to a dust-free cavity, produced by the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) Giant Flare occurring in 1998, and kept illuminated by surrounding stars. Using a 3D dust radiative transfer code, we aimed to reproduce the emission morphology and the integrated emission flux of this structure assuming different spatial distributions and densities for the dust, and different positions for the illuminating stars. We found that a dust-free ellipsoidal cavity can reproduce the shape, flux, and spectrum of the ring-like IR emission, provided that the illuminating stars are inside the cavity and that the interstellar medium has high gas density (n H ˜ 1000 cm-3). We further constrain the emitting region to have a sharp inner boundary and to be significantly extended in the radial direction, possibly even just a cavity in a smooth molecular cloud. We discuss possible scenarios for the formation of the dustless cavity and the particular geometry that allows it to be IR-bright.

  7. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei: III. Polar dust emission

    CERN Document Server

    Asmus, D; Gandhi, P

    2016-01-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations showed in few active galactic nuclei (AGN) that the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGN. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGN (Asmus et al.), 21 show extended MIR emission on single dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the system axis position angle, established by [OIII], radio, polarisation and maser based position angle measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40 per cent and scales with the [OIV] fluxes implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [OIV] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emi...

  8. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  9. ISO far infrared observations of the high latitude cloud L1642. II. Correlated variations of far-infrared emissivity and temperature of "classical large" dust particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtinen, K; Mattila, K; Lemke, D; Russeil, D

    2007-01-01

    Our aim is to compare the infrared properties of big, ``classical'' dust grains with visual extinction in the cloud L1642. In particular, we study the differences of grain emissivity between diffuse and dense regions in the cloud. The far-infrared properties of dust are based on large-scale 100um and 200um maps. Extinction through the cloud has been derived by using the star count method at B- and I-bands, and color excess method at J, H and Ks bands. Radiative transfer calculations have been used to study the effects of increasing absorption cross-section on the far-infrared emission and dust temperature. Dust emissivity, measured by the ratio of far-infrared optical depth to visual extinction, tau(far-IR)/A(V), increases with decreasing dust temperature in L1642. There is about two-fold increase of emissivity over the dust temperature range of 19K-14K. Radiative transfer calculations show that in order to explain the observed decrease of dust temperature towards the centre of L1642 an increase of absorption...

  10. Lighthouse in the dust: infrared echoes of periodic emission from massive black hole binaries★

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Haiman, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    The optical and UV emission from sub-parsec massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to vary periodically, on time-scales comparable to the binary's orbital time. If driven by accretion rate fluctuations, the variability could be isotropic. If dominated by relativistic Doppler modulation, the variability should instead be anisotropic, resembling a rotating forward-beamed lighthouse. We consider the infrared (IR) reverberation of either type of periodic emission by pc-scale circumbinary dust tori. We predict the phase and amplitude of IR variability as a function of the ratio of dust light crossing time to the source variability period, and of the torus inclination and opening angle. We enumerate several differences between the isotropic and anisotropic cases. Interestingly, for a nearly face-on binary with an inclined dust torus, the Doppler boost can produce IR variability without any observable optical/UV variability. Such orphan-IR variability would have been missed in optical searches for periodic AGNs. We apply our models to time-domain WISE IR data from the MBHB candidate PG 1302-102 and find consistency with dust reverberation by both isotropically emitting and Doppler-boosted sources in the shorter wavelength W1-W2 (2.8 → 5.3 μm) bands. We constrain the dust torus to be thin (aspect ratio ∼ 0.1), with an inner radius at 1-5 pc. More generally, our dust-echo models will aid in identifying new MBHB candidates, determining their nature and constraining the physical properties of MBHBs and their dust tori.

  11. Thermal infrared remote sensing of mineral dust over land and ocean: a spectral SVD based retrieval approach for IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Klüser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available From the high spectral resolution thermal infrared observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI mineral dust AOD (transferred from thermal infrared to 0.5 μm is retrieved using a Singular Vector Decomposition of brightness temperature spectra. As infrared retrieval based on 8–12 μm observations, dust observation with IASI is independent from solar illumination. Through the linear combinations of suitable independent singular vectors weighted by their contribution to the observed signal, and a projection of different a-priori dust spectra on the resulting signal the dust can be well distinguished from the influence of surface emissivity and gas absorption. In contrast to lookup-table based single-channel retrievals this method takes advantage of the spectral shape of dust extinction and surface and atmosphere influence over the total 8–12 μm window band. Using different a-priori spectra for dust extinction allows also for an estimation of dust particle size in terms of effective radius based on the respective dust model size distributions. These dust models are also used for the transfer of infrared AOD to 0.5 μm. Four months of IASI observations covering Northern Africa and Arabia are used for evaluation. Two large scale dust events, one covering the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Indian Ocean, the other over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West-Africa, are analysed and compared with other satellite images. They also show the good suitability of IASI data for dust observation at day and night. Monthly means derived from IASI observations represent well the known seasonal cycles of dust activity over Northern Africa and Arabia. IASI Dust AOD0.5 μm and AERONET coarse mode AOD0.5 μm are reasonably well (linearly correlated with ρ=0.623. Moreover, comparison of time series of AERONET and IASI observations shows that the evolution of dust events is very well covered by the

  12. Thermal infrared remote sensing of mineral dust over land and ocean: a spectral SVD based retrieval approach for IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Klüser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From the high spectral resolution thermal infrared observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI mineral dust AOD (transferred from thermal infrared to 0.5 μm is retrieved using a Singular Vector Decomposition of brightness temperature spectra. As infrared retrieval based on 8–12 μm observations, dust observation with IASI is independent from solar illumination. Through the linear combinations of suitable independent singular vectors weighted by their contribution to the observed signal, and a projection of different a-priori dust spectra on the resulting signal the dust can be well distinguished from the influence of surface emissivity and gas absorption. In contrast to lookup-table based single-channel retrievals this method takes advantage of the spectral shape of dust extinction and surface and atmosphere influence over the total 8–12 μm window band. Using different a-priori spectra for dust extinction allows also for an estimation of dust particle size in terms of effective radius based on the respective dust model size distributions. These dust models are also used for the transfer of infrared AOD to 0.5 μm.

    Four months of IASI observations covering Northern Africa and Arabia are used for evaluation. Two large scale dust events, one covering the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent parts of the Indian Ocean, the other over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West-Africa, are analysed and compared with other satellite images. They also show the good suitability of IASI data for dust observation at day and night. Monthly means derived from IASI observations represent well the known seasonal cycles of dust activity over Northern Africa and Arabia. IASI Dust AOD0.5 μm and AERONET coarse mode AOD0.5 μm are reasonably well (linearly correlated with ρ = 0.655. Moreover, comparison of time series of AERONET and IASI observations shows that the evolution of dust events is very well

  13. Reverberation Response Models of the Infrared Dust Emission from a Clumpy Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda, Triana

    2016-08-01

    The obscuring circum-nuclear dusty torus is a major component of AGN and yet, thus far, its shape, composition, and structure have not been well constrained by observations. However, using indirect methods such as reverberation mapping, the size and structure of the torus can be estimated through the time variability of the dusty torus emission in response to changes in the AGN luminosity. I will discuss the computer simulation that I have developed in order to extract structural information from the infrared light curves of 12 Type 1 AGN, obtained during a 2.5 year monitoring campaign using the Spitzer Space Telescope and several ground-based optical telescopes. Given an input optical light curve, the code computes the temporal response of the infrared emission spectrum of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds as a function of time. I will present simulations exploring the effects of various geometrical and structural properties, dust cloud orientation, and anisotropy of the illuminating radiation field on the dusty torus response at selected infrared wavelengths. I will also compare model infrared light curves to those observed for the recently discovered changing-look AGN, NGC 6418.

  14. Interstellar Dust Properties of M51 from AKARI Mid-infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Fumi; Wada, Takehiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 μm), S11 (11 μm), L15 (15 μm), and L24 (24 μm), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to their spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions are defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image and we measure the arm/interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which we interpret as meaning that among the four AKARI MIR bands, the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components. On the other hand, the L24 image, with the highest contrast, traces warmer dust heated by star forming activity. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e., color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and traces the global spiral arm pattern well while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at individual H II regions. This result indicates that the ionization state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is related to the spiral structure. Comparison with observational data and dust models also supports the importance of the variation in the PAH ionization state within the M51a disk. However, the mechanism driving this variation is not yet clear from the currently available datasets. Another suggestion from the comparison with the models is that the PAH fraction in the total dust mass is higher than previously estimated.

  15. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi_kimura@cps-jp.org [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, c/o CPS (Center for Planetary Science), Chuo-ku Minatojima Minamimachi 7-1-48, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  16. The Reincarnation of Interstellar Dust: The Importance of Organic Refractory Material in Infrared Spectra of Cometary Comae and Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  17. Discovery of transient infrared emission from dust heated by stellar tidal disruption flares

    CERN Document Server

    van Velzen, Sjoert; Krolik, Julian H; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2016-01-01

    Stars that pass within the Roche radius of a supermassive black hole will be tidally disrupted, yielding a sudden injection of gas close to the black hole horizon which produces an electromagnetic flare. A few dozen of these flares have been discovered in recent years, but current observations provide poor constraints on the bolometric luminosity and total accreted mass of these events. Using images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have discovered transient 3.4 micron emission from several previously known tidal disruption flares. The observations can be explained by dust heated to its sublimation temperature due to the intense radiation of the tidal flare. From the break in the infrared light curve we infer that this hot dust is located ~0.1 pc from the supermassive black hole. Since the dust has been heated by absorbing UV and (potentially) soft X-ray photons of the flare, the reprocessing light curve yields an estimate of the bolometric flare luminosity. For the flare PTF-09ge, we in...

  18. Interstellar dust properties of M51 from AKARI mid-infrared images

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 um), S11 (11 um), L15 (15 um), and L24 (24 um), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to its spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions being defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image, we measure the arm-to-interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which is interpreted as that among the four AKARI MIR bands the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components, while the L24 image with the highest contrast traces warmer dust heated by star forming activities. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e. color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and well traces the global spiral arm pattern while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at i...

  19. Optical Estimation on Pollution Level of Respirable Dust Based on Infrared Transmitting Behavior in Coalmine Fully Mechanized Working Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respirable coal particle generated during underground mining is the main cause for gas-dust explosions and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP which needs accurate monitoring especially on its concentration. Focusing on the coal dust pollution in the fully mechanized working face of Huangbaici coalmine, coal particle was sampled for further industrial analysis and FT-IR test to obtain its chemical composition and optical constant. Combined with the simulated spatial distribution of airborne dust, the spectral transmission characteristics of coal dust within wavelengths of 2.5 to 25 μm under different operating conditions were obtained. The simulation results show that the transmittance and aerosol optical depth (AOD of coal dust are closely linked and obviously influenced by the variation of dust generation source (intensity of dust release, position of coal cutting, and the wetting of the coal seam and airflow field (wind speed and direction of ventilation. Furthermore, an optical channel of 1260–1280 cm−1 (7.937–7.813 μm which is almost only sensitive to the variation of dust concentration but dull to the diameter change of coal dust was selected to establish the correlation of dust concentration and infrared transmittance. The fitting curve was then applied to retrieve the equivalent dust concentration based on optical information, and the comparison results demonstrate that the estimated pollution level is consistent with field measurement data in engineering practice.

  20. Infrared emission from tidal disruption events --- probing the pc-scale dust content around galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wenbin; Evans, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Recent UV-optical surveys have been successful in finding tidal disruption events (TDEs), in which a star is tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole (BH). These TDEs release a huge amount of radiation energy ~ 10^51-52 erg into the circum-nuclear medium. If the medium is dusty, most of the radiation energy will be absorbed by dust grains within ~ 1 pc from the BH and re-radiated in the infrared. We calculate the dust emission lightcurve from a 1-D radiative transfer model, taking into account the time-dependent heating, cooling and sublimation of dust grains. We show that the dust emission peaks at 3-10 microns and has typical luminosities ~ 10^42-43 erg/s (with sky covering factor of dusty clouds ranging from 0.1-1). This is detectable by current generation of telescopes. In the near future, James Webb Space Telescope will be able to perform photometric and spectroscopic measurements, in which silicate or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features may be found. Observations at rest-frame wavelengt...

  1. A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J P; Montesinos, B; Krivov, A V; Eiroa, C; Absil, O; Bryden, G; Maldonado, J; Mora, A; Sanz-Forcada, J; Ardila, D; Augereau, J -Ch; Bayo, A; Del Burgo, C; Danchi, W; Ertel, S; Fedele, D; Fridlund, M; Lebreton, J; González-García, B M; Liseau, R; Meeus, G; Müller, S; Pilbratt, G L; Roberge, A; Stapelfeldt, K; Thébault, P; White, G J; Wolf, S

    2011-01-01

    Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and analysis of the dust properties is limited by the lack of information regarding the dust location.vThe Herschel DUNES key program is observing 133 nearby, Sun-like stars (<20 pc, FGK spectral type) in a volume limited survey to constrain the absolute incidence of cold dust around these stars by detection of far infrared excess emission at flux levels comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). We have observed the Sun-like star HD 207129 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. In all three PACS bands we resolve a ring-like structure consistent with scattered light observations. Using {\\alpha} Bo\\"otis as a reference point spread function (PSF), we deconvolved the images, clearly resolving the inner gap in the disc at both 70 and 100 {\\mu}m. We have resolved the dust-producing planetesimal belt of a debris disc at 100 {\\mu}m f...

  2. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Amblard, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, KrijgslAAn 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hoyos, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, The Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  3. Near-infrared thermal emissivity from ground based atmospheric dust measurements at ORM

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, G; Ortolani, S; Melnick, J; Ghedina, A; Garcia, A; Molinari, E; Gatica, C

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the atmospheric content of aerosols measured at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM; Canary Islands). Using a laser diode particle counter located at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) we have detected particles of 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 um size. The seasonal behavior of the dust content in the atmosphere is calculated. The Spring has been found to be dustier than the Summer, but dusty conditions may also occur in Winter. A method to estimate the contribution of the aerosols emissivity to the sky brightness in the near-infrared (NIR) is presented. The contribution of dust emission to the sky background in the NIR has been found to be negligible comparable to the airglow, with a maximum contribution of about 8-10% in the Ks band in the dusty days.

  4. The Composition of Dust in Jupiter-Family Comets as Inferred from Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    We review the composition of Jupiter-family comet dust as inferred from infrared spectroscopy. We find that Jupiter-family comets have 10 micron silicate emission features with fluxes roughly 20-25% over the dust continuum (emission strength 1.20-1.25), similar to the weakest silicate features in Oort Cloud comets. We discuss the grain properties that change the silicate emission feature strength (composition, size, and structure/shape), and emphasize that thermal emission from the comet nucleus can have significant influence on the derived silicate emission strength. Recent evidence suggests that porosity is the dominant parameter, although more observations and models of silicates in Jupiter-family comets are needed to determine if a consistent set of grain parameters can explain their weak silicate emission features. Models of 8 m telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope observations have shown that Jupiter-family comets have crystalline silicates with abundances similar to or less than those found in Oort Cl...

  5. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  6. A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. P.; Löhne, T.; Montesinos, B.; Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Maldonado, J.; Mora, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; Del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Ertel, S.; Fedele, D.; Fridlund, M.; Lebreton, J.; González-García, B. M.; Liseau, R.; Meeus, G.; Müller, S.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and analysis of the dust properties is limited by the lack of information regarding the dust location. Aims: The Herschel DUNES key program is observing 133 nearby, Sun-like stars (stars by detection of far infrared excess emission at flux levels comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Methods: We have observed the Sun-like star HD 207129 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. In all three PACS bands we resolve a ring-like structure consistent with scattered light observations. Using α Boötis as a reference point spread function (PSF), we deconvolved the images, clearly resolving the inner gap in the disc at both 70 and 100 μm. Results: We have resolved the dust-producing planetesimal belt of a debris disc at 100 μm for the first time. We measure the radial profile and fractional luminosity of the disc, and compare the values to those of discs around stars of similar age and/or spectral type, placing this disc in context of other resolved discs observed by Herschel/DUNES. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Ultraviolet through Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions from 1000 SDSS Galaxies: Dust Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Benjamin D; Seibert, Mark; Treyer, Marie; Martin, D Christopher; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, A S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2007-01-01

    The meaningful comparison of models of galaxy evolution to observations is critically dependent on the accurate treatment of dust attenuation. To investigate dust absorption and emission in galaxies we have assembled a sample of ~1000 galaxies with ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) photometry from GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer and optical spectroscopy from SDSS. The ratio of IR to UV emission (IRX) is used to constrain the dust attenuation in galaxies. We use the 4000A break as a robust and useful, although coarse, indicator of star formation history (SFH). We examine the relationship between IRX and the UV spectral slope (a common attenuation indicator at high-redshift) and find little dependence of the scatter on 4000A break strength. We construct average UV through far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for different ranges of IRX, 4000A break strength, and stellar mass (M_*) to show the variation of the entire SED with these parameters. When binned simultaneously by IRX, 4000A break strength, and M_*...

  8. No evidence of a circumsolar dust ring from infrared observations of the 1991 solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P; Kuhn, J R; Lin, H; Koutchmy, S; Smartt, R N

    1992-09-04

    During the past 25 years there have been many attempts to detect a possible dust ring around the sun, with contradictory results. Before the 1991 eclipse, infrared eclipse experiments used single-element detectors to scan the corona along the ecliptic for excess surface brightness peaks. The availability of relatively large-format infrared array detectors now provides a considerable observational advantage: two-dimensional mapping of the brightness and polarization of the corona with high photometric precision. The 1991 eclipse path included the high-altitude Mauna Kea Observatory, a further advantage to measure the corona out to large angular distances from the sun. Results are reported from an experiment conducted on Mauna Kea with a HgCdTe-array detector sensitive to wavelengths between 1 and 2.5 micrometers, using broad-band J, H, and K filters. Although the sky conditions were not ideal, the H- and K-band surface brightnesses clearly show the inhomogeneous structure in the K-corona and the elliptical flattening of the F-corona, but no evidence of a circumsolar, local dust component out to 15 solar radii.

  9. Determination of the far-infrared dust opacity in a prestellar core

    CERN Document Server

    Suutarinen, Aleksi; Harju, Jorma; Juvela, Mika; Andre, Philippe; Kirk, Jason M; Könyves, Vera; White, Glenn J

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) We correlated near-infrared stellar H-Ks colour excesses of background stars from NTT/SOFI with the far-IR optical depth map, tauFIR, derived from Herschel 160, 250, 350, and 500 um data. The Herschel maps were also used to construct a model for the cloud to examine the effect of temperature gradients on the estimated optical depths and dust absorption cross-sections. A linear correlation is seen between the colour H-Ks and tauFIR up to high extinctions (AV ~ 25). The correlation translates to the average extinction ratio A250um/AJ = 0.0014 +/- 0.0002, assuming a standard near-infrared extinction law and a dust emissivity index beta=2. Using an empirical NH/AJ ratio we obtain an average absorption cross-section per H nucleus of sigmaH(250um) = (1.8 +/- 0.3) * 10^(-25) cm^2 / H-atom, corresponding to a cross-section per unit mass of gas kappaG(250 um) = 0.08 +/- 0.01 cm^2 / g. The cloud model however suggests that owing to the bias caused by temperature changes along the line-of-sight these values u...

  10. Replacement of filters for respirable quartz measurement in coal mine dust by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Soo, Jhy-Charm; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare and characterize nylon, polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane filters that might be used to replace the vinyl/acrylic co-polymer (DM-450) filter currently used in the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) P-7 method (Quartz Analytical Method) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods 7603 method (QUARTZ in coal mine dust, by IR re-deposition). This effort is necessary because the DM-450 filters are no longer commercially available. There is an impending shortage of DM-450 filters. For example, the MSHA Pittsburgh laboratory alone analyzes annually approximately 15,000 samples according to the MSHA P-7 method that requires DM-450 filters. Membrane filters suitable for on-filter analysis should have high infrared (IR) transmittance in the spectral region 600-1000 cm(-1). Nylon (47 mm, 0.45 µm pore size), PP (47 mm, 0.45 µm pore size), and PVC (47 mm, 5 µm pore size) filters meet this specification. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were determined from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements of blank filters. The average measured quartz mass and coefficient of variation were determined from test filters spiked with respirable α-quartz following MSHA P-7 and NIOSH 7603 methods. Quartz was also quantified in samples of respirable coal dust on each test filter type using the MSHA and NIOSH analysis methods. The results indicate that PP and PVC filters may replace the DM-450 filters for quartz measurement in coal dust by FTIR. PVC filters of 5 µm pore size seemed to be suitable replacement although their ability to retain small particulates should be checked by further experiment.

  11. The effects of dust on the optical and infrared evolution of SN 2004et

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, J; Barlow, M J; Gallagher, Joseph S; Wesson, R; Sugerman, B E K; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Meixner, M; Andrews, J E; Welch, D L; Ercolano, B

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of multi-epoch observations of the Type II-P supernova SN 2004et. New and archival optical spectra of SN 2004et are used to study the evolution of the Halpha and [O I] 6300A line profiles between days 259 and 646. Mid-infrared imaging was carried out between 2004 to 2010. We include Spitzer `warm' mission photometry at 3.6 and 4.5um obtained on days 1779, 1931 and 2151, along with ground-based and HST optical and near-infrared observations obtained between days 79 and 1803. Multi-wavelength light curves are presented, as well as optical-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for multiple epochs. Starting from about day 300, the optical light curves provide evidence for an increasing amount of circumstellar extinction attributable to newly formed dust, with the additional extinction reaching 0.8-1.5 magnitudes in the V-band by day 690. The overall SEDs were fitted with multiple blackbody components, in order to investigate the luminosity evolution of the supernova, and then with M...

  12. Properties of dust in the Galactic center region probed by AKARI far-infrared spectral mapping - detection of a dust feature

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, H; Onaka, T; Kawada, M; Murakami, N; Nakagawa, T; Okada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interstellar dust in the Galactic center region toward the Arches and Quintuplet clusters. With the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor, we performed the far-infrared (60 - 140 cm^-1) spectral mapping of an area of about 10' x 10' which includes the two clusters to obtain a low-resolution (R = 1.2 cm^-1) spectrum at every spatial bin of 30" x 30". We derive the spatial variations of dust continuum emission at different wavenumbers, which are compared with those of the [O III] 88 micron (113 cm^-1) emission and the OH 119 micron (84 cm^-1) absorption. The spectral fitting shows that two dust modified blackbody components with temperatures of ~20 K and ~50 K can reproduce most of the continuum spectra. For some spectra, however, we find that there exists a significant excess on top of a modified blackbody continuum around 80 - 90 cm^-1 (110 - 130 microns). The warmer dust component is spatially correlated well with the [O III] emission and hence lik...

  13. Characterizing Ultraviolet and Infrared Observational Properties for Galaxies. I. Influences of Dust Attenuation and Stellar Population Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Hao, Cai-Na; Kong, Xu; Zhou, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color, i.e. the IRX-UV relation, was regarded as a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion, in this paper, we select five spiral nearby galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each individual of the galaxies, with combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to ...

  14. Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies II: Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Marshall, Jason; Evans, Aaron; Haan, Sebastian; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dongchan; Murphy, Eric J; Rich, Jeff A; Spoon, Henrik W W; Inami, Hanae; Petric, Andreea; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between ...

  15. HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES). I: Far-infrared morphology and dust mass determination

    CERN Document Server

    Verstappen, J; Baes, M; Smith, M W L; Allaert, F; Bianchi, S; Blommaert, J A D L; De Geyter, G; De Looze, I; Gentile, G; Gordon, K D; Holwerda, B W; Viaene, S; Xilouris, E M

    2013-01-01

    Context. Edge-on spiral galaxies with prominent dust lanes provide us with an excellent opportunity to study the distribution and properties of the dust within them. The HEROES project was set up to observe a sample of seven large edge-on galaxies across various wavelengths for this investigation. Aims. Within this first paper, we present the Herschel observations and perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis on them, and we derive some global properties of the far infrared and submillimetre emission. Methods. We determine horizontal and vertical profiles from the Herschel observations of the galaxies in the sample and describe the morphology. Modified black-body fits to the global fluxes, measured using aperture photometry, result in dust temperatures and dust masses. The latter values are compared to those that are derived from radiative transfer models taken from the literature. Results. On the whole, our Herschel flux measurements agree well with archival values. We find that the exponential horizon...

  16. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rich, J. A. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); U, V., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  17. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marchetti, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  18. Dust aerosols over India and adjacent continents retrieved using METEOSAT infrared radiance Part I: sources and regional distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Srinivasan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust constitutes the single largest contributor to continental aerosols. To accurately assess the impact of dust aerosols on climate, the spatial and temporal distribution of dust radiative properties is essential. Regional characteristics of dust radiative properties, however, are poorly understood. The magnitude and even sign of dust radiative forcing is uncertain, as it depends on a number of parameters, such as vertical distribution of dust, cloud cover and albedo of the underlying surface. In this paper, infrared radiance (10.5-12.5 µm, acquired from the METEOSAT-5 satellite ( resolution, was used to retrieve regional characteristics of dust aerosols for all of 1999. The infrared radiance depression, due to the presence of dust in the atmosphere, has been used as an index of dust load, known as the Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI. There have been several studies in the past carried out over the Sahara using IDDI as a measure of dust load. Over the Indian region, however, studies on dust aerosols are sparse. Spatial and temporal variability in dust loading and its regional distribution over various arid and semiarid regions of India and adjacent continents (0-35° N; 30° E-100° E (excluding Sahara have been studied and the results are examined along with surface soil conditions (such as vegetation cover and soil moisture. The advantage of the IDDI method is that information on aerosol properties, such as chemical composition or microphysical properties, is not needed. A large day-to-day variation in IDDI was observed over the entire study region, with values ranging from 4 to 22 K. It was observed that dust activity starts by March over the Indian deserts, as well as over deserts of the Africa and Arabian regions. The IDDI reaches maximum during the period of May to August. Regional maps of IDDI, in conjunction with biomass burning episodes (using TERRA satellite fire pixel counts, suggest that large IDDI values observed

  19. Obscuration in AGNs: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Davies, R I; Janssen, A; Lutz, D; Rosario, D; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lin, M -Y; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L

    2015-01-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. T...

  20. Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Dust-forming Classical Nova V2676 Oph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Nagashima, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C2 and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon (12C/13C) and nitrogen (14N/15N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μm was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μm originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  1. Search for Hyper Infrared-Luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies selected with WISE and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We aim to search for hyperliminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity $L_{{\\rm IR}}$ $>$ 10$^{13}$ $L_{\\odot}$ by applying the selection method of Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, hence they are a crucial population for understanding the star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5,311 IR-bright DOGs with $i$ -- [22] $>$ 7.0 and flux at 22 $\\mu$m $>$ 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg$^2$, where $i$ and [22] are $i$-band and 22 $\\mu$m AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the SED fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically-...

  2. Long Fading Mid-infrared Emission in Transient Coronal Line Emitters: Dust Echo of a Tidal Disruption Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Liming; Wang, Ting-gui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Lyu, Jianwei; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    The sporadic accretion following the tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive black hole (TDE) leads to a bright UV and soft X-ray flare in the galactic nucleus. The gas and dust surrounding the black hole responses to such a flare with an echo in emission lines and infrared emission. In this paper, we report the detection of long fading mid-IR emission lasting up to 14 years after the flare in four TDE candidates with transient coronal lines using the WISE public data release. We estimate that the reprocessed mid-IR luminosities are in the range between 4× {10}42 and 2× {10}43 erg s-1 and dust temperature in the range of 570-800 K when WISE first detected these sources three to five years after the flare. Both luminosity and dust temperature decrease with time. We interpret the mid-IR emission as the infrared echo of the tidal disruption flare. We estimate the UV luminosity at the peak flare to be 1 to 30 times 1044 erg s-1 and that for warm dust masses to be in the range of 0.05-1.3 {M}⊙ within a few parsecs. Our results suggest that the mid-infrared echo is a general signature of TDE in the gas-rich environment.

  3. The cosmic background: evolution of infrared galaxies and dust properties. A lecture dedicated to the memory of Mayo Greenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Puget, J L; Dole, H; Puget, Jean-Loup; Lagache, Guilaine; Dole, Herve

    2004-01-01

    In recent years it became clear that a population of galaxies radiating most of their power in the far-infrared contribute an important part of the whole star formation activity in the universe. These galaxies emit up to 99% of their energy output in the infrared by dust. The optical properties of dust in galaxies are thus very important to understand this population. Mayo Greenberg who has brought many of the ideas underlying our understanding of the physics of interstellar dust has been a pioneer in predicting the important role of organic solid material formed on dust grains in molecular clouds and of potential importance of transient heating of very small particles. It appeared with the ISO data on galaxies and even more today with the first Spitzer data that these mechanisms are important globally for the observations of infrared galaxies at significant redshifts. The understanding of their evolution is one of the keys to the understanding of galaxy built up and evolution.

  4. The evolution of hydrocarbon dust grains in the interstellar medium and its influence on the infrared spectra of dust

    CERN Document Server

    Murga, M S; Wiebe, D S

    2016-01-01

    We present evolutionary calculations for the size and aromatization degree distributions of interstellar dust grains, driven by their destruction by radiation, collisions with gas particles, and shattering due to grain-grain collisions. Based on these calculations we model dust emission spectra. The initial grain size distribution play the important role in the evolution of an ensemble of dust particles. Radiation in the considered intensity range mostly aromatizes grains. The smallest grains are mainly destructed via sputtering by collisions with gas particles. There are no grains smaller than 20~\\AA\\ in the medium at relative gas-dust velocities more than 50~km/s, which is typical for shocks in supernova remnants. The IR emission spectrum changes significantly due to the dust evolution depending on the adopted grain properties, in particular, on the energy of the C--C bonds ($E_0$). Aromatic bands in the near-IR (2--15~$\\mu$m) are absent, if $E_0$ is low, even when the medium properties correspond to the av...

  5. Experimental investigation on the infrared refraction and extinction properties of rock dust in tunneling face of coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-12-10

    Comprehensive experimental research on the fundamental optical properties of dust pollution in a coal mine is presented. Rock dust generated in a tunneling roadway was sampled and the spectral complex refractive index within an infrared range of 2.5-25 μm was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement and Kramers-Kronig relation. Experimental results were validated to be consistent with equivalent optical constants simulated by effective medium theory based on component analysis of x-ray fluorescence, which illustrates that the top three mineral components are SiO2 (62.06%), Al2O3 (21.26%), and Fe2O3 (4.27%). The complex refractive index and the spatial distribution tested by a filter dust and particle size analyzer were involved in the simulation of extinction properties of rock dust along the tunneling roadway solved by the discrete ordinates method and Mie scattering model. The compared results illustrate that transmission is obviously enhanced with the increase of height from the floor but weakened with increasing horizontal distance from the air duct.

  6. Long Fading Mid-Infrared Emission in Transient Coronal Line Emitters: Dust Echo of Tidal Disruption Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Liming; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Lyu, Jianwei; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The sporadic accretion followed the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole leads to a bright UV and soft X-ray flare in the galactic nucleus. The gas and dust surrounding the black hole responses to such a flare with an echo in emission lines and infrared emission. In this paper, we report the detection of long fading mid-IR emission lasting up to 14 years after the flare in four TDE candidates with transient coronal lines using the WISE public data release. We estimate reprocessed mid-IR luminosities are in the range between $4\\times 10^{42}$ to $2\\times 10^{43}$ erg~s$^{-1}$ and dust temperature in the range of 570-800K when WISE first detected these sources 3-5 years after the flare. Both luminosity and dust temperature decreases with time. We interpret the mid-IR emission as the infrared echo of the tidal disruption flare. We estimate the UV luminosity at the peak flare to be one to thirty times of $10^{44}$ erg~s$^{-1}$ and warm dust mass in the range of 0.05 to 2.2 M_{\\sun} within a few...

  7. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  8. Smooth and Clumpy Dust Distribution in AGN: a Direct Comparison of two Commonly Explored Infrared Emission Models

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, A; Fritz, J; Franceschini, A

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of the dust distribution within the inner regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is still a debated issue and relates directly with the AGN unified scheme. Traditionally, models discussed in the literature assume one of two distinct dust distributions in what is believed to be a toroidal region around the Supermassive Black Holes: a continuous distribution, customarily referred to as smooth, and a concentration of dust in clumps or clouds, referred to as clumpy. In this paper we perform a thorough comparison between two of the most popular models in the literature, namely the smooth models by Fritz. et al. 2006 and the clumpy models by Nenkova et al. 2008a, in their common parameters space. Particular attention is paid to the silicate features at ~9.7 and ~18 micron, the width of the infrared bump, the near-infrared index and the luminosity at 12.3 micron, all previously reported as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish between the two dust distributions. We find that, due to the different du...

  9. The Effect of Dust Extinction on the Observed Properties of Galaxies in the Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Riad, Ihab F; Woudt, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies behind the Milky Way suffer size reduction and dimming due to their obscuration by dust in the disk of our Galaxy. The degree of obscuration is wavelength dependent. It decreases towards longer wavelengths. Compared to the optical, the Near InfraRed (NIR) $K_s$ band extinction is only $\\approx10%$ that of the $B$ band. This makes NIR surveys well suited for galaxy surveys close to the Galactic Plane where extinction is severe. While Galactic obscuration is less prominent in the NIR it is not negligible. In this paper we derive empirical relations to correct isophotal radii and magnitudes of galaxies observed in the NIR for foreground absorption. We simulate extinction in the $J$, $H$ and $K_s$ bands on 64 (unobscured) galaxies from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas \\citep{jarrett}. We propose two methods for the extinction correction, the first is optimized to provide the most accurate correction and the second provides a convenient statistical correction that works adequately in lower extinction regions....

  10. Identification of dust outbreaks on infrared MSG-SEVIRI data by using a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannazzaro, Filomena; Filizzola, Carolina; Marchese, Francesco; Corrado, Rosita; Paciello, Rossana; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Dust storms are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientific community because of their potential impact on climate changes, for the risk that may pose to human health and due to other issues as desertification processes and reduction of the agricultural production. Satellite remote sensing, thanks to global coverage, high frequency of observation and low cost data, may highly contribute in monitoring these phenomena, provided that proper detection methods are used. In this work, the known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) multitemporal approach, used for studying and monitoring several natural/environmental hazards, is tested on some important dust events affecting Mediterranean region in May 2004 and Arabian Peninsula in February 2008. To perform this study, data provided by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) have been processed, comparing the generated dust maps to some independent satellite-based aerosol products. Outcomes of this work show that the RST technique can be profitably used for detecting dust outbreaks from space, providing information also about areas characterized by a different probability of dust presence. They encourage further improvements of this technique in view of its possible implementation in the framework of operational warning systems.

  11. Quantifying the Heating Sources for Mid-infrared Dust Emissions in Galaxies: The Case of M 81

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Nanyao; Boselli, A; Baes, M; Wu., H; Madden, S C; De Looze, I; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Boquien, M; Wilson, C D; Galametz, M; Lam, M I; Cooray, A; Spinoglio, L; Zhao, Y

    2014-01-01

    With the newly available SPIRE images at 250 and 500 micron from Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kpc scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (a) $I_{8}$ or $I_{24}$, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer IRAC 8 or MIPS 24 micron band, with $I_8$ and $I_{24}$ being dominated by the emissions from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (b) $I_{500}$, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel SPIRE 500 micron band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars, and (c) $I_{{\\rm H}\\alpha}$, a nominal surface brightness of the H$\\alpha$ line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heati...

  12. INFRARED AND OPTICAL IMAGINGS OF THE COMET 2P/ENCKE DUST CLOUD IN THE 2003 RETURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ueno, Munetaka [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Usui, Fumihiko [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Reach, William T., E-mail: sarugaku@kiso.ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-05-10

    We report contemporaneous imaging observations of the short-period comet 2P/Encke in infrared and optical wavelengths during the 2003 return. Both images show the same unique morphology consisting of a spiky dust cloud near the nucleus and a dust trail extending along the orbit. We conducted a dynamical simulation of dust particles to characterize the morphology and found that dust particles were ejected intensively for a short duration (≲10 days) a few days after perihelion passage. The maximum particle size is at least on the order of 1 cm in radius following a differential power-law size distribution with an index of −3.2 to −3.6. The total mass ejected in the 2003 return is at least 1.5 × 10{sup 9}–1.2 × 10{sup 10} kg, which corresponds to 0.003%–0.03% of the nucleus mass. We derived the albedo of the dust cloud as 0.01–0.04 at a solar phase angle of 26.°2, which is consistent with or possibly greater than that of the nucleus. We suppose that impulsive activity such as an outburst is a key to understanding the peculiar appearance of 2P/Encke.

  13. The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and far-infrared dust emission from NGC 2403 and M83

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A G; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; De Looze, I; Fritz, J; Galliano, F; Hughes, T M; Lebouteiller, V; Lu, N; Madden, S C; Remy-Ruyer, A; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Zijlstra, A A

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 microns and far-infrared emission from hot dust grains at 24 microns and from large dust grains at 160 and 250 microns in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 2403 and M83 using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We find that the PAH emission in NGC 2403 is better correlated with emission at 250 microns from dust heated by the diffuse interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and that the 8/250 micron surface brightness ratio is well-correlated with the stellar surface brightness as measured at 3.6 microns. This implies that the PAHs in NGC 2403 are intermixed with cold large dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and that the PAHs are excited by the diffuse ISRF. In M83, the PAH emission appears more strongly correlated with 160 micron emission originating from large dust grains heated by star forming regions. However, the PAH emission in M83 is low where the 24 micron emission peaks withi...

  14. Mantle formation, coagulation, and the origin of cloud/core shine. I. Modelling dust scattering and absorption in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Köhler, M.; Ysard, N.; Dartois, E.; Godard, M.; Gavilan, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The observed cloudshine and coreshine (C-shine) have been explained in terms of grain growth leading to enhanced scattering from clouds in the J, H, and K photometric bands and the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. Aims: Using our global dust-modelling approach THEMIS (The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model at the IaS), we explore the effects of dust evolution in dense clouds, through aliphatic-rich carbonaceous mantle formation and grain-grain coagulation. Methods: We model the effects of wide band gap a-C:H mantle formation and the low-level aggregation of diffuse interstellar medium dust in the moderately-extinguished outer regions of molecular clouds. Results: The formation of wide band gap a-C:H mantles on amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon (a-C) grains leads to a decrease in their absorption cross-sections but no change in their scattering cross-sections at near-infrared wavelengths, resulting in higher albedos. Conclusions: The evolution of dust, with increasing density and extinction in the diffuse-to-dense molecular cloud transition, through mantle formation and grain aggregation, appears to be a likely explanation for the observed C-shine.

  15. The Magellanic zoo: Mid-infrared Spitzer spectroscopy of evolved stars and circumstellar dust in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, A A; Bernard-Salas, J; Devost, D; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We observed a sample of evolved stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Comparing samples from the SMC, LMC, and the Galaxy reveals that the dust-production rate depends on metallicity for oxygen-rich stars, but carbon stars with similar pulsation properties produce similar quantities of dust, regardless of their initial metallicity. Other properties of the oxygen-rich stars also depend on metallicity. As the metallicity decreases, the fraction of naked (i.e. dust-free) stars increases, and among the naked stars, the strength of the 8 um absorption band from SiO decreases. Our sample includes several massive stars in the LMC with long pulsation periods which produce significant amounts of dust, probably because they are young and relatively metal rich. Little alumina dust is seen in circumstellar shells in the SMC and LMC, unlike in Galactic samples. Three oxygen-rich sources also show emission from magnesium-rich crystalline ...

  16. Evaluation of Diffuse Reflection Infrared Spectrometry for End-of-Shift Measurement of α-quartz in Coal Dust Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Murphy, Nathaniel C; Bayman, Sean J; Briggs, Zachary P; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Quinn, Courtney A; Wadas, Mackenzie R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Griffiths, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of toxic substances is a major threat to the health of miners, and dust containing respirable crystalline silica (α-quartz) is of particular concern, due to the recent rise in cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis in some U.S. mining regions. Currently, there is no field-portable instrument that can measure airborne α-quartz and give miners timely feedback on their exposure. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is therefore conducting studies to investigate technologies capable of end-of-shift or real-time measurement of airborne quartz. The present study focuses on the potential application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry conducted in the diffuse reflection (DR) mode as a technique for measuring α-quartz in respirable mine dust. A DR accessory was used to analyze lab-generated respirable samples of Min-U-Sil 5 (which contains more than 90% α-quartz) and coal dust, at mass loadings in the ranges of 100-600 μg and 600-5300 μg, respectively. The dust samples were deposited onto three different types of filters, borosilicate fiberglass, nylon, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The reflectance, R, was calculated by the ratio of a blank filter and a filter with deposited mine dust. Results suggest that for coal and pure quartz dusts deposited on 37 mm PVC filters, measurements of -log R correlate linearly with known amounts of quartz on filters, with R(2) values of approximately 0.99 and 0.94, respectively, for samples loaded up to ∼4000 μg. Additional tests were conducted to measure quartz in coal dusts deposited onto the borosilicate fiberglass and nylon filter media used in the NIOSH-developed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). The nylon filter was shown to be amenable to DR analysis, but quantification of quartz is more accurate when the filter is "free," as opposed to being mounted in the PDM filter holder. The borosilicate fiberglass filters were shown to produce excessive

  17. Effects of dust abundance on the far-infrared colours of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the FIR properties of a sample of BCDs observed by AKARI. By utilizing the data at wavelengths of $\\lambda =65 \\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, and 140 $\\mu$m, we find that the FIR colours of the BCDs are located at the natural high-temperature extension of those of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. This implies that the optical properties of dust in BCDs are similar to those in the Milky Way. Indeed, we explain the FIR colours by assuming the same grain optical properties, which may be appropriate for amorphous dust grains, and the same size distribution as those adopted for the Milky Way dust. Since both interstellar radiation field and dust optical depth affect the dust temperature, it is difficult to distinguish which of these two physical properties is responsible for the change of FIR colours. Then, in order to examine if the dust optical depth plays an important role in determining the dust temperature, we investigate the correlation between FIR colour (dust temperature) and dust-to-gas ratio. W...

  18. VARIATIONS OF MID- AND FAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AMONG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: RELATION TO STELLAR METALLICITY AND COLD DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre, E-mail: mathews@ucolick.org, E-mail: fabrizio.brighenti@unibo.it, E-mail: pasquale.temi@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 {mu}m variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies, cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 {mu}m may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 {mu}m luminosity in elliptical galaxies is due to dust transported from galactic cores by feedback events in (currently IR-quiet) AGNs. Cooler dusty gas naturally accumulates in the cores of elliptical galaxies due to dust-cooled local stellar mass loss and may accrete onto the central black hole, releasing energy. AGN-heated gas can transport dust in cores 5-10 kpc out into the hot gas atmospheres where it radiates extended 70 {mu}m emission but is eventually destroyed by sputtering. This, and some modest star formation, defines a cycle of dust creation and destruction. Elliptical galaxies evidently undergo large transient excursions in the banana plot in times comparable to the sputtering time or AGN duty cycle, 10 Myr. Normally regarded as passive, elliptical galaxies are the most active galaxies in the IR color-color correlation.

  19. Star formation activity in the neighbourhood of W-R 1503-160L star in the mid-infrared bubble N46

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Ojha, D K; Janardhan, P; Ninan, J P; Luna, A; Zinchenko, I

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate star formation (SF) processes in extreme environments, we have carried out a multi-wavelength analysis of the mid-infrared bubble N46, which hosts a WN7 Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. We have used 13CO line data to trace an expanding shell surrounding the W-R star containing about five condensations within the molecular cloud associated with the bubble. The W-R star is associated with a powerful stellar wind having a mechanical luminosity of ~4 x 10^37 ergs/s. A deviation of the H-band starlight mean polarization angles around the bubble has also been traced, indicating the impact of stellar wind on the surroundings. The Herschel temperature map shows a temperature range of ~18 - 24 K toward the five molecular condensations. The photometric analysis reveals that these condensations are associated with the identified clusters of young stellar objects, revealing ongoing SF process. The densest among these five condensations (peak N(H_2) ~9.2 x 10^22 cm^-2 and A_V ~ 98 mag) is associated with a 6...

  20. Evaluation of SEVIRI Thermal Infra-Red data for airborne dust detection in an arid regions: the UAE case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, I.; Parajuli, S. P.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    Our interest in the study of the dust emission cycle over arid area results from the impacts that they have on the climate and atmospheric processes. Large dust concentration emitted even naturally or anthropogenic may reduce surface insolation by extinction of solar radiation. In addition, the knowledge of its spatio-temporal distribution is essential for monitoring several applications such as solar energy potential and health effect. Satellite-based remote sensing is an efficient tool to improve our understanding of the interaction of the desert dust and surrounding climate over regional and global scales with high frequency measurements. Thermal infrared (TIR) channels (3μm -15μm) of different satellites (MVIRI, AVHRR, MODIS, ADEOS-2/POLDER, TOMS, and MSG/SERIVI) were widely used for dust detection. Several dust detection and forecasting algorithms have been proposed based on these satellite data. However, the spatial and temporal variability of the physical characteristics of dust (concentrations, particle size distribution, location in the atmosphere, and chemical composition) has limited their estimations particularly with the dependence of the dust emission on the wind, soil water content, vegetation, and sediment availability. This study focuses on the analysis of the sensitivity of the MSG/SEVIRI TIR observation to dust generation, surface wind, soil moisture, and surface emissivity over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). SEVIRI observations were acquired in 2009 with temporal and spatial resolutions of 30 minutes and about 3km respectively. While the soil moisture is extracted from the AMSR-E data (1:30 AM and 1:30 PM) at spatial resolution of 25 km, the surface emissivity and Aerosol Optical Thickness were extracted from the MODIS products at spatial resolutions of 1 km and 100 km respectively. In coincidence with the satellites acquisitions, meteorological measurements were collected from seven met stations distributed over the selected study area (wind

  1. Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

  2. Long Fading Mid-Infrared Emission in Transient Coronal Line Emitters: Dust Echo of Tidal Disruption Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Liming; Wang, Ting-Gui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Lyu, Jianwei; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The sporadic accretion following the tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive black hole (TDE) leads to a bright UV and soft X-ray flare in the galactic nucleus. The gas and dust surrounding the black hole responses to such a flare with an echo in emission lines and infrared emission. In this paper, we report the detection of long fading mid-IR emission lasting up to 14 years after the flare in four TDE candidates with transient coronal lines using the WISE public data release. We estima...

  3. An Infrared Study of the Dust Properties and Geometry of the Arched Filaments H ii Region with SOFIA/FORCAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, M. J.; Lau, R. M.; Morris, M. R.; Herter, T. L.

    2017-03-01

    Massive stellar clusters provide radiation (∼ {10}7{--}{10}8 {L}ȯ ) and winds (∼1000 km s‑1) that act to heat dust and shape their surrounding environment. In this paper, the Arched Filaments in the Galactic center were studied to better understand the influence of the Arches cluster on its nearby interstellar medium (ISM). The Arched Filaments were observed with the Faint Object InfraRed CAMera for the SOFIA Telescope at 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, and 37.1 μm. Color–temperature maps of the region created with the 25.2 and 37.1 μm data reveal relatively uniform dust temperatures (70–100 K) over the extent of the filaments (∼25 pc). Distances between the cluster and the filaments were calculated assuming equilibrium heating of standard-size ISM dust grains (∼0.1 μm). The distances inferred by this method are in conflict with the projected distance between the filaments and the cluster, although this inconsistency can be explained if the characteristic grain size in the filaments is smaller (∼0.01 μm) than typical values. DustEM models of selected locations within the filaments show evidence of depleted abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by factors of ∼1.6–10 by mass compared to the diffuse ISM. The evidence for both PAH depletion and a smaller characteristic grain size points to processing of the ISM within the filaments. We argue that the eroding of dust grains within the filaments is not likely attributable to the radiation or winds from the Arches cluster, but may be related to the physical conditions in the Galactic center.

  4. Comparison of direct (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry) and indirect (infrared spectrophotometry) methods for the analysis of alpha-quartz in airborne dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffer, E; Masson, A; Moulut, J C; Lecaque, T; Protois, J C

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the alpha-quartz contents measured by different analytical techniques (X-ray diffraction, direct method; and infrared spectrophotometry, direct and indirect methods) were compared. The analyses were carried out on filters sampled in an industrial setting by means of a Dorr-Oliver cyclone. To verify the methodology used, filters loaded with pure alpha-quartz were also analysed. By and large, the agreement between the two direct methods was close on average, but on the basis of a comparison of the individual results, considerable differences exist. In absolute value, the mean relative deviation between the two techniques was infrared) were on average 13% lower than the results obtained by the two direct methods with a more important difference (23%) for samples where calcite was identified by X-ray diffraction in comparison with those where it was not (8%). This underestimation, which was not owing to dust losses during preparation, is probably explained by the elimination of organic compounds during dust calcinations or by the transformation of mineral compounds. The indirect method introduces additional sample handling operations with more risk of material loss. When the quantity of calcined material was <0.4 mg, the weighing operations necessary to correct any losses of material resulted in considerable variability. In terms of overall uncertainty, it would be better in this case not to carry out correction and to employ an operating mode favouring the recovery of a maximum of material while accepting a bias of about 5-7%.

  5. Wind bubbles within H II regions around slowly moving stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H II region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H II region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H II regions around massive stars moving through a dense (n=3000 cm^{-3}), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km/s. The H II region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H II regions (we find filling factors of 10-20%), at...

  6. Infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition of WISE-selected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submm/mm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submm-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are: 1) Hot DOGs in our submm-detected sample are hyperluminous, with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, averagely contributing ~24% of total IR luminosity. 2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submm at rest-frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at 10-50um suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. 3) Hot DOGs have both high dust temperatures ~73K and IR luminosity of cold dust. The T-L relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust tem...

  7. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Kemper, F; Ling, B; Volk, K

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previ...

  8. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE DUST EMISSION IN THE FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Paladini, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Paradis, D., E-mail: marcella.veneziani@ipac.caltech.edu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20

    We present a method, based on Bayesian statistics, to fit the dust emission parameters in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The method estimates the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index, plus their relationship, properly taking into account the statistical and systematic uncertainties. We test it on three sets of simulated sources detectable by the Herschel Space Observatory in the PACS and SPIRE spectral bands (70-500 {mu}m), spanning over a wide range of dust temperatures. The simulated observations are a one-component interstellar medium and two two-component sources, both warm (H II regions) and cold (cold clumps (CCs)). We first define a procedure to identify the better model, then we recover the parameters of the model and measure their physical correlations by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm adopting multi-variate Gaussian priors. In this process, we assess the reliability of the model recovery and of parameter estimation. We conclude that the model and parameters are properly recovered only under certain circumstances and that false models may be derived in some cases. We applied the method to a set of 91 starless CCs in an interarm region of the Galactic plane with low star formation activity, observed by Herschel in the Hi-GAL survey. Our results are consistent with a temperature-independent spectral index.

  9. Mid-infrared dust in two nearby radio galaxies, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, B Duah; Jarrett, T; Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Most radio galaxies are hosted by giant gas-poor ellipticals, but some contain significant amounts of dust, which is likely to be of external origin. In order to characterize the mid-IR properties of two of the most nearby and brightest merger-remnant radio galaxies of the Southern hemisphere, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36), we used observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron and Spitzer mid-infrared spectra. By applying a resolution-enhancement technique, new WISE images were produced at angular resolutions ranging from 2.6" to 5.5". Global measurements were performed in the four WISE bands, and stellar masses and star-formation rates were estimated using published scaling relations. Two methods were used to uncover the distribution of dust, one relying on two-dimensional fits to the 3.4 micron images to model the starlight, and the other one using a simple scaling and subtraction of the 3.4 micron images to estimate the stellar...

  10. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  11. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  12. Circumstellar Dust Around AGB Stars and Implications for Infrared Emission from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villaume, Alexa; Johnson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models are used to infer many galactic properties including star formation histories, metallicities, and stellar and dust masses. However, most SPS models neglect the effect of circumstellar dust shells around evolved stars and it is unclear to what extent they impact the analysis of SEDs. To overcome this shortcoming we have created a new set of circumstellar dust models, using the radiative transfer code DUSTY Ivezic et al. 1999, for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and incorporated them into the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code. The circumstellar dust models provide a good fit to individual AGB stars as well as the IR color-magnitude diagrams of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. IR luminosity functions from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are not well-fit by the 2008 Padova isochrones when coupled to our circumstellar dust models, and so we adjusted the lifetimes of AGB stars in the models to provide a match to the data. We show, in agreement with ...

  13. Accounting for particle non-sphericity in modeling of mineral dust radiative properties in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.; Derimian, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral radiative parameters (extinction optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) of spheroids of mineral dust composed of quartz and clays have been simulated at wavelengths between 7.0 and 10.2 μm using a T-matrix code. In spectral intervals with high values of complex index of refraction and for large particles, the parameters cannot be fully calculated with the code. Practically, the calculations are stopped at a truncation radius over which the particles contribution cannot thus be taken into account. To deal with this issue, we have developed and applied an accurate corrective technique of T-matrix Size Truncation Compensation (TSTC). For a mineral dust described by its AERONET standard aspect ratio (AR) distribution, the full error margin when applying the TSTC is within 0.3% (or ±0.15%), whatever the radiative parameter and the wavelength considered, for quartz (the most difficult case). Large AR values limit also the possibilities of calculation with the code. The TSTC has been able to complete the calculations of the T-matrix code for a modified AERONET AR distribution with a maximum AR of 4.7 instead of 3 for the standard distribution. Comparison between the simulated properties of spheroids and of spheres of same volume confirms, in agreement with the literature, that significant differences are observed in the vicinity of the mineral resonant peaks (λ ca. 8.3-8.7 μm for quartz, ca. 9.3-9.5 μm for clays) and that they are due to absorption by the small particles. This is a favorable circumstance for the TSTC, which is concerned with the contribution of the largest particles. This technique of numerical calculation improves the accuracy of the simulated radiative parameters of mineral dust, which must lead to a progress in view of applications such as remote sensing or determination of energy balance of dust in the thermal infrared (TIR), incompletely investigated so far.

  14. INFRARED AND X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Kes 75 SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHELL: CHARACTERIZING THE DUST AND GAS PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of {approx}1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of {approx}140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun }, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide

  15. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approximately 1.5 keY, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approximately 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-my emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-my emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) x solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide

  16. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Shell Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approx 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approx 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) Solar Mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative

  17. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the KES 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and ill emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative estimates of

  18. An MSX Infrared Analysis of the Superbubble around Giant HII Region NGC3603

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jia

    2009-01-01

    Using the MSX mid-infrared observation, we reveal a 100 pc-scale superbubble surrounding the giant HII region NGC3603. We suggest that the diffuse surrounding infrared emission in bands A, C, and D is dominated by that of PAH and the emission in band E is dominated by that of dust grains. The fitted dust temperature is consistent with the heating by the central cluster's UV photons. The derived gas-to-dust mass ratio for the bubble shell is of order 10^2.

  19. Location and origin of dust in circumstellar debris disks: A mid-infrared imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerchen, Margaret Marie

    Approximately one third of A-type stars host dusty disks beyond the expected timescales for dissipation of the primordial disk material. The primordial dust particles may either be blown out by radiation pressure from the star or they may experience destructive collisions that generate smaller particles that are then blown out of the system. We infer from the sustained presence of the dust that it must be resupplied through collisions of already-formed planets and planetesimals or through the sublimation of cometary bodies, and systems with such dust are called debris disks. Since the 1984 discovery of the debris disk Vega, observations of circumstellar debris disks have revealed the presence planetary systems that would otherwise have remained unknown. In this work, we set out to find asymmetric structures in debris disks that would indicate a physical process sculpting the disk, such as a catastrophic planetesimal collision that generates a bright region of newly-formed dust, or a clumpy pattern comprised of dust that is trapped in an orbital resonance with a giant planet. We obtained high spatial resolution ([Special characters omitted.] 0.5") images of the thermally emitting dust in 21 debris disk candidates (some of which are now known not to be debris disks), and in most cases we did not detect any brightness asymmetry nor was the source even spatially resolved. However, among the resolved disks, we have discovered several structures that may be analogous to those in our own solar system, such as a potential asteroid belts (in z Lep) and a snow line (in HD 32297). One brightness asymmetry is seen, in the disk of 16 HR 4796A, and we have determined that the bright side of the disk is also hotter than the opposite side. We review the possible origins of such a temperature asymmetry in the dust disk, such as pericenter glow and resonant trapping, and this investigation is ongoing. More generally, two disk archetypes are observed among all of the disks in this

  20. Atomistic and infrared study of CO-water amorphous ice onto olivine dust grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Moreno, Fernando; López-Moreno, J. Juan; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    This work is a study of CO and H2O molecules as adsorbates that interact on the surface of olivine dust grains. Olivine (forsterite) is present on the Earth, planetary dust, in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in particular in comets. The composition of amorphous ice is very important for the interpretation of processes that occur in the solar system and the ISM. Dust particles in ISM are composed of a heterogeneous mixture of amorphous or crystalline silicates (e.g. olivine) organic material, carbon, and other minor constituents. These dust grains are embedded in a matrix of ices, such as H2O, CO, CO2, NH3, and CH4. We consider that any amorphous ice will interact and grow faster on dust grain surfaces. In this work we explore the adsorption of CO-H2O amorphous ice onto several (100) forsterite surfaces (dipolar and non-dipolar), by using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). These models are applied to two possible situations: i) adsorption of CO molecules mixed into an amorphous ice matrix (gas mixture) and adsorbed directly onto the forsterite surface. This interaction has lower adsorption energy than polar molecules (H2O and NH3) adsorbed on this surface; ii) adsorption of CO when the surface has previously been covered by amorphous water ice (onion model). In this case the calculations show that adsorption energy is low, indicating that this interaction is weak and therefore the CO can be desorbed with a small increase of temperature. Vibration spectroscopy for the most stable complex was also studied and the frequencies were in good agreement with experimental frequency values.

  1. The impact of bars on the mid-infrared dust emission of spiral galaxies global and circumnuclear properties

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Vigroux, L; Bosma, A; Bonoli, C; Gallais, P; Hawarden, T G; Madden, S; Mazzei, P

    2001-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared properties of a sample of 69 nearby spiral galaxies, selected to avoid Seyfert activity contributing a significant fraction of the central energetics, or strong tidal interaction, and to have normal infrared luminosities. These observations were obtained with ISOCAM, which provides an angular resolution of the order of 10 arcsec (half-power diameter of the point spread function) and low-resolution spectro-imaging information. Between 5 and 18 microns, we mainly observe two dust phases, aromatic infrared bands and very small grains, both out of thermal equilibrium. On this sample, we show that the global F15/F7 colors of galaxies are very uniform, the only increase being found in early-type strongly barred galaxies, consistent with previous IRAS studies. The F15/F7 excesses are unambiguously due to galactic central regions where bar-induced starbursts occur. However, the existence of strongly barred early-type galaxies with normal circumnuclear colors indicates that the relationship b...

  2. Dust-Corrected Star Formation Rates of Galaxies. I. Combinations of H-alpha and Infrared Tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, Robert C Jr; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Benjamin D; Lee, Janice C

    2009-01-01

    We combine H-alpha emission-line and infrared continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to HII regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite H-alpha+IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01 -- 80 solar mass per year) and attenuations (0 -- 2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of H-alpha and total infrared luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of H-alpha measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 micron and 8 micron perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for HII regions (Calzetti et al. 2007), with the difference attributable to a more evolved ...

  3. LABOCA 870 micron dust continuum mapping of selected infrared-dark cloud regions in the Galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, Oskari

    2012-01-01

    We have mapped four selected about 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg-sized fields containing Spitzer 8-micron dark regions with APEX/LABOCA at 870 micron. Selected positions in the fields were observed in C17O(2-1) to obtain kinematic information. The obtained LABOCA maps are used in conjunction with the Spitzer IR images. The total number of clumps identified in this survey is 91, out of which 40 (44%) appear dark at 8 and 24 micron. The remaining clumps are associated with mid-IR emission. Many of the identified clumps are massive enough to allow high-mass star formation, and some of them already show clear signposts of that. Seven clumps associated with extended-like 4.5 micron emission are candidate extended green objects (EGOs). Filamentary dust "ridges" were found towards the Spitzer bubbles N10/11 in one of our fields, which conforms to the triggered high-mass star formation in the system. The relative number of IR-dark and IR-bright clumps suggest that the duration of the former stage is about 1.6x10^5 yr. The mass d...

  4. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  5. Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc

    1998-06-01

    We present a full-sky 100 μm map that is a reprocessed composite of the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA maps, with the zodiacal foreground and confirmed point sources removed. Before using the ISSA maps, we remove the remaining artifacts from the IRAS scan pattern. Using the DIRBE 100 and 240 μm data, we have constructed a map of the dust temperature so that the 100 μm map may be converted to a map proportional to dust column density. The dust temperature varies from 17 to 21 K, which is modest but does modify the estimate of the dust column by a factor of 5. The result of these manipulations is a map with DIRBE quality calibration and IRAS resolution. A wealth of filamentary detail is apparent on many different scales at all Galactic latitudes. In high-latitude regions, the dust map correlates well with maps of H I emission, but deviations are coherent in the sky and are especially conspicuous in regions of saturation of H I emission toward denser clouds and of formation of H2 in molecular clouds. In contrast, high-velocity H I clouds are deficient in dust emission, as expected. To generate the full-sky dust maps, we must first remove zodiacal light contamination, as well as a possible cosmic infrared background (CIB). This is done via a regression analysis of the 100 μm DIRBE map against the Leiden-Dwingeloo map of H I emission, with corrections for the zodiacal light via a suitable expansion of the DIRBE 25 μm flux. This procedure removes virtually all traces of the zodiacal foreground. For the 100 μm map no significant CIB is detected. At longer wavelengths, where the zodiacal contamination is weaker, we detect the CIB at surprisingly high flux levels of 32 +/- 13 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 μm and of 17 +/- 4 nW m-2 sr-1 at 240 μm (95% confidence). This integrated flux ~2 times that extrapolated from optical galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. The primary use of these maps is likely to be as a new estimator of Galactic extinction. To calibrate our maps, we assume a

  6. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  7. An atlas of mid-infrared dust emission in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Bosma, A; Sauvage, M; Bonoli, C; Gallais, P; Hawarden, T G; Lequeux, J; Madden, S; Mazzei, P

    2001-01-01

    We present maps of dust emission at 7 microns and 15 microns/7 microns intensity ratios of selected regions in 43 spiral galaxies observed with ISOCAM. This atlas is a complement to studies based on these observations, dealing with star formation in centers of barred galaxies and in spiral disks. It is accompanied by a detailed description of data reduction and an inventory of generic morphological properties in groups defined according to bar strength and HI gas content.

  8. Near-Infrared observations of the type Ib Supernova SN2006jc: evidence of interactions with dust

    CERN Document Server

    Di Carlo, E; Arkharov, A A; Massi, F; Larionov, V M; Efimova, N V; Dolci, M; Napoleone, N; Di Paola, A

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for the monitoring of Supernovae in the Near-Infrared (NIR) carried out by the Teramo, Rome and Pulkovo observatories with the AZT-24 telescope, we observed the Supernova SN2006jc in the J,H,K photometric bands during a period of 7 months, starting ~36 days after its discovery. Our observations evidence a NIR re-brightening, peaking ~70 days after discovery, along with a reddening of H-K and J-H colors until 120 days from discovery. After that date, J-H seems to evolve towards bluer colors. Our data, complemented by IR, optical, UV and X-ray observations found in the literature, show that the re-brightening is produced by hot dust surrounding the supernova, formed in the interaction of the ejecta with dense circumstellar matter.

  9. Mid-infrared Extinction and Fresh Silicate Dust towards the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.; Henning, Thomas; Il’in, Vladimir B.

    2017-03-01

    We interpret the interstellar extinction observed toward the Galactic center (GC) in the wavelength range λ = 1–20 μm. Its main feature is the flat extinction at 3–8 μm whose explanation is still a problem for cosmic dust models. We search for the structure and chemical composition of dust grains that could explain the observed extinction. In contrast to earlier works, we use laboratory measured optical constants and consider particles of different structures. We show that a mixture of compact grains of aromatic carbon and of some silicate is better suited for reproducing the flat extinction in comparison with essentially porous grains or aliphatic carbon particles. Metallic iron should be located inside the particle, i.e., it cannot form layers on silicate grains as the extinction curves then become very peculiar. We find a model including aromatic carbonaceous particles and three-layered particles with an olivine-type silicate core, a thin, very porous layer and a thin envelope of magnetite that provides a good (but still not perfect) fit to the observational data. We suggest that such silicate dust should be fresh, i.e., recently formed in the atmospheres of late-type stars in the central region of the Galaxy. We assume that this region has a radius of about 1 kpc and produces about half of the observed extinction. The remaining part of extinction is caused by a “foreground” material being practically transparent at λ =4{--}8 μ {{m}}.

  10. New insights on the thermal dust from the far-infrared to the centimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Dupac, X; Boudet, N; Giard, M; Lamarre, J M; Mény, C; Pajot, F; Ristorcelli, I

    2003-01-01

    We present a compilation of PRONAOS-based results concerning the temperature dependence of the dust submillimeter spectral index, including data from Galactic cirrus, star-forming regions, dust associated to a young stellar object, and a spiral galaxy. We observe large variations of the spectral index (from 0.8 to 2.4) in a wide range of temperatures (11 to 80 K). These spectral index variations follow a hyperbolic-shaped function of the temperature, high spectral indices (1.6-2.4) being observed in cold regions (11-20 K) while low indices (0.8-1.6) are observed in warm regions (35-80 K). Three distinct effects may play a role in this temperature dependence: one is that the grain sizes change in dense environments, another is that the chemical composition of the grains is not the same in different environments, a third one is that there is an intrinsic dependence of the dust spectral index on the temperature due to quantum processes. This last effect is backed up by laboratory measurements and could be the do...

  11. Vapor Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  12. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of ~ 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the ...

  13. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. A Combined Spitzer and Herschel Infrared Study of Gas and Dust in the Circumbinary Disk Orbiting V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Sacco, G Germano; Kastner, Joel H; Wilner, David; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Andrews, Sean; Herczeg, Gregory; van der Marel, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic Spitzer and Herschel mid-to-far-infrared study of the circumbinary disk orbiting the evolved (age ~12-23 Myr) close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr. Spitzer IRS spectra show emission lines of [Ne II], H_2 S(1), CO_2 and HCN, while Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectra reveal emission from [O I], OH, and tentative detections of H_2O and high-J transitions of CO. We measure [Ne III]/[Ne II] < 0.13, which is comparable to other X-ray/EUV luminous T Tauri stars that lack jets. We use the H_2 S(1) line luminosity to estimate the gas mass in the relatively warm surface layers of the inner disk. The presence of [O I] emission suggests that CO, H_2O, and/or OH is being photodissociated, and the lack of [C I] emission suggests any excess C may be locked up in HCN, CN and other organic molecules. Modeling of silicate dust grain emission features in the mid-infrared indicates that the inner disk is composed mainly of large (r~5 um) amorphous pyroxene and olivine grains (~86% by mass)...

  15. Clustering of Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Revealed by the Hyper Suprime-Cam and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Oogi, Taira; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Coupon, Jean; Strauss, Michael A.; Wang, Wei-Hao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niida, Mana; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Noboriguchi, Akatoki; Usuda, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of the clustering properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining 125 deg2 of wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, we have discovered 4367 IR-bright DOGs with {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0 and flux density at 22 μ {{m}}> 1.0 mJy. We calculate the angular autocorrelation function (ACF) for a uniform subsample of 1411 DOGs with 3.0 mJy r 0 = 12.0 ± 2.0 and 10.3 ± 1.7 {h}-1 Mpc, respectively. IR-bright DOGs reside in massive dark matter halos with a mass of {log}[ /({h}-1 {M}ȯ )]={13.57}-0.55+0.50 and {13.65}-0.52+0.45 in the two cases, respectively.

  16. The obscured mid-infrared continuum of NGC 4418 : A dust- and ice-enshrouded AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoon, HWW; Keane, JV; Tielens, AGGM; Lutz, D; Moorwood, AFM

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of absorption features in the 6-8 mum region superimposed on a featureless mid-infrared continuum in NGC 4418. For several of these features this is the first detection in an external galaxy We compare the absorption spectrum of NGC4418 to that; of embedded massive protostars

  17. Bubble coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orvalho, Sandra; Ruzicka, Marek C.; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to present new experimental data on the effect of the bubble approach velocity and liquid viscosity on pairwise bubble coalescence. Measurements were performed to investigate the dynamics of bubble coalescence under well-defined laboratory conditions. Air and pure

  18. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Yorke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We...

  19. Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rouxi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.

  20. DUST IN THE POLAR REGION AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO THE INFRARED EMISSION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, S. F.; Antonucci, R. [Department of Physics, University of California in Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Asmus, D.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Prieto, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burtscher, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Duschl, W. J., E-mail: shoenig@physics.ucsb.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, D-24098, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    Dust around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed over a wide range of spatial scales and can be observed in the infrared (IR). It is generally assumed that the distribution on parsec scales forms a geometrically and optically thick entity in the equatorial plane around the accretion disk and broad-line region-dubbed {sup d}ust torus{sup -}that emits the bulk of the subarcsecond-scale IR emission and gives rise to orientation-dependent obscuration. However, recent IR interferometry studies with unprecedented position angle (P.A.) and baseline coverage on these small scales in two obscured (type 2) AGNs have revealed that the majority of the mid-IR emission in these objects is elongated in the polar direction. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the standard interpretation that most of the parsec-scale mid-IR emission in AGNs originate from the torus and challenges the justification of using simple torus models to model the broadband IR emission. Here, we report detailed interferometry observations of the unobscured (type 1) AGN in NGC 3783 that allow us to constrain the size, elongation, and direction of the mid-IR emission with high accuracy. The mid-IR emission is characterized by a strong elongation toward position angle P.A. -52 Degree-Sign , closely aligned with the polar axis (P.A. -45 Degree-Sign ). We determine half-light radii along the major and minor axes at 12.5 {mu}m of (20.0 {+-} 3.0) mas Multiplication-Sign (6.7 {+-} 1.0) mas or (4.23 {+-} 0.63) pc Multiplication-Sign (1.42 {+-} 0.21) pc, which corresponds to intrinsically scaled sizes of (69.4 {+-} 10.8) r{sub in} Multiplication-Sign (23.3 {+-} 3.5) r{sub in} for the inner dust radius of r{sub in} = 0.061 pc as inferred from near-IR reverberation mapping. This implies an axis ratio of 3:1, with about 60%-90% of the 8-13 {mu}m emission associated with the polar-elongated component. It is quite likely that the hot-dust emission as recently resolved by near-IR interferometry is

  1. Far-infrared dust properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hibi, Yasunori; SHIBAI, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A recent data analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) map of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds has shown that there is a tight correlation between two FIR colours: the 60 um-100 um and 100 um-140 um colours. This FIR colour relation called ``main correlation'' can be interpreted as indicative of a sequence of various interstellar radiation fields with a common FIR optical property of grains. In this paper, we constrain the FIR optical properties of grains by comparing the calculated FIR colours...

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, B. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Raja Sekhar, B. N., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [B-4, Indus-1, BARC Spectroscopy Lab at Indus-1, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai and RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  3. The Revealing Dust: Mid-Infrared Activity in Hickson Compact Group Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Hornschemeier, A E; Charlton, J C; Hibbard, J E

    2007-01-01

    We present a sample of 46 galaxy nuclei from 12 nearby (z<4500 km/s) Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with a complete suite of 1-24 micron 2MASS+Spitzer nuclear photometry. For all objects in the sample, blue emission from stellar photospheres dominates in the near-IR through the 3.6 micron IRAC band. Twenty-five of 46 (54%) galaxy nuclei show red, mid-IR continua characteristic of hot dust powered by ongoing star formation and/or accretion onto a central black hole. We introduce alpha_{IRAC}, the spectral index of a power-law fit to the 4.5-8.0 micron IRAC data, and demonstrate that it cleanly separates the mid-IR active and non-active HCG nuclei. This parameter is more powerful for identifying low to moderate-luminosity mid-IR activity than other measures which include data at rest-frame lambda<3.6 micron that may be dominated by stellar photospheric emission. While the HCG galaxies clearly have a bimodal distribution in this parameter space, a comparison sample from the Spitzer Nearby Galaxy Survey (SIN...

  4. Infrared polarimetry of Mrk 231: scattering off hot dust grains in the central core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Roche, P. F.; Levenson, N. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perlman, E.; Ichikawa, K.; Ramos Almeida, C.; González-Martín, O.; Nikutta, R.; Martinez-Paredez, M.; Shenoy, D.; Gordon, M. S.; Telesco, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-angular (0.17-0.35 arcsec) resolution imaging polarimetric observations of Mrk 231 in the 3.1 μm filter using MMT-Pol on the 6.5-m MMT, and in the 8.7, 10.3, and 11.6 μm filters using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. In combination with already published observations, we compile the 1-12 μm total and polarized nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED). The total flux SED in the central 400 pc is explained as the combination of (1) a hot (731 ± 4 K) dusty structure, directly irradiated by the central engine, which is at 1.6 ± 0.1 pc away and attributed to be in the pc-scale polar region, (2) an optically-thick, smooth and disc-like dusty structure (`torus') with an inclination of 48° ± 23° surrounding the central engine, and (3) an extinguished (AV = 36 ± 5 mag) starburst component. The polarized SED decreases from 0.77 ± 0.14 per cent at 1.2 μm to 0.31 ± 0.15 per cent at 11.6 μm and follows a power-law function, λ˜0.57. The polarization angle remains constant (˜108°) in the 1-12 μm wavelength range. The dominant polarization mechanism is explained as scattering-off hot dust grains in the pc-scale polar regions.

  5. The Heating of Mid-Infrared Dust in the Nearby Galaxy M33: A Testbed for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Calapa, M; Draine, B T; Boquien, M; Kramer, C; Xilouris, M; Verley, S; Braine, J; Relaño-Pastor, M; van der Werf, P; Israel, F; Hermelo, I; Albrecht, M

    2014-01-01

    Because the 8 {\\mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission has been found to correlate with other well-known star formation tracers, it has widely been used as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. There are, however, studies that challenge the accuracy and reliability of the 8 {\\mu}m emission as a SFR tracer. Our study, part of the Herschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES) open time key program, aims at addressing this issue by analyzing the infrared emission from the nearby spiral galaxy M33 at the high spatial scale of 75 pc. Combining data from the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope we find that the 8 {\\mu}m emission is better correlated with the 250 {\\mu}m emission, which traces cold interstellar gas, than with the 24 {\\mu}m emission. The L(8)/L(24) ratio is highly depressed in 24 {\\mu}m luminous regions, which correlate with known HII regions. We also compare our results with the dust emission models by Draine & Li (2007). We confirm that the depression of 8 {\\mu}m PAH e...

  6. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  7. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  8. Spitzer/IRS investigation of MIPSGAL 24 microns compact bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Flagey, N; Billot, N; Carey, S J

    2011-01-01

    The MIPSGAL 24 $\\mu$m Galactic Plane Survey has revealed more than 400 compact-extended objects. Less than 15% of these MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) are known and identified as evolved stars. We present Spitzer observations of 4 MBs obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph to determine the origin of the mid-IR emission. We model the mid-IR gas lines and the dust emission to infer physical conditions within the MBs and consequently their nature. Two MBs show a dust-poor spectrum dominated by highly ionized gas lines of [\\ion{O}{4}], [\\ion{Ne}{3}], [\\ion{Ne}{5}], [\\ion{S}{3}] and [\\ion{S}{4}]. We identify them as planetary nebulae with a density of a few 10$^3\\ \\rm{cm^{-3}}$ and a central white dwarf of $\\gtrsim 200,000$ K. The mid-IR emission of the two other MBs is dominated by a dust continuum and lower-excitation lines. Both of them show a central source in the near-IR (2MASS and IRAC) broadband images. The first dust-rich MB matches a Wolf-Rayet star of $\\sim 60,000$ K at 7.5 kpc with dust components of $\\sim170$ ...

  9. Planck intermediate results: XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.

    2014-01-01

    from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with an additional component with a blackbody spectrum. This additional component, which accounts for (26 ± 6)% of the dust emission at 100GHz, could...... of the dust-Hi correlation. We identify a Galactic contribution to these residuals, which we model with variations of the dust emissivity on angular scales smaller than that of our correlation analysis. This model of the residuals is used to quantify uncertainties of the CIB power spectrum in a companion...

  10. X-ray absorption, nuclear infrared emission and dust covering factors of AGN: testing Unification Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hernán-Caballero, A; Barcons, X; Ramos, A Asensio; Watson, M G; Blain, A; Caccianiga, A; Ballo, L; Braito, V; Almeida, C Ramos

    2016-01-01

    We present the distributions of geometrical covering factors of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) dusty tori (f2) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGN drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGN have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 10^42 and 10^46 erg/s and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work we determined the rest-frame 1-20 microns continuum emission from the torus which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGN are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGN having on average tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGN. Nevertheless, ~20 per cent of type 1 AGN have tori with large covering factors while ~23-28 per cent of type 2 AGN have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGN the effect is certainly small. f2 in...

  11. Do the results of respirable dust samples obtained from direct-on-filter X-ray diffraction, direct-on-filter infrared and indirect infrared (KBr pellet) methods correlate?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available determines how the dust is distributed on the filter (analysis area of XRD vs FTIR). Current research Acknowledgements The Mine Health and Safety Council (MHSC) of South Africa provided the funding for this research project (SIM 080601) References 1.... ?MDHS 101. Direct-on-filter analysis by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction?, February 2005, Health and Safety Laboratory: Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances. 2. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), Quartz...

  12. Variability of the infrared complex refractive index of African mineral dust: experimental estimation and implications for radiative transfer and satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Biagio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental estimations of the infrared refractive index of African mineral dust have been retrieved from laboratory measurements of particle transmission spectra in the wavelength range 2.5–25 μm. Five dust samples collected at Banizoumbou (Niger and Tamanrasset (Algeria during dust events originated from different Western Saharan and Sahelian areas have been investigated. The obtained real (n and imaginary (k parts of the refractive index for the different dust cases vary in the range 1.1–2.7 and 0.05–1.0, respectively, and appear to be strongly sensitive to the mineralogical composition of the particles, especially in the 8–12 μm and 17–25 μm spectral intervals. Dust absorption is controlled mainly by clays, and, in minor fraction, by quartz and Ca-rich minerals. Size distribution, and the coarse fraction in particular, plays also a role in determining the refractive index. Significant differences are obtained when comparing our results with existing experimental estimations available in the literature, and with the values of the OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds database. The different datasets appear comparable in magnitude, with our values of n and k falling in the range of variability of past studies. However, literature data fail in accurately reproducing the spectral signatures of main minerals, in particular clays, and they significantly overestimate the contribution of quartz. We also found that the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index from part of literature studies do not verify Kramers–Kronig relations, thus resulting theoretically incorrect. The comparison between our results, from Western Africa, and literature data, from different locations in Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean, nonetheless, confirms the expected large variability of the infrared refractive index of dust, thus highlighting the necessity for an extended systematic investigation. Aerosol intensive optical properties

  13. A novel retrieval of daytime atmospheric dust and volcanic ash heights through a synergy of AIRS infrared radiances and MODIS L2 optical depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method to retrieve daytime atmospheric dust and ash plume heights using a synergy of infrared hyper-spectral radiances and retrieved visible optical depths. The method is developed using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, both of which are on NASA's Aqua platform, and lends itself to also a χ2 height derivation based on the smallest bias between observations and calculations in the thermal infrared window. The retrieval methodology is validated against almost 30 months of dust centroid heights obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIOP data, and against ash plume heights obtained from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR after the Puyehue Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption of June 2011. Comparisons are also made against Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART climatological aerosol heights. In general there is good agreement between the heights from the CALIPSO data and the AIRS/MODIS retrieval, especially over the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions; over land one there are more noticeable differences. The AIRS/MODIS derived heights are within typically 25% of the CALIOP centroid heights.

  14. Evolution of Infrared Luminosity functions of Galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Deep field: Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, H; Takeuchi, T T; Pearson, C; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Oyabu, S; Ohyama, Y; Malkan, M; Lee, H M; Lee, M G; Inami, H; Hwang, N; Hanami, H; Im, M; Imai, K; Ishigaki, T; Serjeant, S; Shim, H

    2010-01-01

    Dust-obscured star-formation becomes much more important with increasing intensity, and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with the AKARI. We construct restframe 8um, 12um, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15infrared sources in the AKARI NEP-Deep field. A continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelength (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24um) by the AKARI satellite allows us to estimate restframe 8um and 12um luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on a SED fit, which was the largest uncertainty in previous work. We have found that all 8um (0.38infrared luminosity density (Omega_IR), which was obtained by integrating analytic fits to the LFs, we found a good agreement with previous work at z<1.2, and that ...

  15. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), II. Discovery of Metal-poor Dusty AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, P; Bonanos, A Z; Gehrz, R D; Gordon, K D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D; Marengo, M; McDonald, I; Meixner, M; Skillman, E; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, G; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called "extreme" or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5]>0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of approximately 30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, one star in IC 1613, and one star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirms tha...

  16. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  17. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF HIGHLY REDDENED Type Ia SUPERNOVA 2014J: PECULIAR PROPERTIES OF DUST IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, K. S.; Akitaya, H.; Itoh, R.; Moritani, Y. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ui, T.; Kawabata, M.; Mori, K.; Takaki, K.; Ueno, I.; Chiyonobu, S.; Harao, T.; Matsui, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Nagae, O. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nomoto, K.; Suzuki, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M., E-mail: kawabtkj@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared multi-band linear polarimetry of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J that appeared in M82. SN 2014J exhibits large polarization at shorter wavelengths, e.g., 4.8% in the B band, which decreases rapidly at longer wavelengths, while the position angle of the polarization remains at approximately 40° over the observed wavelength range. These polarimetric properties suggest that the observed polarization is likely predominantly caused by the interstellar dust within M82. Further analysis shows that the polarization peaks at a wavelengths much shorter than those obtained for the Galactic dust. The wavelength dependence of the polarization can be better described by an inverse power law rather than by the Serkowski law for Galactic interstellar polarization. These points suggest that the nature of the dust in M82 may be different from that in our Galaxy, with polarizing dust grains having a mean radius of <0.1 μm.

  18. How Dead are Dead Galaxies? Mid-Infrared Fluxes of Quiescent Galaxies at Redshift 0.3Star Formation Rates and Dust Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; vanDokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; DaCunha, Elisabete; FoersterSchreiber, Natascha M.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 star formation rates for quiescent galaxies (sSFR approx. 10(exp -12)/yr. However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS-24 micron images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 micron detections, we find sSFR approx. 10(exp -11.9) × (1 + z)(sup 4)/yr. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  19. DRAMATIC INFRARED VARIABILITY OF WISE J1810-3305: CATCHING EARLY-TIME DUST EJECTION DURING THE THERMAL PULSE OF AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Yamamura, Issei; Takita, Satoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] versus WISE [W1 (3.4 {mu}m)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 {mu}m flux well above the IRAS point-source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shape, post-IRAS brightening, and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's object-a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening and the detection of a late-type optical counterpart are consistent with a scenario in which we have caught an extremely massive dust ejection event (in 1998 or shortly before) during the thermal pulse of an AGB star, thus providing a unique opportunity to observe stellar evolution in this phase. J1810-3305 is the only source in the entire WISE preliminary data release with similar infrared SED and variability, emphasizing the rarity of such sources. Confirmation of its nature is of great importance.

  20. Exploring Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Geary, Melissa A.

    Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.

  1. Antigravitating bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, A T; Barnaveli, Andro; Gogberashvili, Merab

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational behavior of spherical domain walls (bubbles) arising during the phase transitions in the early Universe. In the thin-wall approximation we show the existence of the new solution of Einstein equations with negative gravitational mass of bubbles and the reversed direction of time flow on the shell. This walls exhibit gravitational repulsion just as the planar walls are assumed to do. The equilibrium radius and critical mass of such objects are found for realistic models.

  2. Bubble diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  3. Contribution to the study of the exchanges to the interface liquid bubble, resulting from an ejector venturi, for the treatment of dust; Contribution a l'etude des echanges a l'interface bulle liquide, issue d'un ejecteur venturi, horizontal en vue du traitement des poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannacci, D.

    2002-06-15

    A great number of industrial processes generate aerosols that the legislation prohibited to reject too great quantities (Decree no 98-360, 6 may 1998). Among the processes of elimination but also of recovery of these pollutants, washing by means of selective solvent is widespread. This operation is realized in contactors gas-liquid that one can classify out of absorbers with columns and absorbers venturi. Among the latter, one distinguishes the ejector venturi, the venturi high energy and the venturi with emulsion. In this work, we proposed to study the ejector venturi on the plans of hydrodynamics and transfer of matter, in the case of pollutants in the form of dust. At the time of the hydrodynamic study, we determine experimentally using fast camera the characteristics of the interface, the surface of exchange a and the diameter of the bubbles. We then could establish the law of distribution of the diameters of the bubbles. The introduction of a model of evolution in three phases of the current of bubbles enabled us to understand the evolution of the diameter during the course of the bubble and to characterize the influence of coalescence. With regard to the study of transfer of matter, we introduced a new model characterizing the trapping of dust included into bubbles. The dominating mechanism in the trapping is then with the inertial effects with the range of diameter of dust [ 2;4 ] {mu}m for which the trapping is optimum. We measured in experiments the effectiveness of trapping of the ejector, and its variations with the temperature of two effluents, the time of course and the density of the particles. The results from this study make it possible to work out a new type of particle filter, based on the technique of the ejector venturi. (author)

  4. The Origin of the Near-infrared Excess in SN Ia 2012dn: Circumstellar Dust around the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The nature of progenitors of the so-called super-Chandrasekhar candidate Type Ia supernovae (SC-SNe Ia) has been actively debated. Recently, Yamanaka et al. reported a near-infrared (NIR) excess for SN 2012dn and proposed that the excess originates from an echo by circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we examine a detailed distribution of the CS dust around SN 2012dn and investigate implications of the CS dust echo scenario for general cases of SC-SNe Ia. We find that a disk/bipolar CS medium configuration reproduces the NIR excess fairly well, where the radial density distribution is given by a stationary mass loss. The inner radius of the CS dust is 0.04 pc. The mass-loss rate of the progenitor system is estimated to be 1.2× {10}-5 and 3.2× {10}-6 M⊙ yr‑1 for the disk and bipolar CS medium configurations, respectively, which adds further support for the single-degenerate scenario. Our models limit SN 2009dc, another SC-SN Ia, to have a dust mass less than 0.16 times that of SN 2012dn. While this may merely indicate some variation on the CS environment among SC-SNe Ia, this could raise another interesting possibility. There could be two classes among SC-SNe Ia: the brighter SC-SNe Ia in a clean environment (SN 2009dc) and the fainter SC-SNe Ia in a dusty environment (SN 2012dn).

  5. SEARCHING FOR COOL DUST IN THE MID-TO-FAR INFRARED: THE MASS-LOSS HISTORIES OF THE HYPERGIANTS μ Cep, VY CMa, IRC+10420, AND ρ Cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Dinesh; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Jones, Terry J.; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Helton, L. Andrew [USRA-SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hoffmann, William F.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M., E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We present mid- and far-IR imaging of four famous hypergiant stars: the red supergiants μ Cep and VY CMa, and the warm hypergiants IRC +10420 and ρ Cas. Our 11–37 μm SOFIA/FORCAST imaging probes cool dust not detected in visual and near-IR imaging studies. Adaptive optics 8–12 μm imaging of μ Cep and IRC +10420 with MMT/MIRAC reveals extended envelopes that are the likely sources of these stars’ strong silicate emission features. We find μ Cep’s mass-loss rate to have declined by about a factor of five over a 13,000 year history, ranging from 5 × 10{sup −6} down to ∼1× 10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The morphology of VY CMa indicates a cooler dust component coincident with the highly asymmetric reflection nebulae seen in the visual and near-IR. The lack of cold dust at greater distances around VY CMa indicates that its mass-loss history is limited to the last ∼1200 years, with an average rate of 6 × 10{sup −4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. We find two distinct periods in the mass-loss history of IRC +10420 with a high rate of 2 × 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} until approximately 2000 years ago, followed by an order of magnitude decrease in the recent past. We interpret this change as evidence of its evolution beyond the RSG stage. Our new infrared photometry of ρ Cas is consistent with emission from the expanding dust shell ejected in its 1946 eruption, with no evidence of newer dust formation from its more recent events.

  6. On the fate of vacuum bubbles on matter backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rakic, Aleksandar; Adamek, Julian; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we discuss cosmological first order phase transitions with de Sitter bubbles nucleating on (inhomogeneous) matter backgrounds. The de Sitter bubble can be a toy model for an inflationary phase of universes like our own. Using the thin wall approximation and the Israel junction method we trace the classical evolution of the formed bubbles within a compound model. We first address homogeneous ambient space (FRW model) and already find that bubbles nucleated in a dust dominated background cannot expand. For an inhomogeneous dust background (LTB model) we describe cases with at least initially expanding bubbles. Yet, an ensuing passage of the bubble wall through ambient curvature inhomogeneities remains unnoticed for observers inside the bubble. Notable effects also for interior observers are found in the case of a rapid background phase transition in a FRW model.

  7. Near-infrared scattered light properties of the HR 4796 A dust ring. A measured scattering phase function from 13.6° to 166.6°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milli, J.; Vigan, A.; Mouillet, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Augereau, J.-C.; Pinte, C.; Mawet, D.; Schmid, H. M.; Boccaletti, A.; Matrà, L.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.; Chauvin, G.; Bazzon, A.; Ménard, F.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Thalmann, C.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Min, M.; Girard, J. H.; Galicher, R.; Bonnefoy, M.; Fusco, T.; de Boer, J.; Janson, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Mesa, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; SPHERE Consortium

    2017-03-01

    Context. HR 4796 A is surrounded by a debris disc, observed in scattered light as an inclined ring with a high surface brightness. Past observations have raised several questions. First, a strong brightness asymmetry detected in polarised reflected light has recently challenged our understanding of scattering by the dust particles in this system. Secondly, the morphology of the ring strongly suggests the presence of planets, although no planets have been detected to date. Aims: We aim here at measuring with high accuracy the morphology and photometry of the ring in scattered light, in order to derive the phase function of the dust and constrain its near-infrared spectral properties. We also want to constrain the presence of planets and set improved constraints on the origin of the observed ring morphology. Methods: We obtained high-angular resolution coronagraphic images of the circumstellar environment around HR 4796 A with VLT/SPHERE during the commissioning of the instrument in May 2014 and during guaranteed-time observations in February 2015. The observations reveal for the first time the entire ring of dust, including the semi-minor axis that was previously hidden either behind the coronagraphic spot or in the speckle noise. Results: We determine empirically the scattering phase function of the dust in the H band from 13.6° to 166.6°. It shows a prominent peak of forward scattering, never detected before, for scattering angles below 30°. We analyse the reflectance spectra of the disc from the 0.95 μm to 1.6 μm, confirming the red colour of the dust, and derive detection limits on the presence of planetary mass objects. Conclusions: We confirm which side of the disc is inclined towards the Earth. The analysis of the phase function, especially below 45°, suggests that the dust population is dominated by particles much larger than the observation wavelength, of about 20 μm. Compact Mie grains of this size are incompatible with the spectral energy

  8. Far-infrared to millimeter astrophysical dust emission. II. Comparison of the two-level systems (TLS) model with astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Mény, C.; Gromov, V.

    2011-10-01

    Aims: In a previous paper we proposed a new model for the emission by amorphous astronomical dust grains, based on solid-state physics. The model uses a description of the disordered charge distribution (DCD) combined with the presence of two-level systems (TLS) defects in the amorphous solid composing the grains. The goal of this paper is to compare this new model to astronomical observations of different Galactic environments in the far-infrared/submillimeter, in order to derive a set of canonical model parameters to be used as a Galactic reference to be compared to in future Galactic and extragalactic studies. Methods: We compare the TLS model with existing astronomical data. We consider the average emission spectrum at high latitudes in our Galaxy as measured with FIRAS and WMAP, as well as the emission from Galactic compact sources observed with the Archeops balloon experiment, for which an inverse relationship between the dust temperature and the emissivity spectral index has been shown. Results: We show that, unlike models previously proposed that often invoke two dust components at different temperatures, the TLS model successfully reproduces both the shape of the Galactic spectral energy distribution and its evolution with temperature as observed in the Archeops data. The best TLS model parameters indicate a charge coherence length of ≃13 nm and other model parameters in broad agreement with expectations from laboratory studies of dust analogs. We conclude that the millimeter excess emission, which is often attributed to the presence of very cold dust in the diffuse ISM, is very likely caused solely by TLS emission in disordered amorphous dust grains. We discuss the implications of the new model, in terms of mass determinations from millimeter continuum observations and the expected variations in the emissivity spectral index with wavelength and dust temperature. The implications for analyzing the Herschel and Planck satellite data are discussed. Table 5

  9. Evolution of Vacuum Bubbles Embeded in Inhomogeneous Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Pannia, F A Teppa

    2016-01-01

    As a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region, we study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant. For comparison, we also analyse the cases with homogeneous dust and radiation backgrounds. We show that the evolution of the bubble in the radiation environments is always slower than in the dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, and leads to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.

  10. New Observational Constraints and Modeling of the Infrared Background: Dust Obscured Star-Formation at z>1 and Dust in the Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2010-01-01

    We provide measurements of the integrated galaxy light at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron using deep far-infrared and submillimeter data from space (Spitzer) and balloon platform (BLAST) extragalactic surveys. We use the technique of stacking at the positions of 24 micron sources, to supplement the fraction of the integrated galaxy light that is directly resolved through direct detections. We demonstrate that the integrated galaxy light even through stacking, falls short by factors of 2-3 in resolving the extragalactic far-infrared background. We also show that previous estimates of the integrated galaxy light (IGL) through stacking, have been biased towards high values. This is primarily due to multiple counting of the far-infrared/submillimeter flux from 24 micron sources which are clustered within the large point spread function of a brighter far-infrared source. Using models for the evolution of the luminosity function at z1, which are remarkably, below the values derived from the extinction corrected ul...

  11. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  12. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. Dramatic infrared variability of WISE J1810-3305: catching early dust ejection during the thermal pulse of an AGB star?

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, Poshak; Takita, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's Object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter, J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] vs. WISE [W1 (3.4 micron)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 micron flux well above the IRAS point source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates, as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution, post-IRAS brightening and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's Object - a post asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening, and the detection of a late-type opti...

  14. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  15. The Dust cloud around the White Dwarf G 29-38. 2. Spectrum from 5-40 microns and mid-infrared variability

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, William T; von Hippel, Ted; Mullally, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    We model the mineralogy and distribution of dust around the white dwarf G29-39 using the infrared spectrum from 1-35 microns and combining a wide range of materials based on spectral studies of comets and debris disks. In order of their contribution to the mid-infrared emission, the most abundant minerals for G29-38 are amorphous carbon, amorphous and crystalline silicates, water ice, and metal sulfides. The amorphous C can be equivalently replaced by other materials (like metallic Fe) with featureless infrared spectra. The best-fitting crystalline silicate is Fe-rich pyroxene. In order to absorb enough starlight to power the observed emission, the disk must either be much thinner than the stellar radius (so that it can be heated from above and below) or it must have an opening angle wider than 2 degrees. A `moderately optically thick' torus model with mass 2x10^19 g fits the spectrum well. A physically thin (less than the white dwarf radius) and optically thick disk can contribute to the near-infrared contin...

  16. An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk. I. Near-infrared detection of hot dust with VLTI/VINCI

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, Olivier; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% +/- 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary...

  17. OISTER optical and near-infrared observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova candidate SN 2012dn: Dust emission from the circumstellar shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S.; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from -11 to +140 d after the date of its B-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO (Optical and Infrared Synergetic Telescopes for Education and Research Target of Opportunity) program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the B-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as an SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from 30 d after the B-band maximum. The H- and Ks-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at 40 and 70 d after the B-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The H- and Ks-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating an NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to 4.8-6.4 × 10-2 pc. No emission lines were found in its early phase spectra, suggesting that the ejecta-circumstellar material interaction could not occur. On the other hand, we found no signature that strongly supports the scenario of dust formation. The mass-loss rate of the pre-explosion system is estimated to be 10-6-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, assuming that the wind velocity of the system is 10-100 km s-1, which suggests that the progenitor of SN 2012dn could be a recurrent nova system. We conclude that the progenitor of this SC SN could be explained by the single-degenerate scenario.

  18. Bubbling Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a

  19. K'-band observations of the evil eye galaxy: Are the optical and near-infrared dust albedos identical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Lindell, Rebecca S.; Block, David L.; Evans, Rhodri

    1994-05-01

    New measurements of the reduction of the V-band surface brightness across the prominent dust feature in the galaxy NGC 4826 are compared with corresponding increases in the V-K' color within the context of radiative transfer models invoking both absorption and scattering. The K'-band surface brightness is found to be higher than expected from standard dust models. We interpret the difference as resulting from a high effective dust albedo at K', with a likely value in excess of 0.8, provided the near-IR extinction curve in NGC 4826 is identical to the Galactic one. The high effective albedo may result from scattering by dust with a maximum grain size at least twice as large as assumed by standard models, a conclusion already indirectly hinted at by recent studies of dust star-forming regions and reflection nebulae. At least part of the high effective albedo at K' may result from near-IR nonequilibrium continuum emission attributable to very small grains.

  20. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)], e-mail: jacopo@mit.edu

    2009-07-01

    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  1. Infrared Survey of Pulsating Giant Stars in the Spiral Galaxy M33: Dust Production, Star Formation History, and Galactic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a near-IR monitoring campaign of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33, carried out with the UK IR Telescope (UKIRT). The pulsating giant stars are identified and their distributions are used to derive the star formation rate as a function of age. We here present the star formation history for the central square kiloparsec. These stars are also important dust factories; we measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry.

  2. Leverage bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  3. Evidence for single-temperature dust in the Crab nebula from a reanalysis of its infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Richard G.; Greidanus, Harm

    1992-08-01

    IRAS data on the Crab Nebula revealed significant excess emission above the synchrotron spectrum, peaking between 60 and 100 microns (Marsden, 1984). This was attributed to thermal radiation by dust with at least two characteristic temperatures in the range 40-100 K. The IRAS data have been reanalyzed, taking care to remove contamination by background emission, and it is found that the revised IR flux densities are in fact well explained by a single dust component at a temperature of 46 K. The required dust mass is 0.02 solar masses corresponding to a gas to dust ratio of 100:1. The break frequency is more accurately determined to be 1.4 x 10 exp 13 Hz in the power-law spectrum. This value implies, for a steady-state synchrotron model, a time-averaged magnetic field of 420 micro G, which is less than the value corresponding to an equipartition of energy between radiating particles and magnetic field, but probably greater than the present field strength.

  4. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): Infrared Detection and Characterization of Exozodiacal Dust to Super-Earths, A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a structurally connected infrared space interferometer with 0.5 m diameter telescopes on a 12.5 m baseline, and is passively cooled to approx.60K. The FKSI operates in the thermal infrared from 3-8 microns in a nulling (or starlight suppressing) mode for the detection and characterization of exoplanets, debris disks, extrasolar zodiacal dust levels. The FKSI will have the highest angular resolution of any infrared space instrument ever made with its nominal resolution of 40 mas at a 5 micron center wavelength. This resolution exceeds that of Spitzer by a factor of 38 and JWST by a factor of 5. The FKSI mission is conceived as a "probe class" or "mid-sized" strategic mission that utilizes technology advances from flagship projects like JWST, SIM, Spitzer, and the technology programs of TPF-I/Darwin. During the past year we began investigating an enhanced version of FKSI with 1-2 m diameter telescopes, passively cooled to 40K, on a 20-m baseline, with a sunshade giving a +/- 45 degree Field-of-Regard. This enhanced design is capable of detecting and characterizing the atmospheres of many 2 Earth-radius super-Earths and a few Earth-twins. We will report progress on the design of the enhanced mission concept and current status of the technologies needed for this mission.

  5. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  6. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  7. Blowing bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    1999-04-01

    The article, based on a series of interviews with column flotation equipment suppliers, reviews and comments on the progress of bubble generator design. Developments mentioned include the Air/Water sparger from Cominco, the SparJet and SlamJet from CPT, the CISA sparger from Sevala CISA, Microcel flotation columns from Birtley Engineering, Flotaire column flotation cells from LMC International, and the Variable Gap Sparger from MinnovEX. 1 fig., 2 photo.

  8. Simulation of source intensity variations from atmospheric dust for solar occultation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. S.; Toon, G. C.; Strong, K.

    2016-05-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer observing in solar occultation mode from orbit is ideally suited to detecting and characterizing vertical profiles of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere. This technique benefits from a long optical path length and high signal strength, and can have high spectral resolution. The Martian atmosphere is often subject to large quantities of suspended dust, which attenuates solar radiation along the line-of-sight. An instrument making solar occultation measurements scans the limb of the atmosphere continuously, and the optical path moves through layers of increasing or decreasing dust levels during a single interferogram acquisition, resulting in time-varying signal intensity. If uncorrected, source intensity variations (SIVs) can affect the relative depth of absorption lines, negatively impacting trace gas retrievals. We have simulated SIVs using synthetic spectra for the Martian atmosphere, and investigated different techniques to mitigate the effects of SIVs. We examined high-pass filters in the wavenumber domain, and smoothing methods in the optical path difference (OPD) domain, and conclude that using a convolution operator in the OPD domain can isolate the SIVs and be used to correct for it. We observe spectral residuals of less than 0.25% in both high- and low-dust conditions, and retrieved volume mixing ratio vertical profile differences on the order of 0.5-3% for several trace gases known to be present in the Martian atmosphere. These differences are smaller than those caused by adding realistic noise to the spectra. This work thus demonstrates that it should be possible to retrieve vertical profiles of trace gases in a dusty Martian atmosphere using solar occultation if the interferograms are corrected for the effects of dust.

  9. Evolution of infrared luminosity functions of galaxies in the AKARI NEP-deep field. Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Pearson, C.; Wada, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Oyabu, S.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Inami, H.; Hwang, N.; Hanami, H.; Im, M.; Imai, K.; Ishigaki, T.; Serjeant, S.; Shim, H.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: Dust-obscured star-formation increases with increasing intensity and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal the cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with AKARI. Methods: We constructed restframe 8 μm, 12 μm, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15 < z < 2.2 using 4128 infrared sources in the AKARI NEP-deep field. A continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelength (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24 μm) by the AKARI satellite allowed us to estimate restframe 8 μm and 12 μm luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on an SED fit, which was the largest uncertainty in previous work. Results: We find that all 8 μm (0.38 < z < 2.2), 12 μm (0.15 < z < 1.16), and TIR LFs (0.2 < z <1.6) show continuous and strong evolution toward higher redshift. Our direct estimate of 8 μm LFs is useful since previous work often had to use a large extrapolation from the Spitzer 24 μm to 8 μm, where SED modeling is more difficult because of the PAH emissions. In terms of cosmic infrared luminosity density (Ω_IR), which was obtained by integrating analytic fits to the LFs, we find good agreement with previous work at z<1.2. We find the Ω_IR evolves as propto(1 + z)4.4± 1.0. When we separate contributions to Ω_IR by LIRGs and ULIRGs, we found more IR luminous sources are increasingly more important at higher redshift. We find that the ULIRG (LIRG) contribution increases by a factor of 10 (1.8) from z = 0.35 to z = 1.4. This research is based on the observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  10. An Interferometric Study of the Fomalhaut Inner Debris Disk. I. Near-Infrared Detection of Hot Dust with VLTI/VINCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, Olivier; Mennesson, Bertrand; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-01

    The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main-sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% ± 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary data from the literature allow us to discard an off-axis point-like object as the source of circumstellar emission. We argue that the thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut is the most plausible explanation for the detected excess. Our study also provides a revised limb-darkened diameter for Fomalhaut (θLD = 2.223 ± 0.022 mas), taking into account the effect of the resolved circumstellar emission. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (public VINCI commissioning data).

  11. OISTER Optical and Near-Infrared Observations of the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate SN 2012dn: Dust Emission from the Circumstellar Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from $-11$ to $+140$ days after the date of its $B$-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the $B$-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing a further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as a SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from $30$ days after the $B$-band maximum. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at $40$ and $70$ days after the $B$-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating a NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to be $4.8 - 6.4\\times10^{-2}$ pc. No ...

  12. Star-forming galaxies with hot dust emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) emission-line galaxies with very red 3.4mum - 4.6mum (W1-W2) colours in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Preliminary Release Source Catalogue (PRSC) aiming to find objects with hot dust emission. For this purpose we considered a sample of ~16000 galaxies with strong emission lines selected out of a total of ~900000 SDSS spectra and identified them with the PRSC sources. We find that ~5000 sources out of the ~16000 SDSS galaxies are present in the PRSC, including ~1000 galaxies with sufficiently strong [OIII]4363 emission lines to permit reliable determinations of the oxygen abundance. No correlation of W1-W2 with metallicity is found. On the other hand, there is clear evidence for a redder W1-W2 index in galaxies with higher Hbeta luminosity and higher Hbeta equivalent width, implying that strong UV radiation from young starbursts efficiently heats interstellar dust to high temperatures. However, galaxies with very red colour...

  13. Void induced molecule c23h12++ could reproduce the infrared spectrum (3 to 20 micron) of interstellar gas and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In order to find out a selected number of molecules to reproduce the infrared spectrum of interstellar gas and dust, model coronene molecules with void and charge have been computed using density functional theory. Among them, a single void induced cation C23H12++ have successfully reproduced a wide range spectrum from 3 to 20 micron of typical interstellar gas and dust. Well known astronoically observed emission peaks are 3.3, 6.2, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.2, 12.7, 13.5 and 14.3 micro meter. Whereas, calculated peaks of C23H12++ were 3.2, 6.4, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.4, 12.9, 13.5, and 14.4 micron meter. It should be noted that a single kind of molecule could reproduce very well not depending on the decomposition method using many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data. Such coincidence suggested that some astronomical chemical evolution may select a particular PAH. Molecular sructure of C23H12++ was dramatically deformed by the Jahn-Teller effect. There is a featured carbon skeleton having two pentagons connected to...

  14. Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6. Dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArT\\'eMiS

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, V; Bergman, P; Motte, F; Wyrowski, F; Pennec, J Le; Rodríguez, L; Boulade, O; Doumayrou, E; Dubreuil, D; Gallais, P; Hamon, G; Lagage, P -O; Lortholary, M; Martignac, J; Revéret, V; Roussel, H; Talvard, M; Willmann, G; Olofsson, H; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912308

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Expanding HII regions and propagating shocks are common in the environment of young high-mass star-forming complexes. They can compress a pre-existing molecular cloud and trigger the formation of dense cores. We investigate whether these phenomena can explain the formation of high-mass protostars within an infrared dark cloud located at the position of G327.3-0.6 in the Galactic plane, in between two large infrared bubbles and two HII regions. Methods: The region of G327.3-0.6 was imaged at 450 ? m with the CEA P-ArT\\'eMiS bolometer array on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment telescope in Chile. APEX/LABOCA and APEX-2A, and Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS archives data were used in this study. Results: Ten massive cores were detected in the P-ArT\\'eMiS image, embedded within the infrared dark cloud seen in absorption at both 8 and 24 ?m. Their luminosities and masses indicate that they form high-mass stars. The kinematical study of the region suggests that the infrared bubbles expand toward the infrared dark cloud...

  15. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  16. Direct-on-Filter α-Quartz Estimation in Respirable Coal Mine Dust Using Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Partial Least Squares Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Weakley, Andrew Todd; Griffiths, Peter R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Bayman, Sean

    2016-09-19

    In order to help reduce silicosis in miners, the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) is developing field-portable methods for measuring airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS), specifically the polymorph α-quartz, in mine dusts. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of end-of-shift measurement of α-quartz using a direct-on-filter (DoF) method to analyze coal mine dust samples deposited onto polyvinyl chloride filters. The DoF method is potentially amenable for on-site analyses, but deviates from the current regulatory determination of RCS for coal mines by eliminating two sample preparation steps: ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the ash prior to quantification by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In this study, the FT-IR spectra of 66 coal dust samples from active mines were used, and the RCS was quantified by using: (1) an ordinary least squares (OLS) calibration approach that utilizes standard silica material as done in the Mine Safety and Health Administration's P7 method; and (2) a partial least squares (PLS) regression approach. Both were capable of accounting for kaolinite, which can confound the IR analysis of silica. The OLS method utilized analytical standards for silica calibration and kaolin correction, resulting in a good linear correlation with P7 results and minimal bias but with the accuracy limited by the presence of kaolinite. The PLS approach also produced predictions well-correlated to the P7 method, as well as better accuracy in RCS prediction, and no bias due to variable kaolinite mass. Besides decreased sensitivity to mineral or substrate confounders, PLS has the advantage that the analyst is not required to correct for the presence of kaolinite or background interferences related to the substrate, making the method potentially viable for automated RCS prediction in the field. This study demonstrated the efficacy of FT-IR transmission spectrometry for silica determination in

  17. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find ...

  18. Dust in the Photospheric Environment II. Effect on the Near Infrared Spectra of L and T Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuji, T; Yanagisawa, K; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakajima, Tadashi; Yanagisawa, Kenshi

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt to interpret the spectra of L and T dwarfs with the use of the Unified Cloudy Model (UCM). For this purpose, we extend the grid of the UCMs to the cases of log g = 4.5 and 5.5. The dust column density relative to the gas column density in the observable photosphere is larger at the higher gravities, and molecular line intensity is generally smaller at the higher gravities. The overall spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are f_{J} f_{K} in early T dwarfs (L/T transition objects), and finally f_{J} > f_{H} > f_{K} in middle and late T dwarfs, where f_{J}, f_{H}, and f_{K} are the peak fluxes at J, H, and K bands, respectively, in f_{\

  19. Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers - Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, O; Gondoin, P; Fabry, P; Wilhelm, R; Gitton, P; Puech, F

    2005-01-01

    Nulling interferometry, a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of the close neighbourhood of bright astrophysical objets, is currently considered for future space missions such as Darwin or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I), both aiming at Earth-like planet detection and characterization. Ground-based nulling interferometers are being studied for both technology demonstration and scientific preparation of the Darwin/TPF-I missions through a systematic survey of circumstellar dust disks around nearby stars. In this paper, we investigate the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the performance of ground-based nulling instruments, and deduce the major design guidelines for such instruments. End-to-end numerical simulations allow us to estimate the performance of the main subsystems and thereby the actual sensitivity of the nuller to faint exozodiacal disks. Particular attention is also given to the important question of stellar leakage calibration. This study is illustrated in the ...

  20. Testing Model Atmospheres for Young Very-low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Infrared: Evidence for Significantly Underestimated Dust Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottle, Jonathan; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2015-05-01

    We test state-of-the-art model atmospheres for young very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the infrared, by comparing the predicted synthetic photometry over 1.2-24 μm to the observed photometry of M-type spectral templates in star-forming regions. We find that (1) in both early and late young M types, the model atmospheres imply effective temperatures ({{T}eff}) several hundred Kelvin lower than predicted by the standard pre-main sequence (PMS) spectral type-{{T}eff} conversion scale (based on theoretical evolutionary models). It is only in the mid-M types that the two temperature estimates agree. (2) The {{T}eff} discrepancy in the early M types (corresponding to stellar masses ≳ 0.4 {{M}⊙ } at ages of a few Myr) probably arises from remaining uncertainties in the treatment of atmospheric convection within the atmospheric models, whereas in the late M types it is likely due to an underestimation of dust opacity. (3) The empirical and model-atmosphere J-band bolometric corrections are both roughly flat, and similar to each other, over the M-type {{T}eff} range. Thus the model atmospheres yield reasonably accurate bolometric luminosities ({{L}bol}), but lead to underestimations of mass and age relative to evolutionary expectations (especially in the late M types) due to lower {{T}eff}. We demonstrate this for a large sample of young Cha I and Taurus sources. (4) The trends in the atmospheric model J-Ks colors, and their deviations from the data, are similar at PMS and main sequence ages, suggesting that the model dust opacity errors we postulate here for young ages also apply at field ages.

  1. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2016-01-01

    While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable. Howe...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....

  2. Far-infrared signatures and inner hole sizes of protoplanetary discs undergoing inside-out dust dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara; Owen, James; Robitaille, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    By means of radiative transfer simulation we study the evolution of the far-infrared colours of protoplanetary discs undergoing inside-out dispersal, often referred to as transition discs. We show that a brightening of the mid and far-infrared emission from these objects is a natural consequence of the removal of the inner disc. Our results can fully explain recent observations of transition discs in the Chamaleon and Lupus star forming regions from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey, which show a higher median for the 70?um (Herschel PACS 1) band of known transition objects compared with primordial discs. Our theoretical results hence support the suggestion that the 70?um band may be a powerful diagnostic for the identi?cation of transition discs from photometry data, provided that the inner hole is larger than tens of AU, depending on spectral type. Furthermore we show that a comparison of photometry in the K , 12?um and 7u0?m bands to model tracks can provide a rough, but quick estimate of the inner hole size ...

  3. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  4. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

    2007-08-28

    Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

  6. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid plane, and display a stronger excess of Young Stellar Objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches -- particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machi...

  7. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  8. Dust during the Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Elfgren, E; Elfgren, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that population III stars have reionized the Universe at redshifts greater than 6 has recently gained momentum with WMAP polarization results. Here we analyse the role of early dust produced by these stars and ejected into the intergalactic medium. We show that this dust, heated by the radiation from the same population III stars, produces a submillimetre excess. The electromagnetic spectrum of this excess is compatible with the FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) cosmic far infrared background. This spectrum, a Doppler spectrum times the $\

  9. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...

  10. Bubbles in the Milky Way Galaxy%银河系中的泡结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君亮

    2012-01-01

    concentrated towards the Galactic plane and their radial distribution follows an exponential law with a scale length of about 3 kpc; (2) there are no shells younger than 1 Ma and only a few shells with ages older than some 50 Ma; (3) the size distribution of shells follows a power law with an index of -2.1; (4) there are many low-energy shells, the majority of which are small with radii <100 pc. However, all of large shells are not the most energetic structures. Infrared observations can be used to probe the spatial distribution of the ISM composed of dust and gas, including the various morphologies of bubbles, which are bright at mid-infrared wavelengths. Among others, the observations and studies completed in 2006-2007 are the most successful, from which some 600 infrared dust bubbles are found. Besides, similar observations in far-infrared wavelengths are also made, from which more than 460 bubbles are discovered, and corresponding studies are completed. Based upon the published data of these bubbles, statistical analyses are made and some interesting results and conclusions are obtained. Several possible physical processes have been used to explain the origin of bubbles: (1) energy release from massive stars (winds and supernova explosions), which is the most probable mechanism of bubble formation, especially at low galactic latitude; (2) high velocity clouds with a large amount of energy infalling into the Galactic disc of constant density; (3) supersonic turbulence, which may be important in the control of star formation and can also govern the structure of the ISM above the Galactic plane; (4) Gamma-ray burst explosions, which can deposit enough energy into the ambient ISM to create large-size shells. No matter how bubbles are formed, a sequential and very important effect is that expanding shells can eventually trigger bursts of star formation because of the onset of gravitational instability.

  11. Microfluidic bubble logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2007-02-09

    We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.

  12. Tribonucleation of bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Wildeman, Sander; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for "writing with bubbles," i.e., creating controlled patterns ...

  13. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongbin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yuan, Tianle [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Remer, L. A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Prospero, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Omar, Ali [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winker, D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Yang, Yuekui [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Yan [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Zhibo [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  14. Bubbles and market crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Youssefmir, M; Hogg, T; Youssefmir, Michael; Huberman, Bernardo; Hogg, Tad

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamical theory of asset price bubbles that exhibits the appearance of bubbles and their subsequent crashes. We show that when speculative trends dominate over fundamental beliefs, bubbles form, leading to the growth of asset prices away from their fundamental value. This growth makes the system increasingly susceptible to any exogenous shock, thus eventually precipitating a crash. We also present computer experiments which in their aggregate behavior confirm the predictions of the theory.

  15. Bubble-sweeping mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hao; (王; 昊); PENG; Xiaofeng; (彭晓峰); WANG; Buxuan; (王补宣); LEE; Duzhong; (李笃中)

    2003-01-01

    A series of subcooled boiling experiments was conducted on very small platinum wires having diameters of 0.1 and 0.025 mm. Vapor bubbles were visually observed to sweep back and forth along the wires in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of bubble-sweeping phenomenon are described, and the induced bubble interaction and nonlinear growth are investigated to understand the boiling heat transfer mechanisms. An unsymmetrical temperature model is proposed to explain the physical mechanism.

  16. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  17. Physics of bubble oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas [Third Physical Institute, University of Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Bubbles in liquids, soft and squeezy objects made of gas and vapour, yet so strong as to destroy any material and so mysterious as at times turning into tiny light bulbs, are the topic of the present report. Bubbles respond to pressure forces and reveal their full potential when periodically driven by sound waves. The basic equations for nonlinear bubble oscillation in sound fields are given, together with a survey of typical solutions. A bubble in a liquid can be considered as a representative example from nonlinear dynamical systems theory with its resonances, multiple attractors with their basins, bifurcations to chaos and not yet fully describable behaviour due to infinite complexity. Three stability conditions are treated for stable trapping of bubbles in standing sound fields: positional, spherical and diffusional stability. Chemical reactions may become important in that respect, when reacting gases fill the bubble, but the chemistry of bubbles is just touched upon and is beyond the scope of the present report. Bubble collapse, the runaway shrinking of a bubble, is presented in its current state of knowledge. Pressures and temperatures that are reached at this occasion are discussed, as well as the light emission in the form of short flashes. Aspherical bubble collapse, as for instance enforced by boundaries nearby, mitigates most of the phenomena encountered in spherical collapse, but introduces a new effect: jet formation, the self-piercing of a bubble with a high velocity liquid jet. Examples of this phenomenon are given from light induced bubbles. Two oscillating bubbles attract or repel each other, depending on their oscillations and their distance. Upon approaching, attraction may change to repulsion and vice versa. When being close, they also shoot self-piercing jets at each other. Systems of bubbles are treated as they appear after shock wave passage through a liquid and with their branched filaments that they attain in standing sound fields. The N-bubble

  18. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  19. Mantle formation, coagulation and the origin of cloud/core shine: I. Modelling dust scattering and absorption in the infra-red

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A P; Ysard, N; Dartois, E; Godard, M; Gavilan, L

    2016-01-01

    Context. The observed cloudshine and coreshine (C-shine) have been explained in terms of grain growth leading to enhanced scatter- ing from clouds in the J, H and K photometric bands and the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m bands. Aims. Using our global dust modelling approach THEMIS (The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model at the IaS) we explore the effects of dust evolution in dense clouds, through aliphatic-rich carbonaceous mantle formation and grain-grain coagulation. Methods. We model the effects of wide band gap a-C:H mantle formation and the low-level aggregation of diffuse interstellar medium dust in the moderately-extinguished outer regions of molecular clouds. Results. The formation of wide band gap a-C:H mantles on amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon (a-C) grains leads to a decrease in their absorption cross-sections but no change in their scattering cross-sections at near-IR wavelengths, resulting in higher albedos. Conclusions. The evolution of dust, with increasing density and extinction in t...

  20. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t

  1. Bubbles in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...

  2. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  3. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  4. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light ten

  5. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  6. Bubble collision with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.

  7. The distribution of dust in Sb's and Sc's : K-band infrared imaging of a diameter limited sample of 37 galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Freudling, W.

    1994-01-01

    We present deep infrared K-band surface photometry for a diameter-limited sample of normal Sb and Sc galaxies. In addition, surface brightness, optical and optical-infrared colors and isophote-shapes have been obtained from the ESO-LV B and R photographic images of these galaxies. For each galaxy we

  8. Effect of bubble size on nanofiber diameter in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bubbles are widely used for fabrication of nanofibers. Bubble size affects not only bubble's surface tension, but also fiber's morphology. A mathematical model is established to reveal the effect of bubble size on the spinning process, and the experiment verification shows the theoretical analysis is reliable.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation.

  10. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuohan

    2014-01-01

    An accurate model of thermal dust emission at the far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths is important for studying the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and for understanding the cycling of matter and energy between stars and the interstellar medium. I will present results of fitting all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100 - 240 μm maps from the COBE-DIRBE, and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. I will also discuss the implications of the analysis on understanding astrophysical processes and the physical properties of dust grains.

  11. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  12. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  13. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government adopts regulations to control real estate prices A mid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real

  14. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  15. Bubbling Out of Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Jim Chanos,founder of the U.S. hedge fund Kynikos Associates,characterized the prop-erty bubble in China as "Dubai times 1,000-or worse." Many Chinese economists agree. Yi Xianrong,a senior researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,said the property bubble in China was far worse than the Dubai crisis in an interview with the Beijing-based International Herald Leader. Edited excerpts follow:

  16. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z~2-3 in the COSMOS field: I. A Far-Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Riguccini, L; Mullaney, J R; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Calanog, J; Capak, P; Cooray, A; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; McCracken, H; Oliver, S; Roseboom, I; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E

    2015-01-01

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 um flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and ma...

  17. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  18. Shock Heated Dust in Young Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.; Strom, R. G.; van der Laan, H.; Greidanus, H.

    Infrared emission in young supernova remnants is interpreted as coming from shock-heated dust. Using models and data from other wavelength regimes, many physical parameters of the remnants can accurately be derived.

  19. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  20. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  1. Investigation of bubble-bubble interaction effect during the collapse of multi-bubble system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueming; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Wenfeng

    2014-11-01

    Bubble collapse is not only an important subject among bubble dynamics, but also a key consequence of cavitation. It has been demonstrated that the structural damage is associated with the rapid change in flow fields during bubble collapse. How to model and simulate the behavior of the bubble collapse is now of great interest. In the present study, both theoretical analysis and a direct numerical simulation on the basis of VOF are performed to investigate the collapses of single bubble and bubble cluster. The effect of bubble-bubble interaction on the collapse of multi-bubble system is presented. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11272284, 11332009).

  2. MEASUREMENT OF BUBBLE-BUBBLE INTERACTION DEPENDED ON REYNOLDS NUMBER USING STEREOSCOPIC BUBBLE-TRACKING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jian-wu; MURAI Yuichi; YAMAMOTO Fujio

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-bubble interaction in free rising bubbly flows is experimentally investigated in the present study.The velocity vectors of the bubbles are measured by a stereoscopic bubble-tracking technique and then the relative velocity vectors of two nearest-neighbor bubbles are calculated with high statistical reliability.With the measurement data at Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 75, the vertical attraction and the horizontal repulsion are confirmed for Re<10 as known by the past study based on Navier-Stokes simulation.The new finding of the present measurement is that the bubbles of Re>30 have repulsive velocity bothin the horizontal and the vertical directions as those rise closely.Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of the bubble-bubble interaction is discussed with the data analysis of the interaction vector fields.

  3. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Solares, H A Ayala; Hüntemeyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. Recent publications show that the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles is well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff in the energy range of 100MeV to 500GeV. Observing the Fermi Bubbles at higher gamma-ray energies will help constrain the origin of the bubbles. A steeper cutoff will favor a leptonic model. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100m above sea level in Mexico, is designed to measure high-energy gamma rays between 100GeV to 100TeV. With...

  4. Far-Infrared to Millimeter Astrophysical Dust Emission. II: Comparison of the Two-Level Systems (TLS) model with Astronomical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Paradis, D; Mény, C; Gromov, V

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper we proposed a new model for the emission by amorphous astronomical dust grains, based on solid-state physics. The model uses a description of the Disordered Charge Distribution (DCD) combined with the presence of Two-Level Systems (TLS) defects in the amorphous solid composing the grains. The goal of this paper is to confront this new model to astronomical observations of different Galactic environments in the FIR/submm, in order to derive a set of canonical model parameters to be used as a Galactic reference to be compared to in future Galactic and extragalactic studies. We confront the TLS model with existing astronomical data. We consider the average emission spectrum at high latitudes in our Galaxy as measured with FIRAS and WMAP, as well as the emission from Galactic compact sources observed with Archeops, for which an inverse relationship between the dust temperature and the emissivity spectral index has been evidenced. We show that, unlike models previously proposed which often invo...

  5. RCW 86: A Type Ia Supernova in a Wind-Blown Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Blondin, John M; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S; Raymond, John C; Reynolds, Stephen P; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P Frank

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a multi-wavelength analysis of the Galactic SNR RCW 86, the proposed remnant of the supernova of 185 A.D. We report new infrared observations from {\\it Spitzer} and {\\it WISE}, where the entire shell is detected at 24 and 22 $\\mu$m. We fit the infrared flux ratios with models of collisionally heated ambient dust, finding post-shock gas densities in the non-radiative shocks of 2.4 and 2.0 cm$^{-3}$ in the SW and NW portions of the remnant, respectively. The Balmer-dominated shocks around the periphery of the shell, large amount of iron in the X-ray emitting ejecta, and lack of a compact remnant support a Type Ia origin for this remnant. From hydrodynamic simulations, the observed characteristics of RCW 86 are successfully reproduced by an off-center explosion in a low-density cavity carved by the progenitor system. This would make RCW 86 the first known case of a Type Ia supernova in a wind-blown bubble. The fast shocks ($> 3000$ km s$^{-1}$) observed in the NE are propagating in the low...

  6. The Infrared Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 This image composite compares infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation's sword. The infrared picture is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and the visible image is from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, headquartered in Tucson, Ariz. In addition to Orion, two other nebulas can be seen in both pictures. The Orion nebula, or M42, is the largest and takes up the lower half of the images; the small nebula to the upper left of Orion is called M43; and the medium-sized nebula at the top is NGC 1977. Each nebula is marked by a ring of dust that stands out in the infrared view. These rings make up the walls of cavities that are being excavated by radiation and winds from massive stars. The visible view of the nebulas shows gas heated by ultraviolet radiation from the massive stars. Above the Orion nebula, where the massive stars have not yet ejected much of the obscuring dust, the visible image appears dark with only a faint glow. In contrast, the infrared view penetrates the dark lanes of dust, revealing bright swirling clouds and numerous developing stars that have shot out jets of gas (green). This is because infrared light can travel through dust, whereas visible light is stopped short by it. The infrared image shows light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

  7. BURST OF STAR FORMATION DRIVES BUBBLE IN GALAXY'S CORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots reveal dramatic activities within the core of the galaxy NGC 3079, where a lumpy bubble of hot gas is rising from a cauldron of glowing matter. The picture at left shows the bubble in the center of the galaxy's disk. The structure is more than 3,000 light-years wide and rises 3,500 light-years above the galaxy's disk. The smaller photo at right is a close-up view of the bubble. Astronomers suspect that the bubble is being blown by 'winds' (high-speed streams of particles) released during a burst of star formation. Gaseous filaments at the top of the bubble are whirling around in a vortex and are being expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down upon the galaxy's disk where it may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars. The two white dots just above the bubble are probably stars in the galaxy. The close-up reveals that the bubble's surface is lumpy, consisting of four columns of gaseous filaments that tower above the galaxy's disk. The filaments disperse at a height of 2,000 light-years. Each filament is about 75 light-years wide. Velocity measurements taken by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii show that the gaseous filaments are ascending at more than 4 million miles an hour (6 million kilometers an hour). According to theoretical models, the bubble formed when ongoing winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of very hot gas from supernova explosions. Observations of the core's structure by radio telescopes indicate that those processes are still active. The models suggest that this outflow began about a million years ago. They occur about every 10 million years. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away. Astronomers have seen evidence of previous outbursts from radio and X-ray observations. Those studies show rings of dust and gas and long plumes of material, all of which are larger than the bubble. NGC 3079 is 50

  8. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-07-22

    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-07-22

    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Experimantal Study on the Bubble Clustering in Bubbly Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Fujiwara, Akiko; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2003-11-01

    The statistical properties of bubbly flows and the near-wall bubble-clustering behaviors are investigated for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size, turbulent properties of liquid phase and the bubble clustering motion were measured using image-processing technique, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), respectively. Using 3-pentanol as a surfactant, the mono-dispersed 1mm-bubbles are generated. The mono-dispersed bubbles in upward flows accumulate near the wall and construct bubble clusters. These bubble clusters were investigated. Experimental observation showed that the size of bubble cluster can be much larger than that of the coherent structure in single phase turbulence. The clusters change their shape in time and space and these bubble motions accelerate the mean streamwise velocity near the wall due to the buoyancy effect. Thus the mean velocity profile of the liquid phase becomes flattened. It is suggested that the highly accumulated bubbles in the vicinity of the wall disturb the transport of turbulence energy produced in the wall shear layer from the central region of the channel flow. Furthermore, in the middle of channel, the fluctuations of the liquid phase are mainly generated by the bubble motions.

  11. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Skrabalova, Lenka; Sigurdardottir, Gudmunda; Branis, Martin; Hladil, Jindrich; Chadimova, Leona; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Menar, Sibylle von Lowis of; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric Dust Measurements (ADMI 2013) of one of the most active dust sources in Iceland (Mælifellsandur) were conducted during season with high precipitation on August 8th-18th, 2013. We measured mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), particle size distributions in size range 0.3-10μm and number concentrations during rather small dust event. Dust samples of the event were analyzed (morpho-textural observations, optical and scanning-electron microscopy). Two TSI 8520 DustTrak Aerosol Monitors (light-scattering laser photometers that measure aerosol mass concentrations in range 0.001 to 100 mg/m3) and one TSI Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) 3330 (optical scattering from single particle up to 16 different channels - 0.3 to 10 μm - measuring particle size distribution) were used. We measured a dust event which occurred during wet and low wind/windless conditions as result of surface heating in August 2013. Maximum particle number concentration (PM~0.3-10 µm) reached 149954 particles cm-3 min-1 while mass concentration (PM1.5-5 µm in diameter. Close-to-ultrafine particle size distributions showed a significant increase in number with the severity of the dust event. Number concentrations were well correlated with mass concentrations. The mineralogy and geochemical compositions showed that glaciogenic dust contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles and 80 % of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals. Wet dust particles were mobilized within < 4 hours. Here we introduced a comprehensive study on physical properties of the Icelandic dust aerosol and the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Icelandic dust event including findings on initiation of dust suspension.

  12. Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.

  13. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Solares, H. A. Ayala; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; collaboration, for the HAWC

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave d...

  14. Dust processing in photodissociation regions - Mid-IR emission modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Compiegne, M; Verstraete, L; Habart, E

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy of dense illuminated ridges (or photodissociation regions, PDRs) suggests dust evolution. Such evolution must be reflected in the gas physical properties through processes like photo-electric heating or H_2 formation. With Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and ISOCAM data, we study the mid-IR emission of closeby, well known PDRs. Focusing on the band and continuum dust emissions, we follow their relative contributions and analyze their variations in terms of abundance of dust populations. In order to disentangle dust evolution and excitation effects, we use a dust emission model that we couple to radiative transfer. Our dust model reproduces extinction and emission of the standard interstellar medium that we represent with diffuse high galactic latitude clouds called Cirrus. We take the properties of dust in Cirrus as a reference to which we compare the dust emission from more excited regions, namely the Horsehead and the reflection nebula NGC 2023 North. We show that in both regio...

  15. The Early Years: Blowing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Blowing bubbles is not only a favorite summer activity for young children. Studying bubbles that are grouped together, or "foam," is fun for children and fascinating to many real-world scientists. Foam is widely used--from the bedroom (mattresses) to outer space (insulating panels on spacecraft). Bubble foam can provide children a…

  16. Infrared observations of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Martha S.

    1991-01-01

    Selected comets are observed in the near infrared (1 to 2.2 micron) and thermal infrared (3.5 to 20 micron) with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and other telescopes as appropriate, in order to characterize the physical properties of the dust grains; their composition, size distribution, emissivity, and albedo. Systematic variations in these properties among comets are looked for, in order to understand the heterogeneity of comet nuclei. Spectrophotometry of the 10 micron silicate emission feature is particularly emphasized. The rate of dust production from the nucleus and its temporal variability are also determined. Knowledge of the dust environment is essential to S/C design and mission planning for NASA's CRAF mission.

  17. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is an important component of Mars' current climate system. Airborne dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus greatly influencing the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Dust raising events on Mars occur at spatial scales ranging from meters to planet-wide. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. Generally, a low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading were observed by MGS/TES: one peak occurred before northern winter solstice at Ls 200-240, and one peak occurred after northern winter solstice at L(sub s) 305-340. These maxima in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere, which has been observed to maximize pre- and post-solstice. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading. Interactive dust cycle studies typically have not included the formation of water ice clouds or their radiative effects. Water ice clouds can influence the dust cycle by scavenging dust from atmosphere and by interacting with solar and infrared radiation

  18. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...

  19. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  20. Microfluidic "blinking" bubble pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zhizhong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports data obtained on a simple micropump, suitable for electrolytes, based on the periodic growth and collapse of a single vapor bubble in a microchannel. With a channel diameter of the order of 100 µm, pumping rates of several tens of µl/min and pressure differences of several kPa are

  1. The Liberal Arts Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresto, John

    2011-01-01

    The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…

  2. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Amid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real estate market.In the past month,the government launched a series of regulatory policies aimed at cooling the overheated market.

  3. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  4. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  5. Infrared outburst in Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Seppo; Meikle, Peter; Kotak, Rubina; Perez-Torres, Miguel; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Alberdi, Antxon

    2011-05-01

    Arp 299 is one of the nearest examples of a luminous infrared galaxy. We discovered a strong outburst in Arp 299 which is apparent at infrared (IR) wavelengths but not in the optical indicating emission from warm dust and a high extinction. This source could originate from an IR 'dust echo' resulting either from a highly obscured outburst in an active galactic nucleus or an energetic supernova. To continue our study of the origin of this outburst we propose short IRAC observations.

  6. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened w

  7. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column: draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob

  8. Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.

  9. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical

  10. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, W.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob

  11. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical extent

  12. Strong near-infrared emission in the sub-AU disk of the Herbig Ae star HD163296: evidence for refractory dust?

    CERN Document Server

    Benisty, M; Isella, A; Berger, J-P; Massi, F; LeBouquin, J-B; Merand, A; Duvert, G; Kraus, S; Malbet, F; Olofsson, J; Robbe-Dubois, S; Testi, L; Vannier, M; Weigelt, G

    2009-01-01

    We present new long-baseline spectro-interferometric observations of the HerbigAe star HD163296 obtained in the H and K bands with the AMBER instrument at VLTI. The observations cover a range of spatial resolutions between 3 and 12 milli-arcseconds, with a spectral resolution of ~30. With a total of 1481 visibilities and 432 closure phases, they result in the best (u,v) coverage achieved on a young star so far. The circumstellar material is resolved at the sub-AU spatial scale and closure phase measurements indicate a small but significant deviation from point-symmetry. We discuss the results assuming that the near-infrared excess in HD163296 is dominated by the emission of a circumstellar disk. A successful fit to the spectral energy distribution, near-infrared visibilities and closure phases is found with a model where a dominant contribution to the H and K band emissions arises from an optically thin, smooth and point-symmetric region extending from about 0.1 to 0.45 AU. At the latter distance from the sta...

  13. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  14. First direct implications for the dust extinction and star formation of typical Ly{\\alpha} emitters from their faint infrared luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the IR luminosity of galaxies is crucial for reliably deriving their dust extinction and stellar population. By stacking publicly available deep Spitzer/MIPS 24um and Herschel PACS images for 213 z~2.18 Ly alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the GOODS-South, we obtain a strong upper limit to the IR luminosity of typical high-redshift LAEs and constrain the extinction law for the first time. Our 3sigma upper limit L_{TIR} = 1.1 * 10^{10} L_{sun} gives IRX = L_{TIR}/L_{UV} 44%, are both significantly higher than the cosmic averages at the same epoch. We find that the SMC extinction law is consistent with the IRX and the UV slope beta = -1.4^{+0.2}_{-0.2} of our stacked LAE, while the Calzetti law predicts a 3.8 times higher IRX at this beta. SED fitting using the Calzetti law also gives a ~10 times higher SFR than that calculated from the IR and UV luminosities, SFR_{tot}=1.5-3.3 M_{sun}/yr. With the stellar mass 6.3^{+0.8}_{-2.0} *10^8 M_{sun}, our LAEs lie on a lower-mass extrapolation of the star formation ma...

  15. Embedded Protostars in the Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT) Key Program: Continuum SEDs, and an Inventory of Characteristic Far-Infrared Lines from PACS Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Jørgensen, Jes K; Herczeg, Gregory J; Kristensen, Lars E; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Dionatos, Odysseas; Yildiz, Umut A; Salyk, Colette; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Bouwman, Jeroen; Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Rascati, Michelle R; Karska, Agata; van Kempen, Tim A; Dunham, Michael M; Lindberg, Johan E; Fedele, Davide

    2013-01-01

    We present 50-210 um spectral scans of 30 Class 0/I protostellar sources, obtained with Herschel-PACS, and 0.5-1000 um SEDs, as part of the Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time (DIGIT) Key Program. Some sources exhibit up to 75 H2O lines ranging in excitation energy from 100-2000 K, 12 transitions of OH, and CO rotational lines ranging from J=14-13 up to J=40-39. [O I] is detected in all but one source in the entire sample; among the sources with detectable [O I] are two Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs). The mean 63/145 um [O I] flux ratio is 17.2 +/- 9.2. The [O I] 63 um line correlates with Lbol, but not with the time-averaged outflow rate derived from low-J CO maps. [C II] emission is in general not local to the source. The sample Lbol increased by 1.25 (1.06) and Tbol decreased to 0.96 (0.96) of mean (median) values with the inclusion of the Herschel data. Most CO rotational diagrams are characterized by two optically thin components ( = (0.70 +/- 1.12) x 10^49 total particles). N_CO correlates strongly with Lb...

  16. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris disk stars. I. Probing the hot dust content around epsilon Eridani and tau Ceti with CHARA/FLUOR

    CERN Document Server

    Di Folco, E; Augereau, J -C; Mérand, A; Foresto, V Coudé du; Thévenin, F; Defrère, D; Kervella, P; Brummelaar, T A ten; McAlister, H A; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H

    2007-01-01

    We probed the first 3AU around tau Ceti and epsilon Eridani with the CHARA array (Mt Wilson, USA) in order to gauge the 2micron excess flux emanating from possible hot dust grains in the debris disks and to also resolve the stellar photospheres. High precision visibility amplitude measurements were performed with the FLUOR single mode fiber instrument and telescope pairs on baselines ranging from 22 to 241m of projected length. The short baseline observations allow us to disentangle the contribution of an extended structure from the photospheric emission, while the long baselines constrain the stellar diameter. We have detected a resolved emission around tau Cet, corresponding to a spatially integrated, fractional excess flux of 0.98 +/- 0.21 x 10^{-2} with respect to the photospheric flux in the K'-band. Around eps Eri, our measurements can exclude a fractional excess of greater than 0.6x10^{-2} (3sigma). We interpret the photometric excess around tau Cet as a possible signature of hot grains in the inner de...

  17. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where "untrained" citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  18. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: LEVERAGING CITIZEN SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING TO DETECT INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert, E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where ''untrained' citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  19. Colliding interstellar bubbles in the direction of l=54{\\deg}

    CERN Document Server

    Zychova, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar bubbles are structures in the interstellar medium with diameters of a few to tens of parsecs. Their progenitors are stellar winds, intense radiation of massive stars, or supernova explosions. Star formation and young stellar objects are commonly associated with these structures. We compare IR observations of bubbles N115, N116 and N117 with atomic, molecular and ionized gas in this region. While determining the dynamical properties of the bubbles, we also look into their ambient environment to understand their formation in a wider context. For finding bubbles in HI (VLA Galactic Plane Survey) and CO data (Galactic Ring Survey), we used their images from Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey. We manually constructed masks based on the appearance of the bubbles in the IR images and applied it to the HI and CO data. We determined their kinematic distance, size, expansion velocity, mass, original density of the maternal cloud, age and energy input. We identified two systems of bubbles: the first,...

  20. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  1. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  2. Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Lee, Judy; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a simple and effective experimental approach to measuring the interaction forces between two small bubbles (approximately 80-140 microm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions on the scale of micrometers to nanometers. The colloidal probe technique using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles of various sizes. By using an ultrasonic source, we generated numerous small bubbles on a mildly hydrophobic surface of a glass slide. A single bubble picked up with a strongly hydrophobized V-shaped cantilever was used as the colloidal probe. Sample force measurements were used to evaluate the pure water bubble cleanliness and the general consistency of the measurements.

  3. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  4. CRISIS FOCUS Blowing Bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese stock and property markets have been outperforming expectations, fueled by an unprecedented surge in bank lending. Xie Guozhong, an economist and board member of Rosetta Stone Advisors, argues the robust Chinese economic figures are only propped up by bubbles, whose bursting will lead to a hard landing for the economy. Xie published his opinion in a related article in Caijing Magazine. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. On the Role of Flash Floods for Dust Emission over North Africa: Alluvial Sediments acting as Dust Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepanski, K.; Klueser, L.; Tegen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Studies analyzing satellite dust products show that numerous dust sources are located in the foothills of arid and semi-arid mountain regions. There, alluvial sediments deposited on valley bottoms and flood plains are very susceptible to wind erosion and frequently serve as dust source. This study focuses on the spatio-temporal distribution of dust source activation events over the mountain foothills and flood plains over North Africa. Satellite dust retrievals with sub-daily resolution such as from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and METOP A/B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instruments are used to identify dust source regions. Identified dust source regions are then linked to soil properties and land type classification data sets. Information on the mineralogical composition of transported dust inferred from IASI observation are used (a) to investigate the impact of different source geomorphologies and thus different radiative properties of airborne dust particles, and (b) to estimate the contribution of dust uplift from alluvial sediments compared to dust emission from non-hydrological sources. Ultimately, this study contributes to the understanding of controlling mechanism on the interannual variability of dust source activation and will improve current dust emission modules coupled to atmosphere models.

  6. Shrinking equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V. L.; Gurubaran, S.; Shiokawa, K.; Emperumal, K.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) associated with spread F irregularities are fairly common phenomenon in the postsunset equatorial ionosphere. These bubbles grow as a result of eastward polarization electric field resulting in upward E × B drift over the dip equator. As they grow they are also mapped to low latitudes along magnetic field lines. The EPBs are often observed as airglow depletions in the images of OI 630 nm emission. On occasions the growth of the features over the dip equator is observed as poleward extensions of the depletions in all-sky images obtained from low latitudes. Herein, we present interesting observations of decrease in the latitudinal extent of the EPBs corresponding to a reduction in their apex altitudes over the dip equator. Such observations indicate that these bubbles not only grow but also shrink on occasions. These are the first observations of shrinking EPBs. The observations discussed in this work are based on all-sky airglow imaging observations of OI 630.0 nm emission made from Panhala (11.1°N dip latitude). In addition, ionosonde observations made from dip equatorial site Tirunelveli (1.1°N dip latitude) are used to understand the phenomenon better. The analysis indicates that the speed of shrinking occurring in the topside is different from the bottomside vertical drifts. When the EPBs shrink, they might decay before sunrise hours.

  7. The interstellar dust reservoir: SPICA's view on dust production and the interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Jones, O C; Srinivasan, S

    2016-01-01

    Typical galaxies emit about one third of their energy in the infrared. The origin of this emission reprocessed starlight absorbed by interstellar dust grains and reradiated as thermal emission in the infrared. In particularly dusty galaxies, such as starburst galaxies, the fraction of energy emitted in the infrared can be as high as 90%. Dust emission is found to be an excellent tracer of the beginning and end stages of a star's life, where dust is being produced by post-main-sequence stars, subsequently added to the interstellar dust reservoir, and eventually being consumed by star and planet formation. This work reviews the current understanding of the size and properties of this interstellar dust reservoir, by using the Large Magellanic Cloud as an example, and what can be learned about the dust properties and star formation in galaxies from this dust reservoir, using SPICA, building on previous work performed with the Herschel and Spitzer Space Telescopes, as well as the Infrared Space Observatory.

  8. Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh-Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh-Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.

  9. Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita, E-mail: kando@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh–Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh–Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.

  10. EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS IN THE DUST, ICE, AND GAS IN TIME (DIGIT) HERSCHEL KEY PROGRAM: CONTINUUM SEDs, AND AN INVENTORY OF CHARACTERISTIC FAR-INFRARED LINES FROM PACS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans, Neal J. II; Rascati, Michelle R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Jorgensen, Jes K.; Dionatos, Odysseas; Lindberg, Johan E. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kristensen, Lars E.; Yildiz, Umut A.; Van Kempen, Tim A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Salyk, Colette [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Meeus, Gwendolyn [Dpt. Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Bouwman, Jeroen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Karska, Agata; Fedele, Davide [Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Collaboration: DIGIT Team1

    2013-06-20

    We present 50-210 {mu}m spectral scans of 30 Class 0/I protostellar sources, obtained with Herschel-PACS, and 0.5-1000 {mu}m spectral energy distributions, as part of the Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time Key Program. Some sources exhibit up to 75 H{sub 2}O lines ranging in excitation energy from 100 to 2000 K, 12 transitions of OH, and CO rotational lines ranging from J = 14 {yields} 13 up to J = 40 {yields} 39. [O I] is detected in all but one source in the entire sample; among the sources with detectable [O I] are two very low luminosity objects. The mean 63/145 {mu}m [O I] flux ratio is 17.2 {+-} 9.2. The [O I] 63 {mu}m line correlates with L{sub bol}, but not with the time-averaged outflow rate derived from low-J CO maps. [C II] emission is in general not local to the source. The sample L{sub bol} increased by 1.25 (1.06) and T{sub bol} decreased to 0.96 (0.96) of mean (median) values with the inclusion of the Herschel data. Most CO rotational diagrams are characterized by two optically thin components ( = (0.70 {+-} 1.12) x 10{sup 49} total particles). N{sub CO} correlates strongly with L{sub bol}, but neither T{sub rot} nor N{sub CO}(warm)/N{sub CO}(hot) correlates with L{sub bol}, suggesting that the total excited gas is related to the current source luminosity, but that the excitation is primarily determined by the physics of the interaction (e.g., UV-heating/shocks). Rotational temperatures for H{sub 2}O ( = 194 +/- 85 K) and OH ( = 183 +/- 117 K) are generally lower than for CO, and much of the scatter in the observations about the best fit is attributed to differences in excitation conditions and optical depths among the detected lines.

  11. Optical and Near-Infrared Polarimetry of Highly Reddened Type Ia Supernova 2014J: Peculiar Properties of Dust in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, K S; Yamanaka, M; Itoh, R; Maeda, K; Moritani, Y; Ui, T; Kawabata, M; Mori, K; Nogami, D; Nomoto, K; Suzuki, N; Takaki, K; Tanaka, M; Ueno, I; Chiyonobu, S; Harao, T; Matsui, R; Miyamoto, H; Nagae, O; Nakashima, A; Nakaya, H; Ohashi, Y; Ohsugi, T; Komatsu, T; Sakimoto, K; Sasada, M; Sato, H; Tanaka, H; Urano, T; Yamashita, T; Yoshida, M; Arai, A; Ebisuda, N; Fukazawa, Y; Fukui, A; Hashimoto, O; Honda, S; Izumiura, H; Kanda, Y; Kawaguchi, K; Kawai, N; Kuroda, D; Masumoto, K; Matsumoto, K; Nakaoka, T; Takata, K; Uemura, M; Yanagisawa, K

    2014-01-01

    We performed optical and near-infrared multi-band linear polarimetry for highly reddened Type Ia SN 2014J appeared in M82. SN 2014J exhibits large polarization at shorter wavelengths, reaching $p\\simeq 4.8$\\% in $B$ band and steeply decreasing with wavelength, while it has almost constant position angle $\\sim 40^{\\circ}$ over the observed wavelength range. No significant temporal variation is found. Since intrinsic polarization of continuum light from a normal Type Ia supernova is generally weak ($\\lesssim 0.3$\\%) and the Galactic interstellar polarization component is likely negligibly small, the observed polarization is likely predominantly caused by the interstellar media within M82; however, we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is caused by circumstellar media. The wavelength dependence of polarization can be explained by the empirical Serkowski-law at wavelengths shorter than $1 \\mu$m and by an inverse power-law at wavelengths longer than $0.5 \\mu$m. The peak polarization wavelength $\\lam...

  12. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  13. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  14. Electrowetting of a soap bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture - the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometre thick films of Teflon. Voltages less than 40V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g. laboratory-on-a-chip) - the potential gains in terms of volume, speed and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  15. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Andrews, S.; Blum, J.; Carpenter, J.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Williams, J. P.; Wilner, D. J.

    In the core-accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow up to micrometer-sized particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds, the growth to pebbles and kilometer-sized bodies must occur at the high densities within protoplanetary disks. This critical step is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in extrasolar systems before the appearance of large planetary-sized bodies. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational signatures of these processes are summarized. We briefly discuss grain growth in molecular cloud cores and in collapsing envelopes of protostars, as these likely provide the initial conditions for the dust in protoplanetary disks. We then review the observational constraints on grain growth in disks from millimeter surveys, as well as the very recent evidence for radial variations of the dust properties in disks. We also include a brief discussion on the small end of the grain size distribution and dust settling as derived from optical, near-, and mid-infrared observations. Results are discussed in the context of global dust-evolution models; in particular, we focus on the emerging evidence for a very efficient early growth of grains and the radial distribution of maximum grain sizes as the result of growth barriers. We also highlight the limits of the current models of dust evolution in disks, including the need to slow the radial drift of grains to overcome the migration/fragmentation barrier.

  16. Polarized Emission from Interstellar Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillancourt, J E

    2006-01-01

    Observations of far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (SMM) polarized emission are used to study magnetic fields and dust grains in dense regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). These observations place constraints on models of molecular clouds, star-formation, grain alignment mechanisms, and grain size, shape, and composition. The FIR/SMM polarization is strongly dependent on wavelength. We have attributed this wavelength dependence to sampling different grain populations at different temperatures. To date, most observations of polarized emission have been in the densest regions of the ISM. Extending these observations to regions of the diffuse ISM, and to microwave frequencies, will provide additional tests of grain and alignment models. An understanding of polarized microwave emission from dust is key to an accurate measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The microwave polarization spectrum will put limits on the contributions to polarized emission from spinning dust and vibrat...

  17. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  18. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  19. Dynamic Bubble Behaviour during Microscale Subcooled Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; PENG Xiao-Feng; David M.Christopher

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bubble cycles, including initiation, growth and departure, are the physical basis of nucleate boiling. The presentinvestigation, however, reveals unusual bubble motions during subcooled nucleate boiling on microwires 25 orl00μm in diameter. Two types of bubble motions, bubble sweeping and bubble return, are observed in theexperiments. Bubble sweeping describes a bubble moving back and forth along the wire, which is motion parallelto the wire. Bubble return is the bubble moving back to the wire after it has detached or leaping above thewire. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the driving mechanisms forboth bubble sweeping and return. Marangoni flow from warm to cool regions along the bubble interface is foundto produce the shear stresses needed to drive these unusual bubble movements.

  20. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media.

  1. Dust in the 55 Cancri planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R; Greaves, J S; Dent, W R F; Marcy, G W; Hartmann, L W; Fazio, G G; Jayawardhana, Ray; Holland, Wayne S.; Greaves, Jane S.; Dent, William R. F.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Hartmann, Lee W.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of debris disks around $\\sim$ 1-Gyr-old main sequence stars suggests that an appreciable amount of dust may persist even in mature planetary systems. Here we report the detection of dust emission from 55 Cancri, a star with one, or possibly two, planetary companions detected through radial velocity measurements. Our observations at 850$\\mu$m and 450$\\mu$m imply a dust mass of 0.0008-0.005 Earth masses, somewhat higher than that in the the Kuiper Belt of our solar system. The estimated temperature of the dust grains and a simple model fit both indicate a central disk hole of at least 10 AU in radius. Thus, the region where the planets are detected is likely to be significantly depleted of dust. Our results suggest that far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations are powerful tools for probing the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems.

  2. The Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey: Hi-GAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel infrared GALactic Plane Survey has been granted time to observe 480 square degrees of the Galactic Plane with the PACS and SPIRE on-board the 3.5 meter Herschel Space Observatory in five bands; 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. The original Hi-GAL Open Time Key Project observed 240 square-degrees in the inner Galaxy from l = -60o to +60o, b = -1o to +1o. This portion of the survey includes the Central Molecular Zone surrounding the Galactic center and the Molecular Ring in the inner Galaxy. During Open Time 1 (OT1), time was granted to observe an additional 240 square degrees in the outer Galaxy from l = 120o to 240o. Hi-GAL240 provides a high-resolution view of the closest portion of the Perseus Arm in the outer Galaxy and the anti-center region. A proposal has been submitted to complete coverage of the entire Galactic Plane in OT2. Hi-GAL provides a sensitive, high-resolution (5” to 35") view of the far-infrared and sub-mm dust-continuum from dense clumps, filaments, and clouds, highly embedded proto-stars, HII regions, FUV-heated bubbles, post-main sequence objects, and the diffuse ISM along the Galactic Plane. Hi-GAL data is being used to map the dust temperature and column density distribution in the Galaxy, to identify the most embedded proto-stars and proto-clusters, to measure the properties of dust emitting structures in all stages of their evolution as function of location and environment, and to probe the Galactic ecology - the cycling of gas from the ISM into stars and back into the ISM. Hi-GAL will serve as a template for the interpretation of far-infrared and sub-mm continuum emission from galaxies in the near and distant Universe where individual star forming complexes and dust structures can not be resolved. I will review some highlights and key results provided by Hi-GAL.

  3. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a liquid is exposed to extremely high heat-fluxes. Within a few microseconds a bubble in the form vapour film is generated, followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and finally the bubbles collapse. This effect, which already has proven its use in curren

  4. Tuning bubbly structures in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Sharon M; Anna, Shelley L

    2012-06-01

    Foams have many useful applications that arise from the structure and size distribution of the bubbles within them. Microfluidics allows for the rapid formation of uniform bubbles, where bubble size and volume fraction are functions of the input gas pressure, liquid flow rate, and device geometry. After formation, the microchannel confines the bubbles and determines the resulting foam structure. Bubbly structures can vary from a single row ("dripping"), to multiple rows ("alternating"), to densely packed bubbles ("bamboo" and dry foams). We show that each configuration arises in a distinct region of the operating space defined by bubble volume and volume fraction. We describe the boundaries between these regions using geometric arguments and show that the boundaries are functions of the channel aspect ratio. We compare these geometric arguments with foam structures observed in experiments using flow-focusing, T-junction, and co-flow designs to generate stable nitrogen bubbles in aqueous surfactant solution and stable droplets in oil containing dissolved surfactant. The outcome of this work is a set of design parameters that can be used to achieve desired foam structures as a function of device geometry and experimental control parameters.

  5. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  6. Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias;

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...

  7. Triangular bubble spline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

    2011-11-01

    We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.

  8. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help

  9. Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.

  10. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  11. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  12. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a 350 μm dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350 μm = 114-650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3-34 × 107 M ⊙ and 0.03%-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  13. The Laser Dust Detector - a strategy for in-situ dust detection in planetary ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, C.; Hecht, M. H.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A. L.

    2004-12-01

    Laser Light Scattering (LLS) is a powerful, fast, and non-destructive way of optically interrogating embedded microparticles in solid ice. This is the basis for the design of the Laser Dust Detector (LDD) where laser light is directed via fiber optics into the ice surrounding the probe. If the ice is bubble and dust free the laser light will penetrate meters of ice before the light is attenuated completely. If, however, the laser light encounters dust particles the light will be scattered in all directions, according to the theory of Rayleigh and Mie scattering. Some of the scattered light will make its way into the aperture of the CCD camera and be detected in a digital image. A series of these images are taken as the Cryobot descends into the ice sheet. The images will be acquired in a way to ensure enough overlap between neighboring images to be able to fit them together to get a continuous in-situ mapping of the dust in this local environment of the ice sheet. In the laboratory, this method has been successful, in part, because the particle size distributions in archived ice cores have been very constant in time. Even during a change by a factor of 100 in concentration the size distribution is only slightly changed. Another reason the optical interrogation of dust has been successful is that the overall mineralogy of the dust particles appear to be more or less constant, i.e. the index of refraction of the particles doesn't change much with depth or particle size, an important factor when analyzing the experimental data. The key to obtaining suitable data on the properties of Mars ice caps is in the design of an exploratory polar cap in-situ mission and its instrumentation, of which the optical systems for the visible stratigraphy and dust character are significant. In taking steps to obtain the optical data we begin by noting that the polar cap ice may be clear in the fashion of deep ice sheet ice from Greenland or Antarctica, or it may have sufficient dust

  14. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  15. Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Vivek N; Ramos, Fabio Ernesto Mancilla; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the unknown nature of the transition between the classical -5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the -3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, b, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary b from $b = \\infty$ (pseudo-turbulence) to b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude: ~O(0.01, 0.1, 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The experiments are conducted in a multi-phase turbulent water tunnel with air bubbles of diameters 2-4 mm and 3-5 mm. An active-grid is used to generate nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the liquid flow. The liquid speeds and gas void fractions are varied to achieve the above mentioned b...

  16. A novel methodology to measure methane bubble sizes in the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, H.; Delwiche, K.; Senft-Grupp, S.; Manganello, T.

    2014-12-01

    The fate of methane ebullition from lake sediments is dependent on initial bubble size. Rising bubbles are subject to dissolution, reducing the fraction of methane that ultimately enters the atmosphere while increasing concentrations of aqueous methane. Smaller bubbles not only rise more slowly, but dissolve more rapidly larger bubbles. Thus, understanding methane bubble size distributions in the water column is critical to predicting atmospheric methane emissions from ebullition. However, current methods of measuring methane bubble sizes in-situ are resource-intensive, typically requiring divers, video equipment, sonar, or hydroacoustic instruments. The complexity and cost of these techniques points to the strong need for a simple, autonomous device that can measure bubble size distributions and be deployed unattended over long periods of time. We describe a bubble sizing device that can be moored in the subsurface and can intercept and measure the size of bubbles as they rise. The instrument uses a novel optical measurement technique with infrared LEDs and IR-sensitive photodetectors combined with a custom-designed printed circuit board. An on-board microcomputer handles raw optical signals and stores the relevant information needed to calculate bubble volume. The electronics are housed within a pressure case fabricated from standard PVC fittings and are powered by size C alkaline batteries. The bill of materials cost is less than $200, allowing us to deploy multiple sensors at various locations within Upper Mystic Lake, MA. This novel device will provide information on how methane bubble sizes may vary both spatially and temporally. We present data from tests under controlled laboratory conditions and from deployments in Upper Mystic Lake.

  17. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  18. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  19. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  20. Thermal Phase in Bubbling Geometries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    We use matrix model to study thermal phase in bubbling half-BPS type IIB geometries with SO(4)×SO(4) symmetry.Near the horizon limit,we find that thermal vacua of bubbling geometries have disjoint parts,and each part is one kind of phase of the thermal system.We connect the thermal dynamics of bubbling geometries with one-dimensional fermions thermal system.Finally,we try to give a new possible way to resolve information loss puzzle.

  1. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...

  2. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.

  3. Bubble Dynamics and Resulting Noise from Traveling Bubble Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-13

    has resulted in models which aqree well with bubble dynamics recorded by high speed film . Chahine, et. al. (23) incorporated asymmetric bubble...recording on the tape soundtrack . 3.8 Measurement of Gas Nuclei in Water The role of nuclei density and size in cavitation inception has been the subject...interference between the coherent background and the particle-diffracted radiation exooses photographic film in the far-field of the nuclei. This

  4. Observational Constraints on Submillimeter Dust Opacity

    CERN Document Server

    Shirley, Yancy L; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Wilner, David J; Stutz, Amelia M; Bieging, John H; Evans, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    Infrared extinction maps and submillimeter dust continuum maps are powerful probes of the density structure in the envelope of star-forming cores. We make a direct comparison between infrared and submillimeter dust continuum observations of the low-mass Class 0 core, B335, to constrain the ratio of submillimeter to infrared opacity (\\kaprat) and the submillimeter opacity power-law index ($\\kappa \\propto \\lambda^{-\\beta}$). Using the average value of theoretical dust opacity models at 2.2 \\micron, we constrain the dust opacity at 850 and 450 \\micron . Using new dust continuum models based upon the broken power-law density structure derived from interferometric observations of B335 and the infall model derived from molecular line observations of B335, we find that the opacity ratios are $\\frac{\\kappa_{850}}{\\kappa_{2.2}} = (3.21 - 4.80)^{+0.44}_{-0.30} \\times 10^{-4}$ and $\\frac{\\kappa_{450}}{\\kappa_{2.2}} = (12.8 - 24.8)^{+2.4}_{-1.3} \\times 10^{-4}$ with a submillimeter opacity power-law index of $\\beta_{smm}...

  5. Cold Dust in Three Massive Evolved Stars in the LMC

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; van Loon, J Th; Srinivasan, S; Clayton, G C; Kemper, F; Smith, L J; Matsuura, M; Woods, Paul M; Marengo, M; Meixner, M; Engelbracht, C; Gordon, K D; Hony, S; Indebetouw, R; Misselt, K; Okumura, K; Panuzzo, P; Riebel, D; Roman-Duval, J; Sauvage, M; Sloan, G C

    2010-01-01

    Massive evolved stars can produce large amounts of dust, and far-infrared (IR) data are essential for determining the contribution of cold dust to the total dust mass. Using Herschel, we search for cold dust in three very dusty massive evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud: R71 is a Luminous Blue Variable, HD36402 is a Wolf-Rayet triple system, and IRAS05280-6910 is a red supergiant. We model the spectral energy distributions using radiative transfer codes and find that these three stars have mass-loss rates up to 10^-3 solar masses/year, suggesting that high-mass stars are important contributors to the life-cycle of dust. We found far-IR excesses in two objects, but these excesses appear to be associated with ISM and star-forming regions. Cold dust (T < 100 K) may thus not be an important contributor to the dust masses of evolved stars.

  6. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  7. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  8. Bubble bean bags in shampoo

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Anup; Das, Gargi; Harikrishnan, G

    2011-01-01

    In these fluid dynamics videos, we, for the first time, show various interactions of a 'Taylor bubble' with their smaller and differently, shaped counterparts, in a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, confined in a narrow channel.

  9. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  10. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction RV in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims: We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods: The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe mea

  11. SPITZER survey of dust grain processing in stable discs around binary post-AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.; van Winckel, H.; Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Lloyd Evans, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the mineralogy and dust processing in the circumbinary discs of binary post-AGB stars using high-resolution TIMMI2 and SPITZER infrared spectra. Methods: We perform a full spectral fitting to the infrared spectra using the most recent opacities of amorphous and crystalline dust

  12. Spatial Distributions of Multiple Dust Components in the PPN/PN Dust Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, T; Meixner, M; Dayal, A; Hora, J L; Fazio, G G; Deutsch, L K; Hoffmann, W F; Ueta, Toshiya; Speck, Angela K.; Meixner, Margaret; Dayal, Aditya; Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Hoffmann, William F.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate spatial distributions of specific dust components in the circumstellar shells of a proto-planetary nebula candidate, HD 179821, and a planetary nebula, BD$+30^{\\circ}$3639, by means of spectral imaging. With high-resolution ground-based images and ISO spectra in the mid-infrared, we can derive ``dust feature only'' maps by subtracting synthesized continuum maps from the observed images at the feature wavelength. Such spatially detailed information will help to develop models for the evolution of dust grains around evolved stars.

  13. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Preve, Deison

    2015-01-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume $V$ and with a fixed equatorial perimeter $L$. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for $V=L^3/6\\pi^2$, and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for $V<\\alpha L^3/6\\pi^2$, with $\\alpha\\approx 0.21$, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtainin...

  14. Temperature measurements in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation is usually a nearly isothermal process in the liquid phase, but in some specific flow conditions like hot water or cryogenic fluids, significant temperature variations are detected. In addition, a large temperature increase happens inside the cavitation bubbles at the very end of their collapse, due to the fast compression of the gas at the bubble core, which is almost adiabatic. This process is of primary interest in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, where the mechanisms of bubble collapse plays a major role. To investigate the amplitude and the spatial distribution of these temperature variations inside and outside the cavitation bubbles, a system based on cold wires has been developed. They have been tested in a configuration of a single bubble obtained by submitting a small air bubble to a large amplitude pressure wave. Some promising results have been obtained after the initial validation tests. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research Global under Grant N62909-16-1-2116, Dr. Salahuddin Ahmed & Ki-Han Kim program managers.

  15. Non-monotonic spatial distribution of the interstellar dust in astrospheres: finite gyroradius effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.

  16. The effects of surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles and the bubble clustering phenomenon in a bubbly channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2004-11-01

    The behaviors of bubbles in an upward channel flow are experimentally investigated. Two kinds of surfactant, 3-pentanol and Triton X-100 are added in the bubbly flow. Addition of surfactant prevents the bubble coalescence and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles were obtained, although these surfactants do not modify the single-phase turbulence statistics. At the condition of high Reynolds number (Re=8200) with 20-60ppm 3-Pentanol, bubbles migrated towards the wall. These bubbles highly accumulated near the wall and formed crescent like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. On the other hand, bubble clusters did not appear in the 2ppm Triton-X100 aqueous solution. By the addition of the small amount of Triton-X100, bubble coalescences were also preventable and the bubble size and its distribution became almost the same as in the case of 60ppm 3-Pentanol aqueous solution. However, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles towards the wall weakened and the bubbles did not accumulated near the wall. And this is the main reason of the disapperance of bubble cluster. We discuss this phenomenon, related to the lift force acting on bubbles and particles.

  17. Infrared Observational Manifestations of Young Dusty Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed into a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which results on the appearance of infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions which are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  18. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  19. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  20. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  1. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from? Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young. Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds. Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  2. Dust Sources of Saturn's E Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, F.; Schmidt, J.; Albers, N.; Kempf, S.; Krivov, A. V.; Sremcevic, M.

    The recent detection of a dust plume at Enceladus' south pole sheds new light on the origin of the E ring of Saturn. The particles probably condense from gas vents escaping from a system of cracks covering the south pole that appears unusually hot in the Cassini infrared experiments. The main fraction of the E ring dust is created in these gas vents. Still, significant amounts of dust should originate from grains ejected by hypervelocity impacts of E ring particles (ERPs), or alternatively, of interplanetary dust grains (IDPs) on the Saturnian moons embedded in the E ring. We estimate the contributions of impactor -ejecta created dust at these various satellites in the ring, relative to the production rate of grains in the plume at Enceladus. Furthermore, we compare the amount of dust created by both projectile families - ERPs and IDPs - and predict that one can clearly discriminate between the ejecta raised by either projectile families in the data of the Cassini dust detector (CDA) collected at close flybys with the moons embedded in the E ring.

  3. The dust mass in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Looze, Ilse; Barlow, Mike; Marcowith, Alexandre; Tatischef, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models predict that core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) can be efficient dust producers (0.1-1 Msun) and potentially responsible for most of the dust production in the early Universe. Observational evidence for this dust production efficiency has remained limited. Herschel observations from 70-500 microns of the 335-year old Cassiopeia A have indicated the presence of ˜0.1 Msun of cool (T˜35 K) dust interior to the reverse shock (Barlow et al. 2010), while Dunne et al. (2009) have claimed a detection of ˜1 Msun of cold (˜20 K) dust, based on SCUBA 850-micron polarimetric data. At sub-millimeter wavelengths, the supernova dust emission is heavily contaminated by interstellar dust emission and by the synchrotron radiation from the SNR. We present the first spatially resolved analysis of the infrared and submillimeter emission of Cas, A at better than 1 parsec resolution, based on our Herschel PACS and SPIRE 70-500um images. We used our PACS IFU and SPIRE FTS spectra to remove the contaminating emission from bright lines (e.g. [OIII]88, [CII]158). We updated the spectral index of the synchrotron emission based on recent Planck data, and extrapolated this synchrotron spectrum from a 3.7 mm VLA image to infrared/submillimeter wavelengths. We modeled the interstellar dust emission using a Galactic dust emission template from Jones et al. (2013), while the ISM dust mass is scaled to reproduce the continuum emission in the SPIRE FTS spectra at wavelengths > 650 micron (after subtraction of synchrotron emission). The UV radiation field that illuminates the ISM dust was constrained through PDR modelling of the [CI] 1-0, 2-1 and CO 4-3 lines observed in the SPIRE FTS spectra, and was found to range between 0.3 G0 and 1.0 G0 in units of the Draine IS radiation field. Within the uncertainties of the radiation field that illuminates the ISM material and the observational errors, we detect a dust mass of up to 0.8 Msun in Cas, A, with an average temperature of 30 K

  4. Massive-star supernovae as major dust factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Ercolano, Barbara; Barlow, M. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Meixner, Margaret; Speck, Angela; Gledhill, Tim M.; Panagia, Nino; Cohen, Martin; Gordon, Karl D.; Meyer, Martin; Fabbri, Joanna; Bowey, Janet. E.; Welch, Douglas L.; Regan, Michael W.; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We present late-time optical and mid-infrared observations of the Type II supernova 2003gd in the galaxy NGC 628. Mid-infrared excesses consistent with cooling dust in the ejecta are observed 499 to 678 days after outburst and are accompanied by increasing optical extinction and growing asymmetries

  5. Bubble-sort图和Modified Bubble-sort图的自同构群%Automorphism Groups of Bubble-sort Graphs and Modified Bubble-sort Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 黄琼湘

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs are two classes of Cayley graphs which are widely studied for their application in network construction. In this paper, we determine the full automorphism groups of bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs.%Bubble-Sort图和Modified Bubble-Sort图是两类特殊的Cayley图,由于其在网络构建中的应用而受到广泛关注.本文完全确定了这两类图的自同构群.

  6. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  7. Bubble-bubble interaction: A potential source of cavitation noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between microbubbles through pressure pulses has been studied to show that it can be a source of cavitation noise. A recent report demonstrated that the acoustic noise generated by a shrimp originates from the collapse of a cavitation bubble produced when the shrimp closes its snapper claw. The recorded acoustic signal contains a broadband noise that consists of positive and negative pulses, but a theoretical model for single bubbles fails to reproduce the negative ones. Using a nonlinear multibubble model we have shown here that the negative pulses can be explained by considering the interaction of microbubbles formed after the cavitation bubble has collapsed and fragmented: Positive pulses produced at the collapse of the microbubbles hit and impulsively compress neighboring microbubbles to generate reflected pulses whose amplitudes are negative. Discussing the details of the noise generation process, we have found that no negative pulses are generated if the internal pressure of the reflecti...

  8. Quantum Bubble Nucleation beyond WKB Resummation of Vacuum Bubble Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of Borel resummation, we propose a systematical improvement of bounce calculus of quantum bubble nucleation rates. We study a metastable super-renormalizable field theory, D dimensional O(N) symmetric \\phi^4 model (D<4) with an attractive interaction. The validity of our proposal is tested in D=1 (quantum mechanics) by using the perturbation series of ground state energy to high orders. We also present a result in D=2 based on an explicit calculation of vacuum bubble diagrams to five loop orders.

  9. First science results from SOFIA/FORCAST: The mid-infrared view of the compact HII region W3A

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, F; Adams, J D; Herter, T L; Gull, G; Schoenwald, J; Keller, L D; De Buizer, J M; Vacca, W D; Becklin, E E; Shuping, R Y; M., A G G; Tielens,; Zinnecker, H

    2012-01-01

    The massive star forming region W3 was observed with the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope (FORCAST) as part of the Short Science program. The 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 24.2, 31.5 and 37.1 \\um bandpasses were used to observe the emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, Very Small Grains and Big Grains. Optical depth and color temperature maps of W3A show that IRS2 has blown a bubble devoid of gas and dust of $\\sim$0.05 pc radius. It is embedded in a dusty shell of ionized gas that contributes 40% of the total 24 \\um emission of W3A. This dust component is mostly heated by far ultraviolet, rather than trapped Ly$\\alpha$ photons. This shell is itself surrounded by a thin ($\\sim$0.01 pc) photodissociation region where PAHs show intense emission. The infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of three different zones located at 8, 20 and 25\\arcsec from IRS2, show that the peak of the SED shifts towards longer wavelengths, when moving away from the star. Adopting the stellar radi...

  10. The Structure of the Local Hot Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy (DXL) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). Based on the results from the DXL mission, we quantified and removed the contribution of SWCX to the diffuse X-ray background measured by the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The cleaned maps were used to investigate the physical properties of the LHB. Assuming thermal ionization equilibrium, we measured a highly uniform temperature distributed around kT = 0.097 keV +/- 0.013 keV (FWHM) +/- 0.006 keV(systematic). We also generated a thermal emission measure map and used it to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the LHB, which we found to be in good agreement with the structure of the local cavity measured from dust and gas.

  11. The Structure of the Local Hot Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, W; Collier, M R; Cravens, T; Galeazzi, M; Koutroumpa, D; Kuntz, K D; Lallement, R; Lepri, S T; McCammon, D; Morgan, K; Porter, F S; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Uprety, Y; Ursino, E; Walsh, B M

    2016-01-01

    DXL (Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). Based on the results from the DXL mission, we quantified and removed the contribution of SWCX to the diffuse X-ray background measured by the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The "cleaned" maps were used to investigate the physical properties of the LHB. Assuming thermal ionization equilibrium, we measured a highly uniform temperature distributed around kT=0.097 keV+/-0.013 keV (FWHM)+/-0.006 keV (systematic). We also generated a thermal emission measure map and used it to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the LHB which we found to be in good agreement with the structure of the local cavity measured from dust and gas.

  12. The Structure of the Local Hot Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K.; Porter, F. S.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; Uprety, Y.; Ursino, E.; Walsh, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy (DXL) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). Based on the results from the DXL mission, we quantified and removed the contribution of SWCX to the diffuse X-ray background measured by the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The “cleaned” maps were used to investigate the physical properties of the LHB. Assuming thermal ionization equilibrium, we measured a highly uniform temperature distributed around kT = 0.097 keV ± 0.013 keV (FWHM) ± 0.006 keV (systematic). We also generated a thermal emission measure map and used it to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the LHB, which we found to be in good agreement with the structure of the local cavity measured from dust and gas.

  13. How safe is Bubble Soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halani, Sameer H; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer. To our knowledge, this is the first serious neurological injury reported in the sport.

  14. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-12-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  15. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  16. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  17. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ryan M; Morris, Mark R; Li, Zhiyuan; Adams, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 $M_\\odot$ of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium ($n_e$ ~ 100 $\\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  18. Fine bubble generator and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, P.M.; Koros, R.M.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method of forming fine gaseous bubbles in a liquid ambient. It comprises: forcing a gas through orifices located in the liquid ambient while simultaneously forcing a liquid through liquid orifices at a velocity sufficient to form jet streams of liquid, the liquid orifices being equal in number to the gas orifices and so oriented that each jet stream of liquid intersects the gas forced through each gas orifice and creates sufficient turbulence where the gas and jet stream of liquid intersect, whereby fine gaseous bubbles are formed.

  19. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  20. Bubble Content in Air/Hydro System--Part 1:Measurement of Bubble Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of bubble formation in air/hydro systems is investigated. Results presented in this paper include further insight into the mechanism of bubble formation and the measurement of bubble content. The regularity of bubble transport in the system is found, with an idea for a new method for separating gas from oil. The method has been verified experimentally with favorable results.

  1. Bubble Departure Diameter and Bubble Release Frequency Measurement from TAMU Subcooled Flow Boiling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The bubble departure diameter and bubble release frequency were obtained through the analysis of TAMU subcooled flow boiling experimental data. The numerous images of bubbles at departure were analyzed for each experimental condition to achieve the reliable statistics of the measured bubble parameters. The results are provided in this report with simple discussion.

  2. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure

  3. Single bubble sonoluminescence and stable cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; QIAN Menglu

    2004-01-01

    A single bubble trapped at an antinode of an acoustic standing wave field in water can emit 50ps-140ps light pulses, called "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL). It arouses much interest in physical acoustics because of its highly non-linear characteristics, high concentration of energy, and stable cavitation behavior. In this paper, bubble stability, the dynamic behavior of bubbles, non-invasive measurement of driving acoustic pressure and Mie scattering method are introduced.

  4. Monetary Policy and Controlling Asset Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Masaya Sakuragawa

    2015-01-01

    A great concern is whether there is any means of monetary policy that works for the "leaning against the wind" policy in the bubbly economy. This paper explores the scope for monetary policy that can control bubbles within the framework of the stochastic version of overlapping-generations model with rational bubbles. The policy that raises the cost of external finance, could be identified as monetary tightening, represses the boom, but appreciate bubbles. In contrast, an open market operation...

  5. Expansion of Bubbles in Inflationary Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Mohazzab, M.; Jabbari, M. M. Sheikh; Salehi, H.

    1995-01-01

    We show that particle production during the expansion of bubbles of true vacuum in the sea of false vacuum is possible and calculate the resulting rate. As a result the nucleated bubbles cannot expand due to the transfer of false vacuum energy to the created particles inside the bubbles. Therefore all the inflationary models dealing with the nucleation and expansion of the bubbles (including extended inflation) may not be viable.

  6. Expansion of bubbles in inflationary universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mohazzab, M

    1995-01-01

    We show that particle production during the expansion of bubbles of true vacuum in the sea of false vacuum is possible and calculate the resulting rate. As a result the nucleated bubbles cannot expand due to the transfer of false vacuum energy to the created particles inside the bubbles. Therefore all the inflationary models dealing with the nucleation and expansion of the bubbles (including extended inflation) may not be viable.

  7. Interstellar and Solar System Organic Matter Preserved in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere derive from collisions among asteroids and by the disruption and outgassing of short-period comets. Chondritic porous (CP) IDPs are among the most primitive Solar System materials. CP-IDPs have been linked to cometary parent bodies by their mineralogy, textures, C-content, and dynamical histories. CP-IDPs are fragile, fine-grained (less than um) assemblages of anhydrous amorphous and crystalline silicates, oxides and sulfides bound together by abundant carbonaceous material. Ancient silicate, oxide, and SiC stardust grains exhibiting highly anomalous isotopic compositions are abundant in CP-IDPs, constituting 0.01 - 1 % of the mass of the particles. The organic matter in CP-IDPs is isotopically anomalous, with enrichments in D/H reaching 50x the terrestrial SMOW value and 15N/14N ratios up to 3x terrestrial standard compositions. These anomalies are indicative of low T (10-100 K) mass fractionation in cold molecular cloud or the outermost reaches of the protosolar disk. The organic matter shows distinct morphologies, including sub-um globules, bubbly textures, featureless, and with mineral inclusions. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies of organic matter in IDPs reveals diverse species including aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The organic matter with the highest isotopic anomalies appears to be richer in aliphatic compounds. These materials also bear similarities and differences with primitive, isotopically anomalous organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the organic chemistry, morphology, and isotopic properties in IDPs and meteorites reflects variable preservation of interstellar/primordial components and Solar System processing. One unifying feature is the presence of sub-um isotopically anomalous organic globules among all primitive materials, including IDPs, meteorites, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust mission.

  8. Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J; Lee, C H; Jang, J; Lee, Jae-weon; Kim, Kyungsub; Lee, Chul H.; Jang, Ji-ho

    1999-01-01

    The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

  9. Bubble Formation in Silicon-Quartz Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kakimoto, K.; EGUCHI, M.; Ozoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    Bubble formation at an interface between silicon melt and a quartz crucible was studied by thermodynamical calculation and visualization of bubble formation using X-ray radiography. A phase diagram of silicon-oxygen (Si-O) system is also calculated from the reported thermodynamical data. Critical temperature and radius of bubble formation at the interface was discussed.

  10. Bubble Size Distributions in Coastal Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Cohen, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bubble size distributions have been measured with an optical system that is based on imaging of a small sample volume with a CCD camera system, and processing of the images to obtain the size of individual bubbles in the diameter range from 30 to lOOO^m. This bubble measuring system is deployed from

  11. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  12. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  13. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  14. Dynamic behavior of gas bubble in single bubble sonoluminescence - vibrator model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Menglu; CHENG Qian; GE Caoyan

    2002-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is a process of energy transformation from soundto light. Therefore the motion equations of near spherical vibration of a gas bubble in anincompressible and viscous liquid can be deduced by Lagrangian Equation with dissipationfunction when the bubble is considered as a vibrator surrounded by liquid. The analyticalsolutions in the bubble expanding, collapsing and rebounding stages can be obtained by solvingthese motion equations when some approximations are adopted. And the dynamic behaviorsof the bubble in these three stages are discussed.

  15. Dust in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  16. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; Jong, de N.; Versluis, M.; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  17. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  18. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and fina

  19. Bubble-Driven Inertial Micropump

    CERN Document Server

    Torniainen, Erik D; Markel, David P; Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental action of the bubble-driven inertial micropump is investigated. The pump has no moving parts and consists of a thermal resistor placed asymmetrically within a straight channel connecting two reservoirs. Using numerical simulations, the net flow is studied as a function of channel geometry, resistor location, vapor bubble strength, fluid viscosity, and surface tension. Two major regimes of behavior are identified: axial and non-axial. In the axial regime, the drive bubble either remains inside the channel or continues to grow axially when it reaches the reservoir. In the non-axial regime the bubble grows out of the channel and in all three dimensions while inside the reservoir. The net flow in the axial regime is parabolic with respect to the hydraulic diameter of the channel cross-section but in the non-axial regime it is not. From numerical modeling, it is determined that the net flow is maximal when the axial regime crosses over to the non-axial regime. To elucidate the basic physical princi...

  20. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  1. Giant Bubble Pinch-Off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Stijnman, Mark; Stijnman, M; Sandtke, M.; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Self-similarity has been the paradigmatic picture for the pinch-off of a drop. Here we will show through high-speed imaging and boundary integral simulations that the inverse problem, the pinch-off of an air bubble in water, is not self-similar in a strict sense: A disk is quickly pulled through a w

  2. Murray Strasberg and bubble acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Murray Strasberg made seminal contributions to the nucleation and acoustics of bubbles. Half a century after publication, these papers still receive a sizable number of citations every year. The talk will review this work, comment on its impact, and put Strasberg's classical results in a modern

  3. Electrolysis Bubbles Make Waterflow Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for visualization of three-dimensional flow uses tiny tracer bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen made by electrolysis of water. Strobe-light photography used to capture flow patterns, yielding permanent record that is measured to obtain velocities of particles. Used to measure simulated mixing turbulence in proposed gas-turbine combustor and also used in other water-table flow tests.

  4. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  5. The effects of bubble-bubble interactions on pressures and temperatures produced by bubbles collapsing near a rigid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a wide range of hydraulic applications, and one of its most important consequences is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated bubble collapse. A number of studies have been conducted to predict the pressures produced by the collapse of a single bubble. However, the collapse of multiple bubbles is known to lead to enhanced collapse pressures. In this study, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics and pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of bubbles near a rigid surface. For this purpose, we use an in-house, high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing method to solve the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The non-spherical bubble dynamics are investigated and the subsequent pressure and temperature fields are characterized based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuation, collapse strength. We demonstrate that bubble-bubble interactions amplify/reduce pressures and temperatures produced at the collapse, and increase the non-sphericity of the bubbles and the collapse time, depending on the flow parameters.

  6. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Srinivasan, S. [UPMC-CNRS UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Riebel, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McDonald, I. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Van Loon, J. Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Sloan, G. C., E-mail: mboyer@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 {mu}m excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least (<4%), while carbon-rich AGB stars (especially the so-called extreme AGB stars) account for 87%-89% of the total dust input from cool evolved stars. We also estimate the dust input from hot stars and supernovae (SNe), and find that if SNe produce 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  7. Experimental study of the interaction between the spark-induced cavitation bubble and the air bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晶; 许唯临; 牛志攀; 罗书靖; 郑秋文

    2013-01-01

    Experiments are carried out by using high-speed photography to investigate the interaction between the spark-generated cavitation bubble and the air bubble in its surrounding fluid. Three problems are discussed in detail: the impact of the air bubble upon the development of the cavitation bubble, the evolution of the air bubble under the influence of the cavitation bubble, and the change of the fluid pressure during the development of a micro jet of the cavitation bubble. Based on the experimental results, under the condition of no air bubble present, the lifetime of the cavitation bubble from expansion to contraction increases with the increase of the maximum radius. On the other hand, when there is an air bubble present, different sized cavitation bubbles have similarity with one another generally in terms of the lifetime from expansion to contraction, which does not depend on the maximum radius. Also, with the presence of an air bubble, the lifetime of the smaller cavitation bubble is extended while that of the bigger ones reduced. Furthermore, it is shown in the experiment that the low pressure formed in the opposite direction to the cavitation bubble micro jet makes the air bubble in the low pressure area being stretched into a steplike shape.

  8. Dust and Stellar Emission of the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Skibba, Ramin A; Aniano, Gonzalo; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bot, Caroline; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Gordon, Karl; Hony, Sacha; Israel, Frank; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Paradis, Deborah; Roman-Duval, Julia; Rubio, Monica; Sauvage, Marc; Seale, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2012-01-01

    We study the emission by dust and stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, a pair of low-metallicity nearby galaxies, as traced by their spatially resolved spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This project combines Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE far-infrared photometry with other data at infrared and optical wavelengths. We build maps of dust and stellar luminosity and mass of both Magellanic Clouds, and analyze the spatial distribution of dust/stellar luminosity and mass ratios. These ratios vary considerably throughout the galaxies, generally between the range $0.01\\leq L_{\\rm dust}/L_\\ast\\leq 0.6$ and $10^{-4}\\leq M_{\\rm dust}/M_\\ast\\leq 4\\times10^{-3}$. We observe that the dust/stellar ratios depend on the interstellar medium (ISM) environment, such as the distance from currently or previously star-forming regions, and on the intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). In addition, we construct star formation rate (SFR) maps, and find that the SFR is correlated with the dust/s...

  9. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  10. Shell correction energy for bubble nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Y; Magierski, P; Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr

    2000-01-01

    The positioning of a bubble inside a many fermion system does not affect the volume, surface or curvature terms in the liquid drop expansion of the total energy. Besides possible Coulomb effects, the only other contribution to the ground state energy of such a system arises from shell effects. We show that the potential energy surface is a rather shallow function of the displacement of the bubble from the center and in most cases the preferential position of a bubble is off center. Systems with bubbles are expected to have bands of extremely low lying collective states, corresponding to various bubble displacements.

  11. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerov, N. A., E-mail: gumerov@umiacs.umd.edu [Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Akhatov, I. S. [Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Ohl, C.-D. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Sametov, S. P. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Khazimullin, M. V. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054 (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Avila, S. R. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-03-28

    Experiments with water–air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ∼100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ∼30 μm in diameter can be “pushed” away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.

  12. Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H

    2010-04-12

    The lidar signature from a collection of bubbles is proportional to the volume backscatter coefficient at a scattering angle of 180 degrees . This quantity, calculated using a combination of geometric optics and diffraction, is proportional to the void fraction of the bubbles in the water for any bubble size distribution. The constant of proportionality is 233 m(-1) sr(-1)for clean bubbles, slightly less for bubbles coated with a thin layer of organic material, and as large as 1445 m(-1) sr(-1) for a thick coating of protein.

  13. Supercoiling induces denaturation bubbles in circular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Adamcik, Jozef; Dietler, Giovanni; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-11-12

    We present a theoretical framework for the thermodynamic properties of supercoiling-induced denaturation bubbles in circular double-stranded DNA molecules. We explore how DNA supercoiling, ambient salt concentration, and sequence heterogeneity impact on the bubble occurrence. An analytical derivation of the probability distribution to find multiple bubbles is derived and the relevance for supercoiled DNA discussed. We show that in vivo sustained DNA bubbles are likely to occur due to partial twist release in regions rich in weaker AT base pairs. Single DNA plasmid imaging experiments clearly demonstrate the existence of bubbles in free solution.

  14. Bubble Universe Dynamics After Free Passage

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlqvist, Pontus; Greene, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We consider bubble collisions in single scalar field theories with multiple vacua. Recent work has argued that at sufficiently high impact velocities, collisions between such bubble vacua are governed by 'free passage' dynamics in which field interactions can be ignored during the collision, providing a systematic process for populating local minima without quantum nucleation. We focus on the time period that follows the bubble collision and provide evidence that, for certain potentials, interactions can drive significant deviations from the free-passage bubble profile, thwarting the production of bubbles with different field values.

  15. An equation of motion for bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)

  16. Digital Microfluidics with Bubble Manipulations by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Kang Fan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic bubble manipulations, including transporting, splitting, and merging, by dielectrophoresis (DEP in an oil environment. In our presented method, bubbles are placed between parallel plates in an oil medium of a low vapor pressure, which eliminates the possibility of changing the gaseous composition of the bubble caused by evaporation of the medium. DEP has been previously investigated to actuate dielectric droplets and is adopted here to drive the oil environment as well as the immersed bubbles between parallel plates. In our experiment, air bubbles of 0.3 ml were successfully transported in a 20 cSt silicone oil medium between a 75 mm-high parallel plate gap. In addition, 0.6 ml air bubbles were successfully split into two 0.3 ml air bubbles, and then merged again by DEP. These successful manipulations make digital gaseous lab-on-a-chip a reality.

  17. Cosmological HII Bubble Growth During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Min-Su; Cen, Renyue

    2007-01-01

    We present general properties of ionized hydrogen (HII) bubbles and their growth based on a state-of-the-art large-scale (100 Mpc/h) cosmological radiative transfer simulation. The simulation resolves all halos with atomic cooling at the relevant redshifts and simultaneously performs radiative transfer and dynamical evolution of structure formation. Our major conclusions include: (1) for significant HII bubbles, the number distribution is peaked at a volume of ~ 0.6 Mpc^3/h^3 at all redshifts. But, at z 10 even the largest HII bubbles have a balanced ionizing photon contribution from Pop II and Pop III stars, while at z < 8 Pop II stars start to dominate the overall ionizing photon production for large bubbles, although Pop III stars continue to make a non-negligible contribution. (6) The relationship between halo number density and bubble size is complicated but a strong correlation is found between halo number density and bubble size for for large bubbles.

  18. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 2. Bubble plumes, bubbles, and wave characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G.de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of breaking-wave-generated bubble plumes were made in fresh (but not clean) water in a large wind-wave tunnel. To preserve diversity, a classification scheme was developed on the basis of plume dimensions and "optical density," or the plume's ability to obscure the background. Optically

  19. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  20. Dust Stratification in Young Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rettig, T; Simon, T; Gibb, E; Balsara, D S; Tilley, D A; Kulesa, C; Simon, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectra of four YSOs (T Tau N, T Tau S, RNO 91, and HL Tau). The spectra exhibit narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O as well as broad emission lines of gas phase12CO. The narrow absorption lines of CO are shown to originate from the colder circumstellar gas. We find that the line of sight gas column densities resulting from the CO absorption lines are much higher than expected for the measured extinction for each source and suggest the gas to dust ratio is measuring the dust settling and/or grain coagulation in these extended disks. We provide a model of turbulence, dust settling and grain growth to explain the results. The techniques presented here allow us to provide some observationally-motivated bounds on accretion disk alpha in protostellar systems.

  1. FIRST SCIENCE RESULTS FROM SOFIA/FORCAST: THE MID-INFRARED VIEW OF THE COMPACT H II REGION W3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, F.; Berne, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Gull, G.; Schoenwald, J. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); De Buizer, J. M.; Vacca, W. D.; Becklin, E. E.; Shuping, R. Y. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zinnecker, H. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    The massive star-forming region W3 was observed with the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope as part of the Short Science program. The 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 24.2, 31.5, and 37.1 {mu}m bandpasses were used to observe the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, very small grains, and big grains. Optical depth and color temperature maps of W3A show that IRS2 has blown a bubble devoid of gas and dust of {approx}0.05 pc radius. It is embedded in a dusty shell of ionized gas that contributes 40% of the total 24 {mu}m emission of W3A. This dust component is mostly heated by far-ultraviolet, rather than trapped Ly{alpha} photons. This shell is itself surrounded by a thin ({approx}0.01 pc) photodissociation region where PAHs show intense emission. The infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of three different zones located at 8'', 20'', and 25'' from IRS2 shows that the peak of the SED shifts toward longer wavelengths, when moving away from the star. Adopting the stellar radiation field for these three positions, DUSTEM model fits to these SEDs yield a dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized gas similar to that in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). However, the ratio of the IR-to-UV opacity of the dust in the ionized shell is increased by a factor of {approx_equal}3 compared to the diffuse ISM.

  2. Developed ‘laminar’ bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles with different sizes have different dynamic and kineticbehavior in a two-phase bubbly flow. A common two-fluid model based on the uniform bubble size assumption is not suitable for a bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes. To deal with non-uniform bubbly flows, a multi-fluid model is established, with which bubbles are divided into several groups according to their sizes and a set of basic equations is derived for each group of bubbles with almost the same size. Through analyzing the bubble-bubble and bubble-pipe wall interactions, two new constitutive laws for the wall-force and pressure difference between the liquid phase and interface are developed to close the averaged basic equations. The respective phase distributions for each group of bubbles measured by a specially designed three-dimensional photographic method are used to check the model. Comparison between model-predicted values and experimental data shows that the model can describe laminar bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes.

  3. Bubble–bubble interaction effects on dynamics of multiple bubbles in a vortical flow field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bubble–bubble interactions play important roles in the dynamic behaviours of multiple bubbles or bubble clouds in a vortical flow field. Based on the Rayleigh–Plesset equation and the modified Maxey–Riley equation of a single bubble, bubble–bubble interaction terms are derived and introduced for multiple bubbles. Thus, both the Rayleigh–Plesset and modified Maxey–Riley equations are improved by considering bubble–bubble interactions and then applied for the multiple bubbles entrainment into a stationary Gaussian vortex. Runge–Kutta fourth-order scheme is adopted to solve the coupled dynamic and kinematic equations and the convergence study has been conducted. Numerical result has also been compared and validated with the published experimental data. On this basis, the oscillation, trajectory and effects of different parameters of double-bubble and multi-bubble entrainment into Gaussian vortex have been studied and the results have been compared with those of the cases without bubble–bubble interactions. It indicates that bubble–bubble interactions influence the amplitudes and periods of bubble oscillations severely, but have small effects on bubble trajectories.

  4. Suppression of cavitation inception by gas bubble injection: a numerical study focusing on bubble-bubble interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Masato; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of cavitation and gas bubbles under negative pressure has been studied numerically to evaluate the effect of gas bubble injection into a liquid on the suppression of cavitation inception. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated by direct observation that cavitation occurs in liquid mercury when mechanical impacts are imposed, and this will cause cavitation damage in spallation neutron sources, in which liquid mercury is bombarded by a high-power proton beam. In the present paper, we describe numerical investigations of the dynamics of cavitation bubbles in liquid mercury using a multibubble model that takes into account the interaction of a cavitation bubble with preexisting gas bubbles through bubble-radiated pressure waves. The numerical results suggest that, if the mercury includes gas bubbles whose equilibrium radius is much larger than that of the cavitation bubble, the explosive expansion of the cavitation bubble (i.e., cavitation inception) is suppressed by the positive-pressure wave radiated by the injected bubbles, which decreases the magnitude of the negative pressure in the mercury.

  5. Composite grains: Application to circumstellar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA we calculate the absorption efficiency of the composite grain, made up of a host silicate spheroid and inclusions of graphite, in the spectral region 5.0-25.0μm. We study the absorption as a function of the voulume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, we study the variation in the 10.0μm and 18.0μm emission features with the volume fraction of the inclusions. Using the extinction efficiencies, of the composite grains we calculate the infrared fluxes at several dust temperatures and compare the model curves with the observed infrared emission curves (IRAS-LRS, obtained for circumstellar dust shells around oxygen rich M-type stars.

  6. Looking for the Wind in the Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Keating, S K; Hill, A R; Deo, R P

    2012-01-01

    The blue-shifted broad emission lines and/or broad absorption lines seen in many luminous quasars are striking evidence for a broad line region in which radiation driving plays an important role. We consider the case for a similar role for radiation driving beyond the dust sublimation radius by focussing on the infrared regime where the relationship between luminosity and the prominence of the 3-5 micron bump may be key. To investigate this further, we apply the 3D hydrodynamic wind model of Everett (2005) to predict the infrared spectral energy distributions of quasars. The presence of the 3-5 micron bump and strong, broad silicate features can be reproduced with this dynamical wind model when radiation driving on dust is taken into account.

  7. Dust extinction and absorption: the challenge of porous grains

    OpenAIRE

    Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Il'in, V. B.; Henning, Th.; Dubkova, D. N.

    2005-01-01

    In many models of dusty objects in space the grains are assumed to be composite or fluffy. However, the computation of the optical properties of such particles is still a very difficult problem. We analyze how the increase of grain porosity influences basic features of cosmic dust -- interstellar extinction, dust temperature, infrared bands and millimeter opacity. Porous grains can reproduce the flat extinction across the $3 - 8 \\mkm$ wavelength range measured for several lines of sight by {\\...

  8. The dynamic of the Poincare's bubble; La dinamica de la burbuja de Poincare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra Labra, Carlos [Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile)

    2001-02-01

    In 1966 Israel Nuovo Cimento found an equation of motion for a massive bubble with spherical symmetry in general relativity. The bubble is made out of dust chargeless particles, so that it has a vanishing surface tension. In a later work this author analyzed the dynamics of this bubble in the spacetime many fold defined by the Kruskal line element. Later, in 1988 Lopez extended the solution found by Israel to the case of a charged spherical bubble with surface tension. The new equation of motion was determined by using the formalism of Gauss, Codazzi and Lanczos. The bubble now consists of an infinitely thin shell with a uniform surface distribution of electric charge. To maintain the bubble in equilibrium it was necessary to introduce an isotropic tension (Poincare tensiones) to compensate the Coulomb repulsion. In this paper we studied the dynamics of the Poincare bubble by extending the results of Israel, which were obtained with the Schwarzschild metric, to the Reissner-Nordstreom. Geometry [4]. [Spanish] Israel en 1966 Nuovo Cimento, encontro una ecuacion de movimiento para una burbuja masiva con simetria esferica en relatividad general. Esta burbuja esta constituida por particulas de polvo sin carga electrica, de modo que su tension superficial es nula. En un trabajo posterior este mismo autor, estudio la dinamica de la burbuja en la variedad de espacio tiempo definida por la metrica de Kruska. Lopez en 1988, extendio la solucion de Israel, encontrando una ecuacion de movimiento para una burbuja esferica con carga electrica y tension superficial, usando el formalismo de Gauss, Codazzi y Laczos. Esta burbuja consiste en una cascara infinitamente delgada en donde esta distribuida uniformemente la carga electrica. Para mantener en equilibrio esta burbuja, ya que la repulsion coulumbiana la haria explotar, introdujo ciertas tensiones de Poincare que logran estabilizarla. En el presente trabajo se estudia la dinamica de esta burbuja generalizando los resultados de

  9. Hot exozodiacal dust resolved around Vega with IOTA/IONIC

    CERN Document Server

    Defr'ere, D; Augereau, J -C; di Folco, E; Berger, J -P; Foresto, V Coudé du; Kervella, P; Bouquin, J -B Le; Lebreton, J; Millan-Gabet, R; Monnier, J D; Olofsson, J; Traub, W

    2011-01-01

    Although debris discs have been detected around a significant number of main-sequence stars, only a few of them are known to harbour hot dust in their inner part where terrestrial planets may have formed. Thanks to infrared interferometric observations, it is possible to obtain a direct measurement of these regions, which are of prime importance for preparing future exo-Earth characterisation missions. In this context, we have resolved the exozodiacal dust disc around Vega with the help of infrared stellar interferometry and estimated the integrated H-band flux originating from the first few AUs of the debris disc. Using precise H-band interferometric measurements obtained with the 3-telescope IOTA/IONIC interferometer (Mount Hopkins, Arizona), thorough modelling of both interferometric data (squared visibility and closure phase) and spectral energy distribution was performed to constrain the nature of the near-infrared excess emission. The most straightforward scenario consists in a compact dust disc produci...

  10. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  11. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model......The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years...

  12. Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...

  13. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    . The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk......We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  14. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a 350 micron dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S_350 = 114-650 mJy and S/N > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust contents for a sample of 16 local DOGs that consists of 12 bump and 4 power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of warm dust component are 3-34$\\times10^{7} M_\\odot$ and 0.03-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller ...

  15. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  16. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  17. Bioinspired bubble design for particle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Oguzhan; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Tamerler, Candan; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2012-02-07

    In this study, we devise a method to generate homogeneous particles from a bubble suspension, with the capability to control loading and the structure of bubbles. Ideally, a process such as this would occur at the interface between daughter bubble formation (instant) and gaseous diffusion (gradual). Interestingly, the budding mechanism in micro-organisms is one that demonstrates features of the desired phenomena (although at a much slower rate), as viruses can eject and evolve structures from their membranes. With these natural concepts, a bubble's surface can also be made to serve as a platform for particle generation, which transfers significant elements from the initial bubble coating to the newly generated structures. Here, we illustrate this by preparing coated bubbles (approx. 150 µm in diameter) using a hydrophobic polymer, which may be comparable to naturally occurring bubble coatings (e.g. organic matter forming part of bubble coatings in the sea), and dye (which can demonstrate entrapment of smaller quantities of a desired moiety) and then observe particle generation (approx. 500 nm). The process, which may be driven by a polymerosome-forming mechanism, also illustrates how additional uniform sub-micrometre-scale structures may form from a bubble's surface, which may have also previously been attributed to gas diffusion. In addition, such methods of particle formation from a bubble structure, the incorporation of chemical or biological media via an in situ process and subsequent release technologies have several areas of interest across the broad scientific community.

  18. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  19. Electrino bubbles and relational entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, I

    2007-01-01

    In this note, which is based and expands on some previous work, it is argued that the phenomena exhibited by bubbles forming around free electrons in liquid helium and examined by Maris in his controversial 2000 paper point to the experimental relevance of an understanding of entanglement based on the relational approach to quantum mechanics. An experiment to verify/disprove the relevant argument is suggested.

  20. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  1. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  2. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  3. Effects of dust grains on early galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H

    2002-01-01

    Stars form out of molecular gas and supply dust grains during their last evolutionary stages; in turn hydrogen molecules (H2) are produced more efficiently on dust grains. Therefore, dust can drastically accelerate H2 formation, leading to an enhancement of star formation activity. In order to examine the first formation of stars and dust in galaxies, we model the evolution of galaxies in the redshift range of 55) galaxies in sub-millimetre and near-infrared bands. We find that: i) ALMA can detect dust emission from several thousands of galaxies per square degree, and ii) NGST can detect the stellar emission from 10^6 galaxies per square degree. Further observational checks of our predictions include the integrated flux of metal (oxygen and carbon) lines. We finally discuss possible color selection strategies for high-redshift galaxy searches.

  4. An infrared survey of RW Aurigae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.; Penston, M. V.

    1974-01-01

    An infrared photometric survey of 89 RW Aur type variables in both hemispheres has been made. JHKL magnitudes and colors are listed. The RW Aur variables include a small number of highly reddened late-type stars. All T Tauri and hot Orion population stars show infrared excesses and the infrared properties mark certain field stars as being young. The greatest infrared excesses are found for A and F stars while young variable B stars usually show no excesses. The location of the RW Aur stars in the two-color H-K, K-L diagram favor dust re-radiation over free-free emission as the mechanism responsible for the infrared excess. A weak correlation of H-K with emission class links the occurrence of circumstellar dust and gas shells.

  5. Can we trace very cold dust from its emission alone ?

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, Laurent; Juvela, Mika; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Schuller, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Context. Dust is a good tracer of cold dark clouds but its column density is difficult to quantify. Aims. We want to check whether the far-infrared and submillimeter high-resolution data from Herschel SPIRE and PACS cameras combined with ground-based telescope bolometers allow us to retrieve the whole dust content of cold dark clouds. Methods. We compare far-infrared and submillimeter emission across L183 to the 8 $\\mu$m absorption map from Spitzer data and fit modified blackbody functions towards three different positions. Results. We find that none of the Herschel SPIRE channels follow the cold dust profile seen in absorption. Even the ground-based submillimeter telescope observations, although more closely following the absorption profile, cannot help to characterize the cold dust without external information such as the dust column density itself. The difference in dust opacity can reach up to a factor of 3 in prestellar cores of high extinction. Conclusions. In dark clouds, the amount of very cold dust c...

  6. Interstellar dust thermal emission at millimeter and microwave wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuohan

    Interstellar dust grains are particles of size between a few to hundreds of nanometers, mostly made up of carbon and silicon, found in the vast space between stars within a galaxy. They are important because dust plays a major role in cycling matter and energy between stars and the interstellar medium. Models for interstellar dust thermal emission are fit to a set of 214-channel dust spectra at 60--3000 GHz. Data consist of a new and improved version of dust spectra derived from the measurements of the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer of the COsmic Background Explorer satellite, sky maps at 100 mum, 140 mum and 240 mum measured by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, also onboard the CUBE satellite, and the 94 GHz dust map measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite. A single-component model with its emissivity spectral index fixed at 1.7 is the best among all dust models tested. It fits 88% of the sky with a chi2dof ≤ 1.13 at 210 degrees of freedom. Within this sky region, temperatures of the dust grains are predicted to be between 16.4 K and 25.1 K, and optical depths are between 1.3 x 10 -6 and 5.1 x 10-4. The uncertainties of the dust temperature are FIRAS frequency coverage in sky regions where these two models are valid. Currently, uncertainties of the best-fit parameters are limited by FIRAS angular resolution and noise, and the angular resolution of the model inherits that of the FIRAS. When data of better quality become available, such as from the Planck mission, this one-component alpha = 1.7 (deltaTdust/ Tdust ≤ 10%) model can be used to check future dust models.

  7. Saharan dust detection using multi-sensor satellite measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Qu, John J; Hao, X

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Previous work by Hao and Qu (2007) had considered a limited number of thermal infrared channels which led to a correlation coefficient R(2) value of 0.765 between the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at 550 nm and the modeled dust index. In this work, we extend the thermal infrared based dust detection by employing additional channels: the 8.55 μm which has shown high sensitivity to the Saharan dust, along with water vapor channel of 7.1 μm and cloud top channel of 13.1 μm. Also, the dust pixels were clearly identified using the OMI based aerosol types. The dust pixels were cleanly segregated from the other aerosol types such as sulfates, biomass, and other carbonaceous aerosols. These improvements led to a much higher correlation coefficient R(2) value of 0.85 between the modified dust index and the AOT in comparison to the previous work. The key limitations from the current AOT products based on MODIS and were put to test by validating the improved dust detection algorithm. Two improvements were noted. First, the dust measurement radiometry using MODIS is significantly improved by at least an order of 2. Second the spatial measurements are enhanced by a factor of at least 10.

  8. Saharan dust detection using multi-sensor satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Madhavan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T and Aqua (A MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. Previous work by Hao and Qu (2007 had considered a limited number of thermal infrared channels which led to a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.765 between the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT at 550 nm and the modeled dust index. In this work, we extend the thermal infrared based dust detection by employing additional channels: the 8.55 μm which has shown high sensitivity to the Saharan dust, along with water vapor channel of 7.1 μm and cloud top channel of 13.1 μm. Also, the dust pixels were clearly identified using the OMI based aerosol types. The dust pixels were cleanly segregated from the other aerosol types such as sulfates, biomass, and other carbonaceous aerosols. These improvements led to a much higher correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.85 between the modified dust index and the AOT in comparison to the previous work. The key limitations from the current AOT products based on MODIS and were put to test by validating the improved dust detection algorithm. Two improvements were noted. First, the dust measurement radiometry using MODIS is significantly improved by at least an order of 2. Second the spatial measurements are enhanced by a factor of at least 10.

  9. Interstellar and ejecta dust in the cas a supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR). Using low-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 μm), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 μm), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at ∼9 and 21 μm and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features and is best fit by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray-emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}. The mass of warmer dust is only ∼0.04 M {sub ☉}.

  10. Star forming regions linked to RCW78 and the discovery of a new IR bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C E; Romero, G A; Duronea, N U; Firpo, V

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the presence of molecular and dust clumps linked to two star forming regions identified in the expanding molecular envelope of the stellar wind bubble RCW78, we analyzed the distribution of the molecular gas and cold dust. To accomplish this study we performed dust continuum observations at 870 \\mu m and 13CO(2-1) line observations with the APEX telescope, using LABOCA and SHeFI-1 instruments, respectively, and analyzed Herschel images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 \\mu m. These observations allowed us to identify cold dust clumps linked to region B (named the Southern clump) and region C (clumps 1 and 2) and an elongated Filament. Molecular gas was clearly detected linked to the Southern clump and the Filament. The velocity of the molecular gas is compatible with the location of the dense gas in the expanding envelope of RCW78. We estimate dust temperatures and total masses for the dust condensations from the emissions at different wavelengths in the far-IR and from the molecular...

  11. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by T...

  12. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Ambjoernsson, Tobias [Chemistry Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hanke, Andreas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville (United States); Fogedby, Hans C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Arhus C (Denmark)], E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de

    2009-01-21

    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.

  13. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon

    2016-11-01

    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  14. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  15. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-11-23

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  16. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  17. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  18. Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

  19. Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-12-21

    The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 10(6) Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t(-x) with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t(1/2) law) to diffusion-limited (the t(1/3) law) growth.

  20. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  1. DustPedia: A Definitive Study of Cosmic Dust in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. I.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; Jones, A.; Madden, S.; Xilouris, M.; Bocchio, M.; Casasola, V.; Cassara, L.; Clark, C.; De Looze, I.; Evans, R.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Lianou, S.; Mosenkov, A. V.; Smith, M.; Verstocken, S.; Viaene, S.; Vika, M.; Wagle, G.; Ysard, N.

    2017-04-01

    The European Space Agency has invested heavily in two cornerstones missions: Herschel and Planck. The legacy data from these missions provides an unprecedented opportunity to study cosmic dust in galaxies so that we can, for example, answer fundamental questions about the origin of the chemical elements, physical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), its effect on stellar radiation, its relation to star formation and how this relates to the cosmic far-infrared background. In this paper we describe the DustPedia project, which enables us to develop tools and computer models that will help us relate observed cosmic dust emission to its physical properties (chemical composition, size distribution, and temperature), its origins (evolved stars, supernovae, and growth in the ISM), and the processes that destroy it (high-energy collisions and shock heated gas). To carry out this research, we combine the Herschel/Planck data with that from other sources of data, and provide observations at numerous wavelengths (≤slant 41) across the spectral energy distribution, thus creating the DustPedia database. To maximize our spatial resolution and sensitivity to cosmic dust, we limit our analysis to 4231 local galaxies (venergy distributions (HerBIE) and a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo photon-tracing radiative transfer model (SKIRT). In this, the first of the DustPedia papers, we describe the project objectives, data sets used, and provide an insight into the new scientific methods we plan to implement.

  2. Binary Schemes of Vapor Bubble Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zudin, Yu. B.

    2015-05-01

    A problem on spherically symmetric growth of a vapor bubble in an infi nite volume of a uniformly superheated liquid is considered. A description of the limiting schemes of bubble growth is presented. A binary inertial-thermal bubble growth scheme characterized by such specifi c features as the "three quarters" growth law and the effect of "pressure blocking" in a vapor phase is considered.

  3. ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS BUBBLES IN BIOLOGICAL TIESSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAHINE Georges L.; TANGUAY Michel; LORAINE Greg

    2009-01-01

    An acoustic based instrument,the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer(R)(C)(ABS),was investigated for the detection and quantification of bubbles in biological media.These include viscoelastic media(blood),materials of varying density(bone in tissue),non-homogenous distribution of bubbles(intravenous bubbly flow),and bubbles migrating in tissue(decompression sickness,DCS).The performance of the ABS was demonstrated in a series of laboratory experiments.Validation of the code was performed using a viscoelastic polymer solution,Polyox,in which the bubble size distribution and void fraction were determined by ABS measurements and with image analysis of high speed videos.These tests showed that the accuracy of the ABS was not significantly affected by viscoelasticity for bubbles smaller than 200 microns.The ABS detection and measurement of non-homogenous bubble distributions was demonstrated using a bubbly flow through a simulated vein surrounded by tissue.The scatter of acoustic signals due to bones in the acoustic pathway was also investigated.These in-vitro experiments were done using meat(beef)as a tissue simulant.Decompression experiments were done using beef meat which was held underwater at high pressure(9.9 atm)then rapidly decompressed.Bubble size distributions and void fraction calculations in these experiments were then validated using image analysis of high speed video.In addition,preliminary experiments were performed with the US Navy Medical Research Center,demonstrating the utility of the modified ABS system in detecting the evolution of bubbles in swine undergoing decompression sickness(DCS).These results indicate that the ABS may be used to detect and quantify the evolution of bubbles in-vivo and aid in the monitoring of DCS.

  4. Curvature and bubble convergence of harmonic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kokarev, Gerasim

    2010-01-01

    We explore geometric aspects of bubble convergence for harmonic maps. More precisely, we show that the formation of bubbles is characterised by the local excess of curvature on the target manifold. We give a universal estimate for curvature concentration masses at each bubble point and show that there is no curvature loss in the necks. Our principal hypothesis is that the target manifold is Kaehler.

  5. Shock propagation in polydisperse bubbly flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Keita; Colonius, Tim; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of distributed bubble size on shock propagation in homogeneous bubbly liquids is computed using a continuum two-phase model. An ensemble-averaging technique is employed to derive the statistically averaged equations and a finite-volume method is used to solve the model equations. The bubble dynamics are incorporated using a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation which includes the effects of heat transfer, liquid viscosity and compressibility. For the case of monodispe...

  6. Finite-Amplitude Vibration of a Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zu-Wen; XIAO Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble vibration is modified. The numerical solution of new equation is obtained by means of the symbolic computation programme. The acceleration of the h'quid on the surface of the bubble, or pressure in the bubble, displays much intense 8-impulse with a very short duration from ns to ps. Suggestions for developing the measurements of sonoluminescence and cavitation fusion (if any) are presented.

  7. Gas Holdups of Small and Large Bubbles in a Large-scale Bubble Column with Elevated Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hai-bo; YANG Suo-he; ZHANG Tong-wang; TONG Ze-min

    2004-01-01

    Gas holdups of large bubbles and small bubbles were measured by means of dynamic gas disengagement approach in the pressured bubble column with a diameter of 0. 3 m and a height of 6. 6 m. The effects of superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension, liquid viscosity andsystem pressure on gas holdups of small bubbles and large bubbles were investigated. The holdup of large bubbles increases and the holdup of small bubbles decreases with an increase of liquid viscosity. Meanwhile, the holdup of large bubbles decreases with increasing the system pressure. A correlation for the holdup of small bubbles was obtained from the experimental data.

  8. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  9. Cool dust heating and temperature mixing in nearby star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Bianchi, S; Gordon, K D; Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Helou, G; Hinz, J L; Kennicutt, R C; Roussel, H; Wilson, C D; Bolatto, A; Boquien, M; Croxall, K V; Galametz, M; de Paz, A Gil; Koda, J; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Vigroux, L; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in galaxies are closely linked to the ambient radiation field and the heating of dust grains. In order to characterize dust properties in galaxies over a wide range of physical conditions, we present here the radial surface brightness profiles of the entire sample of 61 galaxies from Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). The main goal of our work is the characterization of the grain emissivities, dust temperatures, and interstellar radiation fields responsible for heating the dust. After fitting the dust and stellar radial profiles with exponential functions, we fit the far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in each annular region with single-temperature modified black bodies using both variable (MBBV) and fixed (MBBF) emissivity indices beta, as well as with physically motivated dust models. Results show that while most SED parameters decrease with radius, the emissivity index beta also decreases with radius in...

  10. Spectroscopic characteristic of conical bubble luminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qi-Dai; Fu Li-Min; Ai Xi-Cheng; Zhang Jian-Ping; Wang Long

    2005-01-01

    The conical bubble sonoluminescence (CBSL) from the collapse of the bubble was observed in an improved Utube apparatus. The emitted light energy of a single CBSL flash was measured to be ~ 1.4mJ. The pulse width was about 100μs. The spectra of luminescence were continuum superimposed with the spectral bands from the excitedstate C2, CN and CH. The CBSL provides a link between the light emission of the single-bubble and the multi-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL and MBSL).

  11. Band gaps in bubble phononic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Leroy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction between Bragg and hybridization effects on the band gap properties of bubble phononic crystals. These latter consist of air cavities periodically arranged in an elastomer matrix and are fabricated using soft-lithography techniques. Their transmission properties are affected by Bragg effects due to the periodicity of the structure as well as hybridization between the propagating mode of the embedding medium and bubble resonance. The hybridization gap survives disorder while the Bragg gap requires a periodic distribution of bubbles. The distance between two bubble layers can be tuned to make the two gaps overlap or to create a transmission peak in the hybridization gap.

  12. Bubble burst as jamming phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Recently research on bubble and its burst attract much interest of researchers in various field such as economics and physics. Economists have been regarding bubble as a disorder in prices. However, this research strategy has overlooked an importance of the volume of transactions. In this paper, we have proposed a bubble burst model by focusing the transactions incorporating a traffic model that represents spontaneous traffic jam. We find that the phenomenon of bubble burst shares many similar properties with traffic jam formation by comparing data taken from US housing market. Our result suggests that the transaction could be a driving force of bursting phenomenon.

  13. Living Near de Sitter Bubble Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jin-Ho; Nam, Soonkeon

    2006-01-01

    We study various bubble solutions in string/M theories obtained by double Wick rotations of (non-)extremal brane configurations. Typically, the geometry interpolates de Sitter space-time times non-compact extra-dimensional space in the near-bubble wall region and the asymptotic flat Minkowski space-time. These bubble solutions provide nice background geometries reconciling string/M theories with de Sitter space-time. For the application of these solutions to cosmology, we consider multi-bubbl...

  14. Shock Wave Emissions of a Sonoluminescing Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Holzfuss, J; Billó, M; Holzfuss, Joachim; Ruggeberg, Matthias; Billo, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A single bubble in water is excited by a standing ultrasound wave. At high intensity the bubble starts to emit light. Together with the emitted light pulse, a shock wave is generated in the liquid at collapse time. The time-dependent velocity of the outward-travelling shock is measured with an imaging technique. The pressure in the shock and in the bubble is shown to have a lower limit of 5500 bars. Visualization of the shock and the bubble at different phases of the acoustic cycle reveals previously unobserved dynamics during stable and unstable sonoluminescence.

  15. Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Christa; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

    2014-07-17

    The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions, but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1 to 0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae in the first few years after explosion. Observations of the spectral evolution of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40 to 240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength-dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (exceeding one micrometre) grains, which resist destruction. At later times (500 to 900 days), the near-infrared thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the dust source from the circumstellar medium to the ejecta. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

  16. Interaction of a bubble and a bubble cluster in an ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Cheng-Hui; Cheng Jian-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using an appropriate approximation,we have formulated the interacting equation of multi-bubble motion for a system of a single bubble and a spherical bubble cluster.The behavior of the bubbles is observed in coupled and uncoupled states.The oscillation of bubbles inside the cluster is in a coupled state.The numerical simulation demonstrates that the secondary Bjerknes force can be influenced by the number density,initial radius,distance,driving frequency,and amplitude of ultrasound.However,if a bubble approaches a bubble cluster of the same initial radii,coupled oscillation would be induced and a repulsive force is evoked,which may be the reason why the bubble cluster can exist steadily.With the increment of the number density of the bubble cluster,a secondary Bjerknes force acting on the bubbles inside the cluster decreases due to the strong suppression of the coupled bubbles.It is shown that there may be an optimal number density for a bubble cluster which can generate an optimal cavitation effect in liquid for a stable driving ultrasound.

  17. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks....

  18. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  19. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wolk, G; Peletier, R F; Pel, J W

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and determine the presence of dust tori among radio galaxies of various types. Actively accreting supermassive black holes in the centres of radio galaxies may be uncovered through their dust tori reradiating the optical and ultraviolet continuum in mid-infrared bands. Using VISIR on the VLT, we have obtained sub-arcsecond (~0.40") resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 micron, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio galaxies of four types in the redshift range z=0.006-0.156. The sample consists of 8 edge-darkened, low-power Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR-I) radio galaxies, 6 edge-brightened, class II (FR-II) radio galaxies displaying low-excitation optical emission, 7 FR-IIs displaying high-excitation optical emission, and 6 FR-II broad emission line radio galaxies. Out of the sample of 27 objects, 10 nuclei are detected and several have constraining non-detections at 10 sigma sensitivities of 7 mJy. On the basis of the core ...

  20. Aeolian system dynamics derived from thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephen Paul

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing and field-based observations were used to study aeolian systems, specifically sand transport pathways, dust emission sources and Saharan atmospheric dust. A method was developed for generating seamless and radiometrically accurate mosaics of thermal infrared data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. Using a combination of high resolution thermal emission spectroscopy results of sand samples and mosaic satellite data, surface emissivity was derived to map surface composition, which led to improvement in the understanding of sand accumulation in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico. These methods were also used to map sand transport pathways in the Sahara Desert, where the interaction between sand saltation and dust emission sources was explored. The characteristics and dynamics of dust sources were studied at White Sands, NM and in the Sahara Desert. At White Sands, an application was developed for studying the response of dust sources to surface soil moisture based on the relationship between soil moisture, apparent thermal inertia and the erosion potential of dust sources. The dynamics of dust sources and the interaction with sand transport pathways were also studied, focusing on the Bodele Depression of Chad and large dust sources in Mali and Mauritania. A dust detection algorithm was developed using ASTER data, and the spectral emissivity of observed atmospheric dust was related to the dust source area in the Sahara. At the Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) in Tenerife, Spain where direct measurement of the Saharan Air Layer could be made, the cycle of dust events occurring in July 2009 were examined. From the observation tower at the IZO, measurements of emitted longwave atmospheric radiance in the TIR wavelength region were made using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) handheld camera. The use of the FLIR to study atmospheric dust from the Saharan is a

  1. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D. W.; Debes, John H.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-06-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  2. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D.W.; Debes, John H.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of white dwarfs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The white dwarf dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  3. Stationary bubbles: information loss paradox?

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to build classically stationary bubbles, within the thin-shell formalism, which are unstable under quantum effects; they either collapse into a black hole or expand. Thus, the final state can be thought of a superposition of geometries. We point out that, from a quantum mechanical point of view, there is no issue with a loss of information in such configuration. A classical observer sees a definite geometry and, hence, finds an effective loss of information. Although it does not cover all possible cases, we emphasise the role of semi-classical gravitational effects, mediated by instatons, in alleviating/solving the information loss paradox.

  4. DGP with bubble of nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    We construct exact solutions with the bubble of nothing in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati(DGP) braneworld model. The configuration with a single brane can be constructed, unlike in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model. The geometry on the single brane looks like the Einstein-Rosen bridge. We also discuss the junction of multi branes. Surprisingly, even without any artificial matter fields on the branes such as three dimensional tension of the codimension two objects, two branes can be connected in certain configurations. We investigate solutions of multi branes too. The presence of solutions may indicate the semiclassical instability of the models.

  5. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesmaier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available That rising bubbles may significantly affect magma mixing paths has already been demon strated by analogue experiments. Here, for the first time, bubble-advection experiments are performed employing volcanic melts at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of basaltic glass were placed below cylinders of rhyolite glass. Upon melting, interstitial air formed bubbles that rose into the rhyolite melt, thereby entraining tails of basaltic liquid. The formation of plume-like filaments of advected basalt within the rhyolite was characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Melt entrainment by bubble ascent appears to be an efficient mechanism for mingling volcanic melts of highly contrasting compositions and properties. MicroCT imaging reveals bubbles trailing each other and multiple filaments coalescing into bigger ones. Rheological modelling of the filaments yields viscosities of up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than for the surrounding rhyolitic liquid. Such a viscosity contrast implies that bubbles rising successively are likely to follow this pathway of low resistance that previously ascending bubbles have generated. Filaments formed by multiple bubbles would thus experience episodic replenishment with mafic material. Inevitable implications for the concept of bubble advection in magma mixing include thereby both an acceleration of mixing because of decreased viscous resistance for bubbles inside filaments and non-conventional diffusion systematics because of intermittent supply of mafic material (instead of a single pulse inside a material. Inside the filaments, the mafic material was variably hybridised to andesitic through rhyolitic composition. Compositional profiles alone are ambiguous, however, to determine whether single or multiple bubbles were involved during formation of a filament. Statistical analysis, employing concentration variance as measure of homogenisation, demonstrates that also filaments appearing as single-bubble

  6. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.

  7. Numerical modeling of oscillating Taylor bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling is used to simulate Taylor bubbles rising in vertical pipes. Experiments indicate that in large diameter (0.29 m pipes for an air–water system, the bubbles can rise in a oscillatory manner, depending on the method of air injection. The CFD models are able to capture this oscillatory behavior because the air phase is modeled as a compressible ideal gas. Insights into the flow field ahead and behind the bubble during contraction and expansion are shown. For a bubble with an initial pressure equal to the hydrostatic pressure at its nose, no oscillations are seen in the bubble as it rises. If the initial pressure in the bubble is set less than or greater than the hydrostatic pressure then the length of the bubble oscillates with an amplitude that depends on the magnitude of the initial bubble pressure relative to the hydrostatic pressure. The frequency of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the square root of the head of water above the bubble and so the frequency increases as the bubble approaches the water surface. The predicted frequency also depends inversely on the square root of the average bubble length, in agreement with experimental observations and an analytical model that is also presented. In this model, a viscous damping term due to the presence of a Stokes boundary layer for the oscillating cases is introduced for the first time and used to assess the effect on the oscillations of increasing the liquid viscosity by several orders of magnitude.

  8. COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E L

    2004-01-01

    The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to...

  9. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  10. DustPedia - A Definitive Study of Cosmic Dust in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Bianchi, S; Jones, A; Madden, S; Xilouris, M; Bocchio, M; Casasola, V; Cassara, L; Clark, C; De Looze, I; Evans, R; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Lianou, S; Mosenkov, A V; Smith, M; Verstocken, S; Viaene, S; Vika, M; Wagle, G; Ysard, N

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has invested heavily in two cornerstones missions; Herschel and Planck. The legacy data from these missions provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to study cosmic dust in galaxies so that we can answer fundamental questions about, for example: the origin of the chemical elements, physical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), its effect on stellar radiation, its relation to star formation and how this relates to the cosmic far infrared background. In this paper we describe the DustPedia project, which is enabling us to develop tools and computer models that will help us relate observed cosmic dust emission to its physical properties (chemical composition, size distribution, temperature), to its origins (evolved stars, super novae, growth in the ISM) and the processes that destroy it (high energy collisions and shock heated gas). To carry out this research we will combine the Herschel/Planck data with that from other sources of data, providing observations at numerous wav...

  11. Dust escape from Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  12. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  13. A Massive Shell of Supernova-formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Slane, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Raymond, John C.

    2017-02-01

    While theoretical models of dust condensation predict that most refractory elements produced in core-collapse supernovae (SNe) efficiently condense into dust, a large quantity of dust has so far only been observed in SN 1987A. We present an analysis of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Herschel Space Observatory, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and AKARI of the infrared shell surrounding the pulsar wind nebula in the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. We attribute a distinctive spectral feature at 21 μm to a magnesium silicate grain species that has been invoked in modeling the ejecta-condensed dust in Cas A, which exhibits the same spectral signature. If this species is responsible for producing the observed spectral feature and accounts for a significant fraction of the observed infrared continuum, we find that it would be the dominant constituent of the dust in G54.1+0.3, with possible secondary contributions from other compositions, such as carbon, silicate, or alumina grains. The total mass of SN-formed dust required by this model is at least 0.3 M ⊙. We discuss how these results may be affected by varying dust grain properties and self-consistent grain heating models. The spatial distribution of the dust mass and temperature in G54.1+0.3 confirms the scenario in which the SN-formed dust has not yet been processed by the SN reverse shock and is being heated by stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN progenitor exploded. The dust mass and composition suggest a progenitor mass of 16–27 M ⊙ and imply a high dust condensation efficiency, similar to that found for Cas A and SN 1987A. The study provides another example of significant dust formation in a Type IIP SN explosion and sheds light on the properties of pristine SN-condensed dust.

  14. Modified Bubble Core Fields and Bubble Shape in Laser Driven Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-Cheng; XIE Bai-Song

    2013-01-01

    Bubble core fields as well bubble shape modification due to the nondepleted electrons inside the bubble is investigated theoretically.It is found that the slope of transverse fields are reduced significantly,however,the slope of longitudinal electric field,which plays a key role on electrons acceleration in bubble,changes little.Moreover a modified longitudinal compressed bubble shape leads to a shorter dephasing distance which makes the electrons acceleration energy reduced to some extent.As a comparison we perform particle-in-cell simulations whose results are consistent with that of our theoretical consideration.

  15. Discovery of "Warm Dust" Galaxies in Clusters at z~0.3: Evidence for Stripping of Cool Dust in the Dense Environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Chung, S M; Pérez-González, P G; Smail, I; Walth, G; Altieri, B; Appleton, P; Alba, A Berciano; Blain, A W; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Fadda, D; Gonzalez, A H; Pereira, M J; Valtchanov, I; van der Werf, P P; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    Using far-infrared imaging from the "Herschel Lensing Survey", we derive dust properties of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster member galaxies within two massive systems at z~0.3: the merging Bullet Cluster and the more relaxed MS2137.3-2353. Most star-forming cluster sources (~90%) have characteristic dust temperatures similar to local field galaxies of comparable infrared (IR) luminosity (T_dust ~ 30K). Several sub-LIRG (L_IR 37K) with far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes resembling LIRG-type local templates. X-ray and mid-infrared data suggest that obscured active galactic nuclei do not contribute significantly to the infrared flux of these "warm dust" galaxies. Sources of comparable IR-luminosity and dust temperature are not observed in the relaxed cluster MS2137, although the significance is too low to speculate on an origin involving recent cluster merging. "Warm dust" galaxies are, however, statistically rarer in field samples (> 3sigma), indicating that the responsible mechanism ma...

  16. Numerical Study on Infrared Optical Property of Diffuse Coal Particles in Mine Fully Mechanized Working Combined with CFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal dust seriously threatens the safety and occupational health of coal mines. Numerical simulation research on the infrared radiation characteristics of diffused coal dust is carried out in fully mechanized working faces based on the optical monitoring problem of dust particles in mine atmospheric environments. The CFD method is applied to obtain the law of dust transport and distribution. Combined with Mie scattering model, the infrared radiation change characteristics and spectral selection of diffused coal dust particles are simulated and analyzed along the working face. The comparison results show the following: the attenuation and scattering characteristics of mine dust particles system are first enhanced, and then they weaken as the distance from dust source increases. The infrared attenuation of mine dust at the center of the vertical cross-section is generally greater than that at the roof and floor in the same location. The dispersion of mine dust directly determines the attenuation contribution of respirable dust to total dust. Moreover, the infrared absorption effect of functional groups in coal causes the infrared attenuation effect of coal dust to have obvious optical selectivity along the roadway, the existing optical “window.”

  17. Pinwheel Looks 'Fab' in Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The tangled arms of the Pinwheel galaxy, otherwise known as Messier 101, are decked out in red in this new infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The Pinwheel galaxy is located 27 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is what's called a flocculent spiral, which means that its spiral arms are not well defined. The red color shows the dust, while the blue glow around the galaxy is from starlight. In this infrared composite, blue indicates light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns, green corresponds to 4.5 microns, and red to 5.8 and 8.0 microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8- and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features.

  18. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  19. Interaction of cavitation bubbles on a wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Arora, Manish; Dammer, Stephan M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamics of the cavitation of bubbles on a solid surface and the interaction between them with the help of controlled cavitation nuclei: hemispherical bubbles are nucleated from hydrophobic microcavities that act as gas traps when the substr

  20. Interacting bubble clouds and their sonochemical production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, L.; Dollet, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Lohse, D.

    2013-01-01

    An acoustically driven air pocket trapped in a pit etched on a surface can emit a bubble cluster. When several pits are present, the resulting bubble clusters interact in a nontrivial way. Fernández Rivas et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9699–9701 (2010)] observed three different behaviors at incre