WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared clear-column radiances

  1. The Impact of Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances on Hurricane Joaquin (2015) and Matthew (2016) Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Li, Zhenglong; Lim, Agnes H. N.; Li, Jinlong; Schmit, Timothy J.; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders provide high vertical resolution atmospheric sounding information that can improve the forecast skill in numerical weather prediction. Commonly, only clear radiances are assimilated, because IR sounder observations are highly affected by clouds. A cloud-clearing (CC) technique, which removes the cloud effects from an IR cloudy field of view (FOV) and derives the cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) or clear-sky equivalent radiances, can be an alternative yet effective way to take advantage of the thermodynamic information from cloudy skies in data assimilation. This study develops a Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)-based CC method for deriving Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) CCRs under partially cloudy conditions. Due to the lack of absorption bands on VIIRS, two important quality control steps are implemented in the CC process. Validation using VIIRS clear radiances indicates that the CC method can effectively obtain the CrIS CCRs for FOVs with partial cloud cover. To compare the impacts from assimilation of CrIS original radiances and CCRs, three experiments are carried out on two storm cases, Hurricane Joaquin (2015) and Hurricane Matthew (2016), using Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation assimilation system and Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research Version models. At the analysis time, more CrIS observations are assimilated when using CrIS CCRs than with CrIS original radiances. Comparing temperature, specific humidity, and U/V winds with radiosondes indicates that the data impacts are growing larger with longer time forecasts (beyond 72 h forecast). Hurricane track forecasts also show improvements from the assimilation of CrIS CCRs due to better weather system forecasts. The impacts of CCRs on intensity are basically neutral with mixed positive and negative results.

  2. AIRS/Aqua L2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) V006 (AIRS2CCF_NRT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) product (AIRS2CCF_NRT_006) differs from the routine...

  3. Airborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Libois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of the Far-InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR were performed in April 2015 during the panarctic NETCARE campaign. Vertical profiles of spectral upwelling radiance in the range 8–50 µm were measured in clear and cloudy conditions from the surface up to 6 km. The clear sky profiles highlight the strong dependence of radiative fluxes to the temperature inversion typical of the Arctic. Measurements acquired for total column water vapour from 1.5 to 10.5 mm also underline the sensitivity of the far-infrared greenhouse effect to specific humidity. The cloudy cases show that optically thin ice clouds increase the cooling rate of the atmosphere, making them important pieces of the Arctic energy balance. One such cloud exhibited a very complex spatial structure, characterized by large horizontal heterogeneities at the kilometre scale. This emphasizes the difficulty of obtaining representative cloud observations with airborne measurements but also points out how challenging it is to model polar clouds radiative effects. These radiance measurements were successfully compared to simulations, suggesting that state-of-the-art radiative transfer models are suited to study the cold and dry Arctic atmosphere. Although FIRR in situ performances compare well to its laboratory performances, complementary simulations show that upgrading the FIRR radiometric resolution would greatly increase its sensitivity to atmospheric and cloud properties. Improved instrument temperature stability in flight and expected technological progress should help meet this objective. The campaign overall highlights the potential for airborne far-infrared radiometry and constitutes a relevant reference for future similar studies dedicated to the Arctic and for the development of spaceborne instruments.

  4. Impacts of field of view configuration of Cross-track Infrared Sounder on clear-sky observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likun; Chen, Yong; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Hyperspectral infrared radiance measurements from satellite sensors contain valuable information on atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and greenhouse gases, and therefore are directly assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as inputs for weather forecasting. However, data assimilations in current operational NWP models still mainly rely on cloud-free observations due to the challenge of simulating cloud-contaminated radiances when using hyperspectral radiances. The limited spatial coverage of the 3×3 field of views (FOVs) in one field of regard (FOR) (i.e., spatial gap among FOVs) as well as relatively large footprint size (14 km) in current Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments limits the amount of clear-sky observations. This study explores the potential impacts of future CrIS FOV configuration (including FOV size and spatial coverage) on the amount of clear-sky observations by simulation experiments. The radiance measurements and cloud mask products (VCM) from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to simulate CrIS clear-sky observation under different FOV configurations. The results indicate that, given the same FOV coverage (e.g., 3×3), the percentage of clear-sky FOVs and the percentage of clear-sky FORs (that contain at least one clear-sky FOV) both increase as the FOV size decreases. In particular, if the CrIS FOV size were reduced from 14 km to 7 km, the percentage of clear-sky FOVs increases from 9.02% to 13.51% and the percentage of clear-sky FORs increases from 18.24% to 27.51%. Given the same FOV size but with increasing FOV coverage in each FOR, the clear-sky FOV observations increases proportionally with the increasing sampling FOVs. Both reducing FOV size and increasing FOV coverage can result in more clear-sky FORs, which benefit data utilization of NWP data assimilation.

  5. One year of downwelling spectral radiance measurements from 100 to 1400 cm-1 at Dome Concordia: Results in clear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, R.; Arosio, C.; Maestri, T.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Del Guasta, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization lidar is also deployed at same site, and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. First, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed-Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected microwindows except for the negative residuals found for all microwindows in the range 200 to 400 cm-1, with largest values around 295.1 cm-1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm-1.

  6. Vacuum Radiance-Temperature Standard Facility for Infrared Remote Sensing at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X. P.; Song, J.; Xu, M.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Yuan, Z. D.; Lu, X. F.

    2018-06-01

    As infrared remote sensors are very important parts of Earth observation satellites, they must be calibrated based on the radiance temperature of a blackbody in a vacuum chamber prior to launch. The uncertainty of such temperature is thus an essential component of the sensors' uncertainty. This paper describes the vacuum radiance-temperature standard facility (VRTSF) at the National Institute of Metrology of China, which will serve to calibrate infrared remote sensors on Chinese meteorological satellites. The VRTSF can be used to calibrate vacuum blackbody radiance temperature, including those used to calibrate infrared remote sensors. The components of the VRTSF are described in this paper, including the VMTBB, the LNBB, the FTIR spectrometer, the reduced-background optical system, the vacuum chamber used to calibrate customers' blackbody, the vacuum-pumping system and the liquid-nitrogen-support system. The experimental methods and results are expounded. The uncertainty of the radiance temperature of VMTBB is 0.026 °C at 30 °C over 10 μm.

  7. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  8. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  9. Estimating top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiance using MERRA-2 atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, Tania; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Kanan, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Thermal infrared satellite images have been widely used in environmental studies. However, satellites have limited temporal resolution, e.g., 16 day Landsat or 1 to 2 day Terra MODIS. This paper investigates the use of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product, produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to predict global topof-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance. The high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product presents opportunities for novel research and applications. Various methods were applied to estimate TOA radiance from MERRA-2 variables namely (1) a parameterized physics based method, (2) Linear regression models and (3) non-linear Support Vector Regression. Model prediction accuracy was evaluated using temporally and spatially coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared data as reference data. This research found that Support Vector Regression with a radial basis function kernel produced the lowest error rates. Sources of errors are discussed and defined. Further research is currently being conducted to train deep learning models to predict TOA thermal radiance

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Infrared (IR) level 1C data set contains AIRS infrared calibrated and geolocated radiances in W/m2/micron/ster. This data set is generated from AIRS level...

  11. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  12. Nimbus-4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) Level 1 Radiance Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) Level 1 Radiance Data contain thermal emissions of the Earth's atmosphere at wave numbers between 400 and...

  13. An assessment of radiance in Landsat TM middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the detection of tropical forest regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.S.; Foody, G.M.; Curran, P.J.; Lucas, R.M.; Honzak, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been postulated that tropical forests regenerating after deforestation constitute an unmeasured terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon, and that the strength of this sink is a function of regeneration stage. Such regeneration stages can be characterized by biophysical properties, such as leaf and wood biomass, which influence the radiance emitted and/or reflected from the forest canopy. Remotely sensed data can therefore be used to estimate these biophysical properties and thereby determine the forest regenerative stage. Studies conducted on temperate forests have related biophysical properties successfully with red and near-infrared radiance, particularly within the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, only weak correlations have generally been observed for tropical forests and it is suggested here that the relationship between forest biophysical properties and middle and thermal infrared radiance may be stronger than that between those properties and visible and near-infrared radiance.An assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data revealed that radiance acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands contained significant information for the detection of regeneration stages in Amazonian tropical forests. It was demonstrated that tropical forest regeneration stages were most separable using middle infrared and thermal infrared wavebands and that the correlation with regeneration stage was stronger with middle infrared, thermal infrared or combinations of these wavebands than they were with visible, near infrared or combinations of these wavebands. For example, correlation coefficients increased from — 0·26 (insignificant at 95 per cent confidence level) when using the NDVI, to up to 0·93 (significant at 99 per cent confidence level) for a vegetation index containing data acquired in the middle and thermal infrared wavebands. These results point to the value of using data acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the

  14. Impact of AIRS radiance in the NCUM 4D-VAR assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Desamsetti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Sharma, Priti

    2016-04-01

    The hyperspectral radiances from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), on board NASA-AQUA satellite, have been processed through the Observation Processing System (OPS) and assimilated in the Variational Assimilation (VAR) System of NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). Numerical experiments are conducted in order to study the impact of the AIRS radiance in the NCUM analysis and forecast system. NCMRWF receives AIRS radiance from EUMETCAST through MOSDAC. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 channels covering the thermal infrared spectrum between 3 and 15 μm. Out of 2378 channels, 324 channels are selected for assimilation according to the peaking of weighting function and meteorological importance. According to the surface type and day-night conditions, some of the channels are not assimilated in the VAR. Observation Simulation Experiments (OSEs) are conducted for a period of 15 days to see the impact of AIRS radiances in NCUM. Statistical parameters like bias and RMSE are calculated to see the real impact of AIRS radiances in the assimilation system. Assimilation of AIRS in the NCUM system reduced the bias and RMSE in the radiances from instruments onboard other satellites. The impact of AIRS is clearly seen in the hyperspectral radiances like IASI and CrIS and also in infrared (HIRS) and microwave (AMSU, ATMS, etc.) sensors.

  15. Assimilation of SAPHIR radiance: impact on hyperspectral radiances in 4D-VAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira Rani, S.; Doherty, Amy; Atkinson, Nigel; Bell, William; Newman, Stuart; Renshaw, Richard; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Assimilation of a new observation dataset in an NWP system may affect the quality of an existing observation data set against the model background (short forecast), which in-turn influence the use of an existing observation in the NWP system. Effect of the use of one data set on the use of another data set can be quantified as positive, negative or neutral. Impact of the addition of new dataset is defined as positive if the number of assimilated observations of an existing type of observation increases, and bias and standard deviation decreases compared to the control (without the new dataset) experiment. Recently a new dataset, Megha Tropiques SAPHIR radiances, which provides atmospheric humidity information, is added in the Unified Model 4D-VAR assimilation system. In this paper we discuss the impact of SAPHIR on the assimilation of hyper-spectral radiances like AIRS, IASI and CrIS. Though SAPHIR is a Microwave instrument, its impact can be clearly seen in the use of hyper-spectral radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation systems in addition to other Microwave and InfraRed observation. SAPHIR assimilation decreased the standard deviation of the spectral channels of wave number from 650 -1600 cm-1 in all the three hyperspectral radiances. Similar impact on the hyperspectral radiances can be seen due to the assimilation of other Microwave radiances like from AMSR2 and SSMIS Imager.

  16. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Nonuniformity correction of infrared cameras by reading radiance temperatures with a spatially nonhomogeneous radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method of nonuniformity correction (NUC) of infrared cameras and focal plane arrays (FPA) in a wide optical spectral range by reading radiance temperatures and by applying a radiation source with an unknown and spatially nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution. The benefit of this novel method is that it works with the display and the calculation of radiance temperatures, it can be applied to radiation sources of arbitrary spatial radiance temperature distribution, and it only requires sufficient temporal stability of this distribution during the measurement process. In contrast to this method, an initially presented method described the calculation of NUC correction with the reading of monitored radiance values. Both methods are based on the recording of several (at least three) images of a radiation source and a purposeful row- and line-shift of these sequent images in relation to the first primary image. The mathematical procedure is explained in detail. Its numerical verification with a source of a predefined nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution and a thermal imager of a predefined nonuniform FPA responsivity is presented. (paper)

  18. Photosynthetically-active radiation: sky radiance distributions under clear and overcast conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, R.H.; Heisler, G.M.; Gao, W.

    1996-01-01

    The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), defined as the wavelength band of 0.400 μm to 0.700 μm, represents most of the visible solar radiation. Although the proportion of global irradiance that originates from diffuse sky radiation is higher for PAR than for all solar shortwave radiation, it is often assumed that the PAR diffuse sky radiation is distributed identically to that of all shortwave solar radiation. This assumption has not been tested. PAR sky radiance measurements were made in a rural area over a wide range of solar zenith angles. The distribution of PAR sky radiance was modeled using physically-based, non-linear equations.For clear skies, the normalized sky radiance distribution (N) was best modeled using the scattering angle (ψ) and the zenith position in the sky (Θ) as N (Θ, ψ) = 0.0361 [6.3 + (1 + cos 2 Θ / (1 - cos ψ)] [1-e -0.31 sec ( Θ]. The angle Ψ is defined by cos ψ = cos Θ cos Θ * + sin Θ sin Θ * cos Φ, where solar zenith angle is Θ* and the difference in azimuth between the sun and the position in the sky is Φ. Modeling of the overcast sky depended on the visibility of the solar disk. The translucent middle/high cloud overcast conditions (cloud base greater than 300 m above ground level) were best modeled as: N(Θ∗, ψ) = 0.149 + 0.084Θ∗ + 1.305e −2.5ψ while the translucent low cloud overcast conditions (cloud base less than 300 m above ground level) were best modeled as: N(Θ∗, ψ) = 0.080 + 0.058Θ∗ + 0.652e −2.1ψ . The obscured overcast sky condition (solar disk obscured) was best modeled as: N(Θ) = 0.441 [1 + 4.6cos Θ] /[1 + 4.6]. The unit of N for all equations is π Sr −1 , so that integration of each function over the sky hemisphere yields 1.0.These equations can be applied directly to the sky diffuse irradiance on the horizontal, I diff , to provide radiance distributions for the sky. Estimates of actual sky radiance distribution can be estimated from N a (Θ, ψ) = I diff N(Θ,

  19. TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner Calibrated Radiances L1B 1.5 hours V7 (TRMM_1B01) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) Level 1B Calibrated Radiance Product (1B01) contains calibrated radiances and auxiliary geolocation information from...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYDCSR_G) provides a variety of statistical measures that characterize observed...

  1. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  2. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  3. Measurements of downwelling far-infrared radiance during the RHUBC-II campaign at Cerro Toco, Chile and comparisons with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.

    2017-09-01

    Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.

  4. Sensitive detection of aerosol effect on simulated IASI spectral radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, X.; Huang, H.-L.; Zhang, L.; Weisz, E.; Cao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by radiative transfer modeling of the effects of dust (aerosol) on satellite thermal infrared radiance by many different imaging radiometers, in this article, we present the aerosol-effected satellite radiative signal changes in the top of atmosphere (TOA). The simulation of TOA radiance for Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is performed by using the RTTOV fast radiative transfer model. The model computation is carried out with setting representative geographical atmospheric models and typical default aerosol climatological models under clear sky condition. The radiative differences (in units of equivalent black body brightness temperature differences (BTDs)) between simulated radiances without consideration of the impact of aerosol (Aerosol-free) and with various aerosol models (Aerosol-modified) are calculated for the whole IASI spectrum between 3.62 and 15.5 μm. The comparisons of BTDs are performed through 11 aerosol models in 5 classified atmospheric models. The results show that the Desert aerosol model has the most significant impact on IASI spectral simulated radiances than the other aerosol models (Continental, Urban, Maritime types and so on) in Mid-latitude Summer, contributing to the mineral aerosol components contained. The value of BTDs could reach up to 1 K at peak points. The atmospheric window spectral region between 900 and 1100 cm −1 (9.09–11.11 μm) is concentrated after the investigation for the largest values of aerosol-affected radiance differences. BTDs in IASI spectral region between 645 and 1200 cm −1 occupies the largest oscillation and the major part of the whole spectrum. The IASI highest window peak-points channels (such as 9.4 and 10.2 μm) are obtained finally, which are the most sensitive ones to the simulated IASI radiance. -- Highlights: ► Sensitive study of aerosol effect on simulated IASI spectral radiance is performed. ► The aerosol components have influenced IASI spectral regions

  5. A new theory and its application to remove the effect of surface-reflected light in above-surface radiance data from clear and turbid waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2014-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances (L w ) measured from the deck of a ship or boat in oceanic and lake waters are widely and operationally used for satellite sensor vicarious calibration and validation and development of remote-sensing algorithms to understand interdisciplinary coastal ocean properties and processes. However, accurate determination of L w remains to be a challenging issue because of the limitations of the existing methods to accurately remove the undesired signal (surface-reflected light of the sky and sun) from above-surface measurements of the total upwelling radiance leaving the water surface. In this study, a new theory is developed and applied to the above-surface radiometric data measured from clear, turbid and eutrophic waters. The new method effectively removes surface-reflected contributions from the total upwelling radiance signal under different sky (clear sky to overcast sky) and sun glint conditions. The L w spectra obtained from the above-surface radiance data using the new method are found to match well with those extrapolated from the upwelling radiances (L u ) measured with another set of underwater radiometers (used just below the sea surface). The new method proves to be a viable alternative, especially in circumstances when the above-surface measurements of radiances are severally contaminated by the surface-reflected light fields. Since spectral radiance measurements are also sensitive to the observation angles, and to the magnitude of the radiometer's solid angle field of view, above-surface radiances are also measured for different viewing angles in highly eutrophic waters. Such measurements show large deviations in L w spectra except at lower viewing angles (30°). When applied to these data, the new method eliminates the undesired signal encountered at higher viewing angles and delivers accurate water-leaving radiance data. These results suggest that the new method is capable of removing the surface-reflected light fields from both

  6. Assimilating All-Sky Himawari-8 Satellite Infrared Radiances: A Case of Typhoon Soudelor (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takumi; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Lien, Guo-Yuan; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yoshida, Ryuji; Adachi, Sachiho A.; Terasaki, Koji; Okamoto, Kozo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Bessho, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Japan’s new geostationary satellite Himawari-8, the first of a series of the third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites includingGOES-16, has been operational since July 2015. Himawari-8 produces highresolution observations with 16 frequency bands every 10 min for full disk, and every 2.5 min for local regions. This study aims to assimilate all-sky every-10-min infrared (IR) radiances from Himawari-8 with a regional numerical weather prediction model and to investigate its impac...

  7. The Expected Impacts of NPOESS Microwave and Infrared Sounder Radiances on Operational Numerical Weather Prediction and Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadley, S. D.; Baker, N.; Derber, J.; Collard, A.; Hilton, F.; Ruston, B.; Bell, W.; Candy, B.; Kleespies, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    The NPOESS atmospheric sounding functionality will be accomplished using two separate sensor suites, the combined infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) sensor suite (CrIMSS), and the Microwave Imager/Sounder (MIS) instrument. CrIMSS consists of the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the cross track Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and is scheduled to fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), and NPOESS operational flight units C1 and C3. The MIS is a conical scanning polarimetric imager and sounder patterned after the heritage WindSat, and DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imagers and Sounders (SSMI and SSMIS), and is scheduled for flight units C2, C3 and C4. ATMS combines the current operational Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), but with an additional channel in the 51.76 GHz oxygen absorption region and 3 additional channels in the 165.5 and 183 GHz water vapor absorption band. CrIS is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and will provide 159 shortwave IR channels, 433 mid-range IR channels, and 713 longwave IR channels. The heritage sensors for CrIS are the NASA Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the MetOp-A Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Both AIRS and IASI are high quality, high spectral resolution sounders which represent a significant improvement in the effective vertical resolution over previous IR sounders. This presentation will give an overview of preparations underway for day-1 monitoring of NPP/NPOESS radiances, and subsequent operational radiance assimilation. These preparations capitalize on experience gained during the pre-launch preparations, sensor calibration/validation and operational assimilation for the heritage sensors. One important step is to use pre-flight sensor channel specifications, noise estimates and knowledge of the antenna patterns, to generate and test proxy NPP/NPOESS sensor observations in existing assimilation systems. Other critical factors for

  8. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  9. The DMSP/MFR total ozone and radiance data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, T.J.; Taylor, S.S.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The radiance measurements by the multichannel filter radiometer (MFR), a scanning instrument carried on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series of satellites (flight models F1, F2, F3 and F4), were used to calculate the total column ozone globally for the period March 1977 through February 1980. These data were then calibrated and mapped to earth coordinates at LLNL. Total column ozone was derived from these calibrated radiance data and placed both the ozone and calibrated radiance data into a computer data base called SOAC (Satellite Ozone Analysis Center) using the FRAMIS database manager. The uncalibrated radiance data tapes were initially sent on to the National Climate Center, Asheville, North Carolina and then to the Satellite Data Services Branch /EDS/NOAA in Suitland, Maryland where they were archived. Copies of the data base containing the total ozone and the calibrated radiance data reside both at LLNL and at the National Space Science Data Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. This report describes the entries into the data base in sufficient detail so that the data base might be useful to others. The characteristics of the MFR sensor are briefly discussed and a complete index to the data base tapes is given

  10. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  11. Spectral radiance of strong lines in positive column mercury discharges with argon carrier gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonetti, Craig J; Reader, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radiance of the 185 and 254 nm lines in two positive column mercury discharge lamps was measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The lamps had internal diameters of 5 and 23 mm. Argon was used as a carrier gas. The lamps were operated with cold spot temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 0 C. At each of these temperatures, results were obtained for five currents ranging from 20 to 100 mA for the 5 mm lamp and from 200 to 1000 mA for the 23 mm lamp. For each current studied, results were determined for argon pressures ranging from 66.6 to 666 Pa (0.5 to 5.0 Torr) in the 5 mm lamp and 26.6 to 666 Pa (0.2 to 5.0 Torr) in the 23 mm lamp. An argon miniarc was used as the radiometric standard. By calibrating the spectral response of the optical system with a well-characterized mercury pencil lamp, results were obtained for 12 additional Hg lines from 289 to 579 nm. For the 23 mm lamp the electric field in the positive column was measured. For this lamp the radiated power as a percentage of input power was also determined. The results provide an experimental basis for validating computer models of Hg fluorescent lamp discharges

  12. ASTER L2 Surface Radiance VNIR and SWIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Radiance is a multi-file product that contains atmospherically corrected data for both the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared...

  13. Initial analyses of surface spectral radiance between observations and Line-By-Line calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.D.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Miller, N.E.; Shippert, T.R.; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The evaluation an improvement of radiative transfer calculations are essential to attain improved performance of general circulation models (GCMs) for climate change applications. A Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) is being conducted to analyze the spectral residuals between the downwelling longwave radiance measured by the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and spectral radiance calculated by the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM). The three critical components of this study are (1) the assessment of the quality of the high resolution AERI measurements, (2) the assessment of the ability to define the atmospheric state in the radiating column, and (3) the evaluation of the capability of LBLRTM. Validations have been performed on spectral radiance data, obtained from April 1994 through July 1994, through the analysis of the spectral interval and physical process. The results are archived as a function of time, enabling the retrieval of specific data and facilitating investigations and diurnal effects, seasonal effects, and longer-term trends. While the initial focus is restricted to clear-sky analyses, efforts are under way to include the effects of clouds and aerosols. Plans are well formulated for the extension of the current approach to the shortwave. An overview of the concept of the QME is described by Miller et al. (1994), and a detailed description of this study is provided by Clough et al. (1994).

  14. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Datasets Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Arduini, R. F.; Hong, G.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting the clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the near-infrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 μm) and visible (VIS; 0.63 μm) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. The clear-sky albedos are derived using a radiative transfer parameterization of the impact of the atmosphere, including aerosols, on the observed reflectances. This paper presents the method of generating monthly clear-sky overhead albedo maps for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces of these channels using one year of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) CERES products. Maps of 1.24 and 1.6 μm are being used as the background to help retrieve cloud properties (e.g., effective particle size, optical depth) in CERES cloud retrievals in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions.

  15. Background Radiance Estimation for Gas Plume Quantification for Airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Idoughi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR is a mean that is proving its worth in the characterization of gaseous effluent. Indeed the spectral and spatial resolution of acquisition instruments is steadily decreasing, making the gases characterization increasingly easy in the LWIR domain. The majority of literature algorithms exploit the plume contribution to the radiance corresponding to the difference of radiance between the plume-present and plume-absent pixels. Nevertheless, the off-plume radiance is unobservable using a single image. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve trace gas concentration from airborne infrared hyperspectral data. More particularly the outlined method improves the existing background radiance estimation approach to deal with heterogeneous scenes corresponding to industrial scenes. It consists in performing a classification of the scene and then applying a principal components analysis based method to estimate the background radiance on each cluster stemming from the classification. In order to determine the contribution of the classification to the background radiance estimation, we compared the two approaches on synthetic data and Telops Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS Imaging Hyper-Cam LW airborne acquisition above ethylene release. We finally show ethylene retrieved concentration map and estimate flow rate of the ethylene release.

  16. ASTER L2 Surface Radiance TIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Radiance TIR is an on-demand product generated using the five thermal infra-red (TIR) Bands (acquired either during the day or night time)...

  17. Validating the accuracy of SO2 gas retrievals in the thermal infrared (8-14 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Andrea; Porter, John N.; Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul G.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) in volcanic plumes is important for eruption predictions and public health. Ground-based remote sensing of spectral radiance of plumes contains information on the path-concentration of SO2. However, reliable inversion algorithms are needed to convert plume spectral radiance measurements into SO2 path-concentrations. Various techniques have been used for this purpose. Recent approaches have employed thermal infrared (TIR) imaging between 8 μm and 14 μm to provide two-dimensional mapping of plume SO2 path-concentration, using what might be described as "dual-view" techniques. In this case, the radiance (or its surrogate brightness temperature) is computed for portions of the image that correspond to the plume and compared with spectral radiance obtained for adjacent regions of the image that do not (i.e., "clear sky"). In this way, the contribution that the plume makes to the measured radiance can be isolated from the background atmospheric contribution, this residual signal being converted to an estimate of gas path-concentration via radiative transfer modeling. These dual-view approaches suffer from several issues, mainly the assumption of clear sky background conditions. At this time, the various inversion algorithms remain poorly validated. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it validates the aforementioned dual-view approaches, using hyperspectral TIR imaging data. Secondly, it introduces a new method to derive SO2 path-concentrations, which allows for single point SO2 path-concentration retrievals, suitable for hyperspectral imaging with clear or cloudy background conditions. The SO2 amenable lookup table algorithm (SO2-ALTA) uses the MODTRAN5 radiative transfer model to compute radiance for a variety (millions) of plume and atmospheric conditions. Rather than searching this lookup table to find the best fit for each measured spectrum, the lookup table was used to train a partial least square regression (PLSR) model

  18. A comparison of measured radiances from AIRS and HIRS across different cloud types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Staten, P.

    2015-12-01

    The observation of Earth's atmosphere with passive remote sensing instruments is ongoing for decades and resulting in a long-term global dataset. Two prominent examples are operational satellite platforms from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or research platforms like NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The observed spectral ranges of these observations are often similar among the different platforms, but have large differences when it comes to resolution, accuracy and quality control. Our approach is to combine different kinds of instruments at the pixel-scale to improve the characterization of infrared radiances. We focus on data from the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and compare the observations to radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua. The high spectral resolution of AIRS is used to characterize and possibly recalibrate the observed radiances from HIRS. Our approach is unique in that we use additional information from other passive instruments on the same platforms including the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We will present comparisons of radiances from HIRS and AIRS within different types of clouds that are determined from the imagers. In this way, we can analyze and select the most homogeneous conditions for radiance comparisons and a possible re-calibration of HIRS. We hope to achieve a cloud-type-dependent calibration and quality control for HIRS, which can be extrapolated into the past via inter-calibration of the different HIRS instruments beyond the time of AIRS.

  19. Nde of Frp Wrapped Columns Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Dutta, Shasanka Shekhar; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using Infrared Thermography (IRT) for detecting debonds in Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) wrapped columns. Laboratory tests were conducted on FRP wrapped concrete cylinders of size 6″×12″ (152.4 mm×304.8 mm) in which air-filled and water-filled debonds of various sizes were placed underneath the FRP wraps. Air-filled debonds were made by cutting plastic sheets into the desired sizes whereas water-filled debonds were made by filling water in custom made polyethylene pouches. Both carbon and glass fiber reinforced wraps were considered in this study. Infrared tests were conducted using a fully radiometric digital infrared camera which was successful in detecting air-filled as well as water-filled subsurface debonds. In addition to the laboratory testing, two field trips were made to Moorefield, West Virginia for detecting subsurface debonds in FRP wrapped timber piles of a railroad bridge using infrared testing. The results revealed that infrared thermography can be used as an effective nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting subsurface debonds in structural components wrapped with carbon or glass reinforced composite fabrics.

  20. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  1. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  2. Observation of Tidal Effects on LWIR Radiance Above the Mesopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An examination of CO2 infrared limb radiance, directly measured by the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite, reveals unusual structure in the region just above the mesopause, at tangent heights...

  3. Intercomparison of integrated IASI and AATSR calibrated radiances at 11 and 12 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Parker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mission objectives of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are driven by the needs of the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and climate monitoring communities. These objectives rely upon the IASI instrument being able to measure top of atmosphere radiances accurately. This paper presents a technique and first results for the validation of the radiometric calibration of radiances for IASI, using a cross-calibration with the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR. The AATSR is able to measure Brightness Temperature (BT to an accuracy of 30 mK, and by applying the AATSR spectral filter functions to the IASI measured radiances we are able to compare AATSR and IASI Brightness Temperatures. By choosing coincident data points that are over the sea and in clear sky conditions, a threshold of homogeneity is derived. It is found that in these homogenous conditions, the IASI BTs agree with those measured by the AATSR to within 0.3 K, with an uncertainty of order 0.1 K. The agreement is particularly good at 11 μm where the difference is less than 0.1 K. These first results indicate that IASI is meeting its target objective of 0.5 K accuracy. It is believed that a refinement of the AATSR spectral filter functions will hopefully permit a tighter error constraint on the quality of the IASI data and hence further assessment of the climate quality of the radiances.

  4. A fast infrared radiative transfer model for overlapping clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Jianguo; Yang Ping; Huang Hunglung; Davies, James E.; Li Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.

    2007-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer model (FIRTM2) appropriate for application to both single-layered and overlapping cloud situations is developed for simulating the outgoing infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In FIRTM2 a pre-computed library of cloud reflectance and transmittance values is employed to account for one or two cloud layers, whereas the background atmospheric optical thickness due to gaseous absorption can be computed from a clear-sky radiative transfer model. FIRTM2 is applicable to three atmospheric conditions: (1) clear-sky (2) single-layered ice or water cloud, and (3) two simultaneous cloud layers in a column (e.g., ice cloud overlying water cloud). Moreover, FIRTM2 outputs the derivatives (i.e., Jacobians) of the TOA brightness temperature with respect to cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the performance of FIRTM2 for two spectral regions, namely the longwave (LW) band (587.3-1179.5 cm -1 ) and the short-to-medium wave (SMW) band (1180.1-2228.9 cm -1 ). The assessment is carried out in terms of brightness temperature differences (BTD) between FIRTM2 and the well-known discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT), henceforth referred to as BTD (F-D). The BTD (F-D) values for single-layered clouds are generally less than 0.8 K. For the case of two cloud layers (specifically ice cloud over water cloud), the BTD (F-D) values are also generally less than 0.8 K except for the SMW band for the case of a very high altitude (>15 km) cloud comprised of small ice particles. Note that for clear-sky atmospheres, FIRTM2 reduces to the clear-sky radiative transfer model that is incorporated into FIRTM2, and the errors in this case are essentially those of the clear-sky radiative transfer model

  5. Observation of Tidal Effects on LWIR Radiance Above the Mesopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An examination of CO2 infrared limb radiance, directly measured by the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite, reveals unusual structure in the region just above the mesopause, at tangent heights of -95-110 km...

  6. Carbon dioxide /V2/ radiance results using a new nonequilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. D.; Nadile, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    It was observed during the SPIRE experiment (Spectral Infrared Rocket Experiment) that the 15 micron limb radiance stays constant from 95 to 110 km despite the fact that CO2 concentration over this altitude range decreases by a factor of 20. The results of a 15 micron CO2 radiance model are presented which explain the observed anomaly. It is shown that CO2 deactivation by oxygen is the predominant factor in 15 micron emission above 95 km.

  7. Correction for reflected sky radiance in low-altitude coastal hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Park, Joong Yong; Kopilevich, Yuri; Tuell, Grady; Philpot, William

    2013-11-10

    Low-altitude coastal hyperspectral imagery is sensitive to reflections of sky radiance at the water surface. Even in the absence of sun glint, and for a calm water surface, the wide range of viewing angles may result in pronounced, low-frequency variations of the reflected sky radiance across the scan line depending on the solar position. The variation in reflected sky radiance can be obscured by strong high-spatial-frequency sun glint and at high altitude by path radiance. However, at low altitudes, the low-spatial-frequency sky radiance effect is frequently significant and is not removed effectively by the typical corrections for sun glint. The reflected sky radiance from the water surface observed by a low-altitude sensor can be modeled in the first approximation as the sum of multiple-scattered Rayleigh path radiance and the single-scattered direct-solar-beam radiance by the aerosol in the lower atmosphere. The path radiance from zenith to the half field of view (FOV) of a typical airborne spectroradiometer has relatively minimal variation and its reflected radiance to detector array results in a flat base. Therefore the along-track variation is mostly contributed by the forward single-scattered solar-beam radiance. The scattered solar-beam radiances arrive at the water surface with different incident angles. Thus the reflected radiance received at the detector array corresponds to a certain scattering angle, and its variation is most effectively parameterized using the downward scattering angle (DSA) of the solar beam. Computation of the DSA must account for the roll, pitch, and heading of the platform and the viewing geometry of the sensor along with the solar ephemeris. Once the DSA image is calculated, the near-infrared (NIR) radiance from selected water scan lines are compared, and a relationship between DSA and NIR radiance is derived. We then apply the relationship to the entire DSA image to create an NIR reference image. Using the NIR reference image

  8. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  9. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  10. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellite level at-sensor radiance corresponding to all four infrared channels of. INSAT-3D Imager payload is .... its heritage traces back to LOWTRAN. MOD-. TRAN includes all ... over tropical region (SeeBor dataset) are car- ried out with the ...

  11. Sun Glint Correction of High and Low Spatial Resolution Images of Aquatic Scenes: a Review of Methods for Visible and Near-Infrared Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sun glint, the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a serious confounding factor for remote sensing of water column properties and benthos. This paper reviews current techniques to estimate and remove the glint radiance component from imagery. Methods for processing of ocean color images use statistical sea surface models to predict the glint from the sun and sensor positions and wind data. Methods for higher resolution imaging, used in coastal and shallow water mapping, estimate the glint radiance from the near-infrared signal. The effects of some current methods are demonstrated and possibilities for future techniques are briefly addressed.

  12. Bioluminescence in a complex coastal environment: 1. Temporal dynamics of nighttime water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Mark A.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Sundman, Lydia; Bensky, Thomas; Bergmann, Trisha; Bissett, W. Paul; Case, James; Raymond, Erika H.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Nighttime water-leaving radiance is a function of the depth-dependent distribution of both the in situ bioluminescence emissions and the absorption and scattering properties of the water. The vertical distributions of these parameters were used as inputs for a modified one-dimensional radiative transfer model to solve for spectral bioluminescence water-leaving radiance from prescribed depths of the water column. Variation in the water-leaving radiance was consistent with local episodic physical forcing events, with tidal forcing, terrestrial runoff, particulate accumulation, and biological responses influencing the shorter timescale dynamics. There was a >90 nm shift in the peak water-leaving radiance from blue (˜474 nm) to green as light propagated to the surface. In addition to clues in ecosystem responses to physical forcing, the temporal dynamics in intensity and spectral quality of water-leaving radiance provide suitable ranges for assessing detection. This may provide the information needed to estimate the depth of internal light sources in the ocean, which is discussed in part 2 of this paper.

  13. Potential for the use of reconstructed IASI radiances in the detection of atmospheric trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Atkinson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Principal component (PC analysis has received considerable attention as a technique for the extraction of meteorological signals from hyperspectral infra-red sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. In addition to achieving substantial bit-volume reductions for dissemination purposes, the technique can also be used to generate reconstructed radiances in which random instrument noise has been reduced. Studies on PC analysis of hyperspectral infrared sounder data have been undertaken in the context of numerical weather prediction, instrument monitoring and geophysical variable retrieval, as well as data compression. This study examines the potential of PC analysis for chemistry applications.

    A major concern in the use of PC analysis for chemistry is that the spectral features associated with trace gases may not be well represented in the reconstructed spectra, either due to deficiencies in the training set or due to the limited number of PC scores used in the radiance reconstruction. In this paper we show examples of reconstructed IASI radiances for several trace gases: ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide. It is shown that care must be taken in the selection of spectra for the initial training set: an iterative technique, in which outlier spectra are added to a base training set, gives the best results. For the four trace gases examined, key features of the chemical signatures are retained in the reconstructed radiances, whilst achieving a substantial reduction in instrument noise.

    A new regional re-transmission service for IASI is scheduled to start in 2010, as part of the EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS. For this EARS-IASI service it is intended to include PC scores as part of the data stream. The paper describes the generation of the reference eigenvectors for this new service.

  14. Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, Robert F.; Peacock, Thomas G.

    2001-06-01

    Using Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as an example, we show in this study that the properties of the water column and bottom of a large, shallow area can be adequately retrieved using a model-driven optimization technique. The simultaneously derived properties include bottom depth, bottom albedo, and water absorption and backscattering coefficients, which in turn could be used to derive concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments in the water column. The derived bottom depths were compared with a bathymetry chart and a boat survey and were found to agree very well. Also, the derived bottom albedo image shows clear spatial patterns, with end-members consistent with sand and seagrass. The image of absorption and backscattering coefficients indicates that the water is quite horizontally mixed. Without bottom corrections, chlorophyll a retrievals were ˜50 mg m-3, while the retrievals after bottom corrections were tenfold less, approximating real values. These results suggest that the model and approach used work very well for the retrieval of subsurface properties of shallow-water environments even for rather turbid environments like Tampa Bay, Florida.

  15. Calculation of the angular radiance distribution for a coupled atmosphere and canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shunlin; Strahler, Alan H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative transfer equations for a coupled atmosphere and canopy are solved numerically by an improved Gauss-Seidel iteration algorithm. The radiation field is decomposed into three components: unscattered sunlight, single scattering, and multiple scattering radiance for which the corresponding equations and boundary conditions are set up and their analytical or iterational solutions are explicitly derived. The classic Gauss-Seidel algorithm has been widely applied in atmospheric research. This is its first application for calculating the multiple scattering radiance of a coupled atmosphere and canopy. This algorithm enables us to obtain the internal radiation field as well as radiances at boundaries. Any form of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) as a boundary condition can be easily incorporated into the iteration procedure. The hotspot effect of the canopy is accommodated by means of the modification of the extinction coefficients of upward single scattering radiation and unscattered sunlight using the formulation of Nilson and Kuusk. To reduce the computation for the case of large optical thickness, an improved iteration formula is derived to speed convergence. The upwelling radiances have been evaluated for different atmospheric conditions, leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution (LAD), leaf size and so on. The formulation presented in this paper is also well suited to analyze the relative magnitude of multiple scattering radiance and single scattering radiance in both the visible and near infrared regions.

  16. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revercomb, Henry; Tobin, David; Knuteson, Robert; Borg, Lori; Moy, Leslie

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004.

  17. IASI Radiance Data Assimilation in Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Hyoung-Wook, C.; Jo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Korea institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is developing NWP model with data assimilation systems. Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) system, one of the data assimilation systems, has been developed for KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM) based on cubed-sphere grid and has successfully assimilated real data. LETKF data assimilation system has been extended to 4D- LETKF which considers time-evolving error covariance within assimilation window and IASI radiance data assimilation using KPOP (KIAPS package for observation processing) with RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS). The LETKF system is implementing semi operational prediction including conventional (sonde, aircraft) observation and AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance data from April. Recently, the semi operational prediction system updated radiance observations including GPS-RO, AMV, IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data at July. A set of simulation of KIM with ne30np4 and 50 vertical levels (of top 0.3hPa) were carried out for short range forecast (10days) within semi operation prediction LETKF system with ensemble forecast 50 members. In order to only IASI impact, our experiments used only conventional and IAIS radiance data to same semi operational prediction set. We carried out sensitivity test for IAIS thinning method (3D and 4D). IASI observation number was increased by temporal (4D) thinning and the improvement of IASI radiance data impact on the forecast skill of model will expect.

  18. CO2 induced climatic change and spectral variations in the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    The published temperature changes produced in general circulation model simulations of CO2 induced climate modification are used to compute the top of the atmosphere, clear sky outgoing infrared radiance changes expected for doubled CO2. A significant wavenumber shift is produced, with less radiance emerging in the 500-800 per cm (20.0-12.5 micron) CO2 band and with more emerging in the 800-1200 per cm (12.5-8.3 micron) window. The effect varies greatly with latitude. The radiance shift in the 2300 per cm (4.3 micron) region is of the order of 10-30 percent for doubled CO2. It is suggested that the 2300 per cm region be carefully monitored as an aid in detecting the climatic effects of increasing CO2. The change in the wavenumber-integrated radiant exitance is at most a few percent.

  19. Sky radiance at a coastline and effects of land and ocean reflectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Axel; Blumthaler, Mario; Tiefengraber, Martin; Kift, Richard; Webb, Ann R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a unique case study of the spectral sky radiance distribution above a coastline. Results are shown from a measurement campaign in Italy involving three diode array spectroradiometers which are compared to 3-D model simulations from the Monte Carlo model MYSTIC. On the coast, the surrounding is split into two regions, a diffusely reflecting land surface and a water surface which features a highly anisotropic reflectance function. The reflectivities and hence the resulting radiances are a nontrivial function of solar zenith and azimuth angle and wavelength. We show that for low solar zenith angles (SZAs) around noon, the higher land albedo causes the sky radiance at 20° above the horizon to increase by 50 % in the near infrared at 850 nm for viewing directions towards the land with respect to the ocean. Comparing morning and afternoon radiances highlights the effect of the ocean's sun glint at high SZA, which contributes around 10 % to the measured radiance ratios. The model simulations generally agree with the measurements to better than 10 %. We investigate the individual effects of model input parameters representing land and ocean albedo and aerosols. Different land and ocean bi-directional reflectance functions (BRDFs) do not generally improve the model agreement. However, consideration of the uncertainties in the diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth can explain the remaining discrepancies between measurements and model. We further investigate the anisotropy effect of the ocean BRDF which is featured in the zenith radiances. Again, the uncertainty of the aerosol loading is dominant and obscures the modelled sun glint effect of 7 % at 650 nm. Finally, we show that the effect on the zenith radiance is restricted to a few kilometres from the coastline by model simulations along a perpendicular transect and by comparing the radiances at the coast to those measured at a site 15 km inland. Our findings are relevant to, for example, ground

  20. Preliminary Inter-Comparison between AHI, VIIRS and MODIS Clear-Sky Ocean Radiances for Accurate SST Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Liang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clear-sky brightness temperatures (BT in five bands of the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI; flown onboard Himawari-8 satellite centered at 3.9, 8.6, 10.4, 11.2, and 12.3 µm (denoted by IR37, IR86, IR10, IR11, and IR12, respectively are used in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO sea surface temperature (SST retrieval system. Here, AHI BTs are preliminarily evaluated for stability and consistency with the corresponding VIIRS and MODIS BTs, using the sensor observation minus model simulation (O-M biases and corresponding double differences. The objective is to ensure accurate and consistent SST products from the polar and geo sensors, and to prepare for the launch of the GOES-R satellite in 2016. All five AHI SST bands are found to be largely in-family with their polar counterparts, but biased low relative to the VIIRS and MODIS (which, in turn, were found to be stable and consistent, except for Terra IR86, which is biased high by 1.5 K. The negative biases are larger in IR37 and IR12 (up to ~−0.5 K, followed by the three remaining longwave IR bands IR86, IR10, and IR11 (from −0.3 to −0.4 K. These negative biases may be in part due to the uncertainties in AHI calibration and characterization, although uncertainties in the coefficients of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM, used to generate the “M” term may also contribute. Work is underway to add AHI analyses in the NOAA Monitoring of IR Clear-Sky Radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS system and improve AHI BTs by collaborating with the sensor calibration and CRTM teams. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI analyses will be also added in MICROS when GOES-R is launched in late 2016 and the ABI IR data become available.

  1. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  2. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  3. Sky radiance at a coastline and effects of land and ocean reflectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kreuter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique case study of the spectral sky radiance distribution above a coastline. Results are shown from a measurement campaign in Italy involving three diode array spectroradiometers which are compared to 3-D model simulations from the Monte Carlo model MYSTIC. On the coast, the surrounding is split into two regions, a diffusely reflecting land surface and a water surface which features a highly anisotropic reflectance function. The reflectivities and hence the resulting radiances are a nontrivial function of solar zenith and azimuth angle and wavelength. We show that for low solar zenith angles (SZAs around noon, the higher land albedo causes the sky radiance at 20° above the horizon to increase by 50 % in the near infrared at 850 nm for viewing directions towards the land with respect to the ocean. Comparing morning and afternoon radiances highlights the effect of the ocean's sun glint at high SZA, which contributes around 10 % to the measured radiance ratios. The model simulations generally agree with the measurements to better than 10 %. We investigate the individual effects of model input parameters representing land and ocean albedo and aerosols. Different land and ocean bi-directional reflectance functions (BRDFs do not generally improve the model agreement. However, consideration of the uncertainties in the diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth can explain the remaining discrepancies between measurements and model. We further investigate the anisotropy effect of the ocean BRDF which is featured in the zenith radiances. Again, the uncertainty of the aerosol loading is dominant and obscures the modelled sun glint effect of 7 % at 650 nm. Finally, we show that the effect on the zenith radiance is restricted to a few kilometres from the coastline by model simulations along a perpendicular transect and by comparing the radiances at the coast to those measured at a site 15 km inland. Our findings are relevant to

  4. Model for the angular distribution of sky radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Brunger, A P

    1979-08-01

    A flexible mathematical model is introduced which describes the radiance of the dome of the sky under various conditions. This three-component continuous distribution (TCCD) model is compounded by the superposition of three separate terms, the isotropic, circumsolar and horizon brightening terms, each representing the contribution of a particular sky characteristic. In use a particular sky condition is characterized by the values of the coefficients of each of these three terms, defining the distribution of the total diffuse component. The TCCD model has been demonstrated to fit both the normalized clear sky data and the normalized overcast sky data with an RMS error of about ten percent of the man overall sky radiance. By extension the model could describe variable or partly clouded sky conditions. The model can aid in improving the prediction of solar collector performance.

  5. Observed Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance in the Transition Zone Between Cloud-Free and Cloudy Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, C.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) looks straight up and measures zenith radiance at 418 wavelengths between 350 and 2200 nm. Because of its 1-sec sampling resolution, the SWS provides a unique capability to study the transition zone between cloudy and clear sky areas. A surprising spectral invariant behavior is found between ratios of zenith radiance spectra during the transition from cloudy to cloud-free atmosphere. This behavior suggests that the spectral signature of the transition zone is a linear mixture between the two extremes (definitely cloudy and definitely clear). The weighting function of the linear mixture is found to be a wavelength-independent characteristic of the transition zone. It is shown that the transition zone spectrum is fully determined by this function and zenith radiance spectra of clear and cloudy regions. This new finding may help us to better understand and quantify such physical phenomena as humidification of aerosols in the relatively moist cloud environment and evaporation and activation of cloud droplets.

  6. Estimate of Radiosonde Dry Bias From Far-Infrared Measurements on the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, R.; Maestri, T.; Arosio, C.

    2018-03-01

    The experimental data set of downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground in clear conditions during 2013 by a Far-Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome-C, Antarctica, presented in Rizzi et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025341) is used to estimate the effect of solar heating of the radiosonde humidity sensor, called dry bias. The effect is quite evident comparing residuals for the austral summer and winter clear cases and can be modeled by an increase of the water vapor concentration at all levels by about 15%. Such an estimate has become possible only after a new version of the simulation code and spectroscopic data has become available, which has substantially improved the modeling of water vapor absorption in the far infrared. The negative yearly spectral bias reported in Rizzi et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025341) is in fact greatly reduced when compared to the same measurement data set.

  7. Technology for detecting spectral radiance by a snapshot multi-imaging spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Stührmann, Ansgar; Gugg-Helminger, Anton; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2017-12-01

    Technologies to determine spectral sky radiance distributions have evolved in recent years and have enabled new applications in remote sensing, for sky radiance measurements, in biological/diagnostic applications and luminance measurements. Most classical spectral imaging radiance technologies are based on mechanical and/or spectral scans. However, these methods require scanning time in which the spectral radiance distribution might change. To overcome this limitation, different so-called snapshot spectral imaging technologies have been developed that enable spectral and spatial non-scanning measurements. We present a new setup based on a facet mirror that is already used in imaging slicing spectrometers. By duplicating the input image instead of slicing it and using a specially designed entrance slit, we are able to select nearly 200 (14 × 14) channels within the field of view (FOV) for detecting spectral radiance in different directions. In addition, a megapixel image of the FOV is captured by an additional RGB camera. This image can be mapped onto the snapshot spectral image. In this paper, the mechanical setup, technical design considerations and first measurement results of a prototype are presented. For a proof of concept, the device is radiometrically calibrated and a 10 mm × 10 mm test pattern measured within a spectral range of 380 nm-800 nm with an optical bandwidth of 10 nm (full width at half maximum or FWHM). To show its potential in the UV spectral region, zenith sky radiance measurements in the UV of a clear sky were performed. Hence, the prototype was equipped with an entrance optic with a FOV of 0.5° and modified to obtain a radiometrically calibrated spectral range of 280 nm-470 nm with a FWHM of 3 nm. The measurement results have been compared to modeled data processed by UVSPEC, which showed deviations of less than 30%. This is far from being ideal, but an acceptable result with respect to available state

  8. Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg (Germany); Shields, J. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Ground-based cloud data acquired with the whole sky imager (WSI) are analyzed in relation to measurements of solar radiation performed at the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory. Cloud fractions derived by the cloud detection algorithm from WSI images acquired during daylight hours between 2002 and 2004 are compared with conventional cloud observations for the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and also with ceilometer data of cloud-base heights at Lindenberg. The comparison statistics are discussed in the context of different principles of measurement. A few case studies illustrate the strong scattering effect of clouds on solar radiance and irradiance measured at the ground in different spectral regions. Particularly clouds close to the apparent position of the sun lead to strong enhancements of solar diffuse irradiance incident on horizontal planes and hemispheres that substantially exceed corresponding clear-sky values. Irradiances derived from WSI sky radiance fields are shown in comparison to pyranometer data of diffuse irradiance and radiative transfer model calculations performed for clear sky conditions. Examples of spectral sky radiances with moving contrails illustrate the significant enhancement the contrails have compared to clear sky, even though they may have a relatively small direct effect on global irradiance values. As contrails are observed at Lindenberg for about 18 to 19% of daylight hours, and part of them become clouds, the indirect impact of these changes on solar irradiance received at the ground may not be negligible. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying the clear-sky bias of satellite-derived infrared LST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, S. L.; Trigo, I. F.; DaCamara, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most relevant parameters when addressing the physical processes that take place at the surface of the Earth. Satellite data are particularly appropriate for measuring LST over the globe with high temporal resolution. Remote-sensed LST estimation from space-borne sensors has been systematically performed over the Globe for nearly 3 decades and geostationary LST climate data records are now available. The retrieval of LST from satellite observations generally relies on measurements in the thermal infrared (IR) window. Although there is a large number of IR sensors on-board geostationary satellites and polar orbiters suitable for LST retrievals with different temporal and spatial resolutions, the use of IR observations limits LST estimates to clear sky conditions. As a consequence, climate studies based on IR LST are likely to be affected by the restriction of LST data to cloudless conditions. However, such "clear sky bias" has never been quantified and, therefore, the actual impact of relying only on clear sky data is still to be determined. On the other hand, an "all-weather" global LST database may be set up based on passive microwave (MW) measurements which are much less affected by clouds. An 8-year record of all-weather MW LST is here used to quantify the clear-sky bias of IR LST at global scale based on MW observations performed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Selection of clear-sky and cloudy pixels is based on information derived from measurements performed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board the same satellite.

  10. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  11. Introducing Multisensor Satellite Radiance-Based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  12. 4SM: A Novel Self-Calibrated Algebraic Ratio Method for Satellite-Derived Bathymetry and Water Column Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann G. Morel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions; (ii in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE; (iii for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need for (i formal atmospheric correction; (ii conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance; or (iii existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM. This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a “near-nadir” view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.

  13. 4SM: A Novel Self-Calibrated Algebraic Ratio Method for Satellite-Derived Bathymetry and Water Column Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Yann G; Favoretto, Fabio

    2017-07-21

    All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i) use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions; (ii) in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE); (iii) for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB) and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need for (i) formal atmospheric correction; (ii) conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance; or (iii) existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM). This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a "near-nadir" view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.

  14. Burning and radiance properties of red phosphorus in Magnesium/PTFE/Viton (MTV)-based compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Xian; Wang, Yanli; Shi, Yuanliang; Shang, Junteng

    2017-09-01

    Red phosphorus (RP) a highly efficient smoke-producing agent. In this study different contents of RP are added into the Magnesium/PTFE/Viton (MTV)-based composition, with the aim of investigating the influence of RP on the burning and radiance properties of MTV-based composition by using a high-temperature differential thermobalance method, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) remote-sensing spectrometer, a FTIR Spectrometer and a far-infrared thermal imager. The results show that RP improves the initial reaction temperature and reduces the mass burning rate by 0.1-0.17 g·s-1 (34-59%). The addition of RP has no obvious effect on the burning temperature and far-infrared radiation brightness, but the radiating area raises substantially (by 141%), and thus improves the radiation intensity (by 155%).

  15. Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm - Sensitivity analysis and application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrere, V.; Conel, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two simple techniques to retrieve path precipitable water from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high spectral resolution radiance data (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide ratio, N/W), using the 940 nm water absorption band, are compared. Since the shape and depth of the atmospheric water bands are influenced not only by the water present but also by surface (background) reflectance, atmospheric scattering, and instrument radiance by calibration, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the radiative transfer code LOWTRAN 7 to determine which one of these two approaches will provide a better estimate over land and water areas. The CIBR proved to be the technique less sensitive to perturbing effects, except for errors in visibility estimate. Both techniques were applied to AVIRIS radiance data acquired over Salton Sea, California. Resulting images confirmed that the used of a constant gray reflectance in the model led to a higher overestimation of the amount of water retrieved for N/W over vegetated areas. Validation was performed through comparison between an independent estimate of water vapor from concurrent Reagan sunphotometer measurements and AVIRIS estimates. Amounts retrieved using the N/W approach match more closely in situ measurements, even after adjusting model parameters for background reflectance, viewing geometry and type of aerosol at the site. The 13% underestimation observed for the CIBR was explained by small differences ΔL(λ i ) between AVIRIS and LOWTRAN 7 modeled radiances. Results from this study emphasizes the importance of accurate instrument calibration in flight and correct physical modeling of atmospheric absorptions

  16. Predicting Top-of-Atmosphere Thermal Radiance Using MERRA-2 Atmospheric Data with Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kleynhans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Image data from space-borne thermal infrared (IR sensors are used for a variety of applications, however they are often limited by their temporal resolution (i.e., repeat coverage. To potentially increase the temporal availability of thermal image data, a study was performed to determine the extent to which thermal image data can be simulated from available atmospheric and surface data. The work conducted here explored the use of Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2 developed by The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA to predict top-of-atmosphere (TOA thermal IR radiance globally at time scales finer than available satellite data. For this case study, TOA radiance data was derived for band 31 (10.97 μ m of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. Two approaches have been followed, namely an atmospheric radiative transfer forward modeling approach and a supervised learning approach. The first approach uses forward modeling to predict TOA radiance from the available surface and atmospheric data. The second approach applied four different supervised learning algorithms to the atmospheric data. The algorithms included a linear least squares regression model, a non-linear support vector regression (SVR model, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP, and a convolutional neural network (CNN. This research found that the multi-layer perceptron model produced the lowest overall error rates with an root mean square error (RMSE of 1.36 W/m 2 ·sr· μ m when compared to actual Terra/MODIS band 31 image data. These studies found that for radiances above 6 W/m 2 ·sr· μ m, the forward modeling approach could predict TOA radiance to within 12 percent, and the best supervised learning approach can predict TOA to within 11 percent.

  17. Quantitative impact of aerosols on numerical weather prediction. Part II: Impacts to IR radiance assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.

  18. GOSAT and OCO-2 Inter-comparison on Measured Spectral Radiance and Retrieved Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Crisp, D.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT and grating spectrometer on OCO-2 use different measurement techniques to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and molecular oxygen (O2). Both instruments observe sunlight reflected from the Earth's surface in almost the same spectral range. As a first step in cross calibrating these two instruments, we compared spectral radiance observations within the three short wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands centered on the O2 A-band (O2A), the weak CO2 band near 1.6 microns (Weak-CO2) and 2.06 micons (Strong-CO2) bands at temporally coincident and spatially collocated points. In this work, we reconciled the different size of the footprints and evaluated at various types of surface targets such as ocean, desert and forest. For radiometric inter-comparisons, we consider long term instrument sensitivity degradation in orbit and differences in viewing geometry and associated differences in surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Measured spectral radiances agree very well within 5% for all bands. This presentation will summarize these comparisons of GOSAT and OCO-2 spectral radiance observations and associated estimates of carbon dioxide and related parameters retrieved with the same algorithm at matchup points. We will also discuss instrument related uncertainties from various target observations.

  19. MOPITT Gridded Monthly CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  20. MOPITT Gridded Monthly CO Retrievals (Near Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  1. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  2. Service Oriented Gridded Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Goldberg, M. D.; Tilmes, C.; Zhou, L.; Shen, S.; Yesha, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a scalable web service tool that can provide complex griding services on-demand for atmospheric radiance data sets from multiple temperature and moisture sounding sensors on the NASA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites collected over the past three decades. This server-to-server middle ware tool will provide the framework for transforming user requests for an arbitrary spatial/temporal/spectral gridded radiance data set from one or more instruments into an action to invoke a griding process from a set of scientifically validated application programs that have been developed to perform such functions. The invoked web service agents will access, subset, concatenate, convolve, perform statistical and physically based griding operations and present the data as specified level 3 gridded fields for analysis and visualization in multiple formats. Examples of the griding operations consist of spatial-temporal radiance averaging accounting for the field of view instrument response function, first footprint in grid bin, selecting min/max brightness temperatures within a grid element, ratios of channels, filtering, convolving high resolution spectral radiances to match broader band spectral radiances, limb adjustments, calculating variances of radiances falling in grid box and creating visual displays of these fields. The gridded web services tool will support both human input through a WWW GUI as well as a direct computer request through a W3C SOAP/XML web service interface. It will generate regional and global gridded data sets on demand. A second effort will demonstrate the ability to locate, access, subset and grid radiance data for any time period and resolution from remote archives of NOAA and NASA data. The system will queue the work flow requests, stage processing and delivery of arbitrary gridded data sets in a data base and notify the users when the request is completed. This tool will greatly expand satellite sounding data utilization by

  3. Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Iverson, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  5. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  6. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  7. Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The MFR sensor was the first cross-track scanning sensor capable of measuring ozone. MFR sensor infrared measurements are taken day and night. The satellites are in polar sun-synchronous orbits providing daily global coverage. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The MFR scans side to side in discrete steps of 40. The MFR sensor takes infrared radiance measurements at 25 cross-track scanning locations every 32 seconds. The instrument could take a theoretical maximum of 67,500 measurements per day, although typically 35,000 - 45,000 measurements are taken per day

  8. Carbon monoxide column retrieval for clear-sky and cloudy atmospheres : A full-mission data set from SCIAMACHY 2.3 μm reflectance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsdorff, Tobias; De Brugh, Joost Aan; Hu, Haili; Nédélec, Philippe; Aben, Ilse; Landgraf, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the retrieval of carbon monoxide (CO) vertical column densities from clear-sky and cloud contaminated 2311-2338 nm reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) from January 2003 until the end of the mission in April

  9. Super-radiance in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2015-01-01

    The theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena in nuclear physics is presented. The connection between super-radiance and the notion of doorway is presented. The statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open channels is discussed. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states via the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. (paper)

  10. Performance of the HIRS/2 instrument on TIROS-N. [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the TIROS-N satellite as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow radiation channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7 K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic features, operating characteristics and performance of the instrument in test are described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 is given and some observations on system quality are made.

  11. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  12. Examining Dense Data Usage near the Regions with Severe Storms in All-Sky Microwave Radiance Data Assimilation and Impacts on GEOS Hurricane Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Jin, Jianjun; McCarty, Will; El Akkraoui, Amal; Todling, Ricardo; Gelaro, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Many numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers assimilate radiances affected by clouds and precipitation from microwave sensors, with the expectation that these data can provide critical constraints on meteorological parameters in dynamically sensitive regions to make significant impacts on forecast accuracy for precipitation. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center assimilates all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave sensors such as all-sky GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), which includes the GEOS atmospheric model, the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) atmospheric analysis system, and the Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS). So far, most of NWP centers apply same large data thinning distances, that are used in clear-sky radiance data to avoid correlated observation errors, to all-sky microwave radiance data. For example, NASA GMAO is applying 145 km thinning distances for most of satellite radiance data including microwave radiance data in which all-sky approach is implemented. Even with these coarse observation data usage in all-sky assimilation approach, noticeable positive impacts from all-sky microwave data on hurricane track forecasts were identified in GEOS-5 system. The motivation of this study is based on the dynamic thinning distance method developed in our all-sky framework to use of denser data in cloudy and precipitating regions due to relatively small spatial correlations of observation errors. To investigate the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance on hurricane forecasts, several hurricane cases selected between 2016-2017 are examined. The dynamic thinning distance method is utilized in our all-sky approach to understand the sources and mechanisms to explain the benefits of all-sky microwave radiance data from various microwave radiance sensors like Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit

  13. Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Haapanala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ice clouds on solar disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0 to 8° from the center of the sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements obtained by the Sun and Aureole Measurements (SAM instrument. First, the sensitivity of the radiances to the ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness is addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances is found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in comparisons with SAM data, the ice cloud optical thickness is adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agree closely (i.e., within 3 % with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than ≈ 3° are systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, whereas the agreement with the measurements is better when rough ice crystals are assumed. Our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.

  14. Comparison of full-sky polarization and radiance observations to radiative transfer simulations which employ AERONET products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Nathan J; Dahlberg, Andrew R; Thomas, Michael J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2011-09-12

    Visible-band and near infrared polarization and radiance images measured with a ground-based full-sky polarimeter are compared against a successive orders of scattering (SOS) radiative transfer model for 2009 summer cloud-free days in Bozeman, Montana, USA. The polarimeter measures radiance and polarization in 10-nm bands centered at 450 nm, 490 nm, 530 nm, 630 nm, and 700 nm. AERONET products are used to represent aerosols in the SOS model, while MISR satellite BRF products are used for the surface reflectance. While model results generally agree well with observation, the simulated degree of polarization is typically higher than observed data. Potential sources of this difference may include cloud contamination and/or underestimation of the AERONET-retrieved aerosol real refractive index. Problems with the retrieved parameters are not unexpected given the low aerosol optical depth range (0.025 to 0.17 at 500 nm) during the study and the corresponding difficulties that these conditions pose to the AERONET inversion algorithm.

  15. RADIANCE DOMAIN COMPOSITING FOR HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Renu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High dynamic range imaging aims at creating an image with a range of intensity variations larger than the range supported by a camera sensor. Most commonly used methods combine multiple exposure low dynamic range (LDR images, to obtain the high dynamic range (HDR image. Available methods typically neglect the noise term while finding appropriate weighting functions to estimate the camera response function as well as the radiance map. We look at the HDR imaging problem in a denoising frame work and aim at reconstructing a low noise radiance map from noisy low dynamic range images, which is tone mapped to get the LDR equivalent of the HDR image. We propose a maximum aposteriori probability (MAP based reconstruction of the HDR image using Gibb’s prior to model the radiance map, with total variation (TV as the prior to avoid unnecessary smoothing of the radiance field. To make the computation with TV prior efficient, we extend the majorize-minimize method of upper bounding the total variation by a quadratic function to our case which has a nonlinear term arising from the camera response function. A theoretical justification for doing radiance domain denoising as opposed to image domain denoising is also provided.

  16. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.

    2016-01-01

    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitte...

  17. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring.

  18. Modeling Top of Atmosphere Radiance over Heterogeneous Non-Lambertian Rugged Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijafar Mousivand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects the fraction of direct and diffuse radiation received on a pixel and changes the sun–target–sensor geometry, resulting in variations in the observed radiance. Retrieval of surface–atmosphere properties from top of atmosphere radiance may need to account for topographic effects. This study investigates how such effects can be taken into account for top of atmosphere radiance modeling. In this paper, a system for top of atmosphere radiance modeling over heterogeneous non-Lambertian rugged terrain through radiative transfer modeling is presented. The paper proposes an extension of “the four-stream radiative transfer theory” (Verhoef and Bach 2003, 2007 and 2012 mainly aimed at representing topography-induced contributions to the top of atmosphere radiance modeling. A detailed account for BRDF effects, adjacency effects and topography effects on the radiance modeling is given, in which sky-view factor and non-Lambertian reflected radiance from adjacent slopes are modeled precisely. The paper also provides a new formulation to derive the atmospheric coefficients from MODTRAN with only two model runs, to make it more computationally efficient and also avoiding the use of zero surface albedo as used in the four-stream radiative transfer theory. The modeling begins with four surface reflectance factors calculated by the Soil–Leaf–Canopy radiative transfer model SLC at the top of canopy and propagates them through the effects of the atmosphere, which is explained by six atmospheric coefficients, derived from MODTRAN radiative transfer code. The top of the atmosphere radiance is then convolved with the sensor characteristics to generate sensor-like radiance. Using a composite dataset, it has been shown that neglecting sky view factor and/or terrain reflected radiance can cause uncertainty in the forward TOA radiance modeling up to 5 (mW/m2·sr·nm. It has also been shown that this level of uncertainty can be translated

  19. All-sky radiance simulation of Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used as input to the RTTOV model to simulate cloud-affected SAPHIR radiances. ... All-sky radiance simulation; Megha tropiques; microwave SAPHIR sensor; radiative transfer; data ... versions of these non-linear processes (Ohring and.

  20. Plane parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.

    1997-01-05

    This paper applies plane parallel radiance transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered radiance as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky radiance and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting radiance distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.

  1. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  2. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of less than 5%. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  3. The neuron net method for processing the clear pixels and method of the analytical formulas for processing the cloudy pixels of POLDER instrument images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, I.; Mukai, S.; Vasilyev, A.

    Data of remote measurements of reflected radiance with the POLDER instrument on board of ADEOS satellite are used for retrieval of the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter of cloudy and clear atmosphere. The method of perceptron neural network that from input values of multiangle radiance and Solar incident angle allows to obtain surface albedo, the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter in case of clear sky. Two last parameters are determined as optical average for atmospheric column. The calculation of solar radiance with using the MODTRAN-3 code with taking into account multiple scattering is accomplished for neural network learning. All mentioned parameters were randomly varied on the base of statistical models of possible measured parameters variation. Results of processing one frame of remote observation that consists from 150,000 pixels are presented. The methodology elaborated allows operative determining optical characteristics as cloudy as clear atmosphere. Further interpretation of these results gives the possibility to extract the information about total contents of atmospheric aerosols and absorbing gases in the atmosphere and create models of the real cloudiness An analytical method of interpretation that based on asymptotic formulas of multiple scattering theory is applied to remote observations of reflected radiance in case of cloudy pixel. Details of the methodology and error analysis were published and discussed earlier. Here we present results of data processing of pixel size 6x6 km In many studies the optical thickness is evaluated earlier in the assumption of the conservative scattering. But in case of true absorption in clouds the large errors in parameter obtained are possible. The simultaneous retrieval of two parameters at every wavelength independently is the advantage comparing with earlier studies. The analytical methodology is based on the transfer theory asymptotic

  4. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  5. Infrared source test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  6. Aqua AIRS L2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  7. Predicting Clear-Sky Reflectance Over Snow/Ice in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Arduini, Robert F.; Hong, Gang; Minnis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the nearinfrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 micrometers), visible (VIS; 0.63 micrometers) and vegetation (VEG; 0.86 micrometers) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. Thus, it is critical to have reliable distributions of clear-sky albedo for all of these channels. In CERES Edition 4 (Ed4), the 1.24-micrometer channel is used to retrieve cloud optical depth over snow/ice-covered surfaces. Thus, it is especially critical to accurately predict the 1.24-micrometer clear-sky albedo alpha and reflectance rho for a given location and time. Snow albedo and reflectance patterns are very complex due to surface texture, particle shapes and sizes, melt water, and vegetation protrusions from the snow surface. To minimize those effects, this study focuses on the permanent snow cover of Antarctica where vegetation is absent and melt water is minimal. Clear-sky albedos are determined as a function of solar zenith angle (SZA) from observations over all scenes determined to be cloud-free to produce a normalized directional albedo model (DRM). The DRM is used to develop alpha(SZA=0 degrees) on 10 foot grid for each season. These values provide the basis for predicting r at any location and set of viewing & illumination conditions. This paper examines the accuracy of this approach for two theoretical snow surface reflectance models.

  8. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  9. The Accuracy of RADIANCE Software in Modelling Overcast Sky Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the sky models of RADIANCE simulation software against the overcast sky condition has been carried out in order to test the accuracy of sky model of RADIANCE for modeling the overcast sky condition in Hong Kong. Two sets of data have been analysed. Firstly, data collected from a set of experiments using a physical scale model. In this experiment, the illuminance of four points inside the model was measured under real sky conditions. Secondly, the RADIANCE simulation has ...

  10. MOPITT Gridded Monthly CO Retrievals (Near and Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  11. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Near and Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  12. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  13. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Variations Derived from VIRS and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Arduini, Robert F.; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    A critical parameter for detecting clouds and aerosols and for retrieving their microphysical properties is the clear-sky radiance. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the visible (VIS; 0.63 m) and near-infrared (NIR; 1.6 or 2.13 m) channels available on same satellites as the CERES scanners. Another channel often used for cloud and aerosol, and vegetation cover retrievals is the vegetation (VEG; 0.86- m) channel that has been available on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for many years. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. Snow albedo is typically estimated without considering the underlying surface type. The albedo for a surface blanketed by snow, however, should vary with surface type because the vegetation often emerges from the snow to varying degrees depending on the vertical dimensions of the vegetation. For example, a snowcovered prairie will probably be brighter than a snowcovered forest because the snow typically falls off the trees exposing the darker surfaces while the snow on a grassland at the same temperatures will likely be continuous and, therefore, more reflective. Accounting for the vegetation-induced differences should improve the capabilities for distinguishing snow and clouds over different surface types and facilitate improvements in the accuracy of radiative transfer calculations between the snow-covered surface and the atmosphere, eventually leading to improvements in models of the energy budgets over land. This paper presents a more complete analysis of the CERES spectral clear-sky reflectances to determine the variations in clear-sky top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedos for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces for four spectral channels using data from Terra and Aqua.. The results should be valuable for improved cloud retrievals and for modeling radiation fields.

  14. Proposed New Method of Interpretation of Infrared Ship Signature Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Wilson, M.T.; Youern, K.

    2005-01-01

    new method of deriving and defining requirements for the infrared signature of new ships is presented. The current approach is to specify the maximum allowed temperature or radiance contrast of the ship with respect to its background. At present, in most NATO countries, it is the contractor’s

  15. Effects of Nighttime Light Radiance on the Sleep of the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to verify if the exposure to greater nighttime radiance is associated with changes in the sleep/wake schedule and with greater sleep disturbances. Methods: The target population was the adults (18 years and older) living in California, USA. This represents 24 million of inhabitants. A total of 3,104 subjects participated in the survey (participation rate 85.6%). The participants were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The interviews covered several topics including sleeping habits, sleep quality, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms related to menopause. Chronic insomnia was defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep for at least 3 months. Global nighttime light emissions have been collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) sensors. We extracted the radiance calibrated nighttime lights corresponding to the date of the interviews for a three by three window centered on each coordinate corresponding to an interview address. Results: Dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and/or quality was associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p=0.02). Similarly, excessive sleepiness accompanied with impaired functioning was significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Confusional arousals were also significantly associated with an increased nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Bedtime hour was linearly increasing with the intensity of nighttime radiance: the later the bedtime, the greater the nighttime radiance (p (is) less than 0.0001). Similarly, wakeup time became progressively later as the nighttime radiance increased (p (is) less than 0.0001). Both associations remained significant after controlling for age, gender and use of a night lamp in the bedroom. Circadian Rhythm Disorders were the

  16. Simultaneous measurement of spectral sky radiance by a non-scanning multidirectional spectroradiometer (MUDIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riechelmann, Stefan; Schrempf, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel non-scanning multidirectional spectroradiometer (MUDIS) measuring the spectral sky radiance as a function of zenith and azimuth angle with a high spectral and temporal resolution. The instrument is based on a hyperspectral imager and measures spectral sky radiance in the wavelength range of 250–600 nm at 113 different directions simultaneously. MUDIS has been intercalibrated with a sky scanning CCD spectroradiometer (SCCD). Sky radiance measurements have been performed with both instruments under cloudless and overcast sky. The spectral actinic irradiance derived from those measurements agrees within 8% for wavelengths higher than 320 nm. The bias between synchronous MUDIS and SCCD sky radiance measurements during cloudless and overcast sky is below 5% for 320 and 500 nm with a 1σ standard deviation of less than 10%. MUDIS enables us to perform more than 220 000 spectral sky radiance measurements instead of approximately 6000 SCCD spectral sky radiance measurements per day and to measure spatial variations of spectral sky radiance simultaneously. (paper)

  17. Sky glint correction in measurements of upward radiance above the sea surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been performed to determine the upward water-leaving radiance by non-contact measurement of the total upward and downward radiance above the sea surface from a moving ship. The method for achieving this aim is described: the radiance meters are both tilted in such a way that the upward radiance meter can 'see' that part of the measured downward radiance which would be reflected if the water surface were smooth and which is not derived directly from solar glitter. Both meters are firmly fixed in a special frame, which ensures that the required orientation is the most probable one. Time records of the measured parameters are analysed. The results are presented in several forms: frequency (histogram analysis appears to be the most promising one.

  18. Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI): Status and the aerosol explanation for extra window region emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revercomb, H.E.; Knuteson, R.O.; Best, F.A.; Dirkx, T.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    High spectral resolution observations of downwelling emission from 3 to 19 microns have been made by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Prototype at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiative Testbed (CART) site for over two years. The spectral data set from AERI provides a basis for improving clear sky radiative transfer; determining the radiative impact of clouds, including the derivation of cloud radiative properties; defining the influences of aerosols in the window regions; and retrieving boundary layer state properties, including temperature, water vapor, and other trace gases. The data stream of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated radiances is routinely provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to those science teams requesting it, and further information on the instrument and data characteristics is available in the ARM Science Team proceedings for 1993 and 1994 and in several conference publications. This paper describes the AERI status, calibration, field experiment wit a new AERI-01 and schedule, window region emissions, and future AERI plans.

  19. Approximate models for broken clouds in stochastic radiative transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doicu, Adrian; Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Loyola, Diego; Trautmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents approximate models in stochastic radiative transfer theory. The independent column approximation and its modified version with a solar source computed in a full three-dimensional atmosphere are formulated in a stochastic framework and for arbitrary cloud statistics. The nth-order stochastic models describing the independent column approximations are equivalent to the nth-order stochastic models for the original radiance fields in which the gradient vectors are neglected. Fast approximate models are further derived on the basis of zeroth-order stochastic models and the independent column approximation. The so-called “internal mixing” models assume a combination of the optical properties of the cloud and the clear sky, while the “external mixing” models assume a combination of the radiances corresponding to completely overcast and clear skies. A consistent treatment of internal and external mixing models is provided, and a new parameterization of the closure coefficient in the effective thickness approximation is given. An efficient computation of the closure coefficient for internal mixing models, using a previously derived vector stochastic model as a reference, is also presented. Equipped with appropriate look-up tables for the closure coefficient, these models can easily be integrated into operational trace gas retrieval systems that exploit absorption features in the near-IR solar spectrum. - Highlights: • Independent column approximation in a stochastic setting. • Fast internal and external mixing models for total and diffuse radiances. • Efficient optimization of internal mixing models to match reference models

  20. MOPITT Level 1 Radiances V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  1. Models for infrared atmospheric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Line and band models for infrared spectral absorption are discussed. Radiative transmittance and integrated absorptance of Lorentz, Doppler, and voigt line profiles were compared for a range of parameters. It was found that, for the intermediate path lengths, the combined Lorentz-Doppler (Voigt) profile is essential in calculating the atmospheric transmittance. Narrow band model relations for absorptance were used to develop exact formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Several continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model were compared with the numerical solutions of the wide band models. By employing the line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations, computational procedures were developed for evaluating transmittance and upwelling atmospheric radiance. Homogeneous path transmittances were calculated for selected bands of CO, CO2, and N2O and compared with experimental measurements. The upwelling radiance and signal change in the wave number interval of the CO fundamental band were also calculated.

  2. Calculation of the radiance distribution at the boundary of an isotropically scattering slab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, M; Hoenders, B.J; Rinzema, K.

    The radiance arising from an anisotropically scattering illuminated stack of n slabs is calulated using the equation of radiative transfer. It appears to be unnecessary to calculate the radiance inside the material; including only the radiance at the boundary surfaces is sufficient to obtain the

  3. Development of Multi-Sensor Global Cloud and Radiance Composites for DSCOVR EPIC Imager with Subpixel Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopenkov, K. V.; Duda, D. P.; Thieman, M. M.; Sun-Mack, S.; Su, W.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is designed to study the daytime Earth radiation budget by means of onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). EPIC imager observes in several shortwave bands (317-780 nm), while NISTAR measures the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) whole-disk radiance in shortwave and total broadband windows. Calculation of albedo and outgoing longwave flux requires a high-resolution scene identification such as the radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers. These properties have to be co-located with EPIC imager pixels to provide scene identification and to select anisotropic directional models, which are then used to adjust the NISTAR-measured radiance and subsequently obtain the global daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes. This work presents an algorithm for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-km resolution. The highest quality observation is selected by means of an aggregated rating which incorporates several factors such as the nearest time relative to EPIC observation, lowest viewing zenith angle, and others. This process provides a smoother transition and avoids abrupt changes in the merged composite data. Higher spatial accuracy in the composite product is achieved by using the inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into the EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function (PSF) defined with a half-pixel accuracy. Within every EPIC footprint, the PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed for each cloud phase and then stored within five data subsets (clear-sky, water cloud, ice cloud, total cloud, and no

  4. Using MODIS spectral information to classify sea ice scenes for CERES radiance-to-flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.; Liang, L.; Eitzen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites measure the shortwave (SW) radiance reflected from the Earth. In order to provide an estimate of the top-of-atmosphere reflected SW flux we need to know the anisotropy of the radiance reflected from the scene. Sea Ice scenes are particularly complex due to the wide range of surface conditions that comprise sea ice. For example, the anisotropy of snow-covered sea ice is quite different to that of sea ice with melt-ponds. To attempt to provide a consistent scene classification we have developed the Sea Ice Brightness Index (SIBI). The SIBI is defined as one minus the normalized difference between reflectances from the 0.469 micron and 0.858 micron bands from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. For brighter snow-covered sea ice scenes the SIBI value is close to 1.0. As the surface changes to bare ice, melt ponds, etc. the SIBI decreases. For open water the SIBI value is around 0.2-0.3. The SIBI exhibits no dependence on viewing zenith or solar zenith angle, allowing for consistent scene identification. To use the SIBI we classify clear-sky CERES field-of-views over sea ice into 3 groups; SIBI≥0.935, 0.935>SIBI≥0.85 and SIBISIBI based ADMs. Using the second metric, we see a reduction in the latitude/longitude binned mean RMS error between the ADM predicted radiance and the measured radiance from 8% to 7% in May and from 17% to 12% in July. These improvements suggest that using the SIBI to account for changes in the sea ice surface will lead to improved CERES flux retrievals.

  5. Modeling directional thermal radiance from a forest canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, M.J.; Balick, L.K.; Smith, J.A.; Hutchison, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have increased interest in utilizing the thermal-infared region to gain additional information about surface features such as vegetation canopies. Studies have shown that sensor view angle, canopy structure, and percentage of canopy coverage can affect the response of a thermal sensor. These studies have been primarily of agricultural regions and there have been relatively few examples describing the thermal characteristics of forested regions. This paper describes an extension of an existing thermal vegetation canopy radiance model which has been modified to partially account for the geometrically rough structure of a forest canopy. Fourier series expansion of a canopy height profile is used to calculate improved view factors which partially account for the directional variations in canopy thermal radiance transfers. The original and updated radiance model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained over a deciduous (oak-hickory) forest site. The experimental observations are also used to document azimuthal and nadir directional radiance variations. Maximum angular variations in measured canopy temperatures were 4–6°C (azimuth) and 2.5°C (nadir). Maximum angular variations in simulated temperatures using the modified rough surface model was 4°C. The rough surface model appeared to be sensitive to large gaps in the canopy height profile, which influenced the resultant predicted temperature. (author)

  6. General theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the radiance distribution and fluence rate within turbid samples with fiber-optic radiance microprobes contain a large variable instrumental error caused by the nonuniform directional sensitivity of the microprobes. A general theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements...

  7. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.

  8. The Cross-Calibration of Spectral Radiances and Cross-Validation of CO2 Estimates from GOSAT and OCO-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumie Kataoka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT launched in January 2009 has provided radiance spectra with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer for more than eight years. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2 launched in July 2014, collects radiance spectra using an imaging grating spectrometer. Both sensors observe sunlight reflected from Earth’s surface and retrieve atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations, but use different spectrometer technologies, observing geometries, and ground track repeat cycles. To demonstrate the effectiveness of satellite remote sensing for CO2 monitoring, the GOSAT and OCO-2 teams have worked together pre- and post-launch to cross-calibrate the instruments and cross-validate their retrieval algorithms and products. In this work, we first compare observed radiance spectra within three narrow bands centered at 0.76, 1.60 and 2.06 µm, at temporally coincident and spatially collocated points from September 2014 to March 2017. We reconciled the differences in observation footprints size, viewing geometry and associated differences in surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. We conclude that the spectral radiances measured by the two instruments agree within 5% for all bands. Second, we estimated mean bias and standard deviation of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2 retrieved from GOSAT and OCO-2 from September 2014 to May 2016. GOSAT retrievals used Build 7.3 (V7.3 of the Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS algorithm while OCO-2 retrievals used Version 7 of the OCO-2 retrieval algorithm. The mean biases and standard deviations are −0.57 ± 3.33 ppm over land with high gain, −0.17 ± 1.48 ppm over ocean with high gain and −0.19 ± 2.79 ppm over land with medium gain. Finally, our study is complemented with an analysis of error sources: retrieved surface pressure (Psurf, aerosol optical depth (AOD, BRDF and surface albedo inhomogeneity. We found no change in XCO2

  9. Wavenumber dependent investigation of the terrestrial infrared radiation budget with two versions of the LOWTRAN5 band model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Two versions of the LOWTRAN5 radiance code are used in a study of the earth's clear sky infrared radiation budget in the interval 30 per cm (333.3 microns) to 3530 per cm (2.8 microns). One version uses 5 per cm resolution and temperature dependent molecular absorption coefficients, and the second uses 20 per cm resolution and temperature independent molecular absorption coefficients. Both versions compare well with Nimbus 3 IRIS spectra, with some discrepancies at particular wavenumber intervals. Up and downgoing fluxes, calculated as functions of latitude, are displayed for wavenumbers at which the principle absorbers are active. Most of the variation of the fluxes with latitude is found in the higher wavenumber intervals for both clear and cloudy skies. The main features of the wavenumber integrated cooling rates are explained with reference to calculations in more restricted wavenumber intervals. A tropical lower tropospheric cooling maximum is produced by water vapor continuum effects in the 760-1240 per cm window. A secondary upper tropospheric cooling maximum, with wide meridional extent, is produced by water vapor rotational lines between 30-430 per cm. Water vapor lines throughout the terrestrial infrared spectrum prevent the upflux maximum from coinciding with the surface temperature maximum.

  10. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  11. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca

    2014-08-17

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  12. Use of the Vis-SWIR to Aid Atmospheric Correction of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared (TIR) Imagery: The TIR Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruninger, John; Fox, Marsha; Lee, Jamine; Ratkowski, Anthony J; Hoke, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric correction of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery involves the combined tasks of separation of atmospheric transmittance, downwelling flux and upwelling radiance from the surface material spectral emissivity and temperature...

  13. Scientific Payload Of The Emirates Mars Mission: Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (Emirs) Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunaiji, E. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Badri, K. M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) will launch in 2020 to explore the dynamics in the atmosphere of Mars on a global scale. EMM has three scientific instruments to an improved understanding of circulation and weather in the Martian lower and middle atmosphere. Two of the EMM's instruments, which are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI) and Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) will focus on the lower atmosphere observing dust, ice clouds, water vapor and ozone. On the other hand, the third instrument Emirates Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS) will focus on both the thermosphere of the planet and its exosphere. The EMIRS instrument, shown in Figure 1, is an interferometric thermal infrared spectrometer that is jointly developed by Arizona State University (ASU) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC). It builds on a long heritage of thermal infrared spectrometers designed, built, and managed, by ASU's Mars Space Flight Facility, including the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES). EMIRS operates in the 6-40+ µm range with 5 cm-1 spectral sampling, enabled by a Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) diamond beamsplitter and state of the art electronics. This instrument utilizes a 3×3 detector array and a scan mirror to make high-precision infrared radiance measurements over most of a Martian hemisphere. The EMIRS instrument is optimized to capture the integrated, lower-middle atmosphere dynamics over a Martian hemisphere and will capture 60 global images per week ( 20 images per orbit) at a resolution of 100-300 km/pixel. After processing through an atmospheric retrieval algorithm, EMIRS will determine the vertical temperature profiles to 50km altitude and measure the column integrated global distribution and abundances of key atmospheric parameters (e.g. dust, water ice (clouds) and water vapor) over the Martian day, seasons and year.

  14. High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) for the Nimbus F Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flown on Nimbus F in June 1975, the high resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) scans with a geographical resolution of 23KM and samples radiance in seventeen selected spectral channels from visible (.7 micron) to far IR (15 micron). Vertical temperature profiles and atmospheric moisture content can be inferred from the output. System operation and test results are described.

  15. Infrared and UV-visible absorption measurement at Syowa Station (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Murata,Isao; Kita,Kazuyuki; Iwagami,Naomoto; Ogawa ,Toshihiro

    1993-01-01

    Vertical column contents of some trace gases were observed by solar infrared and UV-visible absorption techniques at Syowa Station, to study the dynamics and chemistry of Antarctic ozone. HCl, HF, N_2O, OCS, CO and C_2H_6 column contents were measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 3-5

  16. Global distributions of methanol and formic acid retrieved for the first time from the IASI/MetOp thermal infrared sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Razavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol (CH3OH and formic acid (HCOOH are among the most abundant volatile organic compounds present in the atmosphere. In this work, we derive the global distributions of these two organic species using for the first time the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI launched onboard the MetOp-A satellite in 2006. This paper describes the method used and provides a first critical analysis of the retrieved products. The retrieval process follows a two-step approach in which global distributions are first obtained on the basis of a simple radiance indexing (transformed into brightness temperatures, and then mapped onto column abundances using suitable conversion factors. For methanol, the factors were calculated using a complete retrieval approach in selected regions. In the case of formic acid, a different approach, which uses a set of forward simulations for representative atmospheres, has been used. In both cases, the main error sources are carefully determined: the average relative error on the column for both species is estimated to be about 50%, increasing to about 100% for the least favorable conditions. The distributions for the year 2009 are discussed in terms of seasonality and source identification. Time series comparing methanol, formic acid and carbon monoxide in different regions are also presented.

  17. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  18. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  19. Evaluation of Daytime Evaporative Fraction from MODIS TOA Radiances Using FLUXNET Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the land surface temperature/vegetation index (LST/NDVI feature space has been widely used to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ETa or evaporative fraction (EF, defined as the ratio of latent heat flux to surface available energy. Traditionally, it is essential to pre-process satellite top of atmosphere (TOA radiances to obtain LST before estimating EF. However, pre-processing TOA radiances is a cumbersome task including corrections for atmospheric, adjacency and directional effects. Based on the contextual relationship between LST and NDVI, some studies proposed the direct use of TOA radiances instead of satellite retrieved LST products to estimate EF, and found that use of TOA radiances is applicable in some regional studies. The purpose of the present study is to test the robustness of the TOA radiances based EF estimation scheme over different climatic and surface conditions. Flux measurements from 16 FLUXNET (a global network of eddy covariance towers sites were used to validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS TOA radiances estimated daytime EF. It is found that the EF estimates perform well across a wide variety of climate and biome types—Grasslands, crops, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic, closed shrublands, mixed forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, and savannas. The overall mean bias error (BIAS, mean absolute difference (MAD, root mean square difference (RMSD and correlation coefficient (R values for all the sites are 0.018, 0.147, 0.178 and 0.590, respectively, which are comparable with published results in the literature. We conclude that the direct use of measured TOA radiances instead of LST to estimate daytime EF can avoid complex atmospheric corrections associated with the satellite derived products, and would facilitate the relevant applications where minimum pre-processing is important.

  20. Theory of equidistant three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Fiber-optic radiance microprobes, increasingly applied for measurements of internal light fields in living tissues, provide three-dimensional radiance distribution solids and radiant energy fluence rates at different depths of turbid samples. These data are, however, distorted because of an inher...... of application is presented. The limitations of this theory and the prospects for this approach are discussed....... of an inherent feature of optical fibers: nonuniform angular sensitivity. Because of this property a radiance microprobe during a single measurement partly underestimates light from the envisaged direction and partly senses light from other directions. A theory of three-dimensional equidistant radiance...

  1. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system. Performance evaluation of zeolite column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hidenori; Uozumi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At electrorefining process, fission products(FPs) accumulate in molten salt. To avoid influence on heating control by decay heat and enlargement of FP amount in the recovered fuel, FP elements must be removed from the spent salt of the electrorefining process. For the removal of the FPs from the spent salt, we are investigating the availability of zeolite column system. For obtaining the basic data of the column system, such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, and experimental apparatus equipped with fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. 1) We cleared up the flow parameter of column system with zeolite powder, such as flow rate control by argon pressure. 2) Zeolite 4A in the column can absorb cesium that is one of the FP elements in molten salt. From these results, we got perspective on availability of the zeolite column system. (author)

  3. Analysis of the SIAM Infrared Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G.

    1974-02-01

    This report describes and presents the results of an analysis of the performance of the infrared acquisition system for a Self-Initiated Antiaircraft Missile (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmission, and background radiance are given. Acquisition probabilities are expressed in terms of the system signal-to-noise ratio. System performance against aircraft and helicopter targets is analyzed, and background discrimination techniques are discussed. 17 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Observations and Modeling of Atmospheric Radiance Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of the work that we have undertaken is to provide new capabilities for observing and modeling structured radiance in the atmosphere, particularly the non-LTE regions of the atmosphere...

  5. The Solar Ultraviolet Environment at the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Curtis D; Diffey, Brian L

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun's direct beam, by diffuse-sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of solar zenith angles, wind speeds and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column. Diffuse-sky irradiance is usually greater than direct-sun irradiance at wavelengths below 330 nm, and reflected and water-leaving irradiance accounts for 10 at depths down to two meters and >6 down to 5 m. © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  7. Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao

    2016-01-10

    Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.

  8. High-radiance LDP source for mask inspection and beam line applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Yamatani, Daiki; Shirai, Takahiro; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. One of the key technologies to realize such inspection tools is a high-radiance EUV source of which radiance is supposed to be as high as 100 W/mm2/sr. Ushio is developing laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) sources. Ushio's LDP source is able to provide sufficient radiance as well as cleanliness, stability and reliability. Radiance behind the debris mitigation system was confirmed to be 120 W/mm2/sr at 9 kHz and peak radiance at the plasma was increased to over 200 W/mm2/sr in the recent development which supports high-throughput, high-precision mask inspection in the current and future technology nodes. One of the unique features of Ushio's LDP source is cleanliness. Cleanliness evaluation using both grazing-incidence Ru mirrors and normal-incidence Mo/Si mirrors showed no considerable damage to the mirrors other than smooth sputtering of the surface at the pace of a few nm per Gpulse. In order to prove the system reliability, several long-term tests were performed. Data recorded during the tests was analyzed to assess two-dimensional radiance stability. In addition, several operating parameters were monitored to figure out which contributes to the radiance stability. The latest model that features a large opening angle was recently developed so that the tool can utilize a large number of debris-free photons behind the debris shield. The model was designed both for beam line application and high-throughput mask inspection application. At the time of publication, the first product is supposed to be in use at the customer site.

  9. The Goddard Snow Radiance Assimilation Project: An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Snow/cold Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; Reichle, R.; Choudhury, B.; Peters-Lidard C.; Foster, J.; Hall, D.; Riggs, G.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave-based retrievals of snow parameters from satellite observations have a long heritage and have so far been generated primarily by regression-based empirical "inversion" methods based on snapshots in time. Direct assimilation of microwave radiance into physical land surface models can be used to avoid errors associated with such retrieval/inversion methods, instead utilizing more straightforward forward models and temporal information. This approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success. Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling, physical land surface modeling, and land data assimilation are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated framework for snow/cold lands modeling and radiance assimilation. The objective of the Goddard snow radiance assimilation project is to develop such a framework and explore its capabilities. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. In fact, multiple models are available for each element enabling optimization to match the needs of a particular study. Together these form a modular and flexible framework for self-consistent, physically-based remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster. Capabilities for assimilation of snow retrieval products are already under development for LIS. We will describe plans to add radiance-based assimilation capabilities. Plans for validation activities using field measurements will also be discussed.

  10. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE: CHEMICAL-FREE CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTORS BY THE RADIANCE PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiance Process is a patented dry process for removing contaminants from surfaces. It uses light, usually from a pulsed laser and a gas inert to the surface, to entrain released contaminants. The focus of this effort is to assess the applicability of the Radiance Process t...

  12. Iterative discrete ordinates solution of the equation for surface-reflected radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of numerical solution of the integral equation for the radiance reflected from an anisotropic surface. The equation relates the radiance at the surface level with BRDF and solutions of the standard radiative transfer problems for a slab with no reflection on its surfaces. It is also shown that the kernel of the equation satisfies the condition of the existence of a unique solution and the convergence of the successive approximations to that solution. The developed method features two basic steps: discretization on a 2D quadrature, and solving the resulting system of algebraic equations with successive over-relaxation method based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Presented numerical examples show good coincidence between the surface-reflected radiance obtained with DISORT and the proposed method. Analysis of contributions of the direct and diffuse (but not yet reflected) parts of the downward radiance to the total solution is performed. Together, they represent a very good initial guess for the iterative process. This fact ensures fast convergence. The numerical evidence is given that the fastest convergence occurs with the relaxation parameter of 1 (no relaxation). An integral equation for BRDF is derived as inversion of the original equation. The potential of this new equation for BRDF retrievals is analyzed. The approach is found not viable as the BRDF equation appears to be an ill-posed problem, and it requires knowledge the surface-reflected radiance on the entire domain of both Sun and viewing zenith angles.

  13. MOPITT Level 1 Radiances HDF file V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  14. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-02-01

    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Spectral Radiance Measurements in the HYMETS Arc Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hires, Drew V.; Johansen, Craig T.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Calibrated spectral radiance measurements of gaseous emission spectra have been obtained from the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A fiber-optic coupled spectrometer collected natural luminosity from the flow. Spectral radiance measurements are reported between 340 and 1000 nm. Both Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) samples were placed in the flow. Test gases studied included a mostly-N2 atmosphere (95% nitrogen, 5% argon), a simulated Earth Air atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon). The bulk enthalpy of the flow was varied as was the location of the measurement. For the intermediate flow enthalpy tested (20 MJ/kg), emission from the Mars simulant gas was about 10 times higher than the Air flow and 15 times higher than the mostly-N2 atmosphere. Shock standoff distances were estimated from the spectral radiance measurements. Within-run, run-to-run and day-to-day repeatability of the emission were studied, with significant variations (15-100%) noted.

  16. SO2 plume height retrieval from direct fitting of GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, J.; Spurr, R.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite measurements for SO2 monitoring has become an important aspect in the support of aviation control. Satellite measurements are sometimes the only information available on SO2 concentrations from volcanic eruption events. The detection of SO2 can furthermore serve as a proxy for the presence of volcanic ash that poses a possible hazard to air traffic. In that respect, knowledge of both the total vertical column amount and the effective altitude of the volcanic SO2 plume is valuable information to air traffic control. The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) hosts the ESA-funded Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). This system provides Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) worldwide with near real-time SO2 and volcanic ash data, derived from measurements from space. We present results from our algorithm for the simultaneous retrieval of total vertical columns of O3 and SO2 and effective SO2 plume height from GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements. The algorithm is an extension to the GODFIT direct fitting algorithm, initially developed at BIRA-IASB for the derivation of improved total ozone columns from satellite data. The algorithm uses parameterized vertical SO2 profiles which allow for the derivation of the peak height of the SO2 plume, along with the trace gas total column amounts. To illustrate the applicability of the method, we present three case studies on recent volcanic eruptions: Merapi (2010), Grímsvotn (2011), and Nabro (2011). The derived SO2 plume altitude values are validated with the trajectory model FLEXPART and with aerosol altitude estimations from the CALIOP instrument on-board the NASA A-train CALIPSO platform. We find that the effective plume height can be obtained with a precision as fine as 1 km for moderate and strong volcanic events. Since this is valuable information for air traffic, we aim at incorporating the plume height information in the SACS system.

  17. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  18. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MOD021KM) contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4...

  19. Use of INSAT-3D sounder and imager radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation system and its implications in the analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira Rani, S.; Taylor, Ruth; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    INSAT-3D, the first Indian geostationary satellite with sounding capability, provides valuable information over India and the surrounding oceanic regions which are pivotal to Numerical Weather Prediction. In collaboration with UK Met Office, NCMRWF developed the assimilation capability of INSAT-3D Clear Sky Brightness Temperature (CSBT), both from the sounder and imager, in the 4D-Var assimilation system being used at NCMRWF. Out of the 18 sounder channels, radiances from 9 channels are selected for assimilation depending on relevance of the information in each channel. The first three high peaking channels, the CO2 absorption channels and the three water vapor channels (channel no. 10, 11, and 12) are assimilated both over land and Ocean, whereas the window channels (channel no. 6, 7, and 8) are assimilated only over the Ocean. Measured satellite radiances are compared with that from short range forecasts to monitor the data quality. This is based on the assumption that the observed satellite radiances are free from calibration errors and the short range forecast provided by NWP model is free from systematic errors. Innovations (Observation - Forecast) before and after the bias correction are indicative of how well the bias correction works. Since the biases vary with air-masses, time, scan angle and also due to instrument degradation, an accurate bias correction algorithm for the assimilation of INSAT-3D sounder radiance is important. This paper discusses the bias correction methods and other quality controls used for the selected INSAT-3D sounder channels and the impact of bias corrected radiance in the data assimilation system particularly over India and surrounding oceanic regions.

  20. Overhead longwave infrared hyperspectral material identification using radiometric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinski, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-09

    Material detection algorithms used in hyperspectral data processing are computationally efficient but can produce relatively high numbers of false positives. Material identification performed as a secondary processing step on detected pixels can help separate true and false positives. This paper presents a material identification processing chain for longwave infrared hyperspectral data of solid materials collected from airborne platforms. The algorithms utilize unwhitened radiance data and an iterative algorithm that determines the temperature, humidity, and ozone of the atmospheric profile. Pixel unmixing is done using constrained linear regression and Bayesian Information Criteria for model selection. The resulting product includes an optimal atmospheric profile and full radiance material model that includes material temperature, abundance values, and several fit statistics. A logistic regression method utilizing all model parameters to improve identification is also presented. This paper details the processing chain and provides justification for the algorithms used. Several examples are provided using modeled data at different noise levels.

  1. Discrimination of growth and water stress in wheat by various vegetation indices through a clear a turbid atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. M.; Pinter, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance data were obtained over a drought-stressed and a well-watered wheat plot with a hand-held radiometer having bands similar to the MSS bands of the LANDSAT satellites. Data for 48 clear days were interpolated to yield reflectance values for each day of the growing season, from planting until harvest. With an atmospheric path radiance model and LANDSAT-2 calibration data, the reflectance were used to simulate LANDSAT digital counts (not quantized) for the four LANDSAT bands for each day of the growing season, through a clear (approximately 100 km meteorological range) and a turbid (approximately 10 km meteorological range) atmosphere. Several ratios and linear combinations of bands were calculated using the simulated data, then assessed for their relative ability to discriminate vegetative growth and plant stress through the two atmospheres. The results show that water stress was not detected by any of the indices until after growth was retarded, and the sensitivity of the various indices to vegetation depended on plant growth stage and atmospheric path radiance.

  2. CAMEX-3 ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER (AERI) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to make atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals. AERI provides absolutely calibrated...

  3. A Microwave Radiance Assimilation Study for a Tundra Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Durand, Michael; Margulis, Steve; England, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have begun exploring the assimilation of microwave radiances for the modeling and retrieval of snow properties. At a point scale, and for short durations (i week), radiance assimilation (RA) results are encouraging. However, in order to determine how practical RA might be for snow retrievals when applied over longer durations, larger spatial scales, and/or different snow types, we must expand the scope of the tests. In this paper we use coincident microwave radiance measurements and station data from a tundra site on the North Slope of Alaska. The field data are from the 3rd Radio-brightness Energy Balance Experiment (REBEX-3) carried out in 1994-95 by the University of Michigan. This dataset will provide a test of RA over months instead of one week, and for a very different type of snow than previous snow RA studies. We will address the following questions: flow well can a snowpack physical model (SM), forced with local weather, match measured conditions for a tundra snowpack?; How well can a microwave emission model, driven by the snowpack model, match measured microwave brightnesses for a tundra snowpack?; How well does RA increase or decrease the fidelity of estimates of snow depth and temperatures for a tundra snowpack?

  4. Infrared spectroscopy for geologic interpretation of TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    1986-01-01

    The Portable Field Emission Spectrometer (PFES) was designed to collect meaningful spectra in the field under climatic, thermal, and sky conditions that approximate those at the time of the overflight. The specifications and procedures of PFES are discussed. Laboratory reflectance measurements of rocks and minerals were examined for the purpose of interpreting Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data. The capability is currently being developed to perform direct laboratory measurement of the normal spectral radiance of Earth surface materials at low temperatures (20 to 30 C) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Predicting top-of-atmosphere radiance for arbitrary viewing geometries from the visible to thermal infrared: generalization to arbitrary average scene temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Christopher J.; Cota, Steve A.; Gaffney, Stephanie K.

    2010-08-01

    In a companion paper presented at this conference we described how The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) may be used in conjunction with a limited number of runs of AFRL's MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code, to quickly predict the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance received in the visible through midwave IR (MWIR) by an earth viewing sensor, for any arbitrary combination of solar and sensor elevation angles. The method is particularly useful for large-scale scene simulations where each pixel could have a unique value of reflectance/emissivity and temperature, making the run-time required for direct prediction via MODTRAN4 prohibitive. In order to be self-consistent, the method described requires an atmospheric model (defined, at a minimum, as a set of vertical temperature, pressure and water vapor profiles) that is consistent with the average scene temperature. MODTRAN4 provides only six model atmospheres, ranging from sub-arctic winter to tropical conditions - too few to cover with sufficient temperature resolution the full range of average scene temperatures that might be of interest. Model atmospheres consistent with intermediate temperature values can be difficult to come by, and in any event, their use would be too cumbersome for use in trade studies involving a large number of average scene temperatures. In this paper we describe and assess a method for predicting TOA radiance for any arbitrary average scene temperature, starting from only a limited number of model atmospheres.

  6. Hyperspectral material identification on radiance data using single-atmosphere or multiple-atmosphere modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adrian V.; Grossmann, John M.

    2010-11-01

    Reflectance-domain methods convert hyperspectral data from radiance to reflectance using an atmospheric compensation model. Material detection and identification are performed by comparing the compensated data to target reflectance spectra. We introduce two radiance-domain approaches, Single atmosphere Adaptive Cosine Estimator (SACE) and Multiple atmosphere ACE (MACE) in which the target reflectance spectra are instead converted into sensor-reaching radiance using physics-based models. For SACE, known illumination and atmospheric conditions are incorporated in a single atmospheric model. For MACE the conditions are unknown so the algorithm uses many atmospheric models to cover the range of environmental variability, and it approximates the result using a subspace model. This approach is sometimes called the invariant method, and requires the choice of a subspace dimension for the model. We compare these two radiance-domain approaches to a Reflectance-domain ACE (RACE) approach on a HYDICE image featuring concealed materials. All three algorithms use the ACE detector, and all three techniques are able to detect most of the hidden materials in the imagery. For MACE we observe a strong dependence on the choice of the material subspace dimension. Increasing this value can lead to a decline in performance.

  7. Model and measurements of linear mixing in thermal IR ground leaving radiance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Lee; Clodius, William; Jeffery, Christopher; Theiler, James; McCabe, Matthew; Gillespie, Alan; Mushkin, Amit; Danilina, Iryna

    2007-10-01

    Hyperspectral thermal IR remote sensing is an effective tool for the detection and identification of gas plumes and solid materials. Virtually all remotely sensed thermal IR pixels are mixtures of different materials and temperatures. As sensors improve and hyperspectral thermal IR remote sensing becomes more quantitative, the concept of homogeneous pixels becomes inadequate. The contributions of the constituents to the pixel spectral ground leaving radiance are weighted by their spectral emissivities and their temperature, or more correctly, temperature distributions, because real pixels are rarely thermally homogeneous. Planck's Law defines a relationship between temperature and radiance that is strongly wavelength dependent, even for blackbodies. Spectral ground leaving radiance (GLR) from mixed pixels is temperature and wavelength dependent and the relationship between observed radiance spectra from mixed pixels and library emissivity spectra of mixtures of 'pure' materials is indirect. A simple model of linear mixing of subpixel radiance as a function of material type, the temperature distribution of each material and the abundance of the material within a pixel is presented. The model indicates that, qualitatively and given normal environmental temperature variability, spectral features remain observable in mixtures as long as the material occupies more than roughly 10% of the pixel. Field measurements of known targets made on the ground and by an airborne sensor are presented here and serve as a reality check on the model. Target spectral GLR from mixtures as a function of temperature distribution and abundance within the pixel at day and night are presented and compare well qualitatively with model output.

  8. Snowpack modeling in the context of radiance assimilation for snow water equivalent mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M. T.; Kim, R. S.; Li, D.; Dumont, M.; Margulis, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation is often touted as a means of overcoming deficiences in both snowpack modeling and snowpack remote sensing. Direct assimilation of microwave radiances, rather than assimilating microwave retrievals, has shown promise, in this context. This is especially the case for deep mountain snow, which is often assumed to be infeasible to measure with microwave measurements, due to saturation issues. We first demonstrate that the typical way of understanding saturation has often been misunderstood. We show that deep snow leads to a complex microwave signature, but not to saturation per se, because of snowpack stratigraphy. This explains why radiance assimilation requires detailed snowpack models that adequatley stratgigraphy to function accurately. We examine this with two case studies. First, we show how the CROCUS predictions of snowpack stratigraphy allows for assimilation of airborne passive microwave measurements over three 1km2 CLPX Intensive Study Areas. Snowpack modeling and particle filter analysis is performed at 120 m spatial resolution. When run without the benefit of radiance assimilation, CROCUS does not fully capture spatial patterns in the data (R2=0.44; RMSE=26 cm). Assimlilation of microwave radiances for a single flight recovers the spatial pattern of snow depth (R2=0.85; RMSE = 13 cm). This is despite the presence of deep snow; measured depths range from 150 to 325 cm. Adequate results are obtained even for partial forest cover, and bias in precipitation forcing. The results are severely degraded if a three-layer snow model is used, however. The importance of modeling snowpack stratigraphy is highlighted. Second, we compare this study to a recent analysis assimilating spaceborne radiances for a 511 km2 sub-watershed of the Kern River, in the Sierra Nevada. Here, the daily Level 2A AMSR-E footprints (88 km2) are assimilated into a model running at 90 m spatial resolution. The three-layer model is specially adapted to predict "effective

  9. Platform and Environmental Effects on Above- and In-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Morel, Andre; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side of the ship. Two above-water methods were used to create a diagnostic variable to quantify the presence of superstructure reflections which degraded the above-water intracomparisons of water-leaving radiances by 10.9-33.4% (for far-to-near viewing distances, respectively). The primary conclusions of the above- and in-water intercomparison of water-leaving radiances were as follows: a) the SeaWiFS 5% radiometric objective was achieved with the above-water approach, but reliably with only one method and only for about half the data; b) a decrease in water-leaving radiance values was seen in the presence of swell, although, wave crests were radiometrically brighter than the troughs; and c) standard band ratios used in ocean color algorithms remained severely affected, because of the relatively low signal and, thus, proportionally significant contamination at the 555nm wavelength.

  10. Sky-Radiance Models for Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Dalimonte, D.; Santos, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Photon-tracing can be initialized through sky-radiance (Lsky) distribution models when executing Monte Carlo simulations for ocean color studies. To be effective, the Lsky model should: 1) properly represent sky-radiance features of interest; 2) require low computing time; and 3) depend on a limited number of input parameters. The present study verifies the satisfiability of these prerequisite by comparing results from different Lsky formulations. Specifically, two Lsky models were considered as reference cases because of their different approach among solutions presented in the literature. The first model, developed by the Harrisson and Coombes (HC), is based on a parametric expression where the sun geometry is the unique input. The HC model is one of the sky-radiance analytical distribution applied in state-of-art simulations for ocean optics. The coefficients of the HC model were set upon broad-band field measurements and the result is a model that requires a few implementation steps. The second model, implemented by Zibordi and Voss (ZV), is based on physical expressions that accounts for the optical thickness of permanent gases, aerosol, ozone and water vapour at specific wavelengths. Inter-comparisons between normalized ^LskyZV and ^LskyHC (i.e., with unitary scalar irradiance) are discussed by means of individual polar maps and percent difference between sky-radiance distributions. Sky-radiance cross-sections are presented as well. Considered cases include different sun zenith values and wavelengths (i.e., λ=413, 490 and 665 nm, corresponding to selected center-bands of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS). Results have shown a significant convergence between ^LskyHC and ^LskyZV at 665 nm. Differences between models increase with the sun zenith and mostly with wavelength. For Instance, relative differences up to 50% between ^ L skyHC and ^ LskyZV can be observed in the antisolar region for λ=665 nm and θ*=45°. The effects of these

  11. Six years of total ozone column measurements from SCIAMACHY nadir observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Fayt, C.; Spurr, R.; Lichtenberg, G.; von Bargen, A.

    2009-04-01

    Total O3 columns have been retrieved from six years of SCIAMACHY nadir UV radiance measurements using SDOAS, an adaptation of the GDOAS algorithm previously developed at BIRA-IASB for the GOME instrument. GDOAS and SDOAS have been implemented by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in the version 4 of the GOME Data Processor (GDP) and in version 3 of the SCIAMACHY Ground Processor (SGP), respectively. The processors are being run at the DLR processing centre on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA). We first focus on the description of the SDOAS algorithm with particular attention to the impact of uncertainties on the reference O3 absorption cross-sections. Second, the resulting SCIAMACHY total ozone data set is globally evaluated through large-scale comparisons with results from GOME and OMI as well as with ground-based correlative measurements. The various total ozone data sets are found to agree within 2% on average. However, a negative trend of 0.2-0.4%/year has been identified in the SCIAMACHY O3 columns; this probably originates from instrumental degradation effects that have not yet been fully characterized.

  12. Six years of total ozone column measurements from SCIAMACHY nadir observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lichtenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Total O3 columns have been retrieved from six years of SCIAMACHY nadir UV radiance measurements using SDOAS, an adaptation of the GDOAS algorithm previously developed at BIRA-IASB for the GOME instrument. GDOAS and SDOAS have been implemented by the German Aerospace Center (DLR in the version 4 of the GOME Data Processor (GDP and in version 3 of the SCIAMACHY Ground Processor (SGP, respectively. The processors are being run at the DLR processing centre on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA. We first focus on the description of the SDOAS algorithm with particular attention to the impact of uncertainties on the reference O3 absorption cross-sections. Second, the resulting SCIAMACHY total ozone data set is globally evaluated through large-scale comparisons with results from GOME and OMI as well as with ground-based correlative measurements. The various total ozone data sets are found to agree within 2% on average. However, a negative trend of 0.2–0.4%/year has been identified in the SCIAMACHY O3 columns; this probably originates from instrumental degradation effects that have not yet been fully characterized.

  13. Radiance intensity enhanced by thin inhomogeneous lossy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Ni Bo

    2004-01-01

    Basically, the classical radiative transfer theory assumes that the coherent component of the radiation field is equal to zero and heuristic considerations about energy conservation are used in the phenomenological derivation of the RTE. Here a self-consistent theory is presented to investigate radiative transport in the presence of diffraction processes within thin inhomogeneous films. The problem of linear optics about the transport of scalar radiation within film is solved, a new definition of the radiance is introduced in agreement with earlier definitions and a corresponding radiative transfer equation is derived. The influence of spatial variations of the bulk properties on the propagating mode is described in detail. It is analytically predicted that, unlike homogeneous media, an inhomogeneous film can enhance the radiance intensity in spite of the diffraction and the local extinction. From a practical point of view, the results of this work should be useful to perform the optimal design for many thermoelectric devices such as the new generations of photovoltaiec cells

  14. Analytical properties of the radiance in atmospheric radiative transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated mathematically strictly that state density functions, as the radiance (specific intensity), exist to describe certain state properties of transported photons on microscopic and the state of the radiation field on macroscopic scale, which have independent physical meanings. Analytical properties as boundedness, continuity, differentiability and integrability of these functions to describe the photon transport are discussed. It is shown that the density functions may be derived based on the assumption of photons as real particles of non-zero and finite size, independently of usual electrodynamics, and certain historically postulated functional relationships between them were proved, that is, these functions can be derived mathematically strictly and consistently within the framework of the theory of the phenomenological radiative transfer if one takes the theory seriously by really assuming photons as particles. In this sense these functions may be treated as fundamental physical quantities within the scope of this theory, if one considers the possibility of the existence of photons. -- Highlights: • Proof of existence of the radiance within the scope of the theory of atmospheric radiative transfer. • Proof of relations between the photon number and photon energy density function and the radiance. • Strictly mathematical derivation of the analytical properties of these state density functions

  15. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  16. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  17. IASI hyperspectral radiances in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR assimilation system: OSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; Srinivas, D.; George, John P.; Dasgupta, Munmun

    2016-04-01

    Accuracy of global NWP depends more on the contribution of satellite data than the surface based observations. This is achieved through the better usage of satellite data within the data assimilation system. Efforts are going on at NCMRWF to add more and more satellite data in the assimilation system both from Indian and international satellites in geostationary and polar orbits. Impact of the new dataset is assessed through Observation System Experiments (OSEs), through which the impact of the data is evaluated comparing the forecast output with that of a control run. This paper discusses one such OSEs with Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp-A and B. IASI is the main payload instrument for the purpose of supporting NWP. IASI provides information on the vertical structure of the atmospheric temperature and humidity with an accuracy of 1K and a vertical resolution of 1 km, which is necessary to improve NWP. IASI measures the radiance emitted from the Earth in 8641 channels, covering the spectral interval 645-2760 cm-1. The high volume data resulting from IASI presents many challenges, particularly in the area of assimilation. Out of these 8641 channels, 314 channels are selected depending on the relevance of information in each channel to assimilate in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR assimilation system. Studies show that the use of IASI data in NWP accounts for 40% of the impact of all satellite observations in the NWP forecasts, especially microwave and hyperspectral infrared sounding techniques are found to give the largest impacts

  18. A clear-sky hyperspectral closure study for MERRA-2 and ERA-interim reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Huang, X.; Loeb, N. G.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Dolinar, E. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Kato, S.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    We carried out a clear-sky radiance closure study to compare four sets of synthetic AIRS spectra to 51 AIRS L1 spectra over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The AIRS observations were made when the ARM SGP cloud radar identified cloud free situation for 50-km region within the SGP site. Four sets of synthetic AIRS spectra are calculated using collocated atmospheric profiles from ARM SGP sounding, AIRS L2 retrievals, MERRA-2 and ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. Only channels that are sensitive to temperature, CO2 and water vapor and not to other trace gases are selected for study. The selected channels are further divided into different groups according to their sensitivities to the emission from different vertical levels and to H2O and CO2, respectively. Observed and synthetic radiances of each group are then examined. For synthetic spectra using the AIRS L2 retrievals or the ARM SGP sounding profiles, the brightness temperature (BT) differences between synthetic and observed ones are within ±0.5 K or even smaller, for all groups and for all four seasons. For MERRA-2 and ECMWF-interim reanalyses, the BT differences from observations for each CO2 group are generally within ±0.5 K, indicating good agreements with respect to temperature profiles in the reanalyses. The BT differences for H2O groups are all negative, ranging from -0.5K to -1.5K. The largest BT difference is -1.5K for H2O channels peaking at 400-200 hPa. Such BT difference is persistent when the synthetic radiances based on reanalyses are compared with observed ones for the entire zone of 30°N-40°N. These comparisons imply that the reanalyses can represent the temperature profile well but there is persistent wet bias in the reanalyses, especially for the upper troposphere. The water vapor at 400-200 hPa in reanalyses needs to be adjusted by about -0.01 g/kg in order to reach agreement with the observed radiances.

  19. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  20. Use of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances AIRS would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The temperature profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The AIRS Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based

  1. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  2. SPITZER'S MID-INFRARED VIEW ON AN OUTER-GALAXY INFRARED DARK CLOUD CANDIDATE TOWARD NGC 7538

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieswijk, W. F.; Spaans, M.; Shipman, R. F.; Teyssier, D.; Carey, S. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) represent the earliest observed stages of clustered star formation, characterized by large column densities of cold and dense molecular material observed in silhouette against a bright background of mid-IR emission. Up to now, IRDCs were predominantly known toward the

  3. Insights into Tikhonov regularization: application to trace gas column retrieval and the efficient calculation of total column averaging kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Borsdorff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Insights are given into Tikhonov regularization and its application to the retrieval of vertical column densities of atmospheric trace gases from remote sensing measurements. The study builds upon the equivalence of the least-squares profile-scaling approach and Tikhonov regularization method of the first kind with an infinite regularization strength. Here, the vertical profile is expressed relative to a reference profile. On the basis of this, we propose a new algorithm as an extension of the least-squares profile scaling which permits the calculation of total column averaging kernels on arbitrary vertical grids using an analytic expression. Moreover, we discuss the effective null space of the retrieval, which comprises those parts of a vertical trace gas distribution which cannot be inferred from the measurements. Numerically the algorithm can be implemented in a robust and efficient manner. In particular for operational data processing with challenging demands on processing time, the proposed inversion method in combination with highly efficient forward models is an asset. For demonstration purposes, we apply the algorithm to CO column retrieval from simulated measurements in the 2.3 μm spectral region and to O3 column retrieval from the UV. These represent ideal measurements of a series of spaceborne spectrometers such as SCIAMACHY, TROPOMI, GOME, and GOME-2. For both spectral ranges, we consider clear-sky and cloudy scenes where clouds are modelled as an elevated Lambertian surface. Here, the smoothing error for the clear-sky and cloudy atmosphere is significant and reaches several percent, depending on the reference profile which is used for scaling. This underlines the importance of the column averaging kernel for a proper interpretation of retrieved column densities. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing due to regularization can be underestimated by calculating the column averaging kernel on a too coarse vertical grid. For both

  4. The Light-Field of Microbenthic Communities - Radiance Distribution and Microscale Optics of Sandy Coastal Sediments Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    radiance distribution. Comparison of light fields in wet and dry quartz sand showed that the lower refractive index of air than of water caused a more forward-biased scattering in wet sand. Light penetration was therefore deeper and surface irradiance reflectance was lower in wet sand than in dry sand......The light field in coastal sediments was investigated at a spatial resolution of 0.2-0.5 mm by spectral measurements (450-850 nm) of field radiance and scalar irradiance using fiber-optic microprobes. Depth profiles of field radiance were measured with radiance microprobes at representative angles...... relative to vertically incident collimated light in rinsed quartz sand and in a coastal sandy sediment colonized by microalgae. Upwelling and downwelling components of irradiance and scalar irradiance were calculated from the radiance distributions. Calculated total scalar irradiance agreed well...

  5. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  6. Observation of Tidal Effects on LWIR Radiance Above the Mesopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    ..., and season The local-time dependence, in particular, suggests a role for atmospheric tides using a tidal model, Global Scale Wave Model, and our non-GTE ARC rode, we modeled the 15 Om radiance...

  7. Infrared signature modelling of a rocket jet plume - comparison with flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rialland, V; Perez, P; Roblin, A; Guy, A; Gueyffier, D; Smithson, T

    2016-01-01

    The infrared signature modelling of rocket plumes is a challenging problem involving rocket geometry, propellant composition, combustion modelling, trajectory calculations, fluid mechanics, atmosphere modelling, calculation of gas and particles radiative properties and of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper presents ONERA simulation tools chained together to achieve infrared signature prediction, and the comparison of the estimated and measured signatures of an in-flight rocket plume. We consider the case of a solid rocket motor with aluminized propellant, the Black Brant sounding rocket. The calculation case reproduces the conditions of an experimental rocket launch, performed at White Sands in 1997, for which we obtained high quality infrared signature data sets from DRDC Valcartier. The jet plume is calculated using an in-house CFD software called CEDRE. The plume infrared signature is then computed on the spectral interval 1900-5000 cm -1 with a step of 5 cm -1 . The models and their hypotheses are presented and discussed. Then the resulting plume properties, radiance and spectra are detailed. Finally, the estimated infrared signature is compared with the spectral imaging measurements. The discrepancies are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  8. The 2003 edition of geisa: a spectroscopic database system for the second generation vertical sounders radiance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Lmd Team

    The GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) computer accessible database system, in its former 1997 and 2001 versions, has been updated in 2003 (GEISA-03). It is developed by the ARA (Atmospheric Radiation Analysis) group at LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France) since 1974. This early effort implemented the so-called `` line-by-line and layer-by-layer '' approach for forward radiative transfer modelling action. The GEISA 2003 system comprises three databases with their associated management softwares: a database of spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located in a spectral range from the microwave to the limit of the visible. The featured molecules are of interest in studies of the terrestrial as well as the other planetary atmospheres, especially those of the Giant Planets. a database of absorption cross-sections of molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons which exhibit unresolvable spectra. a database of refractive indices of basic atmospheric aerosol components. Illustrations will be given of GEISA-03, data archiving method, contents, management softwares and Web access facilities at: http://ara.lmd.polytechnique.fr The performance of instruments like AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder; http://www-airs.jpl.nasa.gov) in the USA, and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer; http://smsc.cnes.fr/IASI/index.htm) in Europe, which have a better vertical resolution and accuracy, compared to the presently existing satellite infrared vertical sounders, is directly related to the quality of the spectroscopic parameters of the optically active gases, since these are essential input in the forward models used to simulate recorded radiance spectra. For these upcoming atmospheric sounders, the so-called GEISA/IASI sub-database system has been elaborated

  9. Column studies on BTEX biodegradation under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, S.R.; Moolenaar, S.W.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Two column tests were conducted using aquifer material to simulate the nitrate field demonstration project carried out earlier at Traverse City, Michigan. The objectives were to better define the effect nitrate addition had on biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes (BTEX) in the field study, and to determine whether BTEX removal can be enhanced by supplying a limited amount of oxygen as a supplemental electron acceptor. Columns were operated using limited oxygen, limited oxygen plus nitrate, and nitrate alone. In the first column study, benzene was generally recalcitrant compared to the alkylbenzenes (TEX), although some removal did occur. In the second column study, nitrate was deleted from the feed to the column originally receiving nitrate alone and added to the feed of the column originally receiving limited oxygen alone. Although the requirement for nitrate for optimum TEX removal was clearly demonstrated in these columns, there were significant contributions by biotic and abiotic processes other than denitrification which could not be quantified

  10. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  11. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (30°). Larger VZAs detect

  12. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  13. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  15. Reflective all-sky thermal infrared cloud imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Brian J; Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Clark, R Trevor; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2018-04-30

    A reflective all-sky imaging system has been built using a long-wave infrared microbolometer camera and a reflective metal sphere. This compact system was developed for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of clouds and their optical depth in support of applications including Earth-space optical communications. The camera is mounted to the side of the reflective sphere to leave the zenith sky unobstructed. The resulting geometric distortion is removed through an angular map derived from a combination of checkerboard-target imaging, geometric ray tracing, and sun-location-based alignment. A tape of high-emissivity material on the side of the reflector acts as a reference that is used to estimate and remove thermal emission from the metal sphere. Once a bias that is under continuing study was removed, sky radiance measurements from the all-sky imager in the 8-14 μm wavelength range agreed to within 0.91 W/(m 2 sr) of measurements from a previously calibrated, lens-based infrared cloud imager over its 110° field of view.

  16. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  17. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  18. The delta-Sobolev approach for modeling solar spectral irradiance and radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xuwu.

    1990-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a solar radiation model is reported, which gives irradiance and radiance results at the bottom and top of an atmosphere of specified optical depth for each of 145 spectral intervals from 0.29 to 4.05 microns. Absorption by water vapor, aerosols, ozone, and uniformly mixed gases; scattering by molecules and aerosols; and non-Lambertian surface reflectance are included in the model. For solving the radiative transfer equation, an innovative delta-Sobolev method is developed. It applies a delta-function modification to the conventional Sobolev solutions in a way analogous to the delta-Eddington method. The irradiance solution by the delta-Sobolev method turns out to be mathematically identical to the delta-Eddington approximation. The radiance solution by the delta-Sobolov method provides a convenient way to obtain the directional distribution pattern of the radiation transfer field, a feature unable to be obtained by most commonly used approximation methods. Such radiance solutions are also especially useful in models for satellite remote sensing. The model is tested against the rigorous Dave model, which solves the radiation transfer problem by the spherical harmonic method, an accurate but very time consuming process. Good agreement between the current model results and those of Dave's model are observed. The advantages of the delta-Sobolev model are simplicity, reasonable accuracy and capability for implementation on a minicomputer or microcomputer

  19. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  20. Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Radiance Research PSAPs as described in this Handbook are deployed in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Aerosol Observing System (AOS), the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) AOS, ENA AOS and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)-A. An earlier version of the PSAP is currently operated in the ARM Aerial Facility and at SGP. The older SGP instrument is covered in a separate Handbook.

  1. Multi-sensor Cloud Retrieval Simulator and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters . Pt. 1; Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation; [Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, G.; DaSilva, A. M.; Norris, P. M.; Platnick, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating synthetic sensor radiances from variable output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint, the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probability density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The simulated sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies.We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products). We focus on clouds because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  2. Improving the description of sunglint for accurate prediction of remotely sensed radiances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, Matteo [Light and Life Laboratory, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: mottavia@stevens.edu; Spurr, Robert [RT Solutions Inc., 9 Channing Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stamnes, Knut; Li Wei [Light and Life Laboratory, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Su Wenying [Science Systems and Applications Inc., 1 Enterprise Parkway, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Wiscombe, Warren [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the ocean is a critical boundary condition for radiative transfer calculations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. Existing models express the extent of the glint-contaminated region and its contribution to the radiance essentially as a function of the wind speed. An accurate treatment of the glint contribution and its propagation in the atmosphere would improve current correction schemes and hence rescue a significant portion of data presently discarded as 'glint contaminated'. In current satellite imagery, a correction to the sensor-measured radiances is limited to the region at the edge of the glint, where the contribution is below a certain threshold. This correction assumes the sunglint radiance to be directly transmitted through the atmosphere. To quantify the error introduced by this approximation we employ a radiative transfer code that allows for a user-specified BRDF at the atmosphere-ocean interface and rigorously accounts for multiple scattering. We show that the errors incurred by ignoring multiple scattering are very significant and typically lie in the range 10-90%. Multiple reflections and shadowing at the surface can also be accounted for, and we illustrate the importance of such processes at grazing geometries.

  3. Retrieving SW fluxes from geostationary narrowband radiances for the NASA-CERES SYN1deg product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, F. J., IV; Doelling, D. R.; Liang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The CERES mission was designed to measure the natural variability of the net TOA flux over long time scales relevant to climate monitoring. To achieve this goal, CERES provides the level-3 SSF1deg, SYN1deg, and EBAF monthly 1° by 1° regional TOA flux. The single satellite (Terra or Aqua) SSF1deg 24-hour shortwave flux is based on one daytime measurements and assumes constant meteorology to model the diurnal change in albedo. To accurately describe regions with a prominent diurnal signal, the SYN1deg Edition4 dataset employs hourly geostationary (GEO) measurements. This improves upon Edition3, which used 3-hourly GEO measurements and with temporal interpolation. The EBAF product combines the temporal stability of the SSF1deg product with the diurnal information from SYN1deg and removes the CERES instrument calibration bias by constraining the net flux balance to the ocean heat storage term. The SYN-1deg product retrieves hourly SW fluxes from GEO measurements. Over regions with large diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and land afternoon convective locations, the GEO derived SW fluxes will capture the diurnal flux not observed with Terra or Aqua sun-synchronous satellites. Obtaining fluxes from geostationary satellite radiance is a multistep process. First, most GEO visible imagers lack calibration and must be calibrated to MODIS and VIIRS. Second, the GEO imager visible channel radiances are converted to broadband radiances using empirical and theoretical models. The lack of coincident, collocated, and co-angled GEO and CERES measurements makes building an empirical model difficult. The narrowband to broadband models are a function of surface and cloud conditions, which are difficult to identify due to the inconsistent cloud retrievals between the 16 GEO imagers used in the CERES record. Third, the GEO derived broadband radiances are passed through the CERES angular distribution model (ADM) to convert the radiances to fluxes. Lastly, the GEO derived

  4. HYTHIRM Radiance Modeling and Image Analyses in Support of STS-119, STS-125 and STS-128 Space Shuttle Hypersonic Re-entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David M.; Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the first geometrically accurate (i.e., 3-D) temperature maps of the entire windward surface of the Space Shuttle during hypersonic reentry. To accomplish this task we began with estimated surface temperatures derived from CFD models at integral high Mach numbers and used them, the Shuttle's surface properties and reasonable estimates of the sensor-to-target geometry to predict the emitted spectral radiance from the surface (in units of W sr-1 m-2 nm-1). These data were converted to sensor counts using properties of the sensor (e.g. aperture, spectral band, and various efficiencies), the expected background, and the atmosphere transmission to inform the optimal settings for the near-infrared and midwave IR cameras on the Cast Glance aircraft. Once these data were collected, calibrated, edited, registered and co-added we formed both 2-D maps of the scene in the above units and 3-D maps of the bottom surface in temperature that could be compared with not only the initial inputs but also thermocouple data from the Shuttle itself. The 3-D temperature mapping process was based on the initial radiance modeling process. Here temperatures were guessed for each node in a well-resolved 3-D framework, a radiance model was produced and compared to the processed imagery, and corrections to the temperature were estimated until the iterative process converged. This process did very well in characterizing the temperature structure of the large asymmetric boundary layer transition the covered much of the starboard bottom surface of STS-119 Discovery. Both internally estimated accuracies and differences with CFD models and thermocouple measurements are at most a few percent. The technique did less well characterizing the temperature structure of the turbulent wedge behind the trip due to limitations in understanding the true sensor resolution. (Note: Those less inclined to read the entire paper are encouraged to read an Executive Summary provided at the end.)

  5. Cloud Computing Infusion for Generating ESDRs of Visible Spectra Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.

    2008-12-01

    The AIRS and AVHRR instruments have been collecting radiances of the Earth in the visible spectrum for over 25 years. These measurements have been used to develop such useful products as NDVI, Snow cover and depth, Outgoing long wave radiation and other products. Yet, no long-term data record of the level 1b visible spectra is available in a grid form to researchers for various climate studies. We present here an Earth System Data Record observed in the visible spectrum as gridded radiance fields of 8kmx10km grid resolution for the six years in the case of AIRS and from 1981 to the present for AVHRR. The AIRS data has four visible channels from 0.41μm to 0.94μm with an IFOV of 1 km and AVHRR has two visible channels in the 0.58μm to 1.00μm range also at 1 km. In order to process such large amounts of data on demand, two components need to be implemented,(i) a processing system capable of gridding TBs of data in a reasonable amount of time and (ii) a download mechanism to access and deliver the data to the processing system. We implemented a cloud computing approach to be able to process such large amounts of data. We use Hadoop, a distributed computation system developed by the Apache Software Foundation. With Hadoop, we are able to store the data in a distributed fashion, taking advantage of Hadoop's distributed file system (dfs). We also take advantage of Hadoop's MapReduce functionality to perform as much computations as is possible on available nodes of the UMBC bluegrit Cell cluster system that contain the data. We make use of the SOAR system developed under the ACCESS program to acquire and process the AIRS and AVHRR observations. Comparisons of the AIRS data witth selected periods of MODIS visible spectral channels on the same sattelite indicate the two instruments have maintained calibration consistency and continuity of their measurements over the six year period. Our download mechanism transfers the data from these instruments into hadoop's dfs. Our

  6. CALIPSO IIR Version 2 Level 1b calibrated radiances: analysis and reduction of residual biases in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Anne; Trémas, Thierry; Pelon, Jacques; Lee, Kam-Pui; Nobileau, Delphine; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine; Pascal, Nicolas; Ferrage, Pascale; Scott, Noëlle A.

    2018-04-01

    Version 2 of the Level 1b calibrated radiances of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite has been released recently. This new version incorporates corrections of small but systematic seasonal calibration biases previously revealed in Version 1 data products mostly north of 30° N. These biases - of different amplitudes in the three IIR channels 8.65 µm (IIR1), 10.6 µm (IIR2), and 12.05 µm (IIR3) - were made apparent by a striping effect in images of IIR inter-channel brightness temperature differences (BTDs) and through seasonal warm biases of nighttime IIR brightness temperatures in the 30-60° N latitude range. The latter were highlighted through observed and simulated comparisons with similar channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Aqua spacecraft. To characterize the calibration biases affecting Version 1 data, a semi-empirical approach is developed, which is based on the in-depth analysis of the IIR internal calibration procedure in conjunction with observations such as statistical comparisons with similar MODIS/Aqua channels. Two types of calibration biases are revealed: an equalization bias affecting part of the individual IIR images and a global bias affecting the radiometric level of each image. These biases are observed only when the temperature of the instrument increases, and they are found to be functions of elapsed time since night-to-day transition, regardless of the season. Correction coefficients of Version 1 radiances could thus be defined and implemented in the Version 2 code. As a result, the striping effect seen in Version 1 is significantly attenuated in Version 2. Systematic discrepancies between nighttime and daytime IIR-MODIS BTDs in the 30-60° N latitude range in summer are reduced from 0.2 K in Version 1 to 0.1 K in Version 2 for IIR1-MODIS29. For IIR2-MODIS31 and IIR3-MODIS32, they are reduced from 0.4 K

  7. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval at northern mid-latitudes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a neural network algorithm. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes for the years 2004–2008 has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  8. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Moura, F.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez; Simões, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min

  9. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Instituto de Química, Laboratório Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica (LIEC), Rua Professor Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14800-90 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez [Universidade Federal de Itajubá – Unifei, Campus Itabira, Rua São Paulo, 377, Bairro Amazonas, CEP 35900-37 Itabira, MG (Brazil); Simões, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min.

  10. Measurements of total and tropospheric ozone from IASI: comparison with correlative satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boynard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present measurements of total and tropospheric ozone, retrieved from infrared radiance spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, which was launched on board the MetOp-A European satellite in October 2006. We compare IASI total ozone columns to Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 observations and ground-based measurements from the Dobson and Brewer network for one full year of observations (2008. The IASI total ozone columns are shown to be in good agreement with both GOME-2 and ground-based data, with correlation coefficients of about 0.9 and 0.85, respectively. On average, IASI ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of about 9 DU (3.3% compared to both GOME-2 and ground-based measurements. In addition to total ozone columns, the good spectral resolution of IASI enables the retrieval of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Comparisons of IASI tropospheric columns to 490 collocated ozone soundings available from several stations around the globe have been performed for the period of June 2007–August 2008. IASI tropospheric ozone columns compare well with sonde observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.77 for the [surface–6 km] and [surface–12 km] partial columns, respectively. IASI retrievals tend to overestimate the tropospheric ozone columns in comparison with ozonesonde measurements. Positive average biases of 0.15 DU (1.2% and 3 DU (11% are found for the [surface–6 km] and for the [surface–12 km] partial columns respectively.

  11. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  12. Physical Mechanism, Spectral Detection, and Potential Mitigation of 3D Cloud Effects on OCO-2 Radiances and Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, S.; Schmidt, S.; Massie, S. T.; Iwabuchi, H.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of multiple partially cloudy scenes as observed by OCO-2 in nadir and target mode (published previously and reviewed here) revealed that XCO2 retrievals are systematically biased in presence of scattered clouds. The bias can only partially be removed by applying more stringent filtering, and it depends on the degree of scene inhomogeneity as quantified with collocated MODIS/Aqua imagery. The physical reason behind this effect was so far not well understood because in contrast to cloud-mediated biases in imagery-derived aerosol retrievals, passive gas absorption spectroscopy products do not depend on the absolute radiance level and should therefore be less sensitive to 3D cloud effects and surface albedo variability. However, preliminary evidence from 3D radiative transfer calculations suggested that clouds in the vicinity of an OCO-2 footprint not only offset the reflected radiance spectrum, but introduce a spectrally dependent perturbation that affects absorbing channels disproportionately, and therefore bias the spectroscopy products. To understand the nature of this effect for a variety of scenes, we developed the OCO-2 radiance simulator, which uses the available information on a scene (e.g., MODIS-derived surface albedo, cloud distribution, and other parameters) as the basis for 3D radiative transfer calculations that can predict the radiances observed by OCO-2. We present this new tool and show examples of its utility for a few specific scenes. More importantly, we draw conclusions about the physical mechanism behind this 3D cloud effect on radiances and ultimately OCO-2 retrievals, which involves not only the clouds themselves but also the surface. Harnessed with this understanding, we can now detect cloud vicinity effects in the OCO-2 spectra directly, without actually running the 3D radiance simulator. Potentially, it is even possible to mitigate these effects and thus increase data harvest in regions with ubiquitous cloud cover such as the Amazon

  13. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  14. An interactive RADIANCE toolkit for customizable CT dose monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tessa S; Sundaram, Anand; Boonn, William W; Kim, Woojin

    2013-08-01

    The need for tools to monitor imaging-related radiation has grown dramatically in recent years. RADIANCE, a freely available open-source dose-monitoring tool, was developed in response to the need for an informatics solution in this realm. A number of open-source as well as commercial solutions have since been developed to enable radiology practices to monitor radiation dose parameters for modalities ranging from computed tomography to radiography to fluoroscopy. However, it is not sufficient to simply collect this data; it is equally important to be able to review it in the appropriate context. Most of the currently available dose-monitoring solutions have some type of reporting capability, such as a real-time dashboard or a static report. Previous versions of RADIANCE have included a real-time dashboard with pre-set screens that plot effective dose estimates according to different criteria, as well as monthly scorecards to summarize dose estimates for individuals within a radiology practice. In this work, we present the RADIANCE toolkit, a customizable reporting solution that allows users to generate reports of interest to them, summarizing a variety of metrics that can be grouped according to useful parameters. The output of the toolkit can be used for real-time dose monitoring or scheduled reporting, such as to a quality assurance committee. Making dose parameter data more accessible and more meaningful to the user promotes dose reduction efforts such as regular protocol review and optimization, and ultimately improves patient care by decreasing unnecessary radiation exposure.

  15. AIRS/Aqua L1B Infrared (IR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005 (AIRIBRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  16. AIRS/Aqua L1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006 (AIRICRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  17. Retrieving mesospheric water vapour from observations of volume scattering radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vergados

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility for a theoretical approach in the estimation of water vapour mixing ratios in the vicinity of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC using satellite observations of Volume Scattering Radiances (VSR obtained at the wavelength of 553 nm. The PMC scattering properties perturb the underlying molecular Rayleigh scattered solar radiance of the background atmosphere. As a result, the presence of PMC leads to an enhancement in the observed VSR at the altitude of the layer; the PMC VSRs are superimposed on the exponentially decreasing with height Rayleigh VSR, of the PMC-free atmosphere. The ratio between the observed and the Rayleigh VSR of the background atmosphere is used to simulate the environment in which the cloud layer is formed. In addition, a microphysical model of ice particle formation is employed to predict the PMC VSRs. The initial water vapour profile is perturbed until the modelled VSRs match the observed, at which point the corresponding temperature and water vapour profiles can be considered as a first approximation of those describing the atmosphere at the time of the observations. The role of temperature and water vapour in the cloud formation is examined by a number of sensitivity tests suggesting that the water vapour plays a dominant role in the cloud formation in agreement with experimental results. The estimated water vapour profiles are compared with independent observations to examine the model capability in the context of this study. The results obtained are in a good agreement at the peak of the PMC layer although the radiance rapidly decreases with height below the peak. This simplified scenario indicates that the technique employed can give a first approximation estimate of the water vapour mixing ratio, giving rise to the VSR observed in the presence of PMC.

  18. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R; Pandya, R; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  19. NOAA GOES-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level 1b Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument samples the radiance of the Earth in sixteen spectral bands using several arrays of detectors in the instrument’s...

  20. Infrared studies of the S235 molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J. II; Beichman, C.; Gatley, I.; Harvey, P.; Nadeau, D.; Sellgren, K.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared observations from 7.8 to 200 μm have been obtained for the S235 molecular cloud. Far-infrared maps were obtained for a region of active star formation, as marked by the presence of compact H II regions, water masers, and compact near-infrared sources. The primary heating source for the far-infrared emission appears to be the compact H II region, S235A. Detailed examination of the gas energetics in the region supports the plausibility of the picture in which the gas is heated by collisions with warm dust grains. The ratio of far-infrared optical depth to 13 CO column density is somewhat lower in this source than is commonly found. This effect may be caused by the presence of substantial 13 CO in regions where the dust is not warm enough to emit substantial 50--100 μm radiation

  1. Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of spectral radiances in a coupled air-tissue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, Kjersti; Nielsen, Kristian P; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Stamnes, Knut

    2007-04-20

    We perform a detailed comparison study of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and discrete-ordinate radiative-transfer (DISORT) calculations of spectral radiances in a 1D coupled air-tissue (CAT) system consisting of horizontal plane-parallel layers. The MC and DISORT models have the same physical basis, including coupling between the air and the tissue, and we use the same air and tissue input parameters for both codes. We find excellent agreement between radiances obtained with the two codes, both above and in the tissue. Our tests cover typical optical properties of skin tissue at the 280, 540, and 650 nm wavelengths. The normalized volume scattering function for internal structures in the skin is represented by the one-parameter Henyey-Greenstein function for large particles and the Rayleigh scattering function for small particles. The CAT-DISORT code is found to be approximately 1000 times faster than the CAT-MC code. We also show that the spectral radiance field is strongly dependent on the inherent optical properties of the skin tissue.

  2. High-latitude molecular clouds and infrared cirrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.W. de.

    1988-01-01

    The high-latitude infrared cirrus detected by IRAS is identified with atomic and molecular clouds. These clouds are small (usually less than 1 sq. deg.) and show weak CO emission. On the basis of a distance of 100 pc they are characterized by a mass of a few solar masses and a radius of about 1 pc. Thermal radiation by dust as a results of heating by the diffuse interstellar radiation field is the most-plausible origin of the cirrus emission at far-infrared wavelengths. On the basis of plausible assumptions regarding the uniformity of both the gas-to-dust ratio and the heating and cooling of the dust, the flux density at 100 μm from regions with low visual extinction should be a good tracer of the gas column density. Indeed, the data show an approximately linear proportionality between N(HI), obtained from 21-cm observations, and I 100 (HI), the flux density from dust associated with HI. If the ratio of column density to flux density in high-latitude molecular clouds is equal to the corresponding relation in atomic ones, a value for the ratio of H 2 column density to CO velocity-integrated radiation temperature may be obtained. Although low-mass clouds may be large in number, the fraction of the Galactic molecular mass in the form of these clouds is probably no more than 1%

  3. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  4. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D.; Boersma, K. F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Weiss, A. K.; Folini, D.; Eskes, H. J.; Buchmann, B.

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs) retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy) with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK) of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration) and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively). The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns) is -7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a priori and

  5. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: • Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. • Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. • Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  6. Analysis of cirrus cloud spectral signatures in the far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Tosi, E.; Veglio, P.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Di Girolamo, P.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Summa, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses high spectral resolution downwelling radiance measurements in the far infrared in the presence of cirrus clouds taken by the REFIR-PAD interferometer, deployed at 3500 m above the sea level at the Testa Grigia station (Italy), during the Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission (ECOWAR) campaign. Atmospheric state and cloud geometry are characterised by the co-located millimeter-wave spectrometer GBMS and by radiosonde profile data, an interferometer (I-BEST) and a Raman lidar system deployed at a nearby location (Cervinia). Cloud optical depth and effective diameter are retrieved from REFIR-PAD data using a limited number of channels in the 820–960 cm −1 interval. The retrieved cloud parameters are the input data for simulations covering the 250–1100 cm −1 band in order to test our ability to reproduce the REFIR-PAD spectra in the presence of ice clouds. Inverse and forward simulations are based on the same radiative transfer code. A priori information concerning cloud ice vertical distribution is used to better constrain the simulation scheme and an analysis of the degree of approximation of the phase function within the radiative transfer codes is performed to define the accuracy of computations. Simulation-data residuals over the REFIR-PAD spectral interval show an excellent agreement in the window region, but values are larger than total measurement uncertainties in the far infrared. Possible causes are investigated. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the water vapour and temperature profiles are of the same order as the sensitivity to the a priori assumption on particle habits for an up-looking configuration. In case of a down-looking configuration, errors due to possible incorrect description of the water vapour profile would be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • We analyze down-welling spectral radiances in the far infrared (FIR) spectrum. • Discuss the scattering in the fir and the ice crystals phase function

  7. Evaluation of Shortwave Infrared Atmospheric Correction for Ocean Color Remote Sensing of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODIS-Aqua) provides a viable data stream for operational water quality monitoring of Chesapeake Bay. Marine geophysical products from MODIS-Aqua depend on the efficacy of the atmospheric correction process, which can be problematic in coastal environments. The operational atmospheric correction algorithm for MODIS-Aqua requires an assumption of negligible near-infrared water-leaving radiance, nL(sub w)(NIR). This assumption progressively degrades with increasing turbidity and, as such, methods exist to account for non-negligible nL(sub w)(NIR) within the atmospheric correction process or to use alternate radiometric bands where the assumption is satisfied, such as those positioned within shortwave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum. We evaluated a decade-long time-series of nL(sub w)(lambda) from MODIS-Aqua in Chesapeake Bay derived using NIR and SWIR bands for atmospheric correction. Low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the SWIR bands of MODIS-Aqua added noise errors to the derived radiances, which produced broad, flat frequency distributions of nL(sub w)(lambda) relative to those produced using the NIR bands. The SWIR approach produced an increased number of negative nL(sub w)(lambda) and decreased sample size relative to the NIR approach. Revised vicarious calibration and regional tuning of the scheme to switch between the NIR and SWIR approaches may improve retrievals in Chesapeake Bay, however, poor SNR values for the MODIS-Aqua SWIR bands remain the primary deficiency of the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach.

  8. A novel ionic liquid monolithic column and its separation properties in capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Qi-Liang; Fang, Guo-Zhen; Pan, Ming-Fei; Yu, Yang; Wang, Shuo

    2012-01-27

    A novel ionic liquid (IL) monolithic capillary column was successfully prepared by thermal free radical copolymerization of IL (1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, ViOcIm(+)Cl(-)) together with lauryl methacrylate (LMA) as the binary functional monomers and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker in binary porogen. The proportion of monomers, porogens and cross-linker in the polymerization mixture was optimized in detail. The resulting IL-monolithic column could not only generate a stable reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a wide pH range (2.0-12.0), but also effectively eliminate the wall adsorption of the basic analytes. The obtained IL-monolithic columns were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). These results indicated that the IL-monolithic capillary column possessed good pore properties, mechanical stability and permeability. The column performance was also evaluated by separating different kinds of compounds, such as alkylbenzenes, thiourea and its analogues, and amino acids. The lowest plate height of ~6.8 μm was obtained, which corresponded to column efficiency (theoretical plates, N) of ~147,000 plates m(-1) for thiourea. ILs, as a new type of functional monomer, present a promising option in the fabrication of the organic polymer-based monolithic columns in CEC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of 400μm I.D. polymer-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography monolithic columns with high column efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chusheng; Li, Haibin; Wang, Qiqin; Crommen, Jacques; Zhou, Haibo; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2017-08-04

    The quest for higher column efficiency is one of the major research areas in polymer-based monolithic column fabrication. In this research, two novel polymer-based HILIC monolithic columns with 400μm I.D.×800μm O.D. were prepared based on the thermally initiated co-polymerization of N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-methacrylamidopropyl)-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine (SPP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) or N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). In order to obtain a satisfactory performance in terms of column permeability, mechanical stability, efficiency and selectivity, the polymerization parameters were systematically optimized. Column efficiencies as high as 142, 000 plates/m and 120, 000 plates/m were observed for the analysis of neutral compounds at 0.6mm/s on the poly(SPP-co-MBA) and poly(SPP-co-EDMA) monoliths, respectively. Furthermore, the Van Deemter plots for thiourea on the two monoliths were compared with that on a commercial silica based ZIC-HILIC column (3.5μm, 200Å, 150mm×300μm I.D.) using ACN/H 2 O (90/10, v/v) as the mobile phase at room temperature. It was noticeable that the Van Deemter curves for both monoliths, particularly the poly(SPP-co-MBA) monolith, are significantly flatter than that obtained for the ZIC-HILIC column, which indicates that in spite of their larger internal diameters, they yield better overall efficiency, with less peak dispersion, across a much wider range of usable linear velocities. A clearly better separation performance was also observed for nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and small peptides on the poly(SPP-co-MBA) monolith compared to the ZIC-HILIC column. It is particularly worth mentioning that these 400μm I.D. polymer-based HILIC monolithic columns exhibit enhanced mechanical strength owing to the thicker capillary wall of the fused-silica capillaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Attenuation Correction Based on a Constant Reference for High-Precision Infrared Radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR radiometry technology is an important method for characterizing the IR signature of targets, such as aircrafts or rockets. However, the received signal of targets could be reduced by a combination of atmospheric molecule absorption and aerosol scattering. Therefore, atmospheric correction is a requisite step for obtaining the real radiance of targets. Conventionally, the atmospheric transmittance and the air path radiance are calculated by an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation software. In this paper, an improved IR radiometric method based on constant reference correction of atmospheric attenuation is proposed. The basic principle and procedure of this method are introduced, and then the linear model of high-speed calibration in consideration of the integration time is employed and confirmed, which is then applicable in various complex conditions. To eliminate stochastic errors, radiometric experiments were conducted for multiple integration times. Finally, several experiments were performed on a mid-wave IR system with Φ600 mm aperture. The radiometry results indicate that the radiation inversion precision of the novel method is 4.78–4.89%, while the precision of the conventional method is 10.86–13.81%.

  11. Preparation of Affinity Column Based on Zr4+ Ion for Phosphoproteins Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Mi; Bae, In Ae; Park, Jung Hyen; Kim, Tae Dong; Choi, Seong Ho

    2009-01-01

    This paper has described about preparation of Zr 4+ affinity column based on the poly(styreneco- glycidyl methacrylate) prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate in order to isolate phosphopeptide. The Zr 4+ ions were introduced after the phophonation of an epoxy group on polymeric microspheres. The successful preparation of Zr 4+ -immobilized polymeric microsphere stationary phase was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectra, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The separation efficiency for Zr 4+ affinity column prepared by slurry packing was tested to phosphonated casein and dephosphonated casein. The resolution time (min) of the phosphonated casein was higher than that of dephosphated casein for Zr 4+ affinity polymeric microsphere by liquid chromatography. This Zr 4+ affinity column can be used for isolation of phosphonated casein from casein using liquid chromatography

  12. Advanced techniques in dynamic infrared imaging research and application for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggio, Esteban F.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared Imaging for biomedical applications is a non-invasive technique employed to visualize the distribution of infrared radiance coming from the subject under study, either in a static or a dynamic mode. The main difference is that while with the static method basal situations are studied, in the dynamic approach a sequence of thermograms, using thermal stimuli applied onto the patient are acquired, following the temperature evolution throughout the time. Since tumors possess abnormal metabolic activity, a structure and a vascular distribution essentially different from healthy tissue, and a lack of response to homeostatic signals, thermal stresses enhance even more their presence. For this reason, a completely non-invasive system, referred to as Enhancement and Stimulation System (ESS) was constructed, capable of imparting a cool or hot convective air flow onto the surface to examine and permitting to include in the study the time-course of the thermal stress application. In this work, the design of the Dynamic Infrared Imaging-ESS prototype, its characterization and optimization will be presented. In addition, examples of biomedical interest employing small animals will be shown as well. (author)

  13. Development of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis for CO2 Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Yokota, Y.; Oishi, Y.; Murakami, K.; Morino, I.; Matsunaga, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite-2 (GOSAT-2), which is a successor mission to the GOSAT, is planned to be launched in FY 2017. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) onboard the GOSAT-2 is a primary sensor to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. The FTS-2 obtains high-spectral resolution spectra with four bands from near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and one band in the thermal infrared (TIR) region. The column amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from the obtained radiance spectra with SWIR bands. Compared to the FTS onboard the GOSAT, the FTS-2 includes an additional SWIR band to allow for carbon monoxide (CO) measurement. We have been developing a tool, named GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, which is capable of simulating the spectral radiance data observed by the FTS-2 using the Pstar2 radiative transfer code. The purpose of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator is to obtain data which is exploited in the sensor specification, the optimization of parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 algorithms. The GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, composed of the six components: 1) Overall control, 2) Onboarding platform, 3) Spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform, 5) L1B processing, and 6) L1B data output, has been installed on the GOSAT Research Computation Facility (GOSAT RCF), which is a large-scale, high-performance, and energy-efficient computer. We present the progress in the development of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator and the preliminary sensitivity analysis, relating to the engineering parameters, the aerosols and clouds, and so on, on the Level 1 processing for CO2 retrieval from the obtained data by simulating the FTS-2 SWIR observation using the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator.

  14. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  15. Simulation of attenuated total reflection infrared absorbance spectra: applications to automotive clear coat forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Nishikida, Koichi; Campbell, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a widely used sampling technique in infrared (IR) spectroscopy because minimal sample preparation is required. Since the penetration depth of the ATR analysis beam is quite shallow, the outer layers of a laminate or multilayered paint sample can be preferentially analyzed with the entire sample intact. For this reason, forensic laboratories are taking advantage of ATR to collect IR spectra of automotive paint systems that may consist of three or more layers. However, the IR spectrum of a paint sample obtained by ATR will exhibit distortions, e.g., band broadening and lower relative intensities at higher wavenumbers, compared with its transmission counterpart. This hinders library searching because most library spectra are measured in transmission mode. Furthermore, the angle of incidence for the internal reflection element, the refractive index of the clear coat, and surface contamination due to inorganic contaminants can profoundly influence the quality of the ATR spectrum obtained for automotive paints. A correction algorithm to allow ATR spectra to be searched using IR transmission spectra of the paint data query (PDQ) automotive database is presented. The proposed correction algorithm to convert transmission spectra from the PDQ library to ATR spectra is able to address distortion issues such as the relative intensities and broadening of the bands, and the introduction of wavelength shifts at lower frequencies, which prevent library searching of ATR spectra using archived IR transmission data.

  16. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  17. A novel ionic liquid monolithic column and its separation properties in capillary electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Deng Qiliang; Fang Guozhen; Pan Mingfei; Yu Yang; Wang Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ILs as functional monomer for capillary monolithic column. ► Separation of alkylbenzenes, thiourea analogues, and amino acids. ► The column generate a stable reversed EOF from pH 2.0 to 12.0. ► The column efficiency of 147,000 plates m −1 was obtained for thiourea. - Abstract: A novel ionic liquid (IL) monolithic capillary column was successfully prepared by thermal free radical copolymerization of IL (1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, ViOcIm + Cl − ) together with lauryl methacrylate (LMA) as the binary functional monomers and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker in binary porogen. The proportion of monomers, porogens and cross-linker in the polymerization mixture was optimized in detail. The resulting IL-monolithic column could not only generate a stable reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a wide pH range (2.0–12.0), but also effectively eliminate the wall adsorption of the basic analytes. The obtained IL-monolithic columns were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). These results indicated that the IL-monolithic capillary column possessed good pore properties, mechanical stability and permeability. The column performance was also evaluated by separating different kinds of compounds, such as alkylbenzenes, thiourea and its analogues, and amino acids. The lowest plate height of ∼6.8 μm was obtained, which corresponded to column efficiency (theoretical plates, N) of ∼147,000 plates m −1 for thiourea. ILs, as a new type of functional monomer, present a promising option in the fabrication of the organic polymer-based monolithic columns in CEC.

  18. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  19. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  20. OSIRIS (Observing System Including PolaRisation in the Solar Infrared Spectrum) instrument: a multi-directional, polarized radiometer in the visible and shortwave infrared, airborne prototype of 3MI / EPS-SG Eumetsat - ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Djellali, M. S.; Cornet, C.; Waquet, F.; Catalfamo, M.; Delegove, C.; Loisil, R.

    2017-12-01

    OSIRIS instrument largely inherits from the POLDER concept developed and operated between 1991 (first airborne prototype) and 2013 (end of the POLDER-3/PARASOL space-borne mission). It consists in two optical systems, one covering the visible to near infrared range (440, 490, 670, 763, 765, 870, 910 and 940 nm) and a second one for the shortwave infrared (940, 1020, 1240, 1360, 1620 and 2200 nm). Each optical system is composed of a wide field-of-view optics (114° and 105° respectively) associated to two rotating wheels with interferential filters (spectral) and analyzers filters (polarization) respectively, and a 2D array of detectors. For each channel, radiance is measured once without analyzer, followed by sequential measurements with the three analyzers shifted by an angle of 60° to reconstruct the total and polarized radiances. The complete acquisition sequence for all spectral channels last a couple of seconds according to the chosen measurement protocol. Thanks to the large field of view of the optics, any target is seen under several viewing angles during the aircraft motion. In a first step we will present the new ground characterization of the instrument based on laboratory measurements (linearity, flat-field, absolute calibration, induced polarization, polarizers efficiency and position), the radiometric model and the Radiometric Inverted Model (RIM) used to develop the Level 1 processing chain that is used to produce level 1 products (normalized radiances, polarized or not, with viewing geometries) from the instrument generated level 0 files (Digital Counts) and attitude information from inertial system. The stray light issues will be specifically discussed. In a second step we will present in-flight radiometric and geometric methods applied to OSIRIS data in order to control and validate ground-based calibrated products: molecular scattering method and sun-glint cross-band method for radiometric calibration, glories, rainbows and sun-glint targets

  1. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  2. Nocturnal infrared clear sky temperatures correlated with screen temperatures and GPS-derived PWV in southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghrabi, A.; Clay, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Model to calculate nocturnal sky temperature in mid-latitude site was developed. → New data acquired from new instrument. → Sky temperature correlated with both GPS-derived PWV and screen temperature. → The model was tested theoretically against MODTRAN software. → The performance of the model was compared against 20 independent models. - Abstract: Infrared (IR) clear sky temperatures (Tsky), screen level temperature (T) and Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) were collected for a period of 2 years from a coastal region of southern Australia. IR sky temperatures were derived from simple infrared detectors, which have been developed by the authors for inexpensive monitoring of cloud cover, while data for PWV were obtained from Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) transmissions. Meteorological data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Based on these data, statistical regression analyses between nocturnal Tsky and the T and PWV (one variable fit) were conducted. Direct proportional relationships between Tsky and T and between Tsky and PWV were found. The one variable fit was further optimized by applying the multiple regression fit between Tsky and both T and PWV. The resulting multilinear model was essentially unbiased, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.97, mean bias error (MBE) of -2.7 x 10 -5 deg. C, and root mean square error (RMSE) of about 1.6 o C. The performance of the multilinear model was tested against a 1-year independent data set. In this case, the predictability of the model was superior, with MBE and RMSE being 0.13 deg. C and 2.23 deg. C respectively. After correcting the daytime observations for the biases caused by solar heating of the detection system, the performance of this model in calculating the daytime measurements was tested and showed MBE and RMSE values of 1.3 deg. C and 2.5 deg. C, respectively. Additionally, twenty schemes from the literature were tested and assessed for predicting the

  3. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G; Pang, Bo; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhiyuan; Xia, Younan; Whelan, William M

    2015-01-01

    Radiance spectroscopy was applied to the interstitial detection of localized inclusions containing Au nanocages or nanorods with various concentrations embedded in porcine muscle phantoms. The radiance was quantified using a perturbation approach, which enabled the separation of contributions from the porcine phantom and the localized inclusion, with the inclusion serving as a perturbation probe of photon distributions in the turbid medium. Positioning the inclusion at various places in the phantom allowed for tracking of photons that originated from a light source, passed through the inclusion's location, and reached a detector. The inclusions with high extinction coefficients were able to absorb nearly all photons in the range of 650-900 nm, leading to a spectrally flat radiance signal. This signal could be converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer-Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps.

  4. Experimental study on infrared radiation temperature field of concrete under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Quan; He, Xueqiu

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermography, as a nondestructive, non-contact and real-time monitoring method, has great significance in assessing the stability of concrete structure and monitoring its failure. It is necessary to conduct in depth study on the mechanism and application of infrared radiation (IR) of concrete failure under loading. In this paper, the concrete specimens with size of 100 × 100 × 100 mm were adopted to carry out the uniaxial compressions for the IR tests. The distribution of IR temperatures (IRTs), surface topography of IRT field and the reconstructed IR images were studied. The results show that the IRT distribution follows the Gaussian distribution, and the R2 of Gaussian fitting changes along with the loading time. The abnormities of R2 and AE counts display the opposite variation trends. The surface topography of IRT field is similar to the hyperbolic paraboloid, which is related to the stress distribution in the sample. The R2 of hyperbolic paraboloid fitting presents an upward trend prior to the fracture which enables to change the IRT field significantly. This R2 has a sharp drop in response to this large destruction. The normalization images of IRT field, including the row and column normalization images, were proposed as auxiliary means to analyze the IRT field. The row and column normalization images respectively show the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the IRT field, and they have clear responses to the destruction occurring on the sample surface. In this paper, the new methods and quantitative index were proposed for the analysis of IRT field, which have some theoretical and instructive significance for the analysis of the characteristics of IRT field, as well as the monitoring of instability and failure for concrete structure.

  5. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88...

  6. MIRAGE WF infrared scene projector system, with 1536 x 768 wide format resistive array, performance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Kevin; Laveigne, Joe; Oleson, Jim; Franks, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Lannon, John; Woode, Brian; Greer, Derek; Bui, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    MIRAGE WF is the latest high definition version of the MIRAGE infrared scene projector product line from Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR). MIRAGE WF is being developed under the Wide Format Resistive Array (WFRA) program. The WFRA development is one of several efforts within the Infrared Sensor Simulator - Preplanned Product Improvement (IRSS P3I) umbrella funded by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) and led by the US Navy at Patuxent River, MD. Three MIRAGE WF infrared scene projection systems are being delivered as part of the WFRA program. The main differences between the MIRAGE XL (1024x1024) and MIRAGE WF are a 1536x768 emitter array and 100Hz true raster capability. The key emitter requirements that have been measured and will be discussed include: Operability, Maximum Apparent Temperature, Rise Time and Array Uniformity. Key System specifications are: 1536x768 pixels, maximum apparent temperature of 600K, maximum frame rate of 100Hz, raster and snap shot updating, radiance rise and fall time less than 5 ms and windowed mode (1024x768) operation at up to 200 Hz.

  7. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  8. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Near Cloud Reflectance Enhancement Using LES SHDOM Simulated Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Levy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A transition zone exists between cloudy skies and clear sky; such that, clouds scatter solar radiation into clear-sky regions. From a satellite perspective, it appears that clouds enhance the radiation nearby. We seek a simple method to estimate this enhancement, since it is so computationally expensive to account for all three-dimensional (3-D) scattering processes. In previous studies, we developed a simple two-layer model (2LM) that estimated the radiation scattered via cloud-molecular interactions. Here we have developed a new model to account for cloud-surface interaction (CSI). We test the models by comparing to calculations provided by full 3-D radiative transfer simulations of realistic cloud scenes. For these scenes, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-like radiance fields were computed from the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM), based on a large number of cumulus fields simulated by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) large eddy simulation (LES) model. We find that the original 2LM model that estimates cloud-air molecule interactions accounts for 64 of the total reflectance enhancement and the new model (2LM+CSI) that also includes cloud-surface interactions accounts for nearly 80. We discuss the possibility of accounting for cloud-aerosol radiative interactions in 3-D cloud-induced reflectance enhancement, which may explain the remaining 20 of enhancements. Because these are simple models, these corrections can be applied to global satellite observations (e.g., MODIS) and help to reduce biases in aerosol and other clear-sky retrievals.

  10. A Method of Retrieving BRDF from Surface-Reflected Radiance Using Decoupling of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Surface Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radkevich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF defines anisotropy of the surface reflection. It is required to specify the boundary condition for radiative transfer (RT modeling used in aerosol retrievals, cloud retrievals, atmospheric modeling, and other applications. Ground based measurements of reflected radiance draw increasing attention as a source of information about anisotropy of surface reflection. Derivation of BRDF from surface radiance requires atmospheric correction. This study develops a new method of retrieving BRDF on its whole domain, making it immediately suitable for further atmospheric RT modeling applications. The method is based on the integral equation relating surface-reflected radiance, BRDF, and solutions of two auxiliary atmosphere-only RT problems. The method requires kernel-based BRDF. The weights of the kernels are obtained with a quickly converging iterative procedure. RT modeling has to be done only one time before the start of iterative process.

  11. Investigating the Water Vapor Component of the Greenhouse Effect from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Sun, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the water vapor component of the greenhouse effect in the tropical region using data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Differently from previous studies who have relayed on the assumption of constant lapse rate and performed coarse layer or total column sensitivity analysis, we resort to AIRS high vertical resolution to measure the greenhouse effect sensitivity to water vapor along the vertical column. We employ a "partial radiative perturbation" methodology and discriminate between two different dynamic regimes, convective and non-convective. This analysis provides useful insights on the occurrence and strength of the water vapor greenhouse effect and its sensitivity to spatial variations of surface temperature. By comparison with the clear-sky computation conducted in previous works, we attempt to confine an estimate for the cloud contribution to the greenhouse effect. Our results compare well with the current literature, falling in the upper range of the existing global circulation model estimates. We value the results of this analysis as a useful reference to help discriminate among model simulations and improve our capability to make predictions about the future of our climate.

  12. Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Milz, Mathias; Buehler, Stefan A.; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the 19 HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. The mutual differences of the equivalent brightness temperatures are presented and possible causes of disagreement are discussed. In particular, the impact of path integration schemes and atmospheric layer discretization is assessed. When the continuum absorption contribution is ignored because of the different implementations, residuals are generally in the sub-Kelvin range and smaller than 0.1 K for some window channels (and all atmospheric models and lbl codes). None of the three codes turned out to be perfect for all channels and atmospheres. Remaining discrepancies are attributed to different lbl optimization techniques. Lbl codes seem to have reached a maturity in the implementation of radiative transfer that the choice of the underlying physical models (line shape models, continua etc) becomes increasingly relevant.

  13. HPLC separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers on a polymeric ODS column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Ikuma; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshimura, Nobuhito; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2008-07-01

    A polymeric ODS column was applied to the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI), i.e. 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol (OPO) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol (OOP), with a recycle HPLC system. To investigate the ODS column species and the column temperatures for the resolution of a TAG-PI pair, a mixture of OPO and OOP was subjected to an HPLC system equipped with a non-endcapped polymeric, endcapped monomeric, endcapped intermediate, or non-endcapped monomeric ODS column at three different column temperatures (40, 25, or 10 degrees C). Only the non-endcapped polymeric ODS column achieved the separation of OPO and OOP, and the lowest column temperature (10 degrees C) showed the best resolution for them. The other pair of TAG-PI, a mixture of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (PPO) was also subjected to the system equipped with a non-endcapped polymeric or monomeric ODS column at five different column temperatures (40, 32, 25, 17, and 10 degrees C). Thus, POP and PPO were also separated on only the non-endcapped polymeric ODS column at 25 degrees C. However, no clear peak appeared at 10 degrees C. These results would indicate that the polymeric ODS stationary phase has an ability to recognize the structural differences between TAG-PI pairs. Also, the column temperature is a very important factor for separating the TAG-PI pair, and the optimal temperature would relate to the solubility of TAG-PI in the mobile phase. Furthermore, the recycle HPLC system provided measurements for the separation and analysis of TAG-PI pairs.

  14. Ultraviolet and Infrared Correlation Studies in Orion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Lakshmi S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the variation of diffuse ultraviolet (UV radiation in the northern part of the Orion constellation using a set of eight areas of the GALEX All-Sky Imaging Survey in the far and near UV. Different components of diffuse UV radiation, like dust scattered emission and H2 fluorescence, were quantified and separated after removing the point sources and the foreground emission in each of the fields. Then the dependence of the individual UV components on the infrared 100 μm dust emission was studied. We did not find any positive correlation between the diffuse-UV and IR-100 micron intensities, probably due to the high optical depth of the region or the entire dust column not contributing to the diffuse UV radiation. However, in the far UV we noticed the presence of an excess emission in addition to the dust scattered radiation, which is clearly absent in the near UV. This excess emission, identified as the H2 fluorescence, is produced by the Trapezium stars in the surrounding molecular clouds. We also compare our results with those of previous studies in the region, based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE observations.

  15. The effects of downwelling radiance on MER surface spectra: the evil that atmospheres do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M.; Ghosh, A.; Arvidson, R.; Christensen, P.; Guinness, E.; Ruff, S.; Seelos, F.; Smith, M.; Athena Science

    2004-11-01

    While it may not be surprising to some that downwelling radiation in the martian atmosphere may contribute a non-negligible fraction of the radiance for a given surface scene, others remain shocked and surprised (and often dismayed) to discover this fact; particularly with regard to mini-TES observations. Naturally, the relative amplitude of this sky ``contamination'' is often a complicated function of meteorological conditions, viewing geometry, surface properties, and (for the IR) surface temperature. Ideally, one would use a specialized observations to mimic the actual hemispherical-directional nature of the problem. Despite repeated attempts to obtain Pancam complete sky observations and mini-TES sky octants, such observations are not available in the MER observational database. As a result, one is left with the less-enviable, though certainly more computationally intensive, task of connecting point observations (radiance and derived meteorological parameters) to a hemispherical integral of downwelling radiance. Naturally, one must turn to a radiative transfer analysis, despite oft-repeated attempts to assert otherwise. In our presentation, we offer insight into the conditions under which one must worry about atmospheric removal, as well as semi-empirical approaches (based upon said radiative transfer efforts) for producing the correction factors from the available MER atmospheric observations. This work is proudly supported by the MER program through NASA/JPL Contract No. 1242889 (MJW), as well as the contracts for the co-authors.

  16. Diffuse infrared emission from the galaxy. I. Solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, F.; Perault, M.

    1988-01-01

    A large-scale study of the infrared emission originating in the solar neighborhood based on IRAS data is presented. Away from heating sources and outside molecular clouds, the infrared emission from the ISM is well-correlated with the column density of H I gas. The interstellar radiation field and the dust abundance are roughly uniform on scales of the order of 100 pc. The extinction in the polar caps is discussed, and the origin of the infrared emission from the solar neighborhood is investigated. It is shown that stars younger than a few 100 million yr are responsible for two-thirds of the infrared emission from the solar neighborhood, but that most of this emission comes from interstellar matter not associated with current star formation. The correlation between infrared and radio-continuum fluxes of galaxies breaks down on the scale of a few hundred pc around regions of star formation. 81 references

  17. Very high column density and small reddening toward GRB 020124 at z=3.20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Møller, Per; Gorosabel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of the dim afterglow of GRB 020124, obtained between 2 and 68 hr after the gamma-ray burst. The burst occurred in a very faint (Rgreater than or similar to29.5) damped Lyalpha absorber (DLA) at a redshift of z=3.198+/-0.004. The derived column...

  18. Preparation of Affinity Column Based on Zr{sup 4+} Ion for Phosphoproteins Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Mi; Bae, In Ae; Park, Jung Hyen; Kim, Tae Dong; Choi, Seong Ho [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This paper has described about preparation of Zr{sup 4+} affinity column based on the poly(styreneco- glycidyl methacrylate) prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate in order to isolate phosphopeptide. The Zr{sup 4+} ions were introduced after the phophonation of an epoxy group on polymeric microspheres. The successful preparation of Zr{sup 4+}-immobilized polymeric microsphere stationary phase was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectra, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The separation efficiency for Zr{sup 4+} affinity column prepared by slurry packing was tested to phosphonated casein and dephosphonated casein. The resolution time (min) of the phosphonated casein was higher than that of dephosphated casein for Zr{sup 4+} affinity polymeric microsphere by liquid chromatography. This Zr{sup 4+} affinity column can be used for isolation of phosphonated casein from casein using liquid chromatography.

  19. A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.

  20. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  1. SU-E-T-470: Beam Performance of the Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaryan, H; Nazaryan, V; Wang, F; Flanz, J; Alexandrov, V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system is a fully functional, compact proton radiotherapy system that provides advanced proton delivery capabilities. It supports three-dimensional beam scanning with energy and intensity modulation. A series of measurements have been conducted to characterize the beam performance of the first installation of the system at the McLaren Proton Therapy Center in Flint, Michigan. These measurements were part of the technical commissioning of the system. Select measurements and results are presented. Methods: The Radiance 330 proton beam energy range is 70–250 MeV for treatment, and up to 330 MeV for proton tomography and radiography. Its 3-D scanning capability, together with a small beam emittance and momentum spread, provides a highly efficient beam delivery. During the technical commissioning, treatment plans were created to deliver uniform maps at various energies to perform Gamma Index analysis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were irradiated using the Planned irradiation maps. Bragg Peak chamber was used to test the dynamic range during a scan in one layer for high (250 MeV) and Low (70 MeV) energies. The maximum and minimum range, range adjustment and modulation, distal dose falloff (80%–20%), pencil beam spot size, spot placement accuracy were also measured. The accuracy testing included acquiring images, image registration, receiving correction vectors and applying the corrections to the robotic patient positioner. Results: Gamma Index analysis of the Treatment Planning System (TPS) data vs. Measured data showed more than 90% of points within (3%, 3mm) for the maps created by the TPS. At Isocenter Beam Size (One sigma) < 3mm at highest energy (250 MeV) in air. Beam delivery was within 0.6 mm of the intended target at the entrance and the exit of the beam, through the phantom. Conclusion: The Radiance 330 Beam Performance Measurements have confirmed that the system operates as designed with excellent clinical

  2. SU-E-T-470: Beam Performance of the Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaryan, H; Nazaryan, V; Wang, F [ProTom International, Inc., Flower Mound, TX (United States); Flanz, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Alexandrov, V [ZAO ProTom, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system is a fully functional, compact proton radiotherapy system that provides advanced proton delivery capabilities. It supports three-dimensional beam scanning with energy and intensity modulation. A series of measurements have been conducted to characterize the beam performance of the first installation of the system at the McLaren Proton Therapy Center in Flint, Michigan. These measurements were part of the technical commissioning of the system. Select measurements and results are presented. Methods: The Radiance 330 proton beam energy range is 70–250 MeV for treatment, and up to 330 MeV for proton tomography and radiography. Its 3-D scanning capability, together with a small beam emittance and momentum spread, provides a highly efficient beam delivery. During the technical commissioning, treatment plans were created to deliver uniform maps at various energies to perform Gamma Index analysis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were irradiated using the Planned irradiation maps. Bragg Peak chamber was used to test the dynamic range during a scan in one layer for high (250 MeV) and Low (70 MeV) energies. The maximum and minimum range, range adjustment and modulation, distal dose falloff (80%–20%), pencil beam spot size, spot placement accuracy were also measured. The accuracy testing included acquiring images, image registration, receiving correction vectors and applying the corrections to the robotic patient positioner. Results: Gamma Index analysis of the Treatment Planning System (TPS) data vs. Measured data showed more than 90% of points within (3%, 3mm) for the maps created by the TPS. At Isocenter Beam Size (One sigma) < 3mm at highest energy (250 MeV) in air. Beam delivery was within 0.6 mm of the intended target at the entrance and the exit of the beam, through the phantom. Conclusion: The Radiance 330 Beam Performance Measurements have confirmed that the system operates as designed with excellent clinical

  3. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurements of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and photosynthetically active radiation relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  4. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-11-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurement of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and PAR relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  5. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of...

  6. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  7. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  8. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  9. Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bormin; Mielikainen, Jarno; Oh, Hyunjong; Allen Huang, Hung-Lung

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-observed radiance is a nonlinear functional of surface properties and atmospheric temperature and absorbing gas profiles as described by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In the era of hyperspectral sounders with thousands of high-resolution channels, the computation of the radiative transfer model becomes more time-consuming. The radiative transfer model performance in operational numerical weather prediction systems still limits the number of channels we can use in hyperspectral sounders to only a few hundreds. To take the full advantage of such high-resolution infrared observations, a computationally efficient radiative transfer model is needed to facilitate satellite data assimilation. In recent years the programmable commodity graphics processing unit (GPU) has evolved into a highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processor with tremendous computational speed and very high memory bandwidth. The radiative transfer model is very suitable for the GPU implementation to take advantage of the hardware's efficiency and parallelism where radiances of many channels can be calculated in parallel in GPUs. In this paper, we develop a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched in 2006 onboard the first European meteorological polar-orbiting satellites, METOP-A. Each IASI spectrum has 8461 spectral channels. The IASI radiative transfer model consists of three modules. The first module for computing the regression predictors takes less than 0.004% of CPU time, while the second module for transmittance computation and the third module for radiance computation take approximately 92.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Our GPU-based IASI radiative transfer model is developed to run on a low-cost personal supercomputer with four GPUs with total 960 compute cores, delivering near 4 TFlops theoretical peak performance. By massively parallelizing the second and third modules, we reached 364x

  10. A neural network method to correct bidirectional effects in water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongzhen; Li, Wei; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Stamnes, Knut

    2017-02-01

    The standard method to convert the measured water-leaving radiances from the observation direction to the nadir direction developed by Morel and coworkers requires knowledge of the chlorophyll concentration (CHL). Also, the standard method was developed for open ocean water, which makes it unsuitable for turbid coastal waters. We introduce a neural network method to convert the water-leaving radiance (or the corresponding remote sensing reflectance) from the observation direction to the nadir direction. This method does not require any prior knowledge of the water constituents or the inherent optical properties (IOPs). This method is fast, accurate and can be easily adapted to different remote sensing instruments. Validation using NuRADS measurements in different types of water shows that this method is suitable for both open ocean and coastal waters. In open ocean or chlorophyll-dominated waters, our neural network method produces corrections similar to those of the standard method. In turbid coastal waters, especially sediment-dominated waters, a significant improvement was obtained compared to the standard method.

  11. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 500 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located in the 0.45 to 2.20 micron region of the...

  12. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 250 meter MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in the 0.62 to 0.88 micron region of the...

  13. A Supplementary Clear-Sky Snow and Ice Recognition Technique for CERES Level 2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Rutan, David; Kato, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Identification of clear-sky snow and ice is an important step in the production of cryosphere radiation budget products, which are used in the derivation of long-term data series for climate research. In this paper, a new method of clear-sky snow/ice identification for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. The algorithm's goal is to enhance the identification of snow and ice within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data after application of the standard CERES scene identification scheme. The input of the algorithm uses spectral radiances from five MODIS bands and surface skin temperature available in the CERES Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) product. The algorithm produces a cryosphere rating from an aggregated test: a higher rating corresponds to a more certain identification of the clear-sky snow/ice-covered scene. Empirical analysis of regions of interest representing distinctive targets such as snow, ice, ice and water clouds, open waters, and snow-free land selected from a number of MODIS images shows that the cryosphere rating of snow/ice targets falls into 95% confidence intervals lying above the same confidence intervals of all other targets. This enables recognition of clear-sky cryosphere by using a single threshold applied to the rating, which makes this technique different from traditional branching techniques based on multiple thresholds. Limited tests show that the established threshold clearly separates the cryosphere rating values computed for the cryosphere from those computed for noncryosphere scenes, whereas individual tests applied consequently cannot reliably identify the cryosphere for complex scenes.

  14. CALIPSO IIR Version 2 Level 1b calibrated radiances: analysis and reduction of residual biases in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garnier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Version 2 of the Level 1b calibrated radiances of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Satellite Observation (CALIPSO satellite has been released recently. This new version incorporates corrections of small but systematic seasonal calibration biases previously revealed in Version 1 data products mostly north of 30° N. These biases – of different amplitudes in the three IIR channels 8.65 µm (IIR1, 10.6 µm (IIR2, and 12.05 µm (IIR3 – were made apparent by a striping effect in images of IIR inter-channel brightness temperature differences (BTDs and through seasonal warm biases of nighttime IIR brightness temperatures in the 30–60° N latitude range. The latter were highlighted through observed and simulated comparisons with similar channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua spacecraft. To characterize the calibration biases affecting Version 1 data, a semi-empirical approach is developed, which is based on the in-depth analysis of the IIR internal calibration procedure in conjunction with observations such as statistical comparisons with similar MODIS/Aqua channels. Two types of calibration biases are revealed: an equalization bias affecting part of the individual IIR images and a global bias affecting the radiometric level of each image. These biases are observed only when the temperature of the instrument increases, and they are found to be functions of elapsed time since night-to-day transition, regardless of the season. Correction coefficients of Version 1 radiances could thus be defined and implemented in the Version 2 code. As a result, the striping effect seen in Version 1 is significantly attenuated in Version 2. Systematic discrepancies between nighttime and daytime IIR–MODIS BTDs in the 30–60° N latitude range in summer are reduced from 0.2 K in Version 1 to 0.1 K in Version 2 for IIR1–MODIS29. For IIR2

  15. Investigation of radiant millimeter wave/terahertz radiation from low-infrared signature targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, B.; Alkuş, Ü.; Sivaslıgil, M.; Şahin, A. B.; Altan, H.

    2017-10-01

    Millimeter (mm) and sub-mm wave radiation is increasingly becoming a region of interest as better methods are developed to detect in this wavelength range. The development of sensitive focal plane array (FPA) architectures as well as single pixel scanners has opened up a new field of passive detection and imaging. Spectral signatures of objects, a long standing area of interest in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave (MWIR) and Long Wave-IR (LWIR) bands can now be assessed in the mm-wave/terahertz (THz) region. The advantage is that this form of radiation is not as adversely affected by poor atmospheric conditions compared to other bands. In this study, a preliminary experiment in a laboratory environment is performed to assess the radiance from targets with low infrared signatures in the millimeter wave/terahertz (THz) band (<1 THz). The goal of this approach is to be able to model the experimental results to better understand the mm-wave/THz signature of targets with low observability in the IR bands.

  16. Optical Polarization of Light from a Sorghum Canopy Measured Under Both a Clear and an Overcast Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Biehl, Larry; Dahlgren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the optical polarization of the light reflected by a sorghum canopy is due to a Fresnel-type redirection, by sorghum leaf surfaces, of light from an unpolarized light source, the sun or overcast sky, toward the measuring sensor. If it can be shown that the source of the polarization of the light scattered by the sorghum canopy is a first surface, Fresnel-type reflection, then removing this surface reflected light from measurements of canopy reflectance presumably would allow better insight into the biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and metabolism that occur in the interiors of sorghum canopy leaves. Methods: We constructed a tower 5.9m tall in the center of a homogenous sorghum field. We equipped two Barnes MMR radiometers with polarization analyzers on the number 1, 3 and 7 Landsat TM wavelength bands. Positioning the radiometers atop the tower, we collected radiance data in 44 view directions on two days, one day with an overcast sky and the other, clear and sunlit. From the radiance data we calculated the linear polarization of the reflected light for each radiometer wavelength channel and view direction. Results and Discussion: Our experimental results support our hypothesis, showing that the amplitude of the linearly polarized portion of the light reflected by the sorghum canopy varied dramatically with view azimuth direction under a point source, the sun, but the amplitude varied little with view azimuth direction under the hemispherical source, the overcast sky. Under the clear sky, the angle of polarization depended upon the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, while under the overcast sky the angle of polarization depended upon the zenith view angle. These results support a polarized radiation transport model of the canopy that is based upon a first surface, Fresnel reflection from leaves in the sorghum canopy.

  17. Seasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over the megacity Paris, high-altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Franco, Bruno; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Jones, Nicholas; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Janssen, Christof

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the seasonal variation of surface and column CO at three different sites (Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong), with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. We find the first evidence of a time lag between surface and free tropospheric CO seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by the IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios at the Paris and Jungfraujoch sites reveal a time lag of the near-surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model) is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs identify the emission sources influencing the seasonal variation of CO. At both Paris and Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. At Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface measurements and total column data.

  18. Corneal tissue welding with infrared laser irradiation after clear corneal incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rfat; Ozeren, Mediha; Artunay, Ozgür; Bahçecioğlu, Halil; Seçkin, Ismail; Kalaycoğlu, Hamit; Kurt, Adnan; Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of infrared lasers for corneal welding to seal corneal cuts done in an experimental animal model. Full-thickness corneal cuts on freshly enucleated bovine eyes were irradiated with infrared (809-nm diode, 980-nm diode, 1070-nm YLF, and 1980-nm Tm:YAP) lasers to get immediate laser welding. An 809-nm laser was used with the topical application of indocyanine green to enhance the photothermal interaction at the weld site. In total, 60 bovine eyes were used in this study; 40 eyes were used in the first part of the study for the determination of optimal welding parameters (15 eyes were excluded because of macroscopic carbonization, opacification, or corneal shrinkage; 2 eyes were used for control), and 20 eyes were used for further investigation of more promising lasers (YLF and Tm:YAP). Laser wavelength, irradiating power, exposure time, and spot size were the dose parameters, and optimal dose for immediate closure with minimal thermal damage was estimated through histological examination of welded samples. In the first part of the study, results showed that none of the applications was satisfactory. Full-thickness success rates were 28% (2 of 7) for 809-nm and for 980-nm diode lasers and 67% (2 of 3) for 1070-nm YLF and (4 of 6) for 1980-nm Tm:YAP lasers. In the second part of the study, YLF and Tm:YAP lasers were investigated with bigger sample size. Results were not conclusive but promising again. Five corneal incisions were full-thickness welded out of 10 corneas with 1070-nm laser, and 4 corneal incisions were partially welded out of 10 corneas with 1980-nm laser in the second part of the study. Results showed that noteworthy corneal welding could be obtained with 1070-nm YLF laser and 1980-nm Tm:YAP laser wavelengths. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will shed light on the potential usage of corneal laser welding technique.

  19. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely global atmospheric composition information through observations of atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 by 7 km and without thermal IR measurements. The TROPOMI carrier – the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P, does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with an instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission, which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. This paper investigates the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI data with 15 min temporal resolution (Veefkind, 2008b, and with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite – 10 (GOES-10 having 1 min temporal resolution. The aim is to understand and assess the relation between the amount of allowed cloud contamination and the required time difference between the two satellites' overflights. Quantitative analysis shows that a time difference of approximately 5 min is sufficient (in most conditions to use the cloud information from the first instrument for cloud clearing in the retrievals using data from the second instrument. In recent years the A-train constellation demonstrated the benefit of flying satellites in formation. Therefore this study's findings will be

  20. Development of multi-sensor global cloud and radiance composites for earth radiation budget monitoring from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Duda, David; Thieman, Mandana; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying; Bedka, Kristopher

    2017-10-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) enables analysis of the daytime Earth radiation budget via the onboard Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Radiance observations and cloud property retrievals from low earth orbit and geostationary satellite imagers have to be co-located with EPIC pixels to provide scene identification in order to select anisotropic directional models needed to calculate shortwave and longwave fluxes. A new algorithm is proposed for optimal merging of selected radiances and cloud properties derived from multiple satellite imagers to obtain seamless global hourly composites at 5-km resolution. An aggregated rating is employed to incorporate several factors and to select the best observation at the time nearest to the EPIC measurement. Spatial accuracy is improved using inverse mapping with gradient search during reprojection and bicubic interpolation for pixel resampling. The composite data are subsequently remapped into EPIC-view domain by convolving composite pixels with the EPIC point spread function defined with a half-pixel accuracy. PSF-weighted average radiances and cloud properties are computed separately for each cloud phase. The algorithm has demonstrated contiguous global coverage for any requested time of day with a temporal lag of under 2 hours in over 95% of the globe.

  1. Comparison of CERES Cloud Properties Derived from Aqua and Terra MODIS Data and TRMM VIRS Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chen, Y.; Heck, P. W.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is obtaining Earth radiation budget measurements of unprecedented accuracy as a result of improved instruments and an analysis system that combines simultaneous, high-resolution cloud property retrievals with the broadband radiance data. The cloud properties are derived from three different satellite imagers: the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites. A single set of consistent algorithms using the 0.65, 1.6 or 2.1, 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0-æm channels are applied to all three imagers. The cloud properties include, cloud coverage, height, thickness, temperature, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid or ice water path. Because each satellite is in a different orbit, the results provide information on the diurnal cycle of cloud properties. Initial intercalibrations show excellent consistency between the three images except for some differences of ~ 1K between the 3.7-æm channel on Terra and those on VIRS and Aqua. The derived cloud properties are consistent with the known diurnal characteristics of clouds in different areas. These datasets should be valuable for exploring the role of clouds in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle.

  2. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  3. Graphene oxide sheets immobilized polystyrene for column preconcentration and sensitive determination of lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Ahmad, Hilal; Zaidi, Noushi; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-08-13

    A novel solid-phase extractant was synthesized by coupling graphene oxide (GO) on chloromethylated polystyrene through an ethylenediamine spacer unit to develop a column method for the preconcentration/separation of lead prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, far-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The abundant oxygen-containing surface functional groups form a strong complex with lead, resulting in higher sorption capacity (227.92 mg g(-1)) than other nanosorbents used for sorption studies of the column method. Using the column procedure here is an alternative to the direct use of GO, which restricts irreversible aggregation of GO and its escape into the ecosystem, making it an environmentally sustainable method. The column method was optimized by varying experimental variables such as pH, flow rate for sorption/desorption, and elution condition and was observed to exhibit a high preconcentration factor (400) with a low preconcentration limit (2.5 ppb) and a high degree of tolerance for matrix ions. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified by determining the Pb content in the standard reference materials and by recovery experiments. The method showed good precision with a relative standard deviation <5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of lead in tap water, electroplating wastewater, river water, and food samples after preconcentration.

  4. First intercalibration of column-averaged methane from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first intercalibration of dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 retrieved from solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC in the mid-infrared (MIR versus near-infrared (NIR soundings from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The study uses multi-annual quasi-coincident MIR and NIR measurements from the stations Garmisch, Germany (47.48° N, 11.06° E, 743 m a.s.l., and Wollongong, Australia (34.41° S, 150.88° E, 30 m a.s.l..

    Direct comparison of the retrieved MIR and NIR XCH4 time series for Garmisch shows a quasi-periodic seasonal bias leading to a standard deviation (stdv of the difference time series (NIR–MIR of 7.2 ppb. After reducing time-dependent a priori impact by using realistic site- and time-dependent ACTM-simulated profiles as a common prior, the seasonal bias is reduced (stdv = 5.2 ppb. A linear fit to the MIR/NIR scatter plot of monthly means based on same-day coincidences does not show a y-intercept that is statistically different from zero, and the MIR/NIR intercalibration factor is found to be close to ideal within 2-σ uncertainty, i.e. 0.9996(8. The difference time series (NIR–MIR do not show a significant trend. The same basic findings hold for Wollongong. In particular an overall MIR/NIR intercalibration factor close to the ideal 1 is found within 2-σ uncertainty. At Wollongong the seasonal cycle of methane is less pronounced and corresponding smoothing errors are not as significant, enabling standard MIR and NIR retrievals to be used directly, without correction to a common a priori.

    Our results suggest that it is possible to set up a harmonized NDACC and TCCON XCH4 data set which can be exploited for joint trend studies, satellite validation, or the inverse modeling of sources and sinks.

  5. Contributions to reversed-phase column selectivity: III. Column hydrogen-bond basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P W; Dolan, J W; Dorsey, J G; Snyder, L R; Kirkland, J J

    2015-05-22

    Column selectivity in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) can be described in terms of the hydrophobic-subtraction model, which recognizes five solute-column interactions that together determine solute retention and column selectivity: hydrophobic, steric, hydrogen bonding of an acceptor solute (i.e., a hydrogen-bond base) by a stationary-phase donor group (i.e., a silanol), hydrogen bonding of a donor solute (e.g., a carboxylic acid) by a stationary-phase acceptor group, and ionic. Of these five interactions, hydrogen bonding between donor solutes (acids) and stationary-phase acceptor groups is the least well understood; the present study aims at resolving this uncertainty, so far as possible. Previous work suggests that there are three distinct stationary-phase sites for hydrogen-bond interaction with carboxylic acids, which we will refer to as column basicity I, II, and III. All RPC columns exhibit a selective retention of carboxylic acids (column basicity I) in varying degree. This now appears to involve an interaction of the solute with a pair of vicinal silanols in the stationary phase. For some type-A columns, an additional basic site (column basicity II) is similar to that for column basicity I in primarily affecting the retention of carboxylic acids. The latter site appears to be associated with metal contamination of the silica. Finally, for embedded-polar-group (EPG) columns, the polar group can serve as a proton acceptor (column basicity III) for acids, phenols, and other donor solutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  7. Preparation and evaluation of a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-02

    To develop a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid, a new ionic liquid monomer was synthesized from 1-vinylimidazole and pentafluorobenzyl bromide. By employing a facile one-step copolymerization of polyhedral-oligomeric-silsesquioxane-type (POSS) cross-linking agent and the home-made ionic liquid monomer, the hybrid monolithic columns were in situ fabricated in fused-silica capillary. The morphology of monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the chemical composition was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. Excellent mechanical stability and slight swelling propensity were exhibited which was ascribed to the rigid hybrid monolithic skeleton. Reproducibility results of run-to-run, column-to-column, batch-to-batch and day-to-day were investigated and the RSDs were less than 0.46%, 1.84%, 3.96% and 3.17%, respectively. The mixed-mode retention mechanism with hydrophobic interaction, π-π stacking, ion-exchange, electrostatic interaction and dipole-dipole interaction was explored systematically using analytes with different structure types. Satisfied separation capability and column efficiency were achieved for the analysis of small molecular compounds such as alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleosides and halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerosol optical properties and precipitable water vapor column in the atmosphere of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Frette, Øyvind; Stamnes, Jakob J; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hamre, Børge

    2015-02-20

    Between February 2012 and April 2014, we measured and analyzed direct solar radiances at a ground-based station in Bergen, Norway. We discovered that the spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor column (PWVC) retrieved from these measurements have a seasonal variation with highest values in summer and lowest values in winter. The highest value of the monthly median AOT at 440 nm of about 0.16 was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.04 was measured in December. The highest value of the monthly median PWVC of about 2.0 cm was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.4 cm was measured in December. We derived Ångström exponents that were used to deduce aerosol particle size distributions. We found that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominated most of the time during the measurement period, but fine-mode aerosol particles dominated during the winter seasons. The derived Ångström exponent values suggested that aerosols containing sea salt could have been dominating at this station during the measurement period.

  9. The relation between the column density structures and the magnetic field orientation in the Vela C molecular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J. D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Angilè, F. E.; Ashton, P.; Benton, S. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Fissel, L. M.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gandilo, N. N.; Hennebelle, P.; Klein, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Korotkov, A. L.; Martin, P. G.; Matthews, T. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Santos, F. P.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2017-07-01

    We statistically evaluated the relative orientation between gas column density structures, inferred from Herschel submillimetre observations, and the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) at 250, 350, and 500 μm, towards the Vela C molecular complex. First, we find very good agreement between the polarization orientations in the three wavelength-bands, suggesting that, at the considered common angular resolution of 3.´0 that corresponds to a physical scale of approximately 0.61 pc, the inferred magnetic field orientation is not significantly affected by temperature or dust grain alignment effects. Second, we find that the relative orientation between gas column density structures and the magnetic field changes progressively with increasing gas column density, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation at low column densities to mostly perpendicular at the highest column densities. This observation is in agreement with previous studies by the Planck collaboration towards more nearby molecular clouds. Finally, we find a correspondencebetween (a) the trends in relative orientation between the column density structures and the projected magnetic field; and (b) the shape of the column density probability distribution functions (PDFs). In the sub-regions of Vela C dominated by one clear filamentary structure, or "ridges", where the high-column density tails of the PDFs are flatter, we find a sharp transition from preferentially parallel or having no preferred relative orientation at low column densities to preferentially perpendicular at highest column densities. In the sub-regions of Vela C dominated by several filamentary structures with multiple orientations, or "nests", where the maximum values of the column density are smaller than in the ridge-like sub-regions and the high-column density

  10. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  11. Potential application of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) as enhancer for tissue optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Ruikang K.; Xu, Kexin

    2009-02-01

    Many biocompatible hyperosmotic agents such as dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) have been used as enhancers for tissue optical clearing technique. However, previous investigations showed that DMSO can induce bradycardia, respiratory problems, and alterations in blood pressure. Also, DMSO could potentially alter the chemical structure, and hence the functional properties, of cell membranes. In this talk, Borneol among natural and nontoxic CTMs was introduced as new enhancer for optical clearing of porcine skin tissue since it has been widely used as new penetration promoter in the field of trandermial drug delivery system(TDDS) and been proved to be effective. In the first, the spectral characteristics of borneol was obtained and analyzed by Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. And further experimental studies were performed to probe if borneol is capable of optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro with near infrared spectroscopy, double integrating-spheres system and Inverse Adding-Doubling(IAD) algorithm. Spectral results show that light penetration depth into skin tissue got the increase. Meanwhile, absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient of porcine skin treated by borneol got the decrease during the permeation of Borneol. Therefore, Borneol could be potentially used as enhancer for tissue optical clearing to improve non-invasive light-based diagnostic and imaging techniques while practically optical application and clinical safety are under consideration.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Carbon Emission from Biomass Burning for use in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Andrew E.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of many trace gases in the atmosphere. Up to 25% of the total anthropogenic carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere annually is from biomass burning. However, this gaseous emission from fires is not directly detectable from satellite. Infrared radiance from the fires is. In order to see if infrared radiance can be used as a tracer for these emitted gases, we made laboratory measurements to determine the correlation of emitted carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and total burned biomass with emitted infrared radiance. If the measured correlations among these quantities hold in the field, then satellite-observed infrared radiance can be used to estimate gaseous emission and total burned biomass on a global, daily basis. To this end, several types of biomass fuels were burned under controlled conditions in a large-scale combustion laboratory. Simultaneous measurements of emitted spectral infrared radiance, emitted carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total mass loss were made. In addition measurements of fuel moisture content and fuel elemental abundance were made. We found that for a given fire, the quantity of carbon burned can be estimated from 11 (micro)m radiance measurements only within a factor of five. This variation arises from three sources, 1) errors in our measurements, 2) the subpixel nature of the fires, and 3) inherent differences in combustion of different fuel types. Despite this large range, these measurements can still be used for large-scale satellite estimates of biomass burned. This is because of the very large possible spread of fire sizes that will be subpixel as seen by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Due to this large spread, even relatively low-precision correlations can still be useful for large-scale estimates of emitted carbon. Furthermore, such estimates using the MODIS 3.9 (micro)m channel should be even more accurate than our estimates based on 11 (micro)m radiance.

  13. Spectrally adjustable quasi-monochromatic radiance source based on LEDs and its application for measuring spectral responsivity of a luminance meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Juha-Matti; Poikonen, Tuomas; Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    A spectrally adjustable radiance source based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been constructed for spectral responsivity measurements of radiance and luminance meters. A 300 mm integrating sphere source with adjustable output port is illuminated using 30 thermally stabilized narrow-band LEDs covering the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. The functionality of the measurement setup is demonstrated by measuring the relative spectral responsivities of a luminance meter and a photometer head with cosine-corrected input optics. (paper)

  14. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  15. Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a Solmirus Corp. All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer. The IRSI is an automatic, continuously operating, digital imaging and software system designed to capture hemispheric sky images and provide time series retrievals of fractional sky cover during both the day and night. The instrument provides diurnal, radiometrically calibrated sky imagery in the mid-infrared atmospheric window and imagery in the visible wavelengths for cloud retrievals during daylight hours. The software automatically identifies cloudy and clear regions at user-defined intervals and calculates fractional sky cover, providing a real-time display of sky conditions.

  16. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and MetOp-B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 09:30 and 13:30 LT are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15 % when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally, regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features

  17. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  18. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  19. Clear-Sky Longwave Irradiance at the Earth's Surface--Evaluation of Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    2001-04-01

    An evaluation of the clear-sky longwave irradiance at the earth's surface (LI) simulated in climate models and in satellite-based global datasets is presented. Algorithm-based estimates of LI, derived from global observations of column water vapor and surface (or screen air) temperature, serve as proxy `observations.' All datasets capture the broad zonal variation and seasonal behavior in LI, mainly because the behavior in column water vapor and temperature is reproduced well. Over oceans, the dependence of annual and monthly mean irradiance upon sea surface temperature (SST) closely resembles the observed behavior of column water with SST. In particular, the observed hemispheric difference in the summer minus winter column water dependence on SST is found in all models, though with varying seasonal amplitudes. The analogous behavior in the summer minus winter LI is seen in all datasets. Over land, all models have a more highly scattered dependence of LI upon surface temperature compared with the situation over the oceans. This is related to a much weaker dependence of model column water on the screen-air temperature at both monthly and annual timescales, as observed. The ability of climate models to simulate realistic LI fields depends as much on the quality of model water vapor and temperature fields as on the quality of the longwave radiation codes. In a comparison of models with observations, root-mean-square gridpoint differences in mean monthly column water and temperature are 4-6 mm (5-8 mm) and 0.5-2 K (3-4 K), respectively, over large regions of ocean (land), consistent with the intermodel differences in LI of 5-13 W m2 (15-28 W m2).

  20. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  1. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabtchak S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Serge Grabtchak,1,2 Logan G Montgomery,1 Bo Pang,3,4 Yi Wang,4,5 Chao Zhang,6,7 Zhiyuan Li,6,7 Younan Xia,4,8 William M Whelan1,91Department of Physics, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada; 2Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4The Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Key Laboratory of Green Synthesis and Applications, College of Chemistry, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 6Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7College of Physics and Optoelectronics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 8School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA; 9Atlantic Veterinary College, Charlottetown, PEI, CanadaAbstract: Radiance spectroscopy was applied to the interstitial detection of localized inclusions containing Au nanocages or nanorods with various concentrations embedded in porcine muscle phantoms. The radiance was quantified using a perturbation approach, which enabled the separation of contributions from the porcine phantom and the localized inclusion, with the inclusion serving as a perturbation probe of photon distributions in the turbid medium. Positioning the inclusion at various places in the phantom allowed for tracking of photons that originated from a light source, passed through the inclusion’s location, and reached a detector. The inclusions with high extinction coefficients were able to absorb nearly all photons in the range of 650–900 nm, leading to a spectrally flat radiance signal. This signal could be

  2. Imaging gravity waves in lower stratospheric AMSU-A radiances, Part 2: Validation case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Eckermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional radiance maps from Channel 9 (~60–90 hPa of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A, acquired over southern Scandinavia on 14 January 2003, show plane-wave-like oscillations with a wavelength λh of ~400–500 km and peak brightness temperature amplitudes of up to 0.9 K. The wave-like pattern is observed in AMSU-A radiances from 8 overpasses of this region by 4 different satellites, revealing a growth in the disturbance amplitude from 00:00 UTC to 12:00 UTC and a change in its horizontal structure between 12:00 UTC and 20:00 UTC. Forecast and hindcast runs for 14 January 2003 using high-resolution global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP models generate a lower stratospheric mountain wave over southern Scandinavia with peak 90 hPa temperature amplitudes of ~5–7 K at 12:00 UTC and a similar horizontal wavelength, packet width, phase structure and time evolution to the disturbance observed in AMSU-A radiances. The wave's vertical wavelength is ~12 km. These NWP fields are validated against radiosonde wind and temperature profiles and airborne lidar profiles of temperature and aerosol backscatter ratios acquired from the NASA DC-8 during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II. Both the amplitude and phase of the stratospheric mountain wave in the various NWP fields agree well with localized perturbation features in these suborbital measurements. In particular, we show that this wave formed the type II polar stratospheric clouds measured by the DC-8 lidar. To compare directly with the AMSU-A data, we convert these validated NWP temperature fields into swath-scanned brightness temperatures using three-dimensional Channel 9 weighting functions and the actual AMSU-A scan patterns from each of the 8 overpasses of this region. These NWP-based brightness temperatures contain two-dimensional oscillations due to this resolved stratospheric mountain wave that have an amplitude, wavelength

  3. Impact of Assimilation of Conventional and Satellite Radiance GTS Observations on Simulation of Mesoscale Convective System Over Southeast India Using WRF-3DVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.; Bhowmik, S. K. Roy; Das, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of present study is to investigate the impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite radiance observations in simulating the mesoscale convective system (MCS) formed over south east India. An assimilation methodology based on Weather Research and Forecasting model three dimensional variational data assimilation is considered. Few numerical experiments are carried out to examine the individual and combined impact of conventional and non-conventional (satellite radiance) observations. After the successful inclusion of additional observations, strong analysis increments of temperature and moisture fields are noticed and contributed to significant improvement in model's initial fields. The resulting model simulations are able to successfully reproduce the prominent synoptic features responsible for the initiation of MCS. Among all the experiments, the final experiment in which both conventional and satellite radiance observations assimilated has showed considerable impact on the prediction of MCS. The location, genesis, intensity, propagation and development of rain bands associated with the MCS are simulated reasonably well. The biases of simulated temperature, moisture and wind fields at surface and different pressure levels are reduced. Thermodynamic, dynamic and vertical structure of convective cells associated with the passage of MCS are well captured. Spatial distribution of rainfall is fairly reproduced and comparable to TRMM observations. It is demonstrated that incorporation of conventional and satellite radiance observations improved the local and synoptic representation of temperature, moisture fields from surface to different levels of atmosphere. This study highlights the importance of assimilation of conventional and satellite radiances in improving the models initial conditions and simulation of MCS.

  4. THE 'TRUE' COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN STAR-FORMING MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare the three methods used for measuring column density in molecular clouds: near-infrared (NIR) extinction mapping; thermal emission mapping in the far-IR; and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. Overall, the structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist among the tracers. We find that the dust-based measures (NIR extinction and thermal emission) give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full (∼20 pc scale) Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically meaningful subregions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those (smaller, ∼few pc scale) regions. Even though we have used 12 CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13 CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942 from the column density distribution comparisons. In that shell's interior and in the parts where it overlaps the molecular cloud, there appears to be a dearth of 13 CO, which is likely due either to 13 CO not yet having had time to form in this young structure and/or destruction of 13 CO in the molecular cloud by the HD 278942's wind and/or radiation. We conclude that the use of either dust or gas measures of column density without extreme attention to calibration (e.g., of thermal emission zero-levels) and artifacts (e.g., the shell) is more perilous than even experts might normally admit. And, the use of 13 CO data to trace total column density in detail, even after proper calibration, is unavoidably limited in utility due to threshold, depletion, and opacity effects. If one's main aim is to map column density (rather than temperature

  5. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, F. M.; Hendrick, F.; Pinardi, G.; Fayt, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2013-12-01

    A retrieval approach has been developed to derive tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. Zenith radiance spectra are observed in the visible range by the BIRA-IASB Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument and analyzed by the DOAS technique, based on a least-squares spectral fitting. In recent years, this technique has shown to be a well-suited remote sensing tool for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. The retrieval algorithm is developed and validated based on a two month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). Once fully operational, the retrieval approach can be applied to observations from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The obtained tropospheric vertical column amounts are compared with the multi-axis retrieval from the BIRA-IASB MAX-DOAS instrument and the retrieval from a zenith-viewing only SAOZ instrument (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales), owned by Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS). First results show a good agreement for the whole time series with the multi-axis retrieval (R = 0.82; y = 0.88x + 0.30) as well as with the SAOZ retrieval (R = 0.85; y = 0.76x + 0.28 ). Main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of tropospheric and stratospheric air mass factors, the stratospheric NO2 abundances and the residual amount in the reference spectrum. However zenith-sky measurements have been commonly used over the last decades for stratospheric monitoring, this study also illustrates the suitability for retrieval of tropospheric column amounts. As there are long time series of zenith-sky acquisitions available, the developed approach offers new perspectives with regard to the use of observations from the NDACC

  6. Estimation of the Potential Detection of Diatom Assemblages Based on Ocean Color Radiance Anomalies in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Hélène Rêve-Lamarche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a large number of new approaches in the domain of ocean-color have been developed, leading to a variety of innovative descriptors for phytoplankton communities. One of these methods, named PHYSAT, currently allows for the qualitative detection of five main phytoplankton groups from ocean-color measurements. Even though PHYSAT products are widely used in various applications and projects, the approach is limited by the fact it identifies only dominant phytoplankton groups. This current limitation is due to the use of biomarker pigment ratios for establishing empirical relationships between in-situ information and specific ocean-color radiance anomalies in open ocean waters. However, theoretical explanations of PHYSAT suggests that it could be possible to detect more than dominance cases but move more toward phytoplanktonic assemblage detection. Thus, to evaluate the potential of PHYSAT for the detection of phytoplankton assemblages, we took advantage of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey, collected in both the English Channel and the North Sea. The available CPR dataset contains information on diatom abundance in two large areas of the North Sea for the period 1998-2010. Using this unique dataset, recurrent diatom assemblages were retrieved based on classification of CPR samples. Six diatom assemblages were identified in-situ, each having indicators taxa or species. Once this first step was completed, the in-situ analysis was used to empirically associate the diatom assemblages with specific PHYSAT spectral anomalies. This step was facilitated by the use of previous classifications of regional radiance anomalies in terms of shape and amplitude, coupled with phenological tools. Through a matchup exercise, three CPR assemblages were associated with specific radiance anomalies. The maps of detection of these specific radiances anomalies are in close agreement with current in-situ ecological knowledge.

  7. HPLC analysis of o-, m- and p-isomers using a betacyclodextrin column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The irradiation of foodstuffs containing protein leads to the hydroxylation of phenylalanine, due to which the position isomers o-tyrosine and m-tyrosine are formed in addition to the naturally occurring p-tyrosine. HPLC analysis of tyrosine isomers following sample processing and purification is generally carried out in a RP-C 18 column. In actual practice, the peaks of p-tyrosine and m-tyrosine overlap and a separation of o-tyrosine from baseline cannot always be achieved. Those separation problems may be solved, if a beta-cyclodextrin column is used in addition or as an alternative to the RP-C 18 column. The completely different separation characteristics of the latter provide a new pattern of elution for the tyrosine isomers. It is thus possible for p-tyrosine, which occurs in much higher concentrations than the other tyrosines, to be clearly separated chromatographically. (orig./vhe) [de

  8. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  9. The Effects of Aerosol on the Retrieval Accuracy of NO2 Slant Column Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunkee Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA, aerosol peak height (APH, measurement geometry (solar zenith angle (SZA and viewing zenith angle (VZA, relative azimuth angle, and surface reflectance on the accuracy of NO2 slant column density using synthetic radiance. High AOD and APH are found to decrease NO2 SCD retrieval accuracy. In moderately polluted (5 × 1015 molecules cm−2 < NO2 vertical column density (VCD < 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2 and clean regions (NO2 VCD < 5 × 1015 molecules cm−2, the correlation coefficient (R between true NO2 SCDs and those retrieved is 0.88 and 0.79, respectively, and AOD and APH are about 0.1 and is 0 km, respectively. However, when AOD and APH are about 1.0 and 4 km, respectively, the R decreases to 0.84 and 0.53 in moderately polluted and clean regions, respectively. On the other hand, in heavily polluted regions (NO2 VCD > 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2, even high AOD and APH values are found to have a negligible effect on NO2 SCD precision. In high AOD and APH conditions in clean NO2 regions, the R between true NO2 SCDs and those retrieved increases from 0.53 to 0.58 via co-adding four pixels spatially, showing the improvement in accuracy of NO2 SCD retrieval. In addition, the high SZA and VZA are also found to decrease the accuracy of the NO2 SCD retrieval.

  10. Characterizing star formation activity in infrared dark cloud MSXDC G048.65-00.29

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Shipman, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), condensed regions of the ISM with high column densities, low temperatures and high masses, are suspected sites of star formation. Thousands of IRDCs have already been identified. To date, it has not been resolved whether IRDCs always show star formation

  11. Controllable preparation of copper phthalocyanine single crystal nano column and its chlorine gas sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc single crystal nano columns were fabricated for the first time as chlorine (Cl2 gas sensors in this paper. The nano columns of CuPc have been prepared on different substrates via template-free physical vapor deposition (PVD approach. The growth mechanism of CuPc nano column on quartz was explored and the same condition used on other substrates including glass, sapphire (C-plane, M-plane, R-plane, Si and SiO2/Si came to a same conclusion, which confirmed that the aligned growth of CuPc nano column is not substrate-dependent. And then the CuPc nano column with special morphology was integrated as in-situ sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cl2 at room temperature with a minimum detection limit as low as 0.08 ppm. The response of sensor was found to increase linearly (26∼659% with the increase for Cl2 within concentration range (0.08∼4.0ppm. These results clearly demonstrate the great potential of the nano column growth and device integration approach for sensor device.

  12. Transport of infrared radiation in cuboidal clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Weinman, J. A.; Davies, R.

    1981-01-01

    The transport of infrared radiation in a single cuboidal cloud is modeled using a variable azimuth two-stream approximation. Computations are made at 10 microns for a Deirmendjian (1969) C-1 water cloud where the single scattering albedo is equal to 0.638 and the asymmetry parameter is 0.865. The results indicate that the emittance of the top face of the model cloud is always less than that for a plane parallel cloud of the same optical depth. The hemispheric flux escaping from the cloud top possesses a gradient from the center to the edges which are warmer when the cloud is over warmer ground. Cooling rate calculations in the 8-13.6 micron region demonstrate that there is cooling out of the sides of the cloud at all levels even when there is heating of the core from the ground below. The radiances exiting from model cuboidal clouds are computed by path integration over the source function obtained with the two-stream approximation. Results indicate that the brightness temperature measured from finite clouds will overestimate the cloud-top temperature.

  13. Potential of remote sensing of cirrus optical thickness by airborne spectral radiance measurements at different sideward viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kevin; Ehrlich, André; Hüneke, Tilman; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Werner, Frank; Wirth, Martin; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Spectral radiance measurements collected in nadir and sideward viewing directions by two airborne passive solar remote sensing instruments, the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (mini-DOAS), are used to compare the remote sensing results of cirrus optical thickness τ. The comparison is based on a sensitivity study using radiative transfer simulations (RTS) and on data obtained during three airborne field campaigns: the North Atlantic Rainfall VALidation (NARVAL) mission, the Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment (ML-CIRRUS) and the Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems (ACRIDICON) campaign. Radiative transfer simulations are used to quantify the sensitivity of measured upward radiance I with respect to τ, ice crystal effective radius reff, viewing angle of the sensor θV, spectral surface albedo α, and ice crystal shape. From the calculations it is concluded that sideward viewing measurements are generally better suited than radiance data from the nadir direction to retrieve τ of optically thin cirrus, especially at wavelengths larger than λ = 900 nm. Using sideward instead of nadir-directed spectral radiance measurements significantly improves the sensitivity and accuracy in retrieving τ, in particular for optically thin cirrus of τ ≤ 2. The comparison of retrievals of τ based on nadir and sideward viewing radiance measurements from SMART, mini-DOAS and independent estimates of τ from an additional active remote sensing instrument, the Water Vapor Lidar Experiment in Space (WALES), shows general agreement within the range of measurement uncertainties. For the selected example a mean τ of 0.54 ± 0.2 is derived from SMART, and 0.49 ± 0.2 by mini-DOAS nadir channels, while WALES obtained a mean value of τ = 0.32 ± 0.02 at 532 nm wavelength, respectively. The mean of τ derived from the sideward viewing mini

  14. A full-mission data set of H2O and HDO columns from SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schneider

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new data set of vertical column densities of the water vapour isotopologues H2O and HDO from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument for the whole of the mission period from January 2003 to April 2012 is presented. The data are retrieved from reflectance measurements in the spectral range 2339 to 2383 nm with the Shortwave Infrared CO Retrieval (SICOR algorithm, ignoring atmospheric light scattering in the measurement simulation. The retrievals are validated with ground-based Fourier transform infrared measurements obtained within the Multi-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA project. A good agreement for low-altitude stations is found with an average bias of −3.6×1021 for H2O and −1.0×1018 molec cm−2 for HDO. The a posteriori computed δD shows an average bias of −8 ‰, even though polar stations have a larger negative bias. The latter is due to the large amount of sensor noise in SCIAMACHY in combination with low albedo and high solar zenith angles. To demonstrate the benefit of accounting for light scattering in the retrieval, the quality of the data product fitting effective cloud parameters simultaneously with trace gas columns is evaluated in a dedicated case study for measurements round high-altitude stations. Due to a large altitude difference between the satellite ground pixel and the mountain station, clear-sky scenes yield a large bias, resulting in a δD bias of 125 ‰. When selecting scenes with optically thick clouds within 1000 m above or below the station altitude, the bias in a posteriori δD is reduced from 125 to 44 ‰. The insights from the present study will also benefit the analysis of the data from the new Sentinel-5 Precursor mission.

  15. Simulations of cloudy hyperspectral infrared radiances using the HT-FRTC, a fast PC-based multipurpose radiative transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, S.; Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The HT-FRTC uses principal components which cover the spectrum at a very high spectral resolution allowing very fast line-by-line-like, hyperspectral and broadband simulations for satellite-based, airborne and ground-based sensors. Using data from IASI and from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) on board the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft, variational retrievals in principal component space with HT-FRTC as forward model have demonstrated that valuable information on temperature and humidity profiles and on the cirrus cloud properties can be obtained simultaneously. The NASA/JPL/UMBC cloudy RTM inter-comparison project has been working on a global dataset consisting of 7377 AIRS spectra. Initial simulations with HT-FRTC for this dataset have been promising. A next step taken here is to investigate how sensitive the results are with respect to different assumptions in the cloud modelling. One aspect of this is to study how assumptions about the microphysical and related optical properties of liquid/ice clouds impact the statistics of the agreement between model and observations. The other aspect is about the cloud overlap scheme. Different schemes have been tested (maximum, random, maximum random). As the computational cost increases linearly with the number of cloud columns, it will be investigated if there is an optimal number of columns beyond which there is little additional benefit to be gained. During daytime the high wave number channels of AIRS are affected by solar radiation. With full scattering calculations using a monochromatic version of the Edwards-Slingo radiation code the HT-FRTC can model solar radiation reasonably well, but full scattering calculations are relatively expensive. Pure Chou scaling on the other hand can not properly describe scattering of solar radiation by clouds and requires additional refinements.

  16. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Abadi; P.A. Boncz (Peter); S. Harizopoulos

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as

  17. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  18. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  19. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  20. Family of columns isospectral to gravity-loaded columns with tip force: A discrete approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Nirmal; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    A discrete model is introduced to analyze transverse vibration of straight, clamped-free (CF) columns of variable cross-sectional geometry under the influence of gravity and a constant axial force at the tip. The discrete model is used to determine critical combinations of loading parameters - a gravity parameter and a tip force parameter - that cause onset of dynamic instability in the CF column. A methodology, based on matrix-factorization, is described to transform the discrete model into a family of models corresponding to weightless and unloaded clamped-free (WUCF) columns, each with a transverse vibration spectrum isospectral to the original model. Characteristics of models in this isospectral family are dependent on three transformation parameters. A procedure is discussed to convert the isospectral discrete model description into geometric description of realistic columns i.e. from the discrete model, we construct isospectral WUCF columns with rectangular cross-sections varying in width and depth. As part of numerical studies to demonstrate efficacy of techniques presented, frequency parameters of a uniform column and three types of tapered CF columns under different combinations of loading parameters are obtained from the discrete model. Critical combinations of these parameters for a typical tapered column are derived. These results match with published results. Example CF columns, under arbitrarily-chosen combinations of loading parameters are considered and for each combination, isospectral WUCF columns are constructed. Role of transformation parameters in determining characteristics of isospectral columns is discussed and optimum values are deduced. Natural frequencies of these WUCF columns computed using Finite Element Method (FEM) match well with those of the given gravity-loaded CF column with tip force, hence confirming isospectrality.

  1. Multiseasonal-multispectral remote sensing of phenological change for natural vegetation inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Variations in phenological development among plant species was noted, as well as the tendency for the seasonal appearance of some vegetation types to be dominated by the appearance of one or a few similarly developing species. Most of the common plants in the study area could be characterized by temporal aspects of their phenological development. There was a strong similarity among the spectral signatures of vegetation types in which the spectral return was dominated by green plant material. When the soil background dominated the spectral return from a vegetation stand, then the spectral radiance and the vegetation physiognomy were apparently related. When the deciduous shrubs lost their leaves, their spectral signature altered with a slight decrease of radiance in the visible wavelengths and a strong decrease in the near infrared. As the foliage of perennial grasses cured from August to November, its apparent green radiance remained unchanged, red radiance increased over 50 percent, and near infrared radiance decreased approximately 30 percent. A reflective mineral surface exhibited high radiance levels in all four bands, thus providing a marked contrast to the absorption characteristics of vegetation canopies.

  2. Assessment of Mars Atmospheric Temperature Retrievals from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Weisenstein, Deborah; Uymin, Gennady; Moncet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of Mars data assimilation. particularly quantification of measurement errors and generation of averaging kernels. we have evaluated atmospheric temperature retrievals from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) radiances. Multiple sets of retrievals have been considered in this study; (1) retrievals available from the Planetary Data System (PDS), (2) retrievals based on variants of the retrieval algorithm used to generate the PDS retrievals, and (3) retrievals produced using the Mars 1-Dimensional Retrieval (M1R) algorithm based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS ) forward model. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared to the MGS Radio Science (RS) temperature profiles. For the samples tested, the M1R temperature profiles can be made to agree within 2 K with the RS temperature profiles, but only after tuning the prior and error statistics. Use of a global prior that does not take into account the seasonal dependence leads errors of up 6 K. In polar samples. errors relative to the RS temperature profiles are even larger. In these samples, the PDS temperature profiles also exhibit a poor fit with RS temperatures. This fit is worse than reported in previous studies, indicating that the lack of fit is due to a bias correction to TES radiances implemented after 2004. To explain the differences between the PDS and Ml R temperatures, the algorithms are compared directly, with the OSS forward model inserted into the PDS algorithm. Factors such as the filtering parameter, the use of linear versus nonlinear constrained inversion, and the choice of the forward model, are found to contribute heavily to the differences in the temperature profiles retrieved in the polar regions, resulting in uncertainties of up to 6 K. Even outside the poles, changes in the a priori statistics result in different profile shapes which all fit the radiances within the specified error. The importance of the a priori statistics prevents

  3. First 3D measurements of temperature fluctuations induced by gravity wave with the infrared limb imager GLORIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are one of the most important coupling mechanisms in the atmosphere. They couple different compartments of the atmosphere. The GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle) project aims on studying the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of gravity waves. An aircraft campaign has been performed in winter 2015/2016, during which the first 3D tomographic measurements of GWs were performed with the infrared limb imager GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere). GLORIA combines a classical Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a 2D detector array. The capability to image the atmosphere and thereby take several thousand spectra simultaneously improves the spatial sampling compared to conventional limb sounders by an order of magnitude. Furthermore GLORIA is able to pan the horizontal viewing direction and therefore measure the same volume of air under different angles. Due to these properties tomographic methods can be used to derive 3D temperature and tracer fields with spatial resolutions of better than 30km x 30km x 250m from measurements taken during circular flight patterns. Temperature distributions measured during a strong GW event on the 25.01.2016 during the GW-LCycle campaign over Iceland will be presented and analyzed for gravity waves. The three dimensional nature of the GLORIA measurements allows for the determination of the gravity wave momentum flux, including its horizontal direction. The calculated momentum fluxes rank this event under one of the strongest 1% observed in that latitude range in January 2016. The three dimensional wave vectors determined from the GLORIA measurements can be used for a ray tracing study with the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT). Here 1D ray tracing, meaning solely vertical column propagation, as used by standard parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models is compared to 4D ray tracing (spatially three dimensional with time varying

  4. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  5. Carbon Chemistry in IRC+10216: Infrared Detection of Diacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfría, J. P.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We present the detection of C4H2 for first time in the envelope of the C-rich AGB star IRC+10216, based on high spectral resolution mid-infrared observations carried out with the Texas Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Infrared Telescope Facility. The obtained spectrum contains 24 narrow absorption features above the detection limit, identified as lines of the ro-vibrational C4H2 band {ν }6+{ν }8({σ }u+). The analysis of these lines through a ro-vibrational diagram indicates that the column density of C4H2 is (2.4 ± 1.5) × 1016 cm‑2. Diacetylene is distributed in two excitation populations accounting for 20% and 80% of the total column density and with rotational temperatures of 47 ± 7 and 420 ± 120 K, respectively. This two-folded rotational temperature suggests that the absorbing gas is located beyond ≃0.″4 ≃ 20 R ⋆ from the star, with a noticeable cold contribution outwards from ≃10″ ≃ 500 R ⋆. This outer shell matches up with the place where cyanoacetylenes and carbon chains are known to form due to the action of the Galactic dissociating radiation field on the neutral gas coming from the inner layers of the envelope.

  6. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  7. Annular pulse column development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The capacity of critically safe cylindrical pulse columns limits the size of nuclear fuel solvent extraction plants because of the limited cross-sectional area of plutonium, U-235, or U-233 processing columns. Thus, there is a need to increase the cross-sectional area of these columns. This can be accomplished through the use of a column having an annular cross section. The preliminary testing of a pilot-plant-scale annular column has been completed and is reported herein. The column is made from 152.4-mm (6-in.) glass pipe sections with an 89-mm (3.5-in.) o.d. internal tube, giving an annular width of 32-mm (1.25-in.). Louver plates are used to swirl the column contents to prevent channeling of the phases. The data from this testing indicate that this approach can successfully provide larger-cross-section critically safe pulse columns. While the capacity is only 70% of that of a cylindrical column of similar cross section, the efficiency is almost identical to that of a cylindrical column. No evidence was seen of any non-uniform pulsing action from one side of the column to the other

  8. Comparing airborne and satellite retrievals of cloud optical thickness and particle effective radius using a spectral radiance ratio technique: two case studies for cirrus and deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisna, Trismono C.; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Werner, Frank; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Mahnke, Christoph; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Voigt, Christiane; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation reflected by cirrus and deep convective clouds (DCCs) was measured by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurement System (SMART) installed on the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) during the Mid-Latitude Cirrus (ML-CIRRUS) and the Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interaction and Dynamic of Convective Clouds System - Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modelling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (ACRIDICON-CHUVA) campaigns. On particular flights, HALO performed measurements closely collocated with overpasses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite. A cirrus cloud located above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are analyzed in this paper. Based on the nadir spectral upward radiance measured above the two clouds, the optical thickness τ and particle effective radius reff of the cirrus and DCC are retrieved using a radiance ratio technique, which considers the cloud thermodynamic phase, the vertical profile of cloud microphysical properties, the presence of multilayer clouds, and the heterogeneity of the surface albedo. For the cirrus case, the comparison of τ and reff retrieved on the basis of SMART and MODIS measurements yields a normalized mean absolute deviation of up to 1.2 % for τ and 2.1 % for reff. For the DCC case, deviations of up to 3.6 % for τ and 6.2 % for reff are obtained. The larger deviations in the DCC case are mainly attributed to the fast cloud evolution and three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects. Measurements of spectral upward radiance at near-infrared wavelengths are employed to investigate the vertical profile of reff in the cirrus. The retrieved values of reff are compared with corresponding in situ measurements using a vertical weighting method. Compared to the MODIS observations, measurements of SMART provide more information on the

  9. A Model for the Infrared Radiance of Optically Thin, Particulate Exhaust Plumes Generated by Pyrotechnic Flares Burning in a Vacuum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    .... The model is used to predict how a magnesium-Teflon exhaust plume would look when viewed as an approximate point source by a distant infrared sensor and also to analyze the data acquired from three separate magnesium-Teflon flares burned in a large vacuum chamber.

  10. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, D.; Boncz, Peter; Harizopoulos, S.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as opposed to traditional database systems that store entire records (rows) one after the other. Reading a subset of a table’s columns becomes faster, at the potential expense of excessive disk-head s...

  11. Detection of carbon monoxide pollution from cities and wildfires on regional and urban scales: the benefit of CO column retrievals from SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm measurements under cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorff, Tobias; Andrasec, Josip; aan de Brugh, Joost; Hu, Haili; Aben, Ilse; Landgraf, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    In the perspective of the upcoming TROPOMI Sentinel-5 Precursor carbon monoxide data product, we discuss the benefit of using CO total column retrievals from cloud-contaminated SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm shortwave infrared spectra to detect atmospheric CO enhancements on regional and urban scales due to emissions from cities and wildfires. The study uses the operational Sentinel-5 Precursor algorithm SICOR, which infers the vertically integrated CO column together with effective cloud parameters. We investigate its capability to detect localized CO enhancements distinguishing between clear-sky observations and observations with low (Paris, Los Angeles and Tehran as well as the wildfire events in Mexico-Guatemala 2005 and Alaska-Canada 2004. The CO average of the SCIAMACHY full-mission data set of clear-sky observations can detect weak CO enhancements of less than 10 ppb due to air pollution in these cities. For low-cloud conditions, the CO data product performs similarly well. For medium-high clouds, the observations show a reduced CO signal both over Tehran and Los Angeles, while for Paris no significant CO enhancement can be detected. This indicates that information about the vertical distribution of CO can be obtained from the SCIAMACHY measurements. Moreover, for the Mexico-Guatemala fires, the low-cloud CO data captures a strong outflow of CO over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean and so provides complementary information to clear-sky retrievals, which can only be obtained over land. For both burning events, enhanced CO values are even detectable with medium-high-cloud retrievals, confirming a distinct vertical extension of the pollution. The larger number of additional measurements, and hence the better spatial coverage, significantly improve the detection of wildfire pollution using both the clear-sky and cloudy CO retrievals. Due to the improved instrument performance of the TROPOMI instrument with respect to its precursor SCIAMACHY, the upcoming Sentinel-5

  12. Far-infrared and CO observations of NGC 6357 and regions surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Jaffe, D.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have surveyed two 1.7 square degree sections of the galactic plane at 70 μm with one-arcminute resolution. The scanned areas included the giant southern H II region complexes NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Nineteen far-infrared sources were observed. The sources range in luminosity from 1.6 x 10 4 to 5.5 x 10 5 L/sub sun/ . We present far-infrared continuum and CO line observations of NGC 6357. Four far-infrared sources were found in this complex and for one of these sources the exciting stars are identified. We present far-infrared and CO observations of sources in the field surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. The far-infrared sources coincide frequently with CO line temperature peaks. The CO clouds which surround the far-infrared sources have similar 13 CO column densities. Two of the far-infrared sources in the field have associated OH and H 2 O maser emission and compact H II regions

  13. Nuclear reactor control column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor

  14. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  15. SENSOR++: Simulation of Remote Sensing Systems from Visible to Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproth, C.; Schlüßler, E.; Scherbaum, P.; Börner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During the development process of a remote sensing system, the optimization and the verification of the sensor system are important tasks. To support these tasks, the simulation of the sensor and its output is valuable. This enables the developers to test algorithms, estimate errors, and evaluate the capabilities of the whole sensor system before the final remote sensing system is available and produces real data. The presented simulation concept, SENSOR++, consists of three parts. The first part is the geometric simulation which calculates where the sensor looks at by using a ray tracing algorithm. This also determines whether the observed part of the scene is shadowed or not. The second part describes the radiometry and results in the spectral at-sensor radiance from the visible spectrum to the thermal infrared according to the simulated sensor type. In the case of earth remote sensing, it also includes a model of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The final part uses the at-sensor radiance to generate digital images by using an optical and an electronic sensor model. Using SENSOR++ for an optimization requires the additional application of task-specific data processing algorithms. The principle of the simulation approach is explained, all relevant concepts of SENSOR++ are discussed, and first examples of its use are given, for example a camera simulation for a moon lander. Finally, the verification of SENSOR++ is demonstrated.

  16. An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M.

    2002-07-01

    A Sun photometer that uses near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as spectrally-selective photodetectors has measured total column water vapor in South Texas since February 1990. The 12 years of solar noon observations to date are correlated with upper air soundings at Del Rio, Texas (r2 = 0.75), and highly correlated with measurements by a Microtops II filter Sun photometer (r2 = 0.94). LEDs are inexpensive and have far better long term stability than the interference filters in conventional Sun photometers. The LED Sun photometer therefore provides an inexpensive, stable and portable means for measuring column water vapor.

  17. Assessing Recent Improvements in the GOSAT TANSO-FTS Thermal InfraRed Emission Spectrum using Satellite Inter-Comparison with NASA AIRS, EUMETSAT IASI, and JPSS CrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuteson, R.; Burgess, G.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Yoshida, J.; Kataoka, F.; Suto, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) since 2009 (Kuze et al. 2012). The TANSO-FTS sensor is an interferometer spectrometer measuring shortwave reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution in three spectral bands. A bore-sighted band 4 uses the same interferometer to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR) at the top of the atmosphere. This paper is a comparison of the TANSO-FTS TIR band with coincident measurements of the NASA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) grating spectrometer. The time and space coincident matchups are at the Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) locations of the orbits of GOSAT and the NASA AQUA satellite. GOSAT/AQUA SNOs occur at about 40N and 40S latitude. A continuous set of SNO matchups has been found from the start of valid radiance data collection in April 2009 through the end of 2015. UW-SSEC has obtained the time, latitude, and longitude of the SNO location using the ORBNAV software at http://sips.ssec.wisc.edu/orbnav. UW-SSEC obtained the matching AIRS v5 L1B radiances from the NASA archive. JAXA has reprocessed the entire TANSO-FTS TIR band using the previous v161and a new calibration version (v203) which includes calibration parameter optimizations. The TANSO-FTS has been reduced to the AIRS spectral channels using the AIRS spectral response functions (SRFs). This paper will show the time series of observed brightness temperatures from AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR observations from the SNO matchups. Similar results are obtained by comparison with the EUMETSAT Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP platform and the JPSS Cross-track InfraRed Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi-NPP platform. This paper validates the improvements in the GOSAT ground calibration software by providing a reference

  18. Column Selection for Biomedical Analysis Supported by Column Classification Based on Four Test Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Rekowska, Natalia; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-21

    This article focuses on correlating the column classification obtained from the method created at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), with the chromatographic resolution attained in biomedical separation. In the KUL system, each column is described with four parameters, which enables estimation of the FKUL value characterising similarity of those parameters to the selected reference stationary phase. Thus, a ranking list based on the FKUL value can be calculated for the chosen reference column, then correlated with the results of the column performance test. In this study, the column performance test was based on analysis of moclobemide and its two metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography (LC), using 18 columns. The comparative study was performed using traditional correlation of the FKUL values with the retention parameters of the analytes describing the column performance test. In order to deepen the comparative assessment of both data sets, factor analysis (FA) was also used. The obtained results indicated that the stationary phase classes, closely related according to the KUL method, yielded comparable separation for the target substances. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the FKUL-values could be considered supportive in the choice of the appropriate column for biomedical analysis.

  19. An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, X.

    2013-01-01

    An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance of gases is presented. The algorithm is based on fast convolution of the Voigt line profile using Fourier transform and a binning technique. The algorithm breaks a radiative transfer calculation into two steps: a one-time pre-computation step in which a set of pressure independent coefficients are computed using the spectral line information; a normal calculation step in which the Fourier transform coefficients of the optical depth are calculated using the line of sight information and the coefficients pre-computed in the first step, the optical depth is then calculated using an inverse Fourier transform and the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated. The algorithm is significantly faster than line-by-line algorithms that do not employ special speedup techniques by a factor of 10 3 –10 6 . A case study of the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O vapor is presented. -- Highlights: •An ultrafast line-by-line model based on FFT and a binning technique is presented. •Computationally expensive calculations are factored out into a pre-computation step. •It is 10 3 –10 8 times faster than LBL algorithms that do not employ speedup techniques. •Good agreement with experimental data for the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O

  20. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  1. Star-forming Galaxies as AGN Imposters? A Theoretical Investigation of the Mid-infrared Colors of AGNs and Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas P.; Secrest, Nathan J.

    2018-05-01

    We conduct for the first time a theoretical investigation of the mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) produced by dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an extreme starburst. These models employ an integrated modeling approach using photoionization and stellar population synthesis models in which both the line and emergent continuum is predicted from gas exposed to the ionizing radiation from a young starburst and an AGN. In this work, we focus on the infrared colors from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, predicting the dependence of the colors on the input radiation field, the interstellar medium conditions, the obscuring column, and the metallicity. We find that an extreme starburst can mimic an AGN in two band mid-infrared color cuts employed in the literature. However, the three-band color cuts employed in the literature require starbursts with extremely high ionization parameters or gas densities. We show that the extreme mid-infrared colors seen in some blue compact dwarf galaxies are not due to metallicity but rather a combination of high ionization parameters and high column densities. Based on our theoretical calculations, we present a theoretical mid-infrared color cut that will exclude even the most extreme starburst that we have modeled in this work. The theoretical AGN demarcation region presented here can be used to identify elusive AGN candidates for future follow-up studies with the James Webb Space Telescope. The full suite of simulated SEDs are available online.

  2. ( Anogeissus leiocarpus ) timber columns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure for designing axially loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus) wood column or strut has been investigated. Instead of the usual categorization of columns into short, intermediate and slender according to the value of slenderness ratio, a continuous column formula representing the three categories was derived.

  3. Infrared speckle observations of Io - an eruption in the Loki region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.R.; Mcginn, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Speckle observations of Jupiter's satellite Io at a wavelength of 5 micrometers during July 1984 resolved the disk and showed emission from a hot spot in the Loki region. The hot spot contributed a flux approximately equal to 60 percent of that from the disk.Images reconstructed by means of the Knox-Thompson algorithm showed the spot moving across the disk as the satellite rotated. It was located at 301 deg + or - 6 deg west longitude, 10 deg + or - 6 deg north latitude, and had a radiance of (2.96 + or - 0.54) x 10 to the 22nd ergs/sec cm sr/A where A is the area of the spot. For an assumed temperature of 400 K, the area of the source would be 11,400 square kilometers. An active lava lake similar to that seen by Voyager may be the source of the infrared emission. 10 references

  4. The influence of a clear layer on near-infrared spectrophotometry measurements using a liquid neonatal head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is difficult to test near-infrared spectrophotometry instruments in vivo. Therefore we constructed a liquid phantom which mimics the neonatal head. It consists of a spherical 3.5 mm thick layer of silicone rubber simulating skin and bone and a 0.5 mm thick clear layer of polypropylene imitating cerebrospinal fluid. It acts as container for a liquid solution with Intralipid, 60 μmol l -1 haemoglobin and yeast. The solution was oxygenated using oxygen and then deoxygenated by the yeast. From the instrumental (Critikon 2020) algorithm, we found that with increasing scattering (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% Intralipid concentration) the reading was increasingly offset from the expected value of 0 μmol l -1 by 55.7, 68.6, 76.5 and 80.4 μmol l -1 (oxyhaemoglobin) and 16.0, 24.4, 29.6 and 31.7 μmol l -1 (deoxyhaemoglobin). This reduced the range of the oxygen saturation reading from the expected 100% to 31.5, 21.1, 14.3 and 11.5%. Haemoglobin concentration changes were increasingly underestimated by a factor of two to four. For a second algorithm based on the diffusion approximation the offsets were smaller: oxyhaemoglobin 11.4, 17.8, 22.5 and 25.1 μmol l -1 and deoxyhaemoglobin 1.3, 3.4, 5.2 and 6.0 μmol l -1 . The range of the oxygen saturation reading was higher: 41.3, 29.2, 23.4 and 16.6%. Concentration changes were underestimated by a factor of six to ten. This study demonstrates the need to develop algorithms which take into consideration anatomical structures. (author)

  5. A Low-Cost Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (Mini-LHR) for Near-ir Measurements of CO2 and CH4 in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) is a ground-based passive variation of a laser heterodyne radiometer that uses sunlight to measure absorption of CO2 andCH4 in the infrared. Sunlight is collected using collimation optics mounted to an AERONET sun tracker, modulated with a fiber switch and mixed with infrared laser light in a fast photoreciever.The amplitude of the resultant RF (radio frequency) beat signal correlates with the concentration of the gas in the atmospheric column.

  6. A comparison of measured and calculated upwelling radiance over water as a function of sensor altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.; Salzman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper compares remote sensing data measured over water at altitudes ranging from 30 m to 15.2 km to data calculated for corresponding altitudes using surface measurements and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. The data were acquired on June 22, 1978 in Lake Erie and it was found that suspended solids and chlorophyll concentrations were 0.59 + or - 0.02 mg/liter and 2.42 + or - 0.03 micro gram/liter respectively throughout the duration of the experiment. Calculated and measured nadir radiances for altitudes of 152 m and 12.5 km agree to within 16% and 14% respectively. It is noted that the model offered a poor simulation of the variation in measured radiance with look angle. Finally, it is concluded that an accurate assessment of the source of error will require the inclusion in the analysis of the contributions made by the sea state and specular sky reflectance

  7. The Impact of AMSU-A Radiance Assimilation in the U.S. Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Nancy L; Hogan, T. F; Campbell, W. F; Pauley, R. L; Swadley, S. D

    2005-01-01

    ...) sensor suite onboard NOAA 15 and 16 for NOGAPS. The direct assimilation of AMSU-A radiances replaced the assimilation of ATOVS temperature retrievals produced by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS...

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  9. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  10. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEAWMT), ... temperatures clearly discriminates the cloud pixels of deep convective and ... utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep convective and ..... Henderson-Sellers A 1978 Surface type and its effect.

  11. Application of a spectral sky in Radiance for daylighting calculations including non-image-forming light effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademagha, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; van Loenen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Daylight is dynamic and rich in the blue part of the spectrum. To date, the spectral composition of daylight is ignored in sky models used in Radiance. Spectral sky composition is particularly important when non-image-forming (NIF) light effects are concerned, since the action spectrum for these

  12. A New ENSO Index Derived from Satellite Measurements of Column Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Oman, L. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Column Ozone measured in tropical latitudes from Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), Earth Probe TOMS, solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV), and Aura ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) are used to derive an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. This index, which covers a time period from 1979 to the present, is defined as the Ozone ENSO Index (OEI) and is the first developed from atmospheric trace gas measurements. The OEI is constructed by first averaging monthly mean column ozone over two broad regions in the western and eastern Pacific and then taking their difference. This differencing yields a self-calibrating ENSO index which is independent of individual instrument calibration offsets and drifts in measurements over the long record. The combined Aura OMI and MLS ozone data confirm that zonal variability in total column ozone in the tropics caused by ENSO events lies almost entirely in the troposphere. As a result, the OEI can be derived directly from total column ozone instead of tropospheric column ozone. For clear-sky ozone measurements a +1K change in Nino 3.4 index corresponds to +2.9 Dobson Unit (DU) change in the OEI, while a +1 hPa change in SOI coincides with a -1.7DU change in the OEI. For ozone measurements under all cloud conditions these numbers are +2.4DU and -1.4 DU, respectively. As an ENSO index based upon ozone, it is potentially useful in evaluating climate models predicting long term changes in ozone and other trace gases.

  13. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.

  14. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr '1 m '2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  15. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.

  16. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  17. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Connor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES Level 2 (L2 retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectrum. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO profiles for temperature and water vapor and the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST are used as input to the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS radiative transfer model to calculate the simulated spectra. The TES reference measurements selected cover a 4-year period of time from mid 2005 through mid 2009 with the selection criteria being; observation latitudes greater than −30° and less than 30°, over ocean, Global Survey mode (nadir view and retrieved cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01. The TES cloud optical depth retrievals are used only for screening purposes and no effects of clouds on the radiances are included in the forward model. This initial screening results in over 55 000 potential reference spectra spanning the four year period. Presented is a trend analysis of the time series of the residuals (observation minus calculations in the TES 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 1A1 bands, with the standard deviation of the residuals being approximately equal to 0.6 K for bands 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 0.9 K for band 1A1. The analysis demonstrates that the trend in the residuals is not significantly different from zero over the 4-year period. This is one method used to demonstrate that the relative radiometric calibration is stable over time, which is very important for any longer term analysis of TES retrieved products (L2, particularly well-mixed species such as carbon dioxide and methane.

  18. A modern robust approach to remotely estimate chlorophyll in coastal and inland zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; He, Xianqiang; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Varunan, Theenathayalan

    2018-05-01

    The chlorophyll concentration of a water body is an important proxy for representing the phytoplankton biomass. Its estimation from multi or hyper-spectral remote sensing data in natural waters is generally achieved by using (i) the waveband ratioing in two or more bands in the blue-green or (ii) by using a combination of the radiance peak position and magnitude in the red-near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. The blue-green ratio algorithms have been extensively used with satellite ocean color data to investigate chlorophyll distributions in open ocean and clear waters and the application of red-NIR algorithms is often restricted to turbid productive water bodies. These issues present the greatest obstacles to our ability to formulate a modern robust method suitable for quantitative assessments of the chlorophyll concentration in a diverse range of water types. The present study is focused to investigate the normalized water-leaving radiance spectra in the visible and NIR region and propose a robust algorithm (Generalized ABI, GABI algorithm) for chlorophyll concentration retrieval based on Algal Bloom index (ABI) which separates phytoplankton signals from other constituents in the water column. The GABI algorithm is validated using independent in-situ data from various regional to global waters and its performance is further evaluated by comparison with the blue-green waveband ratios and red-NIR algorithms. The results revealed that GABI yields significantly more accurate chlorophyll concentrations (with uncertainties less than 13.5%) and remains more stable in different waters types when compared with the blue-green waveband ratios and red-NIR algorithms. The performance of GABI is further demonstrated using HICO images from nearshore turbid productive waters and MERIS and MODIS-Aqua images from coastal and offshore waters of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and East China Sea.

  19. Scalability of pre-packed preparative chromatography columns with different diameters and lengths taking into account extra column effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Jungbauer, Alois

    2018-02-16

    Small pre-packed columns are commonly used to estimate the optimum run parameters for pilot and production scale. The question arises if the experiments obtained with these columns are scalable, because there are substantial changes in extra column volume when going from a very small scale to a benchtop column. In this study we demonstrate the scalability of pre-packed disposable and non-disposable columns of volumes in the range of 0.2-20 ml packed with various media using superficial velocities in the range of 30-500 cm/h. We found that the relative contribution of extra column band broadening to total band broadening was not only high for columns with small diameters, but also for columns with a larger volume due to their wider diameter. The extra column band broadening can be more than 50% for columns with volumes larger than 10 ml. An increase in column diameter leads to high additional extra column band broadening in the filter, frits, and adapters of the columns. We found a linear relationship between intra column band broadening and column length, which increased stepwise with increases in column diameter. This effect was also corroborated by CFD simulation. The intra column band broadening was the same for columns packed with different media. An empirical engineering equation and the data gained from the extra column effects allowed us to predict the intra, extra, and total column band broadening just from column length, diameter, and flow rate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relating pressure tuned coupled column ensembles with the solvation parameter model for tunable selectivity in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-07-15

    The differential pressure drop of carrier gas by tuning the junction point pressure of a coupled column gas chromatographic system leads to a unique selectivity of the overall separation, which can be tested using a mixture of compounds with a wide range of polarity. This study demonstrates a pressure tuning (PT) GC system employing a microfluidic Deans switch located at the mid-point of the two capillary columns. This PT system allowed variations of inlet-outlet pressure differences of the two columns in a range of 52-17psi for the upstream column and 31-11psi for the downstream column. Peak shifting (differential migration) of compounds due to PT difference are related to a first order regression equation in a Plackett-Burman factorial study. Increased first (upstream) column pressure drop makes the second column characteristics more significant in the coupled column retention behavior, and conversely increased second (downstream) column pressure drop makes the first column characteristics more apparent; such variation can result in component swapping between polar and non-polar compounds. The coupled column system selectivity was evaluated in terms of linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters, and their relation with different pressure drop effects has been constructed by applying multivariate principle component analysis (PCA). It has been found that the coupled column PT system descriptors provide a result that shows a clear clustering of different pressure settings, somewhat intermediate between those of the two commercial columns. This is equivalent to that obtained from a conventional single-column GC analysis where the interaction energy contributed from the stationary phases can be significantly adjusted by choice of midpoint PT. This result provides a foundation for pressure differentiation for selectivity enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Snow Radiance Data Assimilation over High Mountain Asia Using the NASA Land Information System and a Well-Trained Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Forman, B. A.; Yoon, Y.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) has been progressively losing ice and snow in recent decades, which could negatively impact regional water supply and native ecosystems. One goal of this study is to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of snow (and ice) across the HMA region. In addition, modeled snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates will be enhanced through the assimilation of passive microwave brightness temperatures (TB) collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) as part of a radiance assimilation system. The radiance assimilation framework includes the NASA Land Information System (LIS) in conjunction with a well-trained support vector machine (SVM) that acts as the observation operator. The Noah Land Surface Model with multi-parameterization options (Noah-MP) is used as the prior model for simulating snow dynamics. Noah-MP is forced by meteorological fields from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) atmospheric reanalysis for the periods 01 Sep. 2002 to 01 Sep. 2011. The radiance assimilation system requires two separate phases: 1) training and 2) assimilation. During the training phase, a nonlinear SVM is generated for three different AMSR-E frequencies - 10.65, 18.7, and 36.5 GHz - at both vertical and horizontal polarization. The trained SVM is then used to predict TB during the assimilation phase. An ensemble Kalman filter will be used to condition the model on AMSR-E brightness temperatures not used during SVM training. The performance of the Noah-MP (with and without radiance assimilation) will be assessed via comparison to in-situ measurements, remotely-sensing geophysical retrievals, and other reanalysis products.

  2. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  3. Optimization and simulation of tandem column supercritical fluid chromatography separations using column back pressure as a unique parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Zhang, Yingru

    2014-04-15

    Tandem column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has demonstrated to be a useful technique to resolve complex mixtures by serially coupling two columns of different selectivity. The overall selectivity of a tandem column separation is the retention time weighted average of selectivity from each coupled column. Currently, the method development merely relies on extensive screenings and is often a hit-or-miss process. No attention is paid to independently adjust retention and selectivity contributions from individual columns. In this study, we show how tandem column SFC selectivity can be optimized by changing relative dimensions (length or inner diameter) of the coupled columns. Moreover, we apply column back pressure as a unique parameter for SFC optimization. Continuous tuning of tandem column SFC selectivity is illustrated through column back pressure adjustments of the upstream column, for the first time. In addition, we show how and why changing coupling order of the columns can produce dramatically different separations. Using the empirical mathematical equation derived in our previous study, we also demonstrate a simulation of tandem column separations based on a single retention time measurement on each column. The simulation compares well with experimental results and correctly predicts column order and back pressure effects on the separations. Finally, considerations on instrument and column hardware requirements are discussed.

  4. TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia

    2006-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.

  5. Dynamic Deformation and Collapse of Granular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.; Doi, S.

    2009-12-01

    Large dynamic deformation of granular materials may be found in nature not only in the failure of slopes and cliffs — due to earthquakes, rock avalanches, debris flows and landslides — but also in earthquake faulting itself. Granular surface flows often consist of solid grains and intergranular fluid, but the effect of the fluid may be usually negligible because the volumetric concentration of grains is in many cases high enough for interparticle forces to dominate momentum transport. Therefore, the investigation of dry granular flow of a mass might assist in further understanding of the above mentioned geophysical events. Here, utilizing a high-speed digital video camera system, we perform a simple yet fully-controlled series of laboratory experiments related to the collapse of granular columns. We record, at an interval of some microseconds, the dynamic transient granular mass flow initiated by abrupt release of a tube that contains dry granular materials. The acrylic tube is partially filled with glass beads and has a cross-section of either a fully- or semi-cylindrical shape. Upon sudden removal of the tube, the granular solid may fragment under the action of its own weight and the particles spread on a rigid horizontal plane. This study is essentially the extension of the previous ones by Lajeunesse et al. (Phys. Fluids 2004) and Uenishi and Tsuji (JPGU 2008), but the striped layers of particles in a semi-cylindrical tube, newly introduced in this contribution, allow us to observe the precise particle movement inside the granular column: The development of slip lines inside the column and the movement of particles against each other can be clearly identified. The major controlling parameters of the spreading dynamics are the initial aspect ratio of the granular (semi-)cylindrical column, the frictional properties of the horizontal plane (substrate) and the size of beads. We show the influence of each parameter on the average flow velocity and final radius

  6. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  7. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  8. Assessment of a Technique for Estimating Total Column Water Vapor Using Measurements of the Infrared Sky Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    A method for estimating the integrated precipitable water (IPW) content of the atmosphere using measurements of indicated infrared zenith sky temperature was validated over east-central Florida. The method uses inexpensive, commercial off the shelf, hand-held infrared thermometers (IRT). Two such IRTs were obtained from a commercial vendor, calibrated against several laboratory reference sources at KSC, and used to make IR zenith sky temperature measurements in the vicinity of KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The calibration and comparison data showed that these inexpensive IRTs provided reliable, stable IR temperature measurements that were well correlated with the NOAA IPW observations.

  9. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., 23, 37, et al. Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing..., 38, and 39 RIN 3038-0092, -0094 Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing... implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  10. Integrated Multiscale Latent Variable Regression and Application to Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddu Madakyaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of distillation columns requires estimating some key variables that are challenging to measure online (such as compositions, which are usually estimated using inferential models. Commonly used inferential models include latent variable regression (LVR techniques, such as principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares (PLS, and regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA. Unfortunately, measured practical data are usually contaminated with errors, which degrade the prediction abilities of inferential models. Therefore, noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance the prediction accuracy of these models. Multiscale filtering has been shown to be a powerful feature extraction tool. In this work, the advantages of multiscale filtering are utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy of LVR models by developing an integrated multiscale LVR (IMSLVR modeling algorithm that integrates modeling and feature extraction. The idea behind the IMSLVR modeling algorithm is to filter the process data at different decomposition levels, model the filtered data from each level, and then select the LVR model that optimizes a model selection criterion. The performance of the developed IMSLVR algorithm is illustrated using three examples, one using synthetic data, one using simulated distillation column data, and one using experimental packed bed distillation column data. All examples clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the IMSLVR algorithm over the conventional methods.

  11. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  12. Infrared photometry of the nuclei of early-type radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Bailey, J.

    1986-01-01

    J,H,K,L' two-aperture photometry and single-aperture 10-μm(N) photometry of the nuclei of 44 nearby radio elliptical and SO galaxies are presented. Clear infrared excesses are found from the galaxies with broad emission-lines, the BL Lac objects, and two other galaxies, one of which appears to have an extended infrared excess. In addition, the sample as a whole appears to have positive 10-μm emission which is believed to be largely due to starlight. The near-infrared colours in general are characteristic of normal starlight, with only the strongest 10-μm emitters showing a significant near-infrared excess. These latter galaxies have blue optical colours. (author)

  13. Plutonium-239 sorption and transport on/in unsaturated sediments. Comparison of batch and column experiments for determining sorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuan Xie; Jiachun Lu; Xiaohua Zhou; Xuhui Wang; Mei Li; Lili Du; Yueheng Liu; Guoqing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Sorption (distribution) coefficients of plutonium were most often derived by static batch experiments. However, it is not clear how unsaturated flow conditions including moisture content and pore water velocity change the sorption coefficients. Transport experiments of plutonium through the unsaturated sediments packed into the columns were then performed in order to determine the sorption coefficients (column-K ds ). Static batch experiments were also conducted to obtain batch-K ds and then compare the differences between batch-K ds and column-K ds . The results show that unsaturated flow conditions had no significant effect on column-K ds , and the average column-K d value was 1.74 ± 0.02 m 3 /kg. By comparison, batch-K d values spanned several orders of magnitude, regardless of the specified liquid-solid conditions. Moreover, the batch-K d (22.7 m 3 /kg) at the standard L/S (4 mL/g) recommended by ASTM D 4319 was over an order of magnitude larger than the average column-K d . (author)

  14. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  15. Preparation of organic monolithic columns in polytetrafluoroethylene tubes for reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalá-Icardo, M.; Torres-Cartas, S.; Meseguer-Lloret, S.; Gómez-Benito, C.; Carrasco-Correa, E.; Simó-Alfonso, E.F.; Ramis-Ramos, G.; Herrero-Martínez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a method for the preparation and anchoring of polymeric monoliths in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing as a column housing for microbore HPLC is described. In order to assure a covalent attachment of the monolith to the inner wall of the PTFE tube, a two-step procedure was developed. Two surface etching reagents, a commercial sodium naphthalene solution (Fluoroetch"®), or mixtures of H_2O_2 and H_2SO_4, were tried and compared. Then, the obtained hydroxyl groups on the PTFE surface were modified by methacryloylation. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the successful modification of the tubing wall and the stable anchorage of monolith to the wall, respectively. Special emphasis was also put on the reduction of the unwanted effects of shrinking of monolith during polymerization, by using an external proper mold and by selecting the adequate monomers in order to increase the flexibility of the polymer. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths were in situ synthesized by thermal polymerization within the confines of surface-vinylized PTFE tubes. The modified PTFE tubing tightly held the monolith, and the monolithic column exhibited good pressure resistance up to 20 MPa. The column performance was also evaluated via the isocratic separation of a series of alkylbenzenes in the reversed-phase mode. The optimized monolithic columns gave plate heights ranged between 70 and 80 μm. The resulting monoliths were also satisfactorily applied to the separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Successful surface etching of PTFE inner wall tubing was done. • The modified PTFE support was next methacryloylated with GMA. • Organic polymeric monolith was in situ prepared in the functionalized PTFE tube. • The monolithic columns gave suitable pressure resistance and separation of proteins.

  16. Preparation of organic monolithic columns in polytetrafluoroethylene tubes for reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalá-Icardo, M., E-mail: mocaic@qim.upv.es [Research Institute for Integrated Management of Coastal Areas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730, Grao de Gandía, Valencia (Spain); Torres-Cartas, S.; Meseguer-Lloret, S.; Gómez-Benito, C. [Research Institute for Integrated Management of Coastal Areas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730, Grao de Gandía, Valencia (Spain); Carrasco-Correa, E.; Simó-Alfonso, E.F.; Ramis-Ramos, G. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Herrero-Martínez, J.M., E-mail: jmherrer@uv.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a method for the preparation and anchoring of polymeric monoliths in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing as a column housing for microbore HPLC is described. In order to assure a covalent attachment of the monolith to the inner wall of the PTFE tube, a two-step procedure was developed. Two surface etching reagents, a commercial sodium naphthalene solution (Fluoroetch{sup ®}), or mixtures of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, were tried and compared. Then, the obtained hydroxyl groups on the PTFE surface were modified by methacryloylation. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the successful modification of the tubing wall and the stable anchorage of monolith to the wall, respectively. Special emphasis was also put on the reduction of the unwanted effects of shrinking of monolith during polymerization, by using an external proper mold and by selecting the adequate monomers in order to increase the flexibility of the polymer. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths were in situ synthesized by thermal polymerization within the confines of surface-vinylized PTFE tubes. The modified PTFE tubing tightly held the monolith, and the monolithic column exhibited good pressure resistance up to 20 MPa. The column performance was also evaluated via the isocratic separation of a series of alkylbenzenes in the reversed-phase mode. The optimized monolithic columns gave plate heights ranged between 70 and 80 μm. The resulting monoliths were also satisfactorily applied to the separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Successful surface etching of PTFE inner wall tubing was done. • The modified PTFE support was next methacryloylated with GMA. • Organic polymeric monolith was in situ prepared in the functionalized PTFE tube. • The monolithic columns gave suitable pressure resistance and separation of proteins.

  17. Infrared laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Mikio

    1978-01-01

    The experimental means which clearly distinguishes between infrared ray-induced reactions and thermal reactions has been furnished for the first time when an intense monochromatic light source has been obtained by the development of infrared laser. Consequently, infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have started to develop as one field of chemical reaction researches. Researches of laser-induced chemical reactions have become new means for the researches of chemical reactions since they were highlighted as a new promising technique for isotope separation. Specifically, since the success has been reported in 235 U separation using laser in 1974, comparison of this method with conventional separation techniques from the economic point of view has been conducted, and it was estimated by some people that the laser isotope separation is cheaper. This report briefly describes on the excitation of oscillation and reaction rate, and introduces the chemical reactions induced by CW laser and TEA CO 2 laser. Dependence of reaction yield on laser power, measurement of the absorbed quantity of infrared ray and excitation mechanism are explained. Next, isomerizing reactions are reported, and finally, isotope separation is explained. It was found that infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have the selectivity for isotopes. Since it is evident that there are many examples different from thermal and photo-chemical reactions, future collection of the data is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busigin, A. [NITEK USA Inc., Ocala, FL (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  19. Clear-sky narrowband albedos derived from VIRS and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Arduini, Robert F.

    2004-02-01

    The Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is using multispectral imagers, the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra, operating since spring 2000, and Aqua, operating since summer 2002, to provide cloud and clear-sky properties at various wavelengths. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis of the CERES clear-sky reflectances to derive a set top-of-atmosphere clear sky albedo for 0.65, 0.86, 1.6, 2.13 μm, for all major surface types using the combined MODIS and VIRS datasets. The variability of snow albedo with surface type is examined using MODIS data. Snow albedo was found to depend on the vertical structure of the vegetation. At visible wavelengths, it is least for forested areas and greatest for smooth desert and tundra surfaces. At 1.6 and 2.1-μm, the snow albedos are relatively insensitive to the underlying surface because snow decreases the reflectance. Additional analyses using all of the MODIS results will provide albedo models that should be valuable for many remote sensing, simulation and radiation budget studies.

  20. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  1. Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I - The Rayleigh-scattering component. II - Error in the retrieved water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Wang, Menghua

    1992-01-01

    The first step in the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric-correction algorithm is the computation of the Rayleigh-scattering (RS) contribution, L sub r, to the radiance leaving the top of the atmosphere over the ocean. In the present algorithm, L sub r is computed by assuming that the ocean surface is flat. Calculations of the radiance leaving an RS atmosphere overlying a rough Fresnel-reflecting ocean are presented to evaluate the radiance error caused by the flat-ocean assumption. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the error incurred when the CZCS-type algorithm is applied to a realistic ocean in which the surface is roughened by the wind. In situations where there is no direct sun glitter, it is concluded that the error induced by ignoring the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction is usually larger than that caused by ignoring the surface roughness. This suggests that, in refining algorithms for future sensors, more effort should be focused on dealing with the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction than on the roughness of the sea surface.

  2. Performance Verification of GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Sensitivity Analysis for Greenhouse Gases Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-2, which is scheduled for launch in early 2018, is the successor mission to the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The FTS-2 onboard the GOSAT-2 is a Fourier transform spectrometer, which has three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with high-resolution spectra. Column amounts and vertical profiles of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from acquired radiance spectra. In addition, the FTS-2 has several improvements from the FTS onboard the GOSAT: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a software tool, which is called the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, to simulate spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The objective of it is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 retrieval algorithms. It consists of six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of details about sensor characteristics, the sophistication of data processing and algorithms, the addition of various observation modes, the use of surface and atmospheric ancillary data, and the speed-up and parallelization of radiative transfer code. This simulator is confirmed to be working properly from the reproduction of GOSAT FTS L1B data depends on the ancillary data. We will summarize the

  3. Validity of using modified capillary column with larger diameter to study the Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing-Hai Wang; National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Wen-Chun Yeh; Shih-Chin Tsai; Yi-Lin Jan; Shi-Ping Teng

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the working diameter of capillary columns with diameter of 5, 7, 10 and 20 mm. These modified capillary columns were carefully filled with local Taiwan laterite (LTL). The porosity and density of these packed columns was 0.51±0.02 g/g and 1.27±0.05 g/cm 3 , respectively. The diffusion experiments were then carried out in synthetic groundwater with Cs loading of 0.1mM at room temperature. Experimental results have shown that the diffusion profiles of modified capillary columns fit Fick's second law very well. This result revealed that the working diameter of a capillary column can be expanded to at least to 20 mm without affecting the validity of the derived diffusion coefficients. Among these columns, the ones with 5 mm diameter show the most consistent results of the derived K d , apparent and effective diffusion coefficients. Although the derived distribution and effective diffusion coefficients slightly decrease as the diameter of these columns increases due to the increase of the solid/liquid ratio. These values are still informative of the Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate the potential of using 'modified capillary method' to study the diffusion behaviors of concerned radionuclide because columns with large diameter enable the filling with more versatile geological substances. (author)

  4. Two generalizations of column-convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, Svjetlan; Guttmann, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Column-convex polygons were first counted by area several decades ago, and the result was found to be a simple, rational, generating function. In this work we generalize that result. Let a p-column polyomino be a polyomino whose columns can have 1, 2, ..., p connected components. Then column-convex polygons are equivalent to 1-convex polyominoes. The area generating function of even the simplest generalization, namely 2-column polyominoes, is unlikely to be solvable. We therefore define two classes of polyominoes which interpolate between column-convex polygons and 2-column polyominoes. We derive the area generating functions of those two classes, using extensions of existing algorithms. The growth constants of both classes are greater than the growth constant of column-convex polyominoes. Rather tight lower bounds on the growth constants complement a comprehensive asymptotic analysis.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy (2.3-20 microns) for the geological interpretation of remotely-sensed multispectral thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Kahle, Anne B.; Hoover, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    The spectral radiance and spectral reflectance of natural weathered surfaces of common sedimentary and igneous rocks is determined from in situ and in the laboratory measurements. In situ spectral radiance measurements (5-14 microns) were made with a portable spectral radiometer and were used to derive the spectral emissivity of the rocks. The spectral reflectance measurements (2.3-20 microns) were made in a laboratory with a Fourier transform IR spectrometer with a diffuse reflectance accessory. Good agreement is found between the two techniques. The field portable spectrometer has a larger field of view and the in situ data provide more accurate measurements of the intensity of spectral features related to temperature and atmospheric effects.

  6. Quantitative image fusion in infrared radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, Iliya; Cukurel, Beni

    2018-05-01

    Towards high-accuracy infrared radiance estimates, measurement practices and processing techniques aimed to achieve quantitative image fusion using a set of multi-exposure images of a static scene are reviewed. The conventional non-uniformity correction technique is extended, as the original is incompatible with quantitative fusion. Recognizing the inherent limitations of even the extended non-uniformity correction, an alternative measurement methodology, which relies on estimates of the detector bias using self-calibration, is developed. Combining data from multi-exposure images, two novel image fusion techniques that ultimately provide high tonal fidelity of a photoquantity are considered: ‘subtract-then-fuse’, which conducts image subtraction in the camera output domain and partially negates the bias frame contribution common to both the dark and scene frames; and ‘fuse-then-subtract’, which reconstructs the bias frame explicitly and conducts image fusion independently for the dark and the scene frames, followed by subtraction in the photoquantity domain. The performances of the different techniques are evaluated for various synthetic and experimental data, identifying the factors contributing to potential degradation of the image quality. The findings reflect the superiority of the ‘fuse-then-subtract’ approach, conducting image fusion via per-pixel nonlinear weighted least squares optimization.

  7. Near infrared measurements of SPICAM AOTF spectrometer on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Fedorova, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Stepanov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Dimarellis, E.; Kalinnikov, Yu. K.

    The Near-Infrared channel of SPICAM, a lightweight (800 g) acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) spectrometer observes the atmosphere and the surface of Mars from Mars Express orbiter. The spectrometer covers the spectral range between 1000 and 1700 nm with the resolving power λ /Δ λ superior to 1300. Signal-to noise ratio in individual Mars spectra varies from 30 to 100 and more depending on observation conditions. The total column abundance of water vapour is measured in nadir at 1380 nm simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV channel of SPICAM. Moreover, the O21Δ g emission at 1270 nm produced by photodissociation of ozone above 15-20km is systematically observed in nadir at the background of bright disk constraining (with the UV measurements of total ozone) its vertical distribution. Airmass reference is provided self-consistently from carbon dioxide measurements at 1430 and 1580 nm. At LS≈ 280 clear spectral signatures of CO2 and H2O ices has been detected at the permanent South Polar Cap (simultaneously with OMEGA and PFS findings) and above 55N. Limb measurements show that at the time when TES/MGS measurements indicate very clear atmosphere, the dust at the limb is observed up to 50-60km. We will present description of the spectrometer and its characterization, and describe the collected data, including nadir, limb and solar occultation measurements. Spectro-polarimetry capabilities of the AOTF will be discussed. This is the first experience of AOTF use in deep space, and we believe that a 800-g instrument capable to measure water vapour and much more on Mars should become a routine climate/environment tool on future missions.

  8. Modeling bidirectional radiance measurements collected by the advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer (ASAS) over Oregon transect conifer forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuelgasim, A.A.; Strahler, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    A geometric-optical model of the bidirectional reflectance of a forest canopy, developed by Li and Strahler, fits observed directional radiance measurements with good accuracy. This model treats the forest cover as a scene of discrete, three-dimensional objects (trees) that are illuminated and viewed from different positions in the hemisphere. The shapes of the objects, their count densities and patterns of placement, are the driving variables, and they condition the mixture of sunlit and shaded objects and background that are observed from a particular viewing direction, given a direction of illumination. This mixture, in turn, controls the brightness apparent to an observer or a radiometric instrument. The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) was used to validate this model. This aircraft sensor presently acquires images in 29 spectral bands in the range (465–871 nm) and is pointable fore-and-aft, allowing directional measurements of radiance as a target is approached and imaged at view angles ranging ± 45° from nadir. Through atmospheric correction, ASAS radiances were reduced to bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs). These were compared to corresponding BRF values computed from the Li-Strahler model using, wherever possible, ground measured component BRFs for calibration. The comparisons showed a good match between the modeled and measured reflectance factors for four of the five Oregon Transect Sites. Thus, the geometric-optical approach provides a realistic model for the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of such natural vegetation canopies. Further modifications are suggested to improve the predicted BRFs and yield still better results. (author)

  9. Analyzing Black Hole Super-Radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to Get Bounds on the Mass of a Graviton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beckwith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt<0 specifies conditions for a mass of a graviton being less than or equal to 1065 grams, allows for determing what role additional dimensions may play in removing the datum that massive gravitons lead to 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury. The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate whether Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely, a redo of the event horizon hypothesis as we know it.

  10. Detection of carbon monoxide pollution from cities and wildfires on regional and urban scales: the benefit of CO column retrievals from SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm measurements under cloudy conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Borsdorff, Tobias; Andrasec, Josip; aan de Brugh, Joost; Hu, Haili; Aben, Ilse; Landgraf, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    In the perspective of the upcoming TROPOMI Sentinel-5 Precursor carbon monoxide data product, we discuss the benefit of using CO total column retrievals from cloud-contaminated SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm shortwave infrared spectra to detect atmospheric CO enhancements on regional and urban scales due to emissions from cities and wildfires. The study uses the operational Sentinel-5 Precursor algorithm SICOR, which infers the vertically integrated CO column together with effective cl...

  11. Optimum combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaire, Alain; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Frouin, R.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1991-01-01

    A useful parameter to estimate terrestrial primary productivity, that can be sensed from space, is the daily averaged fraction of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants. To evaluate this parameter, investigators have relied on the fact that the relative amount of radiation reflected by a vegetated surface in the visible and near infrared depends on the fraction of the surface covered by the vegetation and therefore, correlates with absorbed PAR. They have used vegetation indices, namely normalized difference and simple ratio, to derive absorbed PAR. The problem with normalized difference and simple ratio is first, they are non linear functions of radiance or reflectance and therefore, cannot be readily applied to heterogeneous targets, second, they are used in generally nonlinear relationships, which make time integrals of the indices not proportional to primary productivity, and third, the relationships depend strongly on the type of canopy and background. To remove these limitations, linear combinations of visible and near infrared reflectances at optimum (one or two) viewing zenith angles are proposed.

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Intersatellite Calibrated Clear-Sky HIRS Channel 12 Brightness Temperature, Version 2.6 (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Inter-Satellite Calibrated Clear-Sky High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Channel 12 brightness temperatures...

  13. A Web Service Tool (SOAR) for the Dynamic Generation of L1 Grids of Coincident AIRS, AMSU and MODIS Satellite Sounding Radiance Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Tilmes, C.; Chapman, D.; Goldberg, M.; Zhou, L.

    2007-05-01

    Three decades of Earth remote sensing from NASA, NOAA and DOD operational and research satellites carrying successive generations of improved atmospheric sounder instruments have resulted in petabytes of radiance data with varying spatial and spectral resolutions being stored at different data archives in various data formats by the respective agencies. This evolution of sounders and the diversities of these archived data sets have led to data processing obstacles limiting the science community from readily accessing and analyzing such long-term climate data records. We address this problem by the development of a web based Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance (SOAR) system built on the SOA paradigm that makes it practical for the science community to dynamically access, manipulate and generate long term records of L1 pre-gridded sounding radiances of coincident multi-sensor data for regions specified according to user chosen criteria. SOAR employs a modification of the standard Client Server interactions that allows users to represent themselves directly to the Process Server through their own web browsers. The browser uses AJAX to request Javascript libraries and DHTML interfaces that define the possible client interactions and communicates the SOAP messages to the Process server allowing for dynamic web dialogs with the user to take place on the fly. The Process Server is also connected to an underlying high performance compute cluster and storage system which provides much of the data processing capabilities required to service the client requests. The compute cluster employs optical communications to NOAA and NASA for accessing the data and under the governance of the Process Server invokes algorithms for on-demand spatial, temporal, and spectral gridding. Scientists can choose from a variety of statistical averaging techniques for compositing satellite observed sounder radiances from the AIRS, AMSU or MODIS instruments to form spatial-temporal grids for

  14. Separative analyses of a chromatographic column packed with a core-shell adsorbent for lithium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Sugura, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-6 is used as a blanket material for sufficient tritium production in DT fueled fusion reactors. A core-shell type adsorbent was proposed for lithium isotope separation by chromatography. The mass transfer model in a chromatographic column consisted of 4 steps, such as convection and dispersion in the column, transfer through liquid films, intra-particle diffusion and and adsorption or desorption at the local adsorption sites. A model was developed and concentration profiles and time variation in the column were numerically simulated. It became clear that core-shell type adsorbents with thin porous shell were saturated rapidly relatively to fully porous one and established a sharp edge of adsorption band. This is very important feature because lithium isotope separation requires long-distance development of adsorption band. The values of HETP (Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate) for core-shell adsorbent packed column were estimated by statistical moments of the step response curve. The value of HETP decreased with the thickness of the porous shell. A core-shell type adsorbent is, then, useful for lithium isotope separation. (authors)

  15. Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar irradiance using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3 provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges from −4 to 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

  16. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan. PMID:27470880

  17. In-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-07-01

    In recent years many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have entered the biotherapeutics market, offering new treatments for chronic and life-threatening diseases. Protein A resin captures monoclonal antibody (mAb) effectively, but the binding capacity decays over repeated purification cycles. On an industrial scale, replacing fouled Protein A affinity chromatography resin accounts for a large proportion of the raw material cost. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures were developed to extend Protein A resin lifespan, but chromatograms cannot reliably quantify any remaining contaminants over repeated cycles. To study resin fouling in situ, we coupled affinity chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time, by embedding an attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor inside a micro-scale column while measuring the UV 280 nm and conductivity. Our approach quantified the in-column protein concentration in the resin bed and determined protein conformation. Our results show that Protein A ligand leached during CIP. We also found that host cell proteins bound to the Protein A resin even more strongly than mAbs and that typical CIP conditions do not remove all fouling contaminants. The insights derived from in-column ATR-FTIR spectroscopic monitoring could contribute to mAb purification quality assurance as well as guide the development of more effective CIP conditions to optimise resin lifespan.

  18. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  19. Aeolian system dynamics derived from thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephen Paul

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing and field-based observations were used to study aeolian systems, specifically sand transport pathways, dust emission sources and Saharan atmospheric dust. A method was developed for generating seamless and radiometrically accurate mosaics of thermal infrared data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. Using a combination of high resolution thermal emission spectroscopy results of sand samples and mosaic satellite data, surface emissivity was derived to map surface composition, which led to improvement in the understanding of sand accumulation in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico. These methods were also used to map sand transport pathways in the Sahara Desert, where the interaction between sand saltation and dust emission sources was explored. The characteristics and dynamics of dust sources were studied at White Sands, NM and in the Sahara Desert. At White Sands, an application was developed for studying the response of dust sources to surface soil moisture based on the relationship between soil moisture, apparent thermal inertia and the erosion potential of dust sources. The dynamics of dust sources and the interaction with sand transport pathways were also studied, focusing on the Bodele Depression of Chad and large dust sources in Mali and Mauritania. A dust detection algorithm was developed using ASTER data, and the spectral emissivity of observed atmospheric dust was related to the dust source area in the Sahara. At the Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) in Tenerife, Spain where direct measurement of the Saharan Air Layer could be made, the cycle of dust events occurring in July 2009 were examined. From the observation tower at the IZO, measurements of emitted longwave atmospheric radiance in the TIR wavelength region were made using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) handheld camera. The use of the FLIR to study atmospheric dust from the Saharan is a

  20. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  1. Comparison of atmospheric CO2 columns at high latitudes from ground-based and satellite-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, N.; Simpson, W. R.; Parker, H. A.; Tu, Q.; Blumenstock, T.; Dubey, M. K.; Hase, F.; Osterman, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Total column measurements of carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite have been validated at mid-latitudes by comparison to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), but there are still a limited number of sites providing high-latitude validation data for satellite observations of CO2, and no TCCON sites in Alaska. To understand the global distribution of CO2 sources and sinks, it is essential that we increase the abundance of validation sites, particularly in the climate-sensitive high-latitude Boreal forest. Therefore, we began the Arctic Mobile Infrared Greenhouse Gas Observations (AMIGGO) campaign in the Boreal Forest region around Fairbanks, Alaska with the goal of satellite validation and measurement of natural ecosystem fluxes. In this campaign, we used the EM27/SUN mobile solar-viewing Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (EM27/SUN FTS) to retrieve the total CO2 column and column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the GGG2014 algorithm. The EM27/SUN FTS was developed by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in collaboration with Bruker optics (Gisi et al., 2012, doi:10.5194/amt-5-2969-2012) and has been deployed in urban areas to measure anthropogenic fluxes of CO2 and CH4. To evaluate the EM27/SUN performance, co-located observations were made with two EM27/SUN spectrometers, and we found that XCO2 differences between spectrometers were small (0.24ppm on average) and very stable over time. In this presentation, we report on 14 OCO-2 targeted overpasses that occurred from August 2016 through July 2017, along with additional targets obtained during ongoing observations in 2017. We investigate underlying reasons for observed differences between OCO-2 and ground-based XCO2 using methods developed by Wunch et al. (2017, doi:10.5194/amt-10-2209-2017). As an additional point of comparison, coincident aircraft observations by NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring

  2. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  3. An improved algorithm for calculating cloud radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guibin; Sun Xiaogang; Dai Jingmin

    2005-01-01

    Clouds radiation characteristic is very important in cloud scene simulation, weather forecasting, pattern recognition, and other fields. In order to detect missiles against cloud backgrounds, to enhance the fidelity of simulation, it is critical to understand a cloud's thermal radiation model. Firstly, the definition of cloud layer infrared emittance is given. Secondly, the discrimination conditions of judging a pixel of focal plane on a satellite in daytime or night time are shown and equations are given. Radiance such as reflected solar radiance, solar scattering, diffuse solar radiance, solar and thermal sky shine, solar and thermal path radiance, cloud blackbody and background radiance are taken into account. Thirdly, the computing methods of background radiance for daytime and night time are given. Through simulations and comparison, this algorithm is proved to be an effective calculating algorithm for cloud radiation

  4. Algorithm theoretical baseline for formaldehyde retrievals from S5P TROPOMI and from the QA4ECV project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. De Smedt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P platform, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is a double-channel, nadir-viewing grating spectrometer measuring solar back-scattered earthshine radiances in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared with global daily coverage. In the ultraviolet range, its spectral resolution and radiometric performance are equivalent to those of its predecessor OMI, but its horizontal resolution at true nadir is improved by an order of magnitude. This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the S5P operational processor and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted. Finally, verification results based on the application of the algorithm to OMI measurements are presented, demonstrating the performances expected for TROPOMI.

  5. On the performance of circular concrete-filled high strength steel columns under axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study to investigate the performance of circular high-strength steel tubes filled with concrete (CFT under monotonic axial loading. A model is developed to implement the material constitutive relationships and non-linearity. Calibration against previous experimental data shows good agreement. A parametric study is then conducted using the model and compared with codes provisions. Strength and ductility of confined concrete are of primary concern. Variables considered are yield stress of steel tube and column diameter. The assessment of column performance is based on axial load carrying capacities and enhancements of both strength and ductility due to confinement. Two parameters namely strength enhancement factor (Kf and ductility index (μ are clearly defined and introduced for assessment. Results indicate that both concrete strength and ductility of CFT columns are enhanced but to different extents. The ductile behaviors are significantly evident. The increase in yield stress of steel tube has a minimal effect on concrete strength but pronounced effect on concrete ductility. However, reduction in ductility is associated with using high-tensile steel of Grade 70. The overall findings indicate that the use of high-strength tube in CFT columns is not promising. This finding may seriously be considered in seismic design.

  6. Laser-induced filaments in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltikov, A M

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared gives rise to unique regimes of nonlinear wave dynamics and reveals in many ways unusual nonlinear-optical properties of materials in this frequency range. The λ 2 scaling of the self-focusing threshold P cr , with radiation wavelength λ , allows the laser powers transmitted by single mid-IR filaments to be drastically increased without the loss of beam continuity and spatial coherence. When extended to the mid-infrared, laser filamentation enables new methods of pulse compression. Often working around the universal physical limitations, it helps generate few-cycle and subcycle field waveforms within an extraordinarily broad range of peak powers, from just a few up to hundreds of P cr . As a part of a bigger picture, laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared offers important physical insights into the general properties of the nonlinear-optical response of matter as a function of the wavelength. Unlike their near-infrared counterparts, which can be accurately described within the framework of perturbative nonlinear optics, mid-infrared filaments often entangle perturbative and nonperturbative nonlinear-optical effects, showing clear signatures of strong-field optical physics. With the role of nonperturbative nonlinear-optical phenomena growing, as a general tendency, with the field intensity and the driver wavelength, extension of laser filamentation to even longer driver wavelengths, toward the long-wavelength infrared, promises a hic sunt dracones land. (topical review)

  7. SWIM: A Semi-Analytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm for Optically Shallow Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2014-01-01

    In clear shallow waters, light that is transmitted downward through the water column can reflect off the sea floor and thereby influence the water-leaving radiance signal. This effect can confound contemporary ocean color algorithms designed for deep waters where the seafloor has little or no effect on the water-leaving radiance. Thus, inappropriate use of deep water ocean color algorithms in optically shallow regions can lead to inaccurate retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and therefore have a detrimental impact on IOP-based estimates of marine parameters, including chlorophyll-a and the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In order to improve IOP retrievals in optically shallow regions, a semi-analytical inversion algorithm, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), has been developed. Unlike established ocean color algorithms, SWIM considers both the water column depth and the benthic albedo. A radiative transfer study was conducted that demonstrated how SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA), performed in optically deep and shallow scenarios. The results showed that SWIM performed well, whilst both GIOP and QAA showed distinct positive bias in IOP retrievals in optically shallow waters. The SWIM algorithm was also applied to a test region: the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using a single test scene and time series data collected by NASA's MODIS-Aqua sensor (2002-2013), a comparison of IOPs retrieved by SWIM, GIOP and QAA was conducted.

  8. Detection of carbon monoxide pollution from cities and wildfires on regional and urban scales: the benefit of CO column retrievals from SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm measurements under cloudy conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Borsdorff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of the upcoming TROPOMI Sentinel-5 Precursor carbon monoxide data product, we discuss the benefit of using CO total column retrievals from cloud-contaminated SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm shortwave infrared spectra to detect atmospheric CO enhancements on regional and urban scales due to emissions from cities and wildfires. The study uses the operational Sentinel-5 Precursor algorithm SICOR, which infers the vertically integrated CO column together with effective cloud parameters. We investigate its capability to detect localized CO enhancements distinguishing between clear-sky observations and observations with low (<  1.5 km and medium–high clouds (1.5–5 km. As an example, we analyse CO enhancements over the cities Paris, Los Angeles and Tehran as well as the wildfire events in Mexico–Guatemala 2005 and Alaska–Canada 2004. The CO average of the SCIAMACHY full-mission data set of clear-sky observations can detect weak CO enhancements of less than 10 ppb due to air pollution in these cities. For low-cloud conditions, the CO data product performs similarly well. For medium–high clouds, the observations show a reduced CO signal both over Tehran and Los Angeles, while for Paris no significant CO enhancement can be detected. This indicates that information about the vertical distribution of CO can be obtained from the SCIAMACHY measurements. Moreover, for the Mexico–Guatemala fires, the low-cloud CO data captures a strong outflow of CO over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean and so provides complementary information to clear-sky retrievals, which can only be obtained over land. For both burning events, enhanced CO values are even detectable with medium–high-cloud retrievals, confirming a distinct vertical extension of the pollution. The larger number of additional measurements, and hence the better spatial coverage, significantly improve the detection of wildfire pollution using both the clear-sky and cloudy

  9. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  10. Performance evaluation of a rectifier column using gamma column scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Denis D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectifier columns are considered to be a critical component in petroleum refineries and petrochemical processing installations as they are able to affect the overall performance of these facilities. It is deemed necessary to monitor the operational conditions of such vessels to optimize processes and prevent anomalies which could pose undesired consequences on product quality that might lead to huge financial losses. A rectifier column was subjected to gamma scanning using a 10-mCi Co-60 source and a 2-inch-long detector in tandem. Several scans were performed to gather information on the operating conditions of the column under different sets of operating parameters. The scan profiles revealed unexpected decreases in the radiation intensity at vapour levels between trays 2 and 3, and between trays 4 and 5. Flooding also occurred during several scans which could be attributed to parametric settings.

  11. Thermal infrared properties of the Martian atmosphere 2. The 15-μm band measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.Z.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapper observations of Mars in the 15-μm CO 2 band reveal global atmospheric thermal behavior at the 0.3- to 0.6-mbar level. Dust entrained by storms produces major modification of diurnal and latitudinal structure in the brightness temperature T 15 . In the dust-laden atmosphere of southern spring and summer 1977, T 15 was a maximum in late afternoon at a latitude well south of the subsolar latitude. Diurnal amplitude was as great as 30 K, while diurnal mean temperatures exceeded 220 K. Over the northern winter polar cap, T 15 increased dramatically following the second global dust storm of 1977; even in regions of polar night the change was up to 80 K. Inversions of similar magnitude resulted, and the change in downward radiance was sufficient to modify substantially the rate of CO 2 condensation at the surface

  12. Single column and two-column H-D-T distillation experiments at TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hirata, S.; Naito, T.; Naruse, Y.; Sherman, R.H.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic distillation experiments were peformed at TSTA with H-D-T system by using a single column and a two-column cascade. In the single column experiment, fundamental engineering data such as the liquid holdup and the HETP were measured under a variety of operational condtions. The liquid holdup in the packed section was about 10 /approximately/ 15% of its superficial volume. The HETP values were from 4 to 6 cm, and increased slightly with the vapor velocity. The reflux ratio had no effect on the HETP. For the wo-colunn experiemnt, dynamic behavior of the cascade was observed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HIGH COLUMN DENSITY TURNOVER IN THE H I COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 , which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 10 22 cm –2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H 2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I ∼> 10 22 cm –2 . We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ∼ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  14. Adiabatic packed column supercritical fluid chromatography using a dual-zone still-air column heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmueller, Shawn C; Poe, Donald P; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof

    2018-02-02

    An approach to conducting SFC separations under pseudo-adiabatic condition utilizing a dual-zone column heater is described. The heater allows for efficient separations at low pressures above the critical temperature by imposing a temperature profile along the column wall that closely matches that for isenthalpic expansion of the fluid inside the column. As a result, the efficiency loss associated with the formation of radial temperature gradients in this difficult region can be largely avoided in packed analytical scale columns. For elution of n-octadecylbenzene at 60 °C with 5% methanol modifier and a flow rate of 3 mL/min, a 250 × 4.6-mm column packed with 5-micron Kinetex C18 particles began to lose efficiency (8% decrease in the number of theoretical plates) at outlet pressures below 142 bar in a traditional forced air oven. The corresponding outlet pressure for onset of excess efficiency loss was decreased to 121 bar when the column was operated in a commercial HPLC column heater, and to 104 bar in the new dual-zone heater operated in adiabatic mode, with corresponding increases in the retention factor for n-octadecylbenzene from 2.9 to 6.8 and 14, respectively. This approach allows for increased retention and efficient separations of otherwise weakly retained analytes. Applications are described for rapid SFC separation of an alkylbenzene mixture using a pressure ramp, and isobaric separation of a cannabinoid mixture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns. II. The column hold-up volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Martin, Michel; Guiochon, Georges

    2005-04-08

    The effect of the local pressure and of the average column pressure on the hold-up column volume was investigated between 1 and 400 bar, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Calculations based upon the elasticity of the solids involved (column wall and packing material) and the compressibility of the liquid phase show that the increase of the column hold-up volume with increasing pressure that is observed is correlated with (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the compressibility of the mobile phase (+1 to 5%); (2) in RPLC, the compressibility of the C18-bonded layer on the surface of the silica (+0.5 to 1%); and (3) the expansion of the column tube (columns packed with the pure Resolve silica (0% carbon), the derivatized Resolve-C18 (10% carbon) and the Symmetry-C18 (20% carbon) adsorbents, using water, methanol, or n-pentane as the mobile phase. These solvents have different compressibilities. However, 1% of the relative increase of the column hold-up volume that was observed when the pressure was raised is not accounted for by the compressibilities of either the solvent or the C18-bonded phase. It is due to the influence of the pressure on the retention behavior of thiourea, the compound used as tracer to measure the hold-up volume.

  16. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  17. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  18. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  19. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Spaceborne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(exp 40) sq molecules cm(exp -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nm, the O4 absorption band at 477 nm is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nm is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 m for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80% of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 km compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  20. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-03-13

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  1. Deep convective cloud characterizations from both broadband imager and hyperspectral infrared sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yufei; Li, Jun; Shi, Wenjing; Schmit, Timothy J.; Cao, Changyong; Li, Wanbiao

    2017-02-01

    Deep convective storms have contributed to airplane accidents, making them a threat to aviation safety. The most common method to identify deep convective clouds (DCCs) is using the brightness temperature difference (BTD) between the atmospheric infrared (IR) window band and the water vapor (WV) absorption band. The effectiveness of the BTD method for DCC detection is highly related to the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the WV band. In order to understand the sensitivity of BTD to spectral resolution and SNR for DCC detection, a BTD to noise ratio method using the difference between the WV and IR window radiances is developed to assess the uncertainty of DCC identification for different instruments. We examined the case of AirAsia Flight QZ8501. The brightness temperatures (Tbs) over DCCs from this case are simulated for BTD sensitivity studies by a fast forward radiative transfer model with an opaque cloud assumption for both broadband imager (e.g., Multifunction Transport Satellite imager, MTSAT-2 imager) and hyperspectral IR sounder (e.g., Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instruments; we also examined the relationship between the simulated Tb and the cloud top height. Results show that despite the coarser spatial resolution, BTDs measured by a hyperspectral IR sounder are much more sensitive to high cloud tops than broadband BTDs. As demonstrated in this study, a hyperspectral IR sounder can identify DCCs with better accuracy.

  2. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Walters, Grant; Fan, James Z.; Liu, Min; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  3. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Palikonda, R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Su, W.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  4. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  5. Admittance Scanning for Whole Column Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-05

    Whole column detection (WCD) is as old as chromatography itself. WCD requires an ability to interrogate column contents from the outside. Other than the obvious case of optical detection through a transparent column, admittance (often termed contactless conductance) measurements can also sense changes in the column contents (especially ionic content) from the outside without galvanic contact with the solution. We propose here electromechanically scanned admittance imaging and apply this to open tubular (OT) chromatography. The detector scans across the column; the length resolution depends on the scanning velocity and the data acquisition frequency, ultimately limited by the physical step resolution (40 μm in the present setup). Precision equal to this step resolution was observed for locating an interface between two immiscible liquids inside a 21 μm capillary. Mechanically, the maximum scanning speed was 100 mm/s, but at 1 kHz sampling rate and a time constant of 25 ms, the highest practical scan speed (no peak distortion) was 28 mm/s. At scanning speeds of 0, 4, and 28 mm/s, the S/N for 180 pL (zone length of 1.9 mm in a 11 μm i.d. column) of 500 μM KCl injected into water was 6450, 3850, and 1500, respectively. To facilitate constant and reproducible contact with the column regardless of minor variations in outer diameter, a double quadrupole electrode system was developed. Columns of significant length (>1 m) can be readily scanned. We demonstrate its applicability with both OT and commercial packed columns and explore uniformity of retention along a column, increasing S/N by stopped-flow repeat scans, etc. as unique applications.

  6. The effects of carbide column to swelling potential and Atterberg limit on expansive soil with column to soil drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muamar Rifa'i, Alfian; Setiawan, Bambang; Djarwanti, Noegroho

    2017-12-01

    The expansive soil is soil that has a potential for swelling-shrinking due to changes in water content. Such behavior can exert enough force on building above to cause damage. The use of columns filled with additives such as Calcium Carbide is done to reduce the negative impact of expansive soil behavior. This study aims to determine the effect of carbide columns on expansive soil. Observations were made on swelling and spreading of carbides in the soil. 7 Carbide columns with 5 cm diameter and 20 cm height were installed into the soil with an inter-column spacing of 8.75 cm. Wetting is done through a pipe at the center of the carbide column for 20 days. Observations were conducted on expansive soil without carbide columns and expansive soil with carbide columns. The results showed that the addition of carbide column could reduce the percentage of swelling by 4.42%. Wetting through the center of the carbide column can help spread the carbide into the soil. The use of carbide columns can also decrease the rate of soil expansivity. After the addition of carbide column, the plasticity index value decreased from 71.76% to 4.3% and the shrinkage index decreased from 95.72% to 9.2%.

  7. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  8. Thermal process of an air column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal process of a hot air column is discussed based on laws of thermodynamics. The kinetic motion of the air mass in the column can be used as a power generator. Alternatively, the column can also function as a exhaust/cooler

  9. Detection of nitric acid and nitric oxides in the terrestrial atmosphere in the middle-infrared spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Blecka

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A proposal for combined space and ground-based observations of the vertical distributions and the column densities of nitric acid and nitric oxide concentrations in the earth's atmosphere is discussed. We focus on the aspects that are particular to the idea of correlative measurements: geometrical considerations, simulations of the solar absorption spectra in the middle-infrared region corresponding to the different observational geometries, and the associated retrieval methods. These studies are done specifically for the Belgian-French experiment MIRAS (MIR Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and correlative ground-based FTIR measurements in the Tatra mountains.

  10. Infrared observations of giant elliptical galaxies: (V-K) colors and the infrared Hubble diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasdalen, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The (V-K) colors of giant elliptical galaxies as a function of redshift are discussed. Present data are consistent with mild color evolution at z approximately 0.45. An infrared Hubble (redshift-magnitude) diagram is given. Cosmological models with q 0 =0 and no luminosity evolution are clearly excluded by the present data. A wide variety of models including those with q 0 =0 are permissible if luminosity evolution is included. Instrumental and programmatic implications of these results are summarized. (Auth.)

  11. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor

    2011-09-06

    We report on the acceleration of annual daylighting simulations for fenestration systems in the Radiance ray-tracing program. The algorithm was optimized to reduce both the redundant data input/output operations and the floating-point operations. To further accelerate the simulation speed, the calculation for matrix multiplications was implemented using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit. We used OpenCL, which is a cross-platform parallel programming language. Numerical experiments show that the combination of the above measures can speed up the annual daylighting simulations 101.7 times or 28.6 times when the sky vector has 146 or 2306 elements, respectively.

  12. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  13. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of 33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  14. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  15. Remote sensing of tropospheric total column water vapor: Intercomparison of POLDER, AMSR-E and MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Mcharek, L.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-05-01

    Since December 2004, the CNES Parasol (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) mission has been flying in the A-train with Aqua (NASA) providing more than 5 years of temporally and spatially coincident observations from POLDER, MODIS and AMSRE which enable total column water vapor amount retrievals. We are providing here a temporal and statistical analysis of water vapor near-infrared retrievals from POLDER against MODIS and AMSR-E products derived from nearinfrared, thermal infrared and microwave observations over ocean. A temporal analysis of POLDER official product is conducted in view of AMSR-E and MODIS coincident retrievals over ocean. In a second step, an alternative approach based on the use of simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) is developed to improve the mathematical parameterization used to retrieve water vapor amount from near-infrared observation. The retrievals are further improved when an estimate of the 910 nm surface reflectance is obtained through interpolation between PARASOL 865 nm and 1020 nm channels. This last improvement now allows for a unified land/ocean retrieval algorithm for PARASOL/POLDER.

  16. Homogeneity and internal defects detect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zupana; Wu, Ligang; Lin, Changgui; Song, Bao'an; Wang, Xunsi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixunb

    2011-10-01

    Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses is a kind of excellent infrared optical material, which has been enviromental friendly and widely used in infrared thermal imaging systems. However, due to the opaque feature of Se-based glasses in visible spectral region, it's difficult to measure their homogeneity and internal defect as the common oxide ones. In this study, a measurement was proposed to observe the homogeneity and internal defect of these glasses based on near-IR imaging technique and an effective measurement system was also constructed. The testing result indicated the method can gives the information of homogeneity and internal defect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass clearly and intuitionally.

  17. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C 4–10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C 4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment–water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm 3 g −1 to 0.41 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm 3 g −1 to 6.5 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Highlights: • Transport of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in a riverbank filtration scenario. • Investigations under near-natural conditions with a water-saturated sediment column. • Processes in water and sediment control the transport of analytes. • Short chain PFCAs and PFSAs are not retarded in the water-saturated sediment column. • First column derived sediment–water partition coefficients. -- Quantification of breakthrough of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) under conditions simulating a riverbank filtration scenario

  18. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Space-Borne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  19. Mobile Column Measurements of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 in Colorado during FRAPPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, N.; Volkamer, R. M.; Baidar, S.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Hannigan, J. W.; Cooper, O. R.; Nussbaumer, E.; Pfister, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gases from anthropogenic sources have the potential to have a profound impact on air quality. Emissions from large cattle feedlots and ONG (Oil and Natural Gas) sites are comprised of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H6 (ethane) as pollutants. C2H6 contributes to photochemical ozone (O3) production and oxidation production of HCHO (formaldehyde). NH3 is a major source for reactive nitrogen to form particulate matter 2.5, which negatively affects human health. NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), emitted during combustion, is considered a large-scale pollutant and contributes to the formation of O3. Deploying an innovative suite of remote sensing instruments in a mobile laboratory, a Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (MAX-DOAS), a UV-Vis Spectrometer, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, we obtain mobile column measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution, 2 seconds for the UV-Vis and IR spectrometers and 20 seconds for the MAX-DOAS. Within the scope of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) we measure total columns of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 using the University of Colorado mobile laboratory. Emissions of urban areas, agriculture, and ONG sites were studied. For the measurement of total columns the solar occultation flux method has been applied. We measured significant variability in the columns. The measurement of total columns allows one to determine the emission flux and source strength when driving a closed box around or upwind and downwind of a source with the mobile laboratory. We present results from select research drives.

  20. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  1. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  2. A stochastic view on column efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2018-03-09

    A stochastic model of transcolumn eddy dispersion along packed beds was derived. It was based on the calculation of the mean travel time of a single analyte molecule from one radial position to another. The exchange mechanism between two radial positions was governed by the transverse dispersion of the analyte across the column. The radial velocity distribution was obtained by flow simulations in a focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) based 3D reconstruction from a 2.1 mm × 50 mm column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 particles. Accordingly, the packed bed was divided into three coaxial and uniform zones: (1) a 1.4 particle diameter wide, ordered, and loose packing at the column wall (velocity u w ), (2) an intermediate 130 μm wide, random, and dense packing (velocity u i ), and (3) the bulk packing in the center of the column (velocity u c ). First, the validity of this proposed stochastic model was tested by adjusting the predicted to the observed reduced van Deemter plots of a 2.1 mm × 50 mm column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 fully porous particles (FPPs). An excellent agreement was found for u i  = 0.93u c , a result fully consistent with the FIB-SEM observation (u i  = 0.95u c ). Next, the model was used to measure u i  = 0.94u c for 2.1 mm × 100 mm column packed with 1.6 μm Cortecs-C 18 superficially porous particles (SPPs). The relative velocity bias across columns packed with SPPs is then barely smaller than that observed in columns packed with FPPs (+6% versus + 7%). u w =1.8u i is measured for a 75 μm × 1 m capillary column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 particles. Despite this large wall-to-center velocity bias (+80%), the presence of the thin and ordered wall packing layer has no negative impact on the kinetic performance of capillary columns. Finally, the stochastic model of long-range eddy dispersion explains why analytical (2.1-4.6 mm i.d.) and capillary (columns can all be

  3. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  4. Recent Characterization of the Night-Sky Irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor...

  6. Adsorption columns for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Adsorption columns are provided which can be utilized in radioimmunoassay systems such as those involving the separation of antibody-antigen complexes from free antigens. The preparation of the columns includes the treatment of retaining substrate material to render it hydrophilic, preparation and degassing of the separation material and loading the column

  7. Far-infrared observations of M17: The interaction of an H II region with a molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Sellgren, K.; Werner, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The central 15' of the M17 H II region--molecular cloud complex has been mapped with 1' resolution simultaneously at 30, 50, and 100 μm. The data suggest that the bulk of the luminosity radiated in the far-infrared is supplied by the exciting stars of the H II region; the far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust grains located chiefly outside the ionized gas. Large-scale systematic gradients in both the temperature and the column density of the dust are seen across the source. The appearance of the source in the far-infrared reflects the markedly nonuniform distribution of matter around the exciting stars; the H II region is bounded by the molecular cloud to the southwest. The core of the molecular cloud is heated primarily by infrared radiation from dust within and adjacent to the H II region; no evidence is seen for substantial luminosity sources embedded within the molecular cloud

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of a Cygnus A - Implications for the obscured active nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Martin J.; Blanco, Philip R.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Nishida, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the central regions of the luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A are presented and interpreted in terms of an obscured quasar nucleus. Strong emission is detected in the molecular hydrogen lines 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 S(3), the strengths of which are accounted for through heating by the nuclear hard X-ray source. The large equivalent widths of these molecular hydrogen lines and the near-infrared narrow hydrogen recombination lines suggest that the observed nuclear continuum is strongly attenuated at 2 microns. The observed upper limit to the flux of broad Pa-alpha implies an extinction to the putative broad line region AV(BL) of at least 24 mag, and the observed continuum intensity of the nuclear point source at 2.2 microns gives an extinction of 43 +/-9 mag toward the optical-infrared continuum. These estimates are consistent with the gas column density inferred from the low-energy X-ray cutoff. Strong forbidden Si VI 1.962-micron line emission from Cygnus A is also reported.

  9. NMFS Water Column Sonar Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water column sonar data are an important component of fishery independent surveys, habitat studies and other research. NMFS water column sonar data are archived here.

  10. The total column of CO2 and CH4 measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Kuze, A.; Hillyard, P. W.; Tanaka, T.; Podolske, J. R.; Iraci, L. T.; Albertson, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The total columns of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA (RRV) during a vicarious calibration campaign in June 2014. The campaign was performed to estimate changes in the radiometric response of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) aboard Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). TANSO-FTS measures spectra of radiance scattered by the Earth surface with high- and medium-gain depending on the surface reflectance. At high reflectance areas, such as deserts over north Africa and Australia, TANSO-FTS collects spectra with medium-gain. There was differences on atmospheric pressure and XCO2 retrieved from spectra obtained between high-gain and medium-gain. Because the retrieved products are useful for evaluating the difference of spectral qualities between high- and medium-gain, this work is an attempt to collect validation data for spectra with medium-gain of TANSO-FTS at remote and desert area with a compact and medium-spectral resolution instrument. As a compact FTS, EM27/SUN was used. It was manufactured and newly released on April 1, 2014 by Bruker. It is robust and operable in a high temperature environment. It was housed in a steel box to protect from dust and rain and powered by Solar panels. It can be operated by such a remote and desert area, like a RRV. Over AFRC and RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) of ARC, NASA. The values were calibrated to standard gases. To make the results comparable to WMO (World Meteorological Organization) standards, the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 values are divided by a calibration factor. This values were determined by comparisons with in situ profiles measured by

  11. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy

  12. Investigating the Effect of Column Geometry on Separation Efficiency using 3D Printed Liquid Chromatographic Columns Containing Polymer Monolithic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Beirne, Stephen; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2018-01-16

    Effect of column geometry on the liquid chromatographic separations using 3D printed liquid chromatographic columns with in-column polymerized monoliths has been studied. Three different liquid chromatographic columns were designed and 3D printed in titanium as 2D serpentine, 3D spiral, and 3D serpentine columns, of equal length and i.d. Successful in-column thermal polymerization of mechanically stable poly(BuMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was achieved within each design without any significant structural differences between phases. Van Deemter plots indicated higher efficiencies for the 3D serpentine chromatographic columns with higher aspect ratio turns at higher linear velocities and smaller analysis times as compared to their counterpart columns with lower aspect ratio turns. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of a basic monolithic structure indicated 44%, 90%, 100%, and 118% higher flow through narrow channels in the curved monolithic configuration as compared to the straight monolithic configuration at linear velocities of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mm s -1 , respectively. Isocratic RPLC separations with the 3D serpentine column resulted in an average 23% and 245% (8 solutes) increase in the number of theoretical plates as compared to the 3D spiral and 2D serpentine columns, respectively. Gradient RPLC separations with the 3D serpentine column resulted in an average 15% and 82% (8 solutes) increase in the peak capacity as compared to the 3D spiral and 2D serpentine columns, respectively. Use of the 3D serpentine column at a higher flow rate, as compared to the 3D spiral column, provided a 58% reduction in the analysis time and 74% increase in the peak capacity for the isocratic separations of the small molecules and the gradient separations of proteins, respectively.

  13. LUMINOUS BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS A FUNCTION OF GALAXY INFRARED LUMINOSITY REVEALED THROUGH SPITZER LOW-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 5-35 μm low-resolution spectroscopic energy diagnostics of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z> 0.15, classified optically as non-Seyferts. Based on the equivalent widths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and the optical depths of silicate dust absorption features, we searched for signatures of intrinsically luminous, but optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs. We then combined the results with those of non-Seyfert ULIRGs at z IR 12 L sun . We found that the energetic importance of buried AGNs clearly increases with galaxy infrared luminosity, becoming suddenly discernible in ULIRGs with L IR > 10 12 L sun . For ULIRGs with buried AGN signatures, a significant fraction of infrared luminosities can be accounted for by the detected buried AGN and modestly obscured (A V < 20 mag) starburst activity. The implied masses of spheroidal stellar components in galaxies for which buried AGNs become important roughly correspond to the value separating red massive and blue less-massive galaxies in the local universe. Our results may support the widely proposed AGN-feedback scenario as the origin of galaxy downsizing phenomena, where galaxies with currently larger stellar masses previously had higher AGN energetic contributions and star formation originating infrared luminosities, and have finished their major star formation more quickly, due to stronger AGN feedback.

  14. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  15. Center column design of the PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.; Frankenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    The center column of the PLT machine is a secondary support member for the toroidal field coils. Its purpose is to decrease the bending moment at the nose of the coils. The center column design was to have been a stainless steel casting with the toroidal field coils grouped around the casting at installation, trapping it in place. However, the castings developed cracks during fabrication and were unsuitable for use. Installation of the coils proceeded without the center column. It then became necessary to redesign a center column which would be capable of installation with the toroidal field coils in place. The final design consists of three A-286 forgings. This paper discusses the final center column design and the influence that new knowledge, obtained during the power tests, had on the new design

  16. The Transition of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Total Ozone Products to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters have analyzed the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery in conjunction with the AIRS total column ozone to aid high wind forecasts. One of the limitations of the total ozone product is that it is difficult for forecasters to determine whether elevated ozone concentrations are related to stratospheric air or climatologically high values of ozone in certain regions. During the summer of 2013, SPoRT created an AIRS ozone anomaly product which calculates the percent of normal ozone based on a global stratospheric ozone mean climatology. With the knowledge that ozone values 125 percent of normal and greater typically represent stratospheric air; the anomaly product can be used with the total column ozone product to confirm regions of stratospheric air. This paper describes the generation of these products along with forecaster feedback concerning the use of the AIRS ozone products in conjunction with the RGB Air Mass product to access the utility and transition of the products.

  17. Continuous Fixed-Bed Column Study and Adsorption Modeling: Removal of Lead Ion from Aqueous Solution by Charcoal Originated from Chemical Carbonization of Rubber Wood Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust for the removal of lead ion from the aqueous stream was investigated by column process. Chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was prepared by treating the sawdust with H2SO4 and HNO3. Maximum removal of lead ion in column process was found as 38.56 mg/g. The effects of operating parameters such as flow rate, bed depth, concentration, and pH were studied in column mode. Experimental data confirmed that the adsorption capacity increased with the increasing inlet concentration and bed depth and decreased with increasing flow rate. Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart models were used to analyze the column experimental data and the relationship between operating parameters. Chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope was also utilized for morphological analysis of the adsorbent. Furthermore X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also used for the confirmation of lead adsorption process.

  18. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  19. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  20. Column-oriented database management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Možina, David

    2013-01-01

    In the following thesis I will present column-oriented database. Among other things, I will answer on a question why there is a need for a column-oriented database. In recent years there have been a lot of attention regarding a column-oriented database, even if the existence of a columnar database management systems dates back in the early seventies of the last century. I will compare both systems for a database management – a colum-oriented database system and a row-oriented database system ...

  1. Column Chromatography Of Co(II), Zn(II) And Eu(III) Using Pistachio Shell And Different Mobile Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pistachio shell particles (0.5-1 mm) have been applied as the stationary phase for studying the column chromatography of Co(II), Zn(II) and Eu(III) at room temperature; 26 + - 1 oC. This solid sorbent has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its surface area and percent of swelling have been also determined. Different eluting agents have been used for eluting the sorbed elements. The elution curves have been done from which the distribution coefficients (K d ), number of theoretical plates (N) and heights equivalent to theoretical plates (H) have been determined. Column performance studies have been conducted for a representative system under certain experimented conditions and Van Deemter equation has been applied. Thermodynamic studies have been applied and thermodynamic functions ( δG 0 ,δH 0 andδ S 0 ) have been calculated for this representative system by determining K d at three different room temperatures (18, 26 and 37 + - 1o C).

  2. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  3. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  4. OMI/Aura Level 1B UV Global Geolocated Earthshine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-1B (L1B) Radiance Product OML1BRUG (Version-3) from the Aura-OMI is now available to public (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/oml1brug_v003.shtml) from...

  5. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  6. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 252-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  7. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Microbial Community of Winogradsky Columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Esteban

    Full Text Available Winogradsky columns are model microbial ecosystems prepared by adding pond sediment to a clear cylinder with additional supplements and incubated with light. Environmental gradients develop within the column creating diverse niches that allow enrichment of specific bacteria. The enrichment culture can be used to study soil and sediment microbial community structure and function. In this study we used a 16S rRNA gene survey to characterize the microbial community dynamics during Winogradsky column development to determine the rate and extent of change from the source sediment community. Over a period of 60 days, the microbial community changed from the founding pond sediment population: Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, and Planctomycetes increased in relative abundance over time, while most Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance. A unique, light-dependent surface biofilm community formed by 60 days that was less diverse and dominated by a few highly abundant bacteria. 67-72% of the surface community was comprised of highly enriched taxa that were rare in the source pond sediment, including the Cyanobacteria Anabaena, a member of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, and a member of the Chloroflexi class Anaerolinea. This indicates that rare taxa can become abundant under appropriate environmental conditions and supports the hypothesis that rare taxa serve as a microbial seed bank. We also present preliminary findings that suggest that bacteriophages may be active in the Winogradsky community. The dynamics of certain taxa, most notably the Cyanobacteria, showed a bloom-and-decline pattern, consistent with bacteriophage predation as predicted in the kill-the-winner hypothesis. Time-lapse photography also supported the possibility of bacteriophage activity, revealing a pattern of colony clearance similar to formation of viral plaques. The Winogradsky column, a technique developed early in the history of microbial ecology to enrich soil

  8. Infrared emission as a diagnostic for a collapsing gas shell < pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.A.; Kania, D.R.; Shephard, R.L.; Maestas, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The shape and absolute intensity of the infrared emission as a function of wavelength can yield information about the conditions in a plasma. This diagnostic technique has been reviewed by Zwicker, who gives several examples of its application to low density plasmas. They have applied this diagnostic, for the first time, to a high density (∼ 10 20 cm -3 ) plasma, a collapsing gas (argon) shell Z pinch. Using a fast Au doped Ge detector and infrared notch filters they have scanned the emitted spectrum from ∼ 0.5 to 8.2 μm with 1-ns time resolution. This spectral range encompasses the optically thin-to-thick transition as well as the plasma frequency at the time of peak compression. The authors will present this data along with an interpretation which allows us to follow the development of the pinched column during the thermalization stage

  9. Safety barriers and lighting columns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems arising from the sitting of lighting columns on the central reserve are reviewed, and remedial measures such as break-away lighting supports and installation of safety fences on the central reserve on both sides of the lighting columns are examined.

  10. Temperature-assisted On-column Solute Focusing: A General Method to Reduce Pre-column Dispersion in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-based on-column focusing is a powerful and well known approach for reducingthe impact of pre-column dispersion in liquid chromatography. Here we describe an orthogonal temperature-based approach to focusing called temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF). TASF is founded on the same principles as the more commonly used solvent-based method wherein transient conditions are created thatlead to high solute retention at the column inlet. Combining the low thermal mass of capillary columns and the temperature dependence of solute retentionTASF is used effectivelyto compress injection bands at the head of the column through the transient reduction in column temperature to 5 °C for a defined 7 mm segment of a 6 cm long 150 μm I.D. column. Following the 30 second focusing time, the column temperature is increased rapidly to the separation temperature of 60 °C releasing the focused band of analytes. We developed a model tosimulate TASF separations based on solute retention enthalpies, focusing temperature, focusing time, and column parameters. This model guides the systematic study of the influence of sample injection volume on column performance.All samples have solvent compositions matching the mobile phase. Over the 45 to 1050 nL injection volume range evaluated, TASF reducesthe peak width for all soluteswith k’ greater than or equal to 2.5, relative to controls. Peak widths resulting from injection volumes up to 1.3 times the column fluid volume with TASF are less than 5% larger than peak widths from a 45 nL injection without TASF (0.07 times the column liquid volume). The TASF approach reduced concentration detection limits by a factor of 12.5 relative to a small volume injection for low concentration samples. TASF is orthogonal to the solvent focusing method. Thus, it canbe used where on-column focusing is required, but where implementation of solvent-based focusing is difficult. PMID:24973805

  11. Ureic nitrogen transformation in multi-layer soil columns treated with urease and nitrification inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Camilla; Garcia-Mina, Josè M; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2009-06-10

    The use of N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), as a urease inhibitor, is one of the most successful strategies utilized to increase the efficiency of urea-based fertilization. To date, NBPT has been added to the soil incorporated in fertilizers containing either urea or the inhibitor at a fixed percentage on the urea weight. The possibility of using NBPT physically separated from urea-based fertilizers could make its use more flexible. In particular, a granulated product containing NBPT could be utilized in soils treated with different urea-based fertilizers including livestock urine, the amount depending on soil characteristics and/or the urea source (e.g., mineral fertilizer, organo-mineral fertilizer, or animal slurry). In this study, a multilayer soil column device was used to investigate the influence of an experimental granular product (RV) containing NBPT and a garlic extract, combining the ability to protect NBPT by oxidation and nitrification inhibition activity, on (a) spatial variability of soil urease and nitrification activities and (b) timing of urea hydrolysis and mineral-N form accumulation (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+)) in soil treated with urea. The results clearly demonstrated that RV can, effectively, inhibit the soil urease activity along the soil column profile up to 8-10 cm soil layer depth and that the inhibition power of RV was dependent on time and soil depth. However, nitrification activity is not significantly influenced by RV addition. In addition, the soil N transformations were clearly affected by RV; in fact, RV retarded urea hydrolysis and reduced the accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N ions along the soil profile. The RV product was demonstrated to be an innovative additive able to modify some key ureic N trasformation processes correlated with the efficiency of the urea-based fertilization, in a soil column higher than 10 cm.

  12. Preparation of a β-Cyclodextrin-Based Open-Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography Column and Application for Enantioseparations of Ten Basic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Fang

    Full Text Available An open-tubular capillary electrochromatography column was prepared by chemically immobilized β-cyclodextrin modified gold nanoparticles onto new surface with the prederivatization of (3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The synthesized nanoparticles and the prepared column were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. When the column was employed as the chiral stationary phase, no enantioselectivity was observed for ten model basic drugs. So β-cyclodextrin was added to the background electrolyte as chiral additive to expect a possible synergistic effect occurring and resulting in a better separation. Fortunately, significant improvement in enantioselectivity was obtained for ten pairs of drug enantiomers. Then, the effects of β-cyclodextrin concentration and background electrolyte pH on the chiral separation were investigated. With the developed separation mode, all the enantiomers (except for venlafaxine were baseline separated in resolutions of 4.49, 1.68, 1.88, 1.57, 2.52, 2.33, 3.24, 1.63 and 3.90 for zopiclone, chlorphenamine maleate, brompheniramine maleate, dioxopromethazine hydrochloride, carvedilol, homatropine hydrobromide, homatropine methylbromide, venlafaxine, sibutramine hydrochloride and terbutaline sulfate, respectively. Further, the possible separation mechanism involved was discussed.

  13. Heat Transfer Analysis for a Fixed CST Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. A series of the modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. Results for the baseline model indicate that transit times to reach 130 degrees Celsius maximum temperature of the CST-salt solution column are about 96 hours when the 20-in CST column with 300 Ci/liter heat generation source and 25 degrees Celsius initial column temperature is cooled by natural convection of external air as a primary heat transfer mechanism. The modeling results for the 28-in column equipped with water jacket systems on the external wall surface of the column and water coolant pipe at the center of the CST column demonstrate that the column loaded with 300 Ci/liter heat source can be maintained non-boiling indefinitely. Sensitivity calculations for several alternate column sizes, heat loads of the packed column, engineered cooling systems, and various ambient conditions at the exterior wall of the column have been performed under the reference conditions of the CST-salt solution to assess the impact of those parameters on the peak temperatures of the packed column for a given transient time. The results indicate that a water-coolant pipe at the center of the CST column filled with salt solution is the most effective one among the potential design parameters related to the thermal energy dissipation of decay heat load. It is noted that the cooling mechanism at the wall boundary of the column has significant

  14. NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL JOINT OF COLUMN AND BEAMS OF ARMED CONCRETE-STEEL COLUMN FOR FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the nonlinear behavior of a real-scale experimental joint (node is studied, consisting of three reinforced concrete elements, one column and two beams joined to a structural steel column at the upper level. In the numerical analysis the model of the union was analyzed in the inelastic range, this model was elaborated with the finite element program based on fibers, SeismoStruct to analyze as a function of time, the traction and compression efforts in the confined area and not confined area of the concrete column and in the longitudinal reinforcement steel, as well as verification of the design of the base plate that joins the two columns. The results showed that tensile stresses in the unconfined zone surpassed the concrete breaking point, with cracking occurring just below the lower edge of the beams; in the confined area the traction efforts were much lower, with cracks occurring later than in the non-confined area. The concrete column-steel column joint behaved as a rigid node, so the elastic design was consistent with the calculation methodology of base plates for steel columns.

  15. CHROMIUM(VI REDUCTION BY A MIXED CULTURE OF SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA DEVELOPED IN COLUMN REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Henny

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A lactate enriched mixed sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB culture was examined for the reduction of Cr(VI in a continuous flow system. The influent was mineral salts media added with lactate and sulfate with amounts of 8 and 6 mM respectively as electron donor and electron acceptor. The SRB culture was allowed to stabilize in the column before adding the Cr(VI to the influent. Chromium and sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation were examined by measuring the concentrations of Cr(Vl, sulfate and lactate in the influent and the effluent over time. The experiment was discontinued when Cr(VI concentration in the effiuent was breakthrough. In the absence of Cr(VI, sulfate was not completely reduced in the column, although lactate was completely oxidized and acetate as an intermediate product was not often detected. Almost all of Cr(VI loaded was reduced in the column seeded with the SRB culture at influent Cr(VI concentrations of 192,385 and769 mM. There was no significant Cr(VI loss in the control column, indicating that Cr(VI removal was due to the reduction of Cr(VI to Cr (lll by the SRB cu