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Sample records for infra-red absorption characteristics

  1. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillous, A.

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the ν (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm -1 . The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [fr

  2. Infra-red absorption in rare-gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    1980-01-01

    Infrared absorption in rare-gas mixtures has been studied extensively, so that by now the spectra at room temperature of almost all pairs are available. Turning attention first to the gas phase, it is shown that the considerable mass of experimental results can be reduced to yield a relatively simple picture. Having reviewed the experimental facts, the interpretation and extraction of information is discussed. (KBE)

  3. LIQUID COAL CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS WITH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FTIR AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATUS BUKU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the value of compounds contained in liquid coal by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. FTIR was used to analyse the components contained in liquid coal, while the DSC is done to observe the heat reaction to the environment. Based on the Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test results it is shown that the compound contained in the liquid Coal consisting of alkanes, alkenes and alkyne. These compounds are similar compounds. The alkanes, alkenes and alkynes compounds undergo complete combustion reaction with oxygen and would produce CO2 and water vapour [H2O (g]. If incomplete combustion occurs, the reaction proceeds in the form of Carbon Monoxide CO gas or solid carbon andH2O. Combustion reaction that occurs in all these three compounds also produces a number of considerable energy. And if it has higher value of Carbon then the boiling point would be higher. From the Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC test results obtained some of the factors that affect the reaction speed, which are the temperature, the reaction mixture composition, and pressure. Temperature has a profound influence in coal liquefaction, because if liquid coal heated with high pressure, the carbon chain would break down into smaller chains consisting of aromatic chain, hydro-aromatic, or aliphatic. This then triggers a reaction between oil formation and polymerization reactions to form solids (char.

  4. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds; Correlations entre structure et absorption infrarouge de composes monodeuteries; contribution a l'etude des composes organomagnesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillous, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the {nu} (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}. The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [French] La grande sensibilite de la vibration {nu} (C-D) aux variations apportees dans la substitution du carbone porteur du deuterium est mise en evidence pour des molecules organiques au organometalliques monodeuteriees. On a notamment realise la synthese de divers composes organomagnesiens monodeuteries; les observations auxquelles ils ont donne lieu en spectrometrie infrarouge, dons la zone 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}, sont rapportees; les resultats ne mettent en evidence qu'un seul type de carbone deuterie ce qui suggere I'intervention d'un meme carbanion dans des associations ioniques diverses pour les differents reactifs magnesiens. (auteur)

  5. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds; Correlations entre structure et absorption infrarouge de composes monodeuteries; contribution a l'etude des composes organomagnesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillous, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the {nu} (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}. The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [French] La grande sensibilite de la vibration {nu} (C-D) aux variations apportees dans la substitution du carbone porteur du deuterium est mise en evidence pour des molecules organiques au organometalliques monodeuteriees. On a notamment realise la synthese de divers composes organomagnesiens monodeuteries; les observations auxquelles ils ont donne lieu en spectrometrie infrarouge, dons la zone 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}, sont rapportees; les resultats ne mettent en evidence qu'un seul type de carbone deuterie ce qui suggere I'intervention d'un meme carbanion dans des associations ioniques diverses pour les differents reactifs magnesiens. (auteur)

  6. Photothermal ablation cancer therapy using homogeneous CsxWO3 nanorods with broad near-infra-red absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chongshen; Yin, Shu; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Shaoqin; Dong, Qiang; Goto, Takehiro; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-06-01

    Recently, photothermal ablation therapy (PTA) employing near-infrared radiation (NIR) has been extensively investigated as an emerging modality for cancer management. However, the clinical translation of this promising approach is limited by the lack of PTA agents with broad NIR absorption, low cost and high photothermal conversion efficiency. Herein, we have developed PEGylated homogeneous CsxWO3 nanorods (a mean size ~69.3 nm × 12.8 nm) with broad photo-absorption (780-2500 nm) as a novel NIR absorbent for PTA treatment of human cancer. The prepared CsxWO3 nanocrystals displayed strong near-infrared optical absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient (e.g. 4.8 × 1010 M-1 cm-1 at 980 nm), thus generated significant amounts of heat upon excitation with near-infrared light. The PTA study in two human carcinoma cell lines (i.e. A549 lung cancer cells and HeLa ovarian cancer cells) demonstrated that CsxWO3 nanorods can efficiently cause cell death via hyperthermia induced lysosome destruction, cytoskeleton protein degradation, DNA damage and thereafter cellular necrosis or apoptosis. Our study also confirmed the migration of healthy cells migrated from unirradiated areas to dead cell cycle, which is essential for tissue reconstruction and wound healing after photodestruction of tumor tissue. The prompted results reported in the current study imply the promising potential of CsxWO3 nanorods for application in PTA cancer therapy.Recently, photothermal ablation therapy (PTA) employing near-infrared radiation (NIR) has been extensively investigated as an emerging modality for cancer management. However, the clinical translation of this promising approach is limited by the lack of PTA agents with broad NIR absorption, low cost and high photothermal conversion efficiency. Herein, we have developed PEGylated homogeneous CsxWO3 nanorods (a mean size ~69.3 nm × 12.8 nm) with broad photo-absorption (780-2500 nm) as a novel NIR absorbent for PTA treatment of human

  7. New Phases of YBaCuGeO Superconductors Identified from X-ray Diffraction and Infra-red Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Arais, Ahmed; Dawoud, Mohamad Ahmad Taher

    2005-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns and infra-red absorption spectra have been evaluated and analysed for the Y1 Ba2 Cu3 O7-d - Gex compound samples prepared by the solid state reaction with x values ranging from 0.0 to 1.13. All samples show bulk superconductivity above liquid nitrogen temperature using the levitation test (Meissner effect). Samples with Ge content up to x = 0.2 have offset Tc between 83K and 92K while the sample with x = 1.13 shows semiconducting behavior above 100K. As a result of the solid state interaction between YBCO and Ge, new phases are observed and determined, mainly three phases are concluded from X-ray powder diffraction analysis: (i) Ba2GeO4 (ii) Y2BaCuO5 (iii) BaCO3. The unit cell parameters a, b and c of the orthorhombic superconducting phase are calculated for all the prepared samples. The anisotropy factor is evaluated and related to the new structural phases in YBCO-Ge composite system. The I-R absorption spectra for the samples with orthorhombic symmetry have been determined. The phonon modes between ~ 400 cm-1 and 630 cm-1 are attributed to the Cu - O octahedron and pyramid vibrations for the CuO2 -planes and CuO-chains, while the peaks in the range from ~ 700 cm-1 to ~ 860 cm-1 may be due to defects such as the new phase Ba2GeO4 and the green phase Y2BaCuO5. The obtained results are discussed according to the superconductor - semi-conductor composite model and with the phonon-mediated charge transfer between CuO2 -planes and CuO- chains through apex oxygen (BaO).

  8. Probing photochromic properties by correlation of UV-visible and infra-red absorption spectroscopy: a case study with cis-1,2-dicyano-1,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thienyl)ethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Arnaud; Piedras Perez, Jose Alejandro; Patra, Abhijit; Piard, Jonathan; Brosseau, Arnaud; Métivier, Rémi; Nakatani, Keitaro

    2010-02-01

    Quantification of the relative composition of the isomers in a photochromic system at any irradiation time interval is a critical issue in determining absolute quantum yields. For this purpose, we have developed a simple and convenient protocol involving combination of UV-visible and infra-red absorption spectroscopy. Photochromic cyclization reaction of cis-l,2-dicyano-l,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thieny1)ethene (CMTE) is analyzed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology. This approach is based on the fact that the two isomers show distinctive infra-red bands. Detailed investigations of the UV-visible and infra-red spectra of the mixture obtained at different irradiation times in CCl(4) supported by quantum chemical computations lead to the unambiguous estimation of molar absorption coefficients of the closed isomer (epsilon(CF) = 4650 L mol(-1) cm(-1) at 512 nm). It facilitates the first determination of absolute quantum yields of this reversible photochromic reaction in CCl(4) by fitting the UV-visible spectral data (Phi(OF-->CF) = 0.41 +/- 0.05 and Phi(CF-->OF) = 0.12 +/- 0.02 at 405 nm and 546 nm, respectively).

  9. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  10. Self Powered Non-Dispersive Infra-Red CO{sub 2} Gas Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, D R; MacGregor, C, E-mail: des@gassensing.co.uk [Gas Sensing Solutions Ltd, 60 Grayshill Road, Westfield North Courtyard, Glasgow G68 9HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    This paper describes a non-dispersive infra-red CO{sub 2} gas sensor, incorporating a mid-infra-red solid state light source/ detector combination, tuned to match the spectral absorption characteristic of CO{sub 2} gas. Injection moulded optics provide low cost manufacture. Continuous operation power consumption is < 3.5mW and pulsed mode with energy per measurement < 6mJ. Self powered operation using a solar cell is demonstrated together with wireless capability. Performance of two path length variants (20mm and 70mm) is described. The sensor shows invariant temperature output characteristic from -25 to 50 deg. C. Accuracy level is typically {+-}3% of reading.

  11. Infra-Red Gas Analysers of Liquid Crystal Type for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals an opportunity to use infra-red gas analysers on the basis of the developed dichroic liquid crystal cells for investigation of absorption bands of various gases in the near infrared spectral region.

  12. Diamond Turning Of Infra-Red Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, B.; Lettington, A. H.; Stillwell, P. F. T. C.

    1986-05-01

    Single point diamond machining of infra-red optical components such as aluminium mirrors, germanium lenses and zinc sulphide domes is potentially the most cost effective method for their manufacture since components may be machined from the blanks to a high surface finish, requiring no subsequent polishing, in a few minutes. Machines for the production of flat surfaces are well established. Diamond turning lathes for curved surfaces however require a high capital investment which can be justified only for research purposes or high volume production. The present paper describes the development of a low cost production machine based on a Bryant Symons diamond turning lathe which is able to machine spherical components to the required form and finish. It employs two horizontal spindles one for the workpiece the other for the tool. The machined radius of curvature is set by the alignment of the axes and the radius of the tool motion, as in conventional generation. The diamond tool is always normal to the workpiece and does not need to be accurately profiled. There are two variants of this basic machine. For machining hemispherical domes the axes are at right angles while for lenses with positive or negative curvature these axes are adjustable. An aspherical machine is under development, based on the all mechanical spherical machine, but in which a ± 2 mm aspherecity may be imposed on the best fit sphere by moving the work spindle under numerical control.

  13. Infra-red process for colour fixation on fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.J.; Biau, D.

    1983-01-01

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc ... They come from the electric IR specific advantages: energy direct transmission, emitter and product spectral coupling, possible selectivity. That is the case in the Textile Industry, where experiments showed that infra-red process heating could be efficient for colour fixation on fabrics. Shorter production cycles and energy saving are the main results

  14. On the Physical Significance of Infra-red Corrections to Inflationary Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Pietroni, M; Riotto, Antonio; Seery, D

    2008-01-01

    Inflationary observables, like the power spectrum, computed at one- and higher-order loop level seem to be plagued by large infra-red corrections. In this short note, we point out that these large infra-red corrections appear only in quantities which are not directly observable. This is in agreement with general expectations concerning infra-red effects.

  15. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  16. Infra-red finiteness in quantum electro-dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takahiro

    1984-01-01

    The authors report some mathematical aspects of a recent solution of the infra-red catastrophe in quantum electro-dynamics. A principal result is that the coordinate space Feynman function can be separated into two factors the first of which is a unitary operator in photon space representing the classical electro-magnetic contribution to the amplitude, and the second of which is a residual factor representing the quantum fluctuation about the classical contribution. The main objectives were to verify: (i) the residual factor is free of infra-red divergences, and (ii) the dominant part of the singularity of the residual factor on the positive-α Landau surface has the same analytic form as it would have if the photons were massive. (Auth.)

  17. Infra-red ghost contribution to the gluon Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccanoni, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Schwinger-Dyson equations for the ghost propagator and the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex function are studied in the Landau gauge. A confining infra-red singularity is assumed for the gluon propagator and a suitable approximation is devised for the solution of the integral equations. It is found that the bare values of the ghost propagator and coupling cannot be a consistent solution of either equation. It is determined a possible behaviour of the correction factor for the ghost propagator in the small-momentum limit and discussed the consistency of the approximation schemes for the gluon propagator that neglet Faddeev-Popov ghost

  18. Groundwater discharge mapping by thermal infra-red imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, N.R.

    1984-02-01

    An area around Altnabreac in northern Scotland has been studied as part of the UK programme of research into the feasibility of disposal of radioactive waste into geological formations. An essential prerequisite to being able to predict the behaviour, migratory pathways and travel times of radionuclides emanating from a waste repository is an understanding of the regional and near surface groundwater flow systems and groundwater geochemical evolution. The groundwater system at depth has been studied by means of boreholes but an understanding of the shallow groundwater flow, and its interaction with groundwater upwelling from depth, can be gained from studies of the spatial distribution and geochemistry of surface springs and discharges. A survey was carried out using the thermal infra-red linescan technique with the objective of locating all significant spring discharges over the study area. The terrain around Altnabreac is largely covered by superficial deposits which overlie weathered granite. The survey was carried out from a height of 275m at a spatial resolution of about 0.5m. About 280 line Km were covered but allowing for overlap between adjacent flight lines and some repeat coverage, the actual area surveyed was 68 sq Km. The most striking aspect of the results is the wide distribution of groundwater discharges in the Altnabreac area. An analysis of the data identified three general categories of spring and many of these springs were subsequently visited for verification and to allow samples to be collected for chemical analysis. The results from this survey indicates that the groundwater table is strongly influenced by local topography and that the majority of the spring discharges represent near surface recent groundwaters circulating within the superficial deposits and weathered granite

  19. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Jencson, Jacob; Lau, Ryan; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andrew; Hankins, Matthew; Goldman, Steven; Jacob, Jencson

    2018-05-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 78 explosive transients and 2457 eruptive variables. Of these 78 infrared transients, 60 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28 um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of those 106 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEs. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 10 new SPRITEs and 2-3 new supernovae in Cycle 14. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  20. Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS). ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of...

  1. Estimation of water content in the leaves of fruit trees using infra-red images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, N.; Hiraoka, K.

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed to evaluate water contents of fruit trees using infra-red photography. The irrigation of potted satsuma mandarin trees and grapevines was suppressed to induce water stress. During the drought treatment the leaf edges of basal parts of the shoots of grapevines became necrotic and the area of necrosis extended as the duration of stress increased. Necrosis was clearly distinguished from the viable areas on infra-red images. In satsuma mandarin, an abscission layer formed at the basal part of the petiole, then the leaves fell. Thus, detailed analysis was indispensable for detecting of the leaf water content. After obtaining infra-red images of satsuma mandarin leaves with or without water stress, a background treatment (subtraction of the background image) was performed on the images, then the average brightness of the leaf was determined using image analyzing software (Image Pro-plus). Coefficient correlation between the water status index using the infra-red camera and water content determined from dry weight and fresh weight of leaves was significant (r = 0.917 for adaxial surface data and r = 0.880 for abaxial surface data). These data indicate that infra-red photography is useful for detecting the degree of plant water stress

  2. Infra-red data of extended sources as a measure of the star formation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, J.-L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular cloud complexes are gravitationally bound systems which contain molecular clouds, HII regions and possibly OB associations after they evaporated their parent cloud. A large fraction of the energy (50%) radiated by the O and B stars is converted into infra-red. Less massive stars still embedded in molecular clouds or still in their vicinity will also see most of their radiation absorbed by dust and reemitted in the infra-red. The two quantities the author deduces directly from the data are: the ratio of the far-infra-red luminosity due to recently formed stars to the mass of gas, as a measure of the star formation rate; and the infra-red excess (IRE): the ratio of the far-infra-red luminosity to the luminosity of HII regions in the Lyman α line, which gives information on the initial mass function. Finally he discusses the possible links between star formation and some of the relevant physical conditions in the molecular clouds: amount and temperature distribution of dust. (Auth.)

  3. Application of gas-fired infra-red radiator to thermal disinfection of horticultural substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, M.; Osiński, A.

    1998-01-01

    The studies were carried out on heating horticultural substrate (moor peat - bark, 1:1 by volume) with a gas-fired infra-red radiator to destroy the pests and pathogens. Minimum distance between radiator and substrate surface was determined considering assumed time of heating. Dynamics of substrate heating was determined depending on its layer thickness and kind of surface under substrate layer; black rubber, ground steel sheet and aluminium foil were used as the surface. Considerable decreasing of infra-red radiation penetrability through the substrate layer above 7 mm thick was found as well as an significant effect of the radiation reflected from the surface under substrate layer on the intensity of its heating. It was also stated that heating horticultural substrates with the gas-fired infra-red radiator enables to rise the temperature of thin substrate layer up to 70 degree of C within relatively short time [pl

  4. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  5. Infra-red photon release from cosmic dust entering into the earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi

    1975-01-01

    Cosmic dust brings considerably high intensity of energy flux to the upper atmosphere of the earth. Most of this energy can be converted to infra-red radiation. It can be concluded that the infra-red background radiation in the sky of its wavelength of less than about 10μ may considerably originate in the cosmic dust which has entered the earth's atmosphere, or that the upper limit to the flux of cosmic dust is about 10 5 tons/earth year. (author)

  6. Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, F.P.; Carey, S.J.; Ozanyan, K.B.; McCann, H. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Winterbone, D.E.; Clough, E. [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Mfg. Engineering, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    We report an All-Opto-Electronic tomography system that is sensitive to hydrocarbon vapour distribution, or liquid spray distribution, with temporal resolution of over 3000 frames per second. A tomography system comprising 32 channels has been built and tested. For chemical sensitivity to saturated hydrocarbons, we exploit the principle of Near Infra-Red (NIR) absorption at 1700 nm relative to a reference wavelength, using laser diode sources whose technology is based on that of the communications industry. Images are obtained from a laboratory set-up incorporating both gaseous injection and a liquid Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) system. The performance of a prototype system on a running GDI engine is reported. The difficulty in performing concentration measurements of the gaseous fuel within the liquid spray region is shown, and means to improve this performance are discussed. However, it has been found possible to image the liquid spray cone using attenuation of the reference beam. These images correlate well with other techniques [1]. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber ein optoelektronisches Tomographiesystem zur Bestimmung der Verteilung von Kohlenwasserstoffdaempfen oder von Spraypartikeln, das eine hohe zeitliche Aufloesung von 3000 Aufnahmen pro Sekunde liefert. Ein System mit 32 Kanaelen wurde gebaut und getestet. Um Empfindichkeit auf gesaettigte Kohlenwasserstoffdaempfe zu erzielen, wurde die Absorption im Nahen Infrarot (NIR) bei 1700 nm, bezogen auf die bei einer Referenzwellen-laenge, genutzt. Laserdioden, deren Technologien auch in der Kommunikationstechnik Verwendung finden, kamen zum Einsatz. Von einem Laboraufbau wurden Bilder aufgenommen sowohl bei Injektion von Gas als auch bei Direkteinspritzung fluessigen Brennstoffs (GDI). Wir berichten ueber die Ergebnisse mit dem Prototyp-Messsystem an einem GDI-Motor. Es werden die Schwierigkeiten gezeigt, Messungen der Gaskonzentration innerhalb eines Spraypartikelbereichs durchzufuehren, und

  7. Textural properties of infra red dried apple slices as affected by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment on drying rate and textural properties of the infra red dried apple slices. Ultrasound device working at a frequency of 24 kHz with a power capacity of 200 W was used for ultrasound pre-treatment. The amplitudes used for ultrasonic ...

  8. Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of straight dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polaritons waveguides doped with lead-sulfide quantum dots as a near infra-red gain medium. A loss compensation of ~33% (an optical gain of ~143 cm^−1) was observed in the guided mode. The mode propaga...

  9. Dependence of (anomalous) fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence on trap occupancy in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, Mayank; Gach, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Dose dependency of anomalous fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspars has been investigated using radiations of different ionisation qualities. The rate of fading of the IRSL signal after proton irradiation (9.4–30%/decade) is on an average almost twice compared...

  10. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R.M.; Poe, Brian L.; Riehl, Paul S.; Santos, Fernando M. dos; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C.G.; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P.

    2015-01-01

    while also integrating PCR with extraction upstream and separation/detection downstream. - Highlights: • Polyester chips were used in an infra-red thermal control system for PCR. • Thermo-response of the chips to infra-red radiation was modified by a spatial mask. • PCR inhibition from the chip substrate was mitigated by dynamic surface passivation. • Chips with different sample throughput successfully delivered PCR results.

  11. A comment on the infra-red problem in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Hanno; Thaler, Horst

    2008-01-01

    In this note we report on some recent progress in proving the AdS/CFT correspondence for quantum fields using rigorously defined Euclidean path integrals. We also comment on the infra-red problem in the AdS/CFT correspondence and argue that it is different from the usual IR problem in constructive quantum field theory. To illustrate this, a triviality proof based on hypercontractivity estimates is given for the case of an ultraviolet regularized potential of type: φ 4 :. We also give a brief discussion on possible renormalization strategies and the specific problems that arise in this context. (orig.)

  12. A comment on the infra-red problem in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, Hanno; Thaler, Horst

    2008-03-15

    In this note we report on some recent progress in proving the AdS/CFT correspondence for quantum fields using rigorously defined Euclidean path integrals. We also comment on the infra-red problem in the AdS/CFT correspondence and argue that it is different from the usual IR problem in constructive quantum field theory. To illustrate this, a triviality proof based on hypercontractivity estimates is given for the case of an ultraviolet regularized potential of type: {phi}{sup 4}:. We also give a brief discussion on possible renormalization strategies and the specific problems that arise in this context. (orig.)

  13. PEMBERIAN INFRA RED, STRIPPING DAN STRETCHING TERHADAP NYERI TENSION HEADACHE DI PUSKESMAS TAPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cici Apriza Yanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of headache in Indonesia is very high. More than 90% of patients consult a doctor. The aim of research is to know the difference of pain after giving Infra Red, Stripping, and Stretching to the pain of tension headache. This research design is quasi experiment with pre and post test design. Population in this research is all patient of tension headache at Tapus Health Center. Sampling using accidental sampling with 10 samples. The data were collected using observation sheet of pain caused by tension headache. Data analysis was done by computerized using Wilcoxon test. The results showed that the mean intensity of pain before the 5.60 decreased to 4.78 after intervention and the mean intensity of tenderness before the 6.10 decreased to 5.27 after the intervention. The results of analysis showed that there was a difference in the intensity of pain (p = 0,005 and tenderness (p = 0,005.It can be concluded that therapy with Infra Red (IR, Stripping, and Stretching is effective to decreased pain intensity due to tension headache. For that it is expected to patients with pain complaints to tension headache to be always active and disciplined follow effective therapy in reducing the intensity of pain. Prevalensi sakit kepala di Indonesia sangatlah tinggi. Lebih dari 90% pasien yang berkonsultasi ke dokter. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan nyeri tekan dan gerak setelah pemberian Infra Red, Stripping, dan Stretching terhadap nyeri pada kasus tension headache di Puskesmas Tapus Kabupaten Pasaman tahun 2016. Desain penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperiment dengan desain pre dan post test. Populasi pada penelitian adalah seluruh pasien tension headache di Puskesmas Tapus pada bulan Juni sampai Juli tahun 2016. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik accidental sampling sehingga didapatkan sampel sebanyak 10 orang. Pengumpulan data penelitian menggunakan lembar observasi intensitas nyeri akibat tension headache. Analisis data

  14. The Pomeron and hadrons through infra-red analysis of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Infra-red analysis of QCD in the Regge limit is argued to lead to confinement with chiral symmetry breaking. The resulting Pomeron depends strongly on the centre of the gauge group with SU(3) colour producing uniquely the experimentally observed even signature, factorizing, Pomeron. The critical Pomeron (asymptotic rising cross-sections) occurs when QCD is saturated with quarks. New calculations are reviewed showing strong evidence for the emergence of the critical Pomeron diffraction peak at present accelerator energies. This leads to exciting predictions for diffraction scattering at p antip collider energies which could become the most precise experimental confirmation of QCD

  15. Heterodyne Interferometry in InfraRed at OCA-Calern Observatory in the seventies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J.; Rabbia, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We report on various works carried four decades ago, so as to develop Heterodyne Interferometry in InfraRed (10 μm) at Calern Observatory (OCA, France), by building an experiment, whose the acronym "SOIRDETE" means "Synthese d'Ouverture en InfraRouge par Detection hETErodyne". Scientific and technical contexts by this time are recalled, as well as basic principles of heterodyne interferometry. The preliminary works and the SOIRDETE experiment are briefly described. Short comments are given in conclusion regarding the difficulties which have prevented the full success of the SOIRDETE experiment.

  16. Infra-red laser source using Tm:Ho optical fibre for potential sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S Y; Yeo, T L; Leighton, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Lade, R; Powell, B; Foster-Turner, G; Osborne, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a 1600nm Er fibre laser, which demonstrates a high pumping efficiency, has been used to pump an efficient all-fibre Tm:Ho laser system using a 0.3 m length of optical fibre. A low threshold of 33 mW and a slope efficiency of 0.6% have been achieved with operation at a wavelength of ∼1870 nm. A cross-comparison has been made with the output of a device pumped by a 785 nm laser diode. The focus of the work is better and more compact sources for gas sensing in the near infra red region of the spectrum

  17. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  18. Measurement of local heat transfer coefficient during gas–liquid Taylor bubble train flow by infra-red thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time

  19. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  20. An Estimation of a Passive Infra-Red Sensor Probability of Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, E.A.; El-Gazar, M.I.; Shaat, M.K.; El-Kafas, A.A.; Zidan, W.I.; Wadoud, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive Infera-Red (PIR) sensors are one of many detection sensors are used to detect any intrusion process of the nuclear sites. In this work, an estimation of a PIR Sensor's Probability of Detection of a hypothetical facility is presented. sensor performance testing performed to determine whether a particular sensor will be acceptable in a proposed design. We have access to a sensor test field in which the sensor of interest is already properly installed and the parameters have been set to optimal levels by preliminary testing. The PIR sensor construction, operation and design for the investigated nuclear site are explained. Walking and running intrusion tests were carried out inside the field areas of the PIR sensor to evaluate the sensor performance during the intrusion process. 10 trials experimentally performed for achieving the intrusion process via a passive infra-red sensor's network system. The performance and intrusion senses of PIR sensors inside the internal zones was recorded and evaluated.

  1. Spectroscopically forbidden infra-red emission in Au-vertical graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadasan, A. K.; Parida, Santanu; Ghosh, Subrata; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-11-01

    Implementation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is a subject for frontier plasmonic research due to its fascinating optical properties. Herein, the present study deals with plasmonic assisted emission properties of Au NPs-vertical graphene (VG) hybrid nanostructures. The influence of effective polarizability of Au NPs on the surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence properties is investigated. In addition, a remarkable infra-red emission in the hybrid nanostructures is observed and interpreted on the basis of intra-band transitions in Au NPs. The flake-like nanoporous VG structure is invoked for the generation of additional confined photons to impart additional momentum and a gradient of confined excitation energy towards initiating the intra-band transitions of Au NPs. Integrating Au plasmonic materials in three-dimensional VG nanostructures enhances the light-matter interactions. The present study provides a new adaptable plasmonic assisted pathway for optoelectronic and sensing applications.

  2. The alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry : Anomalous behaviour of some samples dispersed in alkali halide disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, A.

    1961-01-01

    Some difficulties encountered in the application of the alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry are discussed. Complications due to interaction of the sample with the alkali halide have been studied experimentally. It was found that the anomalous behaviour of benzoic acid, succinic

  3. A disposable laser print-cut-laminate polyester microchip for multiplexed PCR via infra-red-mediated thermal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yiwen [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Duarte, Gabriela R.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74690-900 (Brazil); Poe, Brian L.; Riehl, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Santos, Fernando M. dos; Martin-Didonet, Claudia C.G. [Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO 75132-400 (Brazil); Carrilho, Emanuel [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, CP 6154, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Landers, James P., E-mail: landers@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-12-11

    -volume amplification while also integrating PCR with extraction upstream and separation/detection downstream. - Highlights: • Polyester chips were used in an infra-red thermal control system for PCR. • Thermo-response of the chips to infra-red radiation was modified by a spatial mask. • PCR inhibition from the chip substrate was mitigated by dynamic surface passivation. • Chips with different sample throughput successfully delivered PCR results.

  4. Effects of the molecular rotational dynamics on dielectric and far-infra-red spectra of anisotropic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordio, P.L.; Segre, U.

    1981-01-01

    Dielectric and far-infra-red spectra of uniaxial liquid-crystal phase are analysed in terms of correlation functions calculated by a memory function formalism. SAIL (strong anisotropic interaction limit) conditions are always found to apply, resulting in diffusional regime at low working frequencies. Dipole friction has been also included in the calculations to consider many-particle interactions, its effect being analogous to the introduction of slowly relaxing local structures. (author)

  5. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI

  6. Molded, wafer level optics for long wave infra-red applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, John

    2016-05-01

    For many years, the Thermal Imaging market has been driven by the high volume consumer market. The first signs of this came with the launch of night vision systems for cars, first by Cadillac and Honda and then, more successfully by BMW, Daimler and Audi. For the first time, simple thermal imaging systems were being manufactured at the rate of more than 10,000 units a year. This step change in volumes enabled a step change in system costs, with thermal imaging moving into the consumer's price range. Today we see that the consumer awareness and the consumer market continues to increase with the launch of a number of consumer focused smart phone add-ons. This has brought a further step change in system costs, with the possibility to turn your mobile phone into a thermal imager for under $250. As the detector technology has matured, the pixel pitches have dropped from 50μm in 2002 to 12 μm or even 10μm in today's detectors. This dramatic shrinkage in size has had an equally dramatic effect on the optics required to produce the image on the detector. A moderate field of view that would have required a focal length of 40mm in 2002 now requires a focal length of 8mm. For wide field of view applications and small detector formats, focal lengths in the range 1mm to 5mm are becoming common. For lenses, the quantity manufactured, quality and costs will require a new approach to high volume Infra-Red (IR) manufacturing to meet customer expectations. This, taken with the SwaP-C requirements and the emerging requirement for very small lenses driven by the new detectors, suggests that wafer scale optics are part of the solution. Umicore can now present initial results from an intensive research and development program to mold and coat wafer level optics, using its chalcogenide glass, GASIR®.

  7. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storme-Paris, I. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Rebiere, H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Matoga, M. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Chaminade, P., E-mail: pierre.chaminade@u-psud.fr [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-01-25

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  8. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storme-Paris, I.; Rebiere, H.; Matoga, M.; Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H.; Chaminade, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  9. STARFIRE: The Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, James; STARFIRE Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics and cosmology today. The cosmic star formation rate has undergone a dramatic evolution over the course of the last seven billion years, with a peak in cosmic star formation near z ~ 1, largely in dust-obscured star forming galaxies (DSFGs), followed by a dramatic fall in both the star formation rate and the fraction of star formation occurring in DSFGs. A variety of unextincted diagnostic lines are present in the far-infrared (FIR) which can provide insight into the conditions of star formation in DSFGs. Spectroscopy in the far-infrared is thus scientifically crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, yet remains technically difficult, particularly for wavelengths shorter than those accessible to ALMA.STARFIRE (the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration) is a proposed integral-field spectrometer using kinetic inductance detectors, operating from 240 - 420 μm and coupled to a 2.5 meter low-emissivity carbon-fiber balloon-borne telescope. Using dispersive spectroscopy and the stratospheric platform, STARFIRE can achieve better performance than SOFIA or Herschel-SPIRE FTS. STARFIRE is designed to study the ISM of galaxies from 0.5 clustering, as well as shot noise, and will relate the mean [CII] intensity as a function of redshift (a proxy for star formation rate density) to the large scale structure. In addition, STARFIRE will detect at least 50 galaxies directly in the [CII] line, and will also be able to stack on optical galaxies to below the SPIRE confusion limit to measure the [CII] luminosity of more typical galaxies.

  10. Development of magnets for infra-red-free electron laser project at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwali, Kailash; Thakur, Vanshree; Das, S.; Biswas, Bhaskar; Singh, Kushraj; Amalraj, William; Sreeramulu, K.; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Shinde, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the magnets for the beam transport line of Infra- red- Free Electron Laser (IR-FEL) project at RRCAT. All the magnets have been developed and fiducialized after magnetic characterization for installation in the tunnel. These magnets include three dipole magnets, twelve quadrupole magnets and twenty two steering magnets for bending, focussing and steering of 15 to 35 MeV electron beam through a dog-leg type beam line. The dipole magnet is designed as H type for a maximum magnetic field of 0.25 tesla with pole gap and bending angle of 42 mm and 22.5° respectively. The dipole magnet is quite thin (effective length ∼200 mm) therefore entry-exit ends were chamfered to achieve the integrated field uniformity of < 1 x 10 -3 within the good field zone. The quadrupole magnet is designed for maximum integrated strength of 2.5 T/m. The poles are wider than the coil to enhance the good field region and made detachable type. The pole profile is chosen as pure hyperbola with extension. Quadrupole magnets with two different sizes of apertures (aperture diameters of 60 mm and 40 mm) were developed. The steering magnet is designed for kick strength of 12 mrad at 25 MeV. Out of 22 steering magnets, 8 are vertical steering, 6 are horizontal steering and 8 combined function steering magnets. Magnetic measurements of dipole magnets were carried out in 3 axes Hall probe bench. Quadrupole and steering magnets were characterized in a rotating coil based harmonic measurement bench. The details of the design and magnetic measurements of these magnets with results will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  12. Effect of temperature on the valency bands of HDO in water in the liquid and solid states. Effects on the analysis of heavy water using infra-red absorption; Effet de temperature sur les bandes de valence de HDO dans l'eau a l'etat liquide et a l'etat solide - consequences pour l'analyse de l'eau lourde par absorption infra-rouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    After, a description of the technique used, a qualitative examination is made of the influence of the temperature on the {nu}{sub OH}(3,400 cm{sup -1}) and {nu}{sub OD} (2,500 cm{sup -1}) valence bands of HDO in the liquid state and then during the passage to the solid state. Quantitative examination with two cells of different thickness makes it possible to define the influence of temperature on the residual absorption of the pure liquid (D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O and on the valency bands ({nu}{sub OH} and {nu}{sub OD} respectively). It is found that a similar change occurs in the two bands but that the changes in the background are very different. During the passage from the liquid to the solid state the shape of the bands varies considerably but little change occurs in the total intensity. It has been possible to express these results in a simple form which is directly applicable to analytical problems. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel de la technique utilisee, on examine qualitativement l'influence de la temperature sur les bandes de valence {nu}{sub OH} (3400 cm{sup -1}) et {nu}{sub OD} (2500 cm{sup -1}) de HDO a l'etat liquide puis le passage a l'etat solide. L'examen quantitatif, avec deux cuves d'epaisseurs differentes, permet de preciser l'influence de la temperature sur l'absorption residuelle du liquide pur (D{sub 2}O ou H{sub 2}O) et sur les bandes de valence ( {nu}{sub OH} et {nu}{sub OD} respectivement). On constate une evolution parallele de ces bandes mais un comportement tres different du fond continu. Lors du passage de l'etat liquide a l'etat solide, la forme des bandes varie considerablement mais non l'intensite totale. On a pu formuler ces resultats sous une forme simple applicable directement aux problemes analytiques. (auteurs)

  13. A webcam in Bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infra-red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gregor; Hochreiner, Armin; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Beam profiles are commonly measured with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) or charge coupled devices (CCD). The devices are fast and reliable but expensive. By making use of the fact that the Bayer-filter in commercial webcams is transparent in the near infra-red (>800 nm) and their CCD chips are sensitive up to about 1100 nm, we demonstrate a cheap and simple way to measure laser beam profiles with a resolution down to around ±1 μm, which is close to the resolution of the knife-edge technique.

  14. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  15. On-chip integrated functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) photoreceiver for portable brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Ehsan

    Optical brain imaging using functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a direct and noninvasive tool for monitoring of blood oxygenation. fNIRS is a noninvasive, safe, minimally intrusive, and high temporal-resolution technique for real-time and long-term brain imaging. It allows detecting both fast-neuronal and slow-hemodynamic signals. Besides the significant advantages of fNIRS systems, they still suffer from few drawbacks including low spatial-resolution, moderately high-level noise and high-sensitivity to movement. In order to overcome the limitations of currently available non-portable fNIRS systems, we have introduced a new low-power, miniaturized on-chip photodetector front-end intended for portable fNIRS systems. It includes silicon avalanche photodiode (SiAPD), Transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and Quench- Reset circuitry implemented using standard CMOS technologies to operate in both linear and Geiger modes. So it can be applied for both continuous-wave fNIRS (CW-fNIRS) and also single-photon counting applications. Several SiAPDs have been implemented in novel structures and shapes (Rectangular, Octagonal, Dual, Nested, Netted, Quadratic and Hexadecagonal) using different premature edge breakdown prevention techniques. The main characteristics of the SiAPDs are validated and the impact of each parameter and the device simulators (TCAD, COMSOL, etc.) have been studied based on the simulation and measurement results. Proposed techniques exhibit SiAPDs with high avalanche-gain (up to 119), low breakdown-voltage (around 12V) and high photon-detection efficiency (up to 72% in NIR region) in additional to a low dark-count rate (down to 30Hz at 1V excess bias voltage). Three new high gain-bandwidth product (GBW) and low-noise TIAs are introduced and implemented based on distributed-gain concept, logarithmic-amplification and automatic noise-rejection and have been applied in linear-mode of operation. The implemented TIAs offer a power

  16. The ITER Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System: Status of design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasca, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.salasca@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, Marie-Helene; Benoit, Fabrice; Cantone, Bruno; Corre, Yann; Delchambre, Elise; Ferlet, Marc; Gauthier, Eric; Guillon, Christophe; Houtte, Didier van; Keller, Delphine; Labasse, Florence; Larroque, Sebastien; Loarer, Thierry; Micolon, Frederic; Peluso, Bertrand; Proust, Maxime [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanchet, David; Peneliau, Yannick [CEA, DEN/DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Alonso, Javier [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The status of Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System is presented. • An assessment of measurement parameters relevant for machine protection has been done. • Remaining uncertainties will be clarified during the System Level Design (SLD). • WAVS design is not considered mature enough to launch prototypes of subcomponents. • Mandatory prototypes and qualification tests are already identified. • Next stage (SLD) will enable to do trade-offs and address pending design issues. - Abstract: The Equatorial Visible/Infra-Red Wide Angle Viewing System (WAVS) is one of the ITER key diagnostics owing to its role in machine investment protection through the monitoring of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) by Infra-Red thermography and visible imaging. Foreseen to be installed in 4 equatorial port plugs to maximize the coverage of divertor, first wall, heating antennas and upper strike zone, the WAVS will likely be composed of 15 lines of sight and 15 optical systems transferring the light along several meters from the PFCs through the port plug and interspace up to detectors located in the port cell. After a conceptual design phase led by ITER Organization, the design is being further developed through a Framework Partnership Agreement signed between the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy, and a consortium gathering CEA, CIEMAT (with INTA as third party) and Bertin Technologies company. The next design step is the System Level Design (SLD) which will enable to consolidate the WAVS specifications as well as the performance realistically achievable (taking into account ITER and project constraints). The SLD has been preceded by a preparatory phase aiming at clarifying the WAVS functions and identifying critical prototyping. The outcomes of this preparatory phase are reported in this paper. First a review by the consortium of the WAVS measurement specifications is presented, for the purpose of a clearer separation of measurement

  17. [The influence of probe geometry on the sensitivity of tissue oximeter using near infra-red spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Ding, H; Lin, F

    2000-08-01

    Based on the modified Lambert-Beer law under scattering media, near infra-red spectroscopy tissue oximeter measures the changes of absorber concentrations (such as oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, cytochrome aa3). This is made possible by recording the optical density change under different physiological status. This paper describes the average penetration depth, average photon path-length and spatial sensitive profile in multi-layered tissue model using Monte-Carlo method. The result shows the probe geometry of the sensor, which is the separation between the light source and the detector, has a great influence on the sensitivity of measurement. Increasing this separation properly allows the improvement of the sensitivity of measurement and the increase of the probability of looking at oxygenation deep under the surface tissue. But this improvement is limited by the decrease of signal-noise ratio. Optimum probe spacing should be estimated for special tissue structure.

  18. Crystal growth and luminescence properties of Yb.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub. infra-red emission scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horiai, T.; Kurosawa, S.; Murakami, R.; Pejchal, Jan; Yamaji, A.; Shoji, Y.; Chani, V.I.; Ohashi, Y.; Kamada, K.; Yokota, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, Aug (2016), s. 14-17 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * pyrosilicate * charge transfer * infra-red * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  19. Relationship of in-coming radiation with photosynthetically active, infra-red and net radiations in Brassica species and rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwal, A.S.; Kuhad, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Marked variation was observed among genotypes when the data for in-coming solar radiation were monitored horizontally. The regression equation for in-coming solar radiation versus photosynthetically active radiation and incoming solar radiation versus in-coming infra red radiation indicated linear relationship

  20. High intensity mid infra-red spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serapiglia, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    High intensity (10 8 Wcm -2 ) mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the optical response of intersubband transitions in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells with three conduction subbands. Steady state optical pumping of 2 x 10 11 cm -2 electrons into the excited vertical bar2> subband and subsequent electron relaxation (via phonon emission) back to the ground vertical bar1> subband creates a non-equilibrium phonon population (phonon occupancy∼1 at T=30K). Phonon re-absorption leads to a non-thermal electron distribution where electron-phonon scattering rates ∼200-500fs -1 are much faster than electron-electron scattering. In this regime, the intersubband absorption is inhomogeneously broadened. For substantially weaker optical pumping (∼1 saturation intensity) however, the electron distribution is able to thermalise and the absorption is homogeneously broadened. The phenomenon of electromagnetically-induced quantum coherence is demonstrated between 3 confined electron subband levels in a quantum well which are almost equally spaced in energy. Applying a strong coupling field, two-photon-resonant with the 1-3 intersubband transition, produces a pronounced narrow transparency feature in the 1-2 absorption line. This result can be understood in terms of all 3 states being simultaneously driven into ''phase-locked'' quantum coherence by a single coupling field. We describe the effect theoretically with a density matrix method and an adapted linear response theory. Efficient (∼1%) second harmonic generation, resonantly enhanced near λ=8.6μm, has been observed in asymmetric double multi-quantum well (ADQW) structures. Both waveguide mode and 45 deg. wedge multi-bounce geometries were used. The phase matching in the waveguide mode was achieved by incorporating a separate multiple QW region which modifies (via Kramers-Kronig relation) the dispersion of light. In the case of the 45 deg. wedge geometry, the phases of second harmonic waves generated at sequential

  1. Investigating the Water Vapor Component of the Greenhouse Effect from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Sun, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the water vapor component of the greenhouse effect in the tropical region using data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Differently from previous studies who have relayed on the assumption of constant lapse rate and performed coarse layer or total column sensitivity analysis, we resort to AIRS high vertical resolution to measure the greenhouse effect sensitivity to water vapor along the vertical column. We employ a "partial radiative perturbation" methodology and discriminate between two different dynamic regimes, convective and non-convective. This analysis provides useful insights on the occurrence and strength of the water vapor greenhouse effect and its sensitivity to spatial variations of surface temperature. By comparison with the clear-sky computation conducted in previous works, we attempt to confine an estimate for the cloud contribution to the greenhouse effect. Our results compare well with the current literature, falling in the upper range of the existing global circulation model estimates. We value the results of this analysis as a useful reference to help discriminate among model simulations and improve our capability to make predictions about the future of our climate.

  2. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Validation of red and near infra-red marine reflectance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G

    2013-09-09

    The present study provides an extensive overview of red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral relationships found in the literature and used to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in current atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms with the aim to improve water-leaving reflectance retrievals, ρw(λ), in turbid waters. However, most of these spectral relationships have been developed with restricted datasets and, subsequently, may not be globally valid, explaining the need of an accurate validation exercise. Spectral relationships are validated here with turbid in situ data for ρw(λ). Functions estimating ρw(λ) in the red were only valid for moderately turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbidity ranges presented in the in situ dataset. In the NIR region of the spectrum, the constant NIR reflectance ratio suggested by Ruddick et al. (2006) (Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179), was valid for moderately to very turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) > 10(-2)). The results of this study suggest to use the red bounding equations and the polynomial NIR function to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in AC processes with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where current AC algorithms fail.

  3. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  4. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  5. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J. [Caterpillar Corp.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for

  6. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  7. Development of tellurium oxide and lead-bismuth oxide glasses for mid-wave infra-red transmission optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Beiming; Rapp, Charles F.; Driver, John K.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Goldstein, Jonathan; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal oxide glasses exhibiting high transmission in the Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) spectrum are often difficult to manufacture in large sizes with optimized physical and optical properties. In this work, we researched and developed improved tellurium-zinc-barium and lead-bismuth-gallium heavy metal oxide glasses for use in the manufacture of fiber optics, optical components and laser gain materials. Two glass families were investigated, one based upon tellurium and another based on lead-bismuth. Glass compositions were optimized for stability and high transmission in the MWIR. Targeted glass specifications included low hydroxyl concentration, extended MWIR transmission window, and high resistance against devitrification upon heating. Work included the processing of high purity raw materials, melting under controlled dry Redox balanced atmosphere, finning, casting and annealing. Batch melts as large as 4 kilograms were sprue cast into aluminum and stainless steel molds or temperature controlled bronze tube with mechanical bait. Small (100g) test melts were typically processed in-situ in a 5%Au°/95%Pt° crucible. Our group manufactured and evaluated over 100 different experimental heavy metal glass compositions during a two year period. A wide range of glass melting, fining, casting techniques and experimental protocols were employed. MWIR glass applications include remote sensing, directional infrared counter measures, detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents, laser detection tracking and ranging, range gated imaging and spectroscopy. Enhanced long range mid-infrared sensor performance is optimized when operating in the atmospheric windows from ~ 2.0 to 2.4μm, ~ 3.5 to 4.3μm and ~ 4.5 to 5.0μm.

  8. Simultaneous detection of multiple HPV DNA via bottom-well microfluidic chip within an infra-red PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Warden, Antony; Sun, Jiahui; Shen, Guangxia; Ding, Xianting

    2018-03-01

    Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) devices combined with microfluidic chips or lateral flow stripes have shown great potential in the field of point-of-need testing (PoNT) as they only require a small volume of patient sample and are capable of presenting results in a short time. However, the detection for multiple targets in this field leaves much to be desired. Herein, we introduce a novel PCR platform by integrating a bottom-well microfluidic chip with an infra-red (IR) excited temperature control method and fluorescence co-detection of three PCR products. Microfluidic chips are utilized to partition different samples into individual bottom-wells. The oil phase in the main channel contains multi-walled carbon nanotubes which were used as a heat transfer medium that absorbs energy from the IR-light-emitting diode (LED) and transfers heat to the water phase below. Cyclical rapid heating and cooling necessary for PCR are achieved by alternative power switching of the IR-LED and Universal Serial Bus (USB) mini-fan with a pulse width modulation scheme. This design of the IR-LED PCR platform is economic, compact, and fully portable, making it a promising application in the field of PoNT. The bottom-well microfluidic chip and IR-LED PCR platform were combined to fulfill a three-stage thermal cycling PCR for 40 cycles within 90 min for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) detection. The PCR fluorescent signal was successfully captured at the end of each cycle. The technique introduced here has broad applications in nucleic acid amplification and PoNT devices.

  9. Band gap opening and optical absorption enhancement in graphene using ZnO nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, M. M.; Aghaei, S. M.; Calizo, I.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic, optical and transport properties of the graphene/ZnO heterostructure have been explored using first-principles density functional theory. The results show that Zn12O12 can open a band gap of 14.5 meV in graphene, increase its optical absorption by 1.67 times covering the visible spectrum which extends to the infra-red (IR) range, and exhibits a slight non-linear I-V characteristic depending on the applied bias. These findings envisage that a graphene/Zn12O12 heterostructure can be appropriate for energy harvesting, photodetection, and photochemical devices.

  10. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  11. Evaluation of digital infra-red thermal imaging as an adjunctive screening method for breast carcinoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassiwala, Muffazzal; Mathur, Poonam; Mathur, Rajkumar; Farid, Khan; Shukla, Sapna; Gupta, P K; Jain, Beena

    2014-12-01

    Early screening plays a pivotal role in management of breast cancer. Given the socio-economic situation in India, there is a strong felt need for a screening tool which reaches the masses rather than waiting for the masses to reach tertiary centers to be screened. Digital infra-red thermal imaging (DITI) or breast thermography as a screening test offers this possibility and needs to be carefully assessed in Indian scenario. The study involved 1008 female patients of age 20-60 years that had not been diagnosed of cancer of breast earlier. All the subjects in this population were screened for both the breasts using DITI. Based on the measured temperature gradients (ΔT) in thermograms, the subjects were classified in one of the three groups, normal (ΔT ≤ 2.5), abnormal (ΔT > 2.5, breast cancer (ΔT ≥ 3). All those having (ΔT > 2.5) underwent triple assessment that consisted of clinical examination, radiological and histopathological examination. Those with normal thermograms were subjected to only clinical examination. Forty nine female breasts had thermograms with temperature gradients exceeding 2.5 and were subjected to triple assessment. Forty one of these which had ΔT ≥ 3 were proven to be having cancer of breast and were offered suitable treatment. Eight thermograms had temperature gradients exceeding 2.5 but less than 3. Most of these were lactating mothers or had fibrocystic breast diseases. As a screening modality, DITI showed sensitivity of 97.6%, specificity of 99.17%, positive predictive value 83.67% and negative predictive value 99.89%. Based on the results of this study involving 1008 subjects for screening of breast cancer, thermography turns out to be a very useful tool for screening. Because it is non-contact, pain-free, radiation free and comparatively portable it can be used in as a proactive technique for detection of breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ab Initio Density Functional Calculations and Infra-Red Study of CO Interaction with Pd Atoms on θ-Al2O3 (010) Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Allard, Lawrence F; Wu, Zili

    2017-07-24

    The ab initio density functional theoretical studies show that energetics favor CO oxidation on single Pd atoms supported on θ-alumina. The diffuse reflectance infra-red spectroscopy (DRIFTS) results show that carbonates are formed as intermediates when single supported Pd atoms are exposed to a gaseous mixture of CO + O 2 . The rapid agglomeration of Pd atoms under CO oxidation conditions even at 6 °C leads to the presence of Pd particles along with single atoms during CO oxidation experiments. Thus, the observed CO oxidation has contributions from both single Pd atoms and Pd particles.

  13. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  14. Result interpretation of experimental calibration for milk citric acid determination via infra-red spectroscopy (MIR-FT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid (KC in milk is indicator of cow energy metabolism. Milk laboratories set up KC determination. A method can be infra-red analyse (MIR-FT. The goal was to develop a relevant method for reference sample preparation for MIR-FT (indirect method, Lactoscope FTIR and MilkoScan FT 6000 calibration. As reference was used a photometric method (c; 428 nm. KC was added (n = 3 into some re­fe­ren­ce milk samples (n = 10, bulk milk. Mean value was 9.220 ± 3.094 mmol . l−1 with variation range from 6.206 to 15.975 mmol . l−1. Recovery c was from 100.8 to 120.2 %. Correlation between c and ­MIR-FT were from 0.979 to 0.992 (P < 0.001. These were lower in the set of native milk samples (n = 7, from 0.751 (Lactoscope FTIR; P < 0.05 to 0.947 (MilkoScan FT 6000; P < 0.001 in comparison to original va­lues from 0.981 to 0.992 (n = 10; P < 0.001. Correlations between calibrated MIR-FT instruments were from 0.958 to 1.0 (P < 0.001. Average recovery for instruments (n = 12 was 101.6 ± 18.1 %. The mean differences between c method and MIR-FT after calibration (n = 4 moved from −0.001 across zero to 0.037 %. Standard deviation of differences was from 0.0074 to 0.0187 % at MilkoScan FT 6000 and from 0.0105 to 0.0117 % for Lactoscope FTIR. Relative variability of differences (MIR-F (filter technology and FT for major components fat (T, proteins (B and lactose (L in total and minor components KC and free fatty acids (VMK was estimated to 1.0 and 7.2 and 34.4 %. The KC result is inferior than T, B and L superior than VMK. Autocorrelation (0.042; P > 0.05 of results demonstrated the in­de­pen­den­ce of consecutive measurements. Milk preservation effect amounted 0.2323 (P < 0.001 with bronopol and 0.0339 (P > 0.05 mmol . l−1 with dichromate. It was (3.0 and 0.44 % practically negligible, redeemable via relevant calibration. The results of proficiency testing in post-calibration period and evaluation of double

  15. The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset and its applications in drought risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Funk, Chris; Peterson, Pete; McNally, Amy; Dinku, Tufa; Barbosa, Humberto; Paredes-Trejo, Franklin; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Greg

    2017-04-01

    A high quality, long-term, high-resolution precipitation dataset is key for supporting drought-related risk management and food security early warning. Here, we present the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) v2.0, developed by scientists at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center under the direction of Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). CHIRPS is a quasi-global precipitation product and is made available at daily to seasonal time scales with a spatial resolution of 0.05° and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. We begin by describing the three main components of CHIRPS - a high-resolution climatology, time-varying cold cloud duration precipitation estimates, and in situ precipitation estimates, and how they are combined. We then present a validation of this dataset and describe how CHIRPS is being disseminated and used in different applications, such as large-scale hydrologic models and crop water balance models. Validation of CHIRPS has focused on comparisons with precipitation products with global coverage, long periods of record and near real-time availability such as CPC-Unified, CFS Reanalysis and ECMWF datasets and datasets such GPCC and GPCP that incorporate high quality in situ datasets from places such as Uganda, Colombia, and the Sahel. The CHIRPS is shown to have low systematic errors (bias) and low mean absolute errors. We find that CHIRPS performance appears quite similar to research quality products like the GPCC and GPCP, but with higher resolution and lower latency. We also present results from independent validation studies focused on South America and East Africa. CHIRPS is currently being used to drive FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), that incorporates multiple hydrologic models, and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), which is a widely used crop water balance model. The outputs (such as

  16. Influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio of Fourier transform infra-red spectra on identification of high explosive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka M.; Heussler, Sascha P.; Breese, Mark B. H.

    2018-01-01

    In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science). In this paper the investigation of the influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio on the identification of high explosive substances by applying multivariate statistical methods on the Fourier transform infra-red spectral data sets is studied. All mathematical procedures on spectral data for dimension reduction, clustering and validation were implemented within R open source environment.

  17. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  18. A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.

    2017-10-01

    Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.

  19. Detection of organic compound signatures in infra-red, limb emission spectra observed by the MIPAS-B2 balloon instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Remedios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds play a central role in troposphere chemistry and increasingly are a viable target for remote sensing observations. In this paper, infra-red spectral features of three organic compounds are investigated in thermal emission spectra recorded on a flight on 8 May 1998 near Aire sur l'Adour by a balloon-borne instrument, MIPAS-B2, operating at high spectral resolution. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that PAN and acetone can be detected in infra-red remote sensing spectra of the upper troposphere; detection results are presented at tangent altitudes of 10.4 km and 7.5 km (not acetone. In addition, the results provide the first observation of spectral features of formic acid in thermal emission, as opposed to solar occultation, and confirm that concentrations of this gas are measurable in the mid-latitude upper troposphere, given accurate spectroscopic data. For PAN, two bands are observed centred at 794 cm−1 and 1163 cm−1. For acetone and formic acid, one band has been detected for each so far with band centres at 1218 cm−1 and 1105 cm−1 respectively. Mixing ratios inferred at 10.4 km tangent altitude are 180 pptv and 530 pptv for PAN and acetone respectively, and 200 pptv for formic acid with HITRAN 2000 spectroscopy. Accuracies are on the order of 15 to 40%. The detection technique applied here is verified by examining weak but known signatures of CFC-12 and HCFC-22 in the same spectral regions as those of the organic compounds, with results confirming the quality of both the instrument and the radiative transfer model. The results suggest the possibility of global sensing of the organic compounds studied here which would be a major step forward in verifying and interpreting global tropospheric model calculations.

  20. Crystal growth and luminescence properties of Yb-doped Gd.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub. infra-red scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzuki, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Nagata, S.; Yamamura, T.; Pejchal, Jan; Yamaji, A.; Yokota, Y.; Shirasaki, K.; Homma, Y.; Aoki, D.; Shikama, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2014), s. 1484-1487 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : infra-red scintillator * radiation therapy * Yb:GAGG * bulk crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  1. Ultraviolet, optical and infra-red observations of the Wolf-Rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickland, D.J.; Budding, E.; Howarth, I.D.; Willis, A.J.; Jameson, R.; Sherrington, M.R.; Bromage, G.E.; Burton, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present study on wolf-rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei is an attempt to combine the best observational previous results with an extensive set of UV data from the IUE Satellite and with new IR photometric data. The orbital variations of the CQ Cep system are investigated as well as the secondary component. The early studies of CQ Cep are reviewed, and the observations used in the present analysis described. Continuum energy distribution, interstellar extinction, photometric variability, light curves, time dependence of the emission and absorption line spectra and models for the CQ Cept system are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Gold nanoparticles bridging infra-red spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of over-the-counter drug and botanical medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Tang, Ho-Wai; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2016-05-05

    With a coating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and Chinese herbal medicine granules in KBr pellets could be analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). FT-IR spectroscopy allows fast detection of major active ingredient (e.g., acetaminophen) in OTC drugs in KBr pellets. Upon coating a thin layer of AuNPs on the KBr pellet, minor active ingredients (e.g., noscapine and loratadine) in OTC drugs, which were not revealed by FT-IR, could be detected unambiguously using AuNPs-assisted LDI-MS. Moreover, phytochemical markers of Coptidis Rhizoma (i.e. berberine, palmatine and coptisine) could be quantified in the concentrated Chinese medicine (CCM) granules by the SALDI-MS using standard addition method. The quantitative results matched with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Being strongly absorbing in UV yet transparent to IR, AuNPs successfully bridged FT-IR and SALDI-MS for direct analysis of active ingredients in the same solid sample. FT-IR allowed the fast analysis of major active ingredient in drugs, while SALDI-MS allowed the detection of minor active ingredient in the presence of excipient, and also quantitation of phytochemicals in herbal granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A hybrid strain and thermal energy harvester based on an infra-red sensitive Er3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) ferroelectret structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Xie, Mengying; Bowen, Christopher Rhys; Davies, Philip R; Morgan, David J; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel infra-red (IR) sensitive Er 3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (Er-PVDF) film is developed for converting both mechanical and thermal energies into useful electrical power. The addition of Er 3+ to PVDF is shown to improve piezoelectric properties due to the formation of a self-polarized ferroelectric β-phase and the creation of an electret-like porous structure. In addition, we demonstrate that Er 3+ acts to enhance heat transfer into the Er-PVDF film due to its excellent infrared absorbance, which, leads to rapid and large temperature fluctuations and improved pyroelectric energy transformation. We demonstrate the potential of this novel material for mechanical energy harvesting by creating a durable ferroelectret energy harvester/nanogenerator (FTNG). The high thermal stability of the β-phase enables the FTNG to harvest large temperature fluctuations (ΔT ~ 24 K). Moreover, the superior mechanosensitivity, S M  ~ 3.4 VPa -1 of the FTNG enables the design of a wearable self-powered health-care monitoring system by human-machine integration. The combination of rare-earth ion, Er 3+ with the ferroelectricity of PVDF provides a new and robust approach for delivering smart materials and structures for self-powered wireless technologies, sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  4. Correlations between frequency of infra-red active vibrational modes and copper-oxygen distance in copper oxides, application to superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.; Infante, C.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Sreedhar, K.

    1990-05-01

    The infra-red spectra of a large number of ternary Cu(II) oxides with at least a quasi square-planar coordination of oxygen around the copper ions have been studied. The frequency of the bands with the highest frequency, υ max , is found to correlate extremely well with the shortest Cu-O distance. υ max increases at an impressive rate of ∼ 20 cm -1 per .01 A when the Cu-O distance becomes less than 1.97 A, which is the Cu 2+ -O 2- distance in square-planar CuO 4 complexes as obtained from empirical ionic radii considerations. The marked sensitivity may be used as a ''titration'' procedure not only to assign bands but also to obtain diagnostic information about local coordination in compounds derived, for example, from the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-d structure such as LaCaBaCu 3 O 7-d . The only example where this correlation fails is in the two-layer non-superconducting oxides derived from La 2 (Ca,Sr)Cu 2 O 6 . the significance of this result is discussed. The marked dependence of frequency on the bond-distance is qualitatively examined in terms of an increased electron-phonon coupling to account for the observed tendency of the superconducting transition temperature to go through a maximum as the average basal plane Cu-O distance is decreased. (author). 52 refs, 6 figs

  5. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  6. Measuring the spatial variation in surface moisture on a coastal beach with an infra-red terrestrial laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Yvonne; Donker, Jasper; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sand dunes provide essential protection against marine flooding. Consequently, dune erosion during severe storms has been studied intensively, resulting in well-developed erosion models for use in scientific and applied projects. Nowadays there is growing awareness that similarly advanced knowledge on dune recovery and growth is needed to predict future dune development. For this reason, aeolian sand transport from the beach into the dunes has to be investigated thoroughly. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches. By increasing the velocity threshold for sediment entrainment, pick-up rates reduce and the fetch length increases. Conventional measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content required to study the effects on aeolian transport. Here we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using the RIEGL VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface soil moisture over its full range. Three days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric soil moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0% - 25%). This relation holds to about 80 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(106-107) data points, which we averaged into soil moisture maps with a 0.25x0.25 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. As the next step in our research, we will analyze the obtained maps to determine which processes affect the spatial and

  7. Luminescent properties of Cr-doped (Gd.sub.x./sub., Y.sub.1-x./sub.).sub.3./sub.Al.sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. infra-red scintillator crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzuki, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Yamaji, A.; Shoji, Y.; Pejchal, Jan; Kamada, K.; Yokota, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2014), s. 1938-1941 ISSN 0925-3467. [International Symposium on Laser, Scintillator and Non Linear Optical Materials (ISLNOM) /6./. Shanghai, 20.10.2013-23.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : infra-red scintillator * patient dosimetry * Cr-doped oxide garnet * bulk crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  8. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6°N, 72.8°E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm^{-1} and 1024× 1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80° along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, cz, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period `τ ', the vertical wavelength, λ z, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, λ y, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters (τ , cz, λ z, and λ y), and results on the statistical study of MTIs that exist in the earth's mesospheric

  9. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  10. Determination of the absolute concentrations of H2O - D2O mixtures using the increase in sensitivity of infra-red absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaldi, M.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given in this report of original work concerning an infrared method for determining the absolute isotopic content of H 2 O - D 2 O mixtures. The spectrum is obtained, in both the liquid and the solid states, of water of unknown D 2 O content and of mixtures of this water and light water. The Beer-Lambert law-is Well followed in this case; the measurement of three parameters involved in this law is described together with a method of measuring the fourth parameter. The results obtained using infrared and nuclear resonance techniques are compared. The concentration of the 99.9960 per cent reference water is known with a precision of a least + 40 ppm - 20 ppm and very likely to ± 5 ppm. (author) [fr

  11. Investigation of neural correlates between perception of pain and hemodynamic response measured in the pre-frontal cortex using functional near infra-red spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri

    Perception of pain is multi-dimensional, comprising three major psychological dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. This dissertation study investigates the cognitive evaluation of pain, by acquiring functional Near Infra-Red Spectroscopic (fNIRS) measurements from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas, during mechanical and thermal pain stimulation induced on the subject's volar forearm. Clustered-wise analysis on the oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) response from specific PFC areas was followed by categorizing the resulting HbO response into early (0.1--12sec) and late (12.1--25sec) phases. For each respective phase, regression analysis was carried between the HbO-derived parameters and behaviorally measured pain rating. The major findings of this study include: (1) across both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, significant DeltaHbO deactivation was observed during the late phase, in the left hemispheric (LH) anterior PFC (aPFC) or Brodmann area 10 (BA 10). (2) Significant correlates of pain rating were observed in the LH prefrontal areas: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived peak intensity (PI) from LH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the LH dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC or BA 46) showed correlation with the pain rating. (3) The significant correlates observed from the right hemispheric (RH) PFC were: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived FWHM from the RH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under 41°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the RH DLPFC area correlated with the pain rating. (4) The late phase HbO-derived time to peak from LH aPFC reflected cognitive discrimination of two different pain levels (41°C and 48°C). The observed trend for DeltaHbO activation and deactivation could possibly be due to synaptic-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to increased or

  12. Far infra-red therapy promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restores high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Po-Hsun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Far infra-red (IFR therapy was shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular system, but effects of IFR on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC and EPC-related vasculogenesis remain unclear. We hypothesized that IFR radiation can restore blood flow recovery in ischemic hindlimb in diabetic mice by enhancement of EPCs functions and homing process. Materials and methods Starting at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes, unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocine (STZ-induced diabetic mice, which were divided into control and IFR therapy groups (n = 6 per group. The latter mice were placed in an IFR dry sauna at 34°C for 30 min once per day for 5 weeks. Results Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio in the thermal therapy group was significantly increased beyond that in controls, and significantly greater capillary density was seen in the IFR therapy group. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired EPCs (Sca-1+/Flk-1+ mobilization after ischemia surgery in diabetic mice with or without IFR therapy (n = 6 per group. However, as compared to those in the control group, bone marrow-derived EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells defined as GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells were significantly increased in ischemic tissue around the vessels in diabetic mice that received IFR radiation. In in-vitro studies, cultured EPCs treated with IFR radiation markedly augmented high glucose-impaired EPC functions, inhibited high glucose-induced EPC senescence and reduced H2O2 production. Nude mice received human EPCs treated with IFR in high glucose medium showed a significant improvement in blood flow recovery in ischemic limb compared to those without IFR therapy. IFR therapy promoted blood flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Conclusions Administration of IFR therapy promoted collateral flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ

  13. Study of radiation heating (part 1). UR spectroscopic characteristics of radiant heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Yoshikazu; Ajisaka, Kazuhiro; Toyonaga, Hajime; Kitahata, Hiroki; Oshida, Shun' ichi; Sugihara, Tomonori

    1987-09-01

    There are many IR permeable substances. When this is heated with IR beam, UR beam penetrated into the substance and heat up the substance from the inside. In this case, the inside gets hot quicker than the surface which gives much difference in the finish of the product. Characteristics of permeation and absorption of the IR beam vary by the type of the substance and the wave-length of the UR beam. Examples of effectiveness of far infra-red heater are: Baking of rice cake. Baking of PVC granules as a slip-stop for a working gloves. Far infra-red sauna (sweating effect around 50/sup 0/C). Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and other companies introduced an IR spectroscopic radiometer of Minarad Systems of USA to establish a data exchange system in 1984. The spectroscopic radio-meter system consists of 3 components, i.e., a spectrophotometric radiometer, a black body furnace, and a computer for data processing. (14 figs, 5 tabs)

  14. Absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular transitions which occur in the middle infrared region of the spectrum correspond with the characteristic frequencies of molecular vibrations. Thus, moderate resolution spectroscopy of the interstellar medium offers unique evidence about the molecules in the condensed and gaseous phases and their distribution. The author discusses the spectral properties of the condensed phase. However, in the astrophysical literature, it is difficult to find a qualitative description of the effects the solid state has on molecular vibrations, and since it is these which largely determine the spectroscopic properties of the interstellar dust, this discussion begins with a general description of these effects and then is directed toward describing the optical characteristics of the molecular ice component of the dust. The properties of this component of the dust are stressed, rather than those expected from more homogeneous components such as silicates, graphite, or amorphous carbon since these have been discussed in considerable detail elsewhere. (Auth.)

  15. Sound absorption and morphology characteristic of porous concrete paving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. H. Abd; Nor, H. Md; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Mohamed, A.; Hassan, N. Abdul; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Ramli, N. I.; Nazri, F. Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    In this study, sound absorption and morphology characteristic of Porous Concrete Paving Blocks (PCPB) at different sizes of coarse aggregate were presented. Three different sizes of coarse aggregate were used; passing 10 mm retained 5 mm (as Control), passing 8 mm retained 5 mm (8 - 5) and passing 10 mm retained 8 mm (10 - 8). The sound absorption test was conducted through the impedance tube at different frequency. It was found that the size of coarse aggregate affects the level of absorption of the specimens. It also shows that PCPB 10 - 8 resulted in high sound absorption compared to the other blocks. On the other hand, microstructure morphology of PCPB shows a clearer version of existing micro-cracks and voids inside the specimens which affecting the results of sound absorption.

  16. Dielectric Characteristics and Microwave Absorption of Graphene Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rubrice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many types of materials are elaborated for microwave absorption applications. Carbon-based nanoparticles belong to these types of materials. Among these, graphene presents some distinctive features for electromagnetic radiation absorption and thus microwave isolation applications. In this paper, the dielectric characteristics and microwave absorption properties of epoxy resin loaded with graphene particles are presented from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The influence of various parameters such as particle size (3 µm, 6–8 µm, and 15 µm and weight ratio (from 5% to 25% are presented, studied, and discussed. The sample loaded with the smallest graphene size (3 µm and the highest weight ratio (25% exhibits high loss tangent (tanδ = 0.36 and a middle dielectric constant ε′ = 12–14 in the 8–10 GHz frequency range. As expected, this sample also provides the highest absorption level: from 5 dB/cm at 4 GHz to 16 dB/cm at 18 GHz.

  17. Studies on the radiation absorption characteristics of various rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, K.N.; Abdullah, S.A.; Gazzaz, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Radiation absorption characteristics of nine different rocks, namely, ferrugenous quartz, metabasalt, larvikite, coarse grained diorite, coarse grained granite, coarse grained alkali granite, marble, quartz mica schist, and metamorphosed rock are studied. The rocks were collected from Jeddah, Makkah, Mina and Taif areas. Special attention was given on the availability, compactness, physical formation and uniform composition in selecting the rocks. The rocks were identified by optical method and their elemental composition determined by chemical analysis. The data were used to calculate the effective atomic numbers, half value layers mass and linear attenuation coefficients. The half value layers and the linear attenuation coefficientsof these rocks were determined experimentally using Am-241, Cs-137,and Co-60 sources. The results are compared with those obtained by theoretical calculations and agrre within 10%. Most of the rocks show much higher radiation attenuation characteristics than the standard concrete. Rocks containing higher percentage of Fe, Ca, Ti, and Mn show much higher radiation absorption characteristics than concrete. Only granites are found to be almost equivalent to concrete. 12 Ref

  18. Assessing Recent Improvements in the GOSAT TANSO-FTS Thermal InfraRed Emission Spectrum using Satellite Inter-Comparison with NASA AIRS, EUMETSAT IASI, and JPSS CrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuteson, R.; Burgess, G.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Yoshida, J.; Kataoka, F.; Suto, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) since 2009 (Kuze et al. 2012). The TANSO-FTS sensor is an interferometer spectrometer measuring shortwave reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution in three spectral bands. A bore-sighted band 4 uses the same interferometer to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR) at the top of the atmosphere. This paper is a comparison of the TANSO-FTS TIR band with coincident measurements of the NASA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) grating spectrometer. The time and space coincident matchups are at the Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) locations of the orbits of GOSAT and the NASA AQUA satellite. GOSAT/AQUA SNOs occur at about 40N and 40S latitude. A continuous set of SNO matchups has been found from the start of valid radiance data collection in April 2009 through the end of 2015. UW-SSEC has obtained the time, latitude, and longitude of the SNO location using the ORBNAV software at http://sips.ssec.wisc.edu/orbnav. UW-SSEC obtained the matching AIRS v5 L1B radiances from the NASA archive. JAXA has reprocessed the entire TANSO-FTS TIR band using the previous v161and a new calibration version (v203) which includes calibration parameter optimizations. The TANSO-FTS has been reduced to the AIRS spectral channels using the AIRS spectral response functions (SRFs). This paper will show the time series of observed brightness temperatures from AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR observations from the SNO matchups. Similar results are obtained by comparison with the EUMETSAT Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP platform and the JPSS Cross-track InfraRed Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi-NPP platform. This paper validates the improvements in the GOSAT ground calibration software by providing a reference

  19. Coherent Infra-Red as logically necessary to explain Piagetian psychology and neuro-microanatomy — Two independent corroborations for Gurwitsch's findings, and the importance of self-consistent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Robert R.

    2011-12-01

    We can infer mechanisms underlying advanced human intelligence via •physics, chemistry and information-technology; but also •epistemology: analysing all knowledge-building processes (based on selection amongst micro-ideas). Hence Piaget offered "schèmes" as such items of thought/action, to account for actual human behaviour. In microphysiological terms, basic "schèmes" should have digital properties and a one-dimensional organization. That implied RNA-like molecules (and their "chorus" groups). — However for the necessary fast intermolecular communication, traditional action-potential "spikes" would be much too coarse. The alternative is Infra-Red. It then appears that myelinated nerve fibres seem suitable for an unexpected second role as coaxial cables for IR! Such opticalinterpretations also explain several enigmas: •What keeps (myelin-thickness / axon-diameter) ≈ constant? — (a mystery since 1905). •Why PNS myelination is delayed until the axon diameter reaches 1μm. •Why myelin often stops growing at a predictable angle in its wrapping. •Callahan's anomalous failure to detect sensory action-potentials even though his insects were responding to invisible IR signals. (Meanwhile RNA-like coding explains inherited behavioural traits, and memory-"recording" as Darwinian!) The important point: Here IR is independently identified as a necessary solution to logistical problems. In contrast the Gurwitsch tradition first discovered emissions, and then sought explanations. Thus the two approaches corroborate.

  20. Coherent Infra-Red as logically necessary to explain Piagetian psychology and neuro-microanatomy — Two independent corroborations for Gurwitsch's findings, and the importance of self-consistent theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traill, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    We can infer mechanisms underlying advanced human intelligence via .physics, chemistry and information-technology; but also .epistemology: analysing all knowledge-building processes (based on selection amongst micro-ideas). Hence Piaget offered 'schèmes' as such items of thought/action, to account for actual human behaviour. In microphysiological terms, basic 'schèmes' should have digital properties and a one-dimensional organization. That implied RNA-like molecules (and their 'chorus' groups). — However for the necessary fast intermolecular communication, traditional action-potential 'spikes' would be much too coarse. The alternative is Infra-Red. It then appears that myelinated nerve fibres seem suitable for an unexpected second role as coaxial cables for IR. Such opticalinterpretations also explain several enigmas: .What keeps (myelin-thickness / axon-diameter) ≈ constant? — (a mystery since 1905). .Why PNS myelination is delayed until the axon diameter reaches 1μm. Why myelin often stops growing at a predictable angle in its wrapping. Callahan's anomalous failure to detect sensory action-potentials even though his insects were responding to invisible IR signals. (Meanwhile RNA-like coding explains inherited behavioural traits, and memory-'recording' as Darwinian!). The important point: Here IR is independently identified as a necessary solution to logistical problems. In contrast the Gurwitsch tradition first discovered emissions, and then sought explanations. Thus the two approaches corroborate.

  1. Optimization and design of an aircraft's morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speeds, Part II - Experimental validation using Infra-Red transition measurement from Wind Tunnel tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Koreanschi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was numerically and experimentally validated. The genetic algorithm was applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The optimization was performed for 16 flight cases expressed in terms of various combinations of speeds, angles of attack and aileron deflections. The displacements resulted from the optimization were used during the wind tunnel tests of the wing tip demonstrator for the actuators control to change the upper surface shape of the wing. The results of the optimization of the flow behavior for the airfoil morphing upper-surface problem were validated with wind tunnel experimental transition results obtained with infra-red Thermography on the wing-tip demonstrator. The validation proved that the 2D numerical optimization using the ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was an appropriate tool in improving various aspects of a wing’s aerodynamic performances.

  2. The Study of the Influence of Urea and Hexa Methylene Tetramine (HMTA) Additive on the Total Gelation Process of Uranium on the Chemical Characteristic of the Poly (Uranate-Vinyl Alcohol) Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The study of the influence of urea and Hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) additive on the total gelation process of uranium on the chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel was done. First of all the 1M uranyl nitrate solution was heated at 70 °C, then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M urea additive was studied. Urea was added to the hot solution, and stirred for 10 minutes, producing the colloid particles of UO 3 . The mixing and heating up for 20 minutes, the colloid of UO 3 solution reacted by mixed of THF-PVA 1:1 solution. The solution was cooled at 32°C for 2 hours, and then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M HMTA additive was studied. HMTA was added into solution at 32°C and was stirred to form the homogenous sol solution. For the poly (urinate-vinyl) gel formation, the sol solution was dropped to the medium solution of 5M NH 5 OH at ambient condition. Gel formatted was microsphere then soaked, washed by NH 4 OH and hot water to release the chemical matters which were unreacted, was dried at 60°C and then dried at 150°C for 4 hours. The chemical characteristic of gel was made, covering the analyzed of colour, shape and diameter microsphere using optical microscope. Next, the analysis of molecular composition of the gel, using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic (FTIR), was made. The analytical were the qualitative analysis of the absorption band of infra red spectrum on O-U-O-U-O bond, U-O bond and NH 3 , C-OH, C-H and OH functional group at 300-4000 wave numbers. The result of the research showed that the addition of urea and HMTA additive influences on chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel. The optimum condition was at 2-3 M urea and 2- M HMTA concentration. The analyze of absorption band of infra red spectrum showed that the molecular composition of poly (vinyl alcohol) gel was the uranium trioxide, ammonia, water and polyvinyl alcohol molecular contain with the molecular formulas of [2UO 3 .2 NH 3 .H 2 O

  3. Infra-red laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for rapid prototyping, high yield, human neuronal cell patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raos, B J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Simpson, M C; Doyle, C S; Dickinson, M E; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Delivopoulos, E; Graham, E S

    2013-01-01

    Cell patterning commonly employs photolithographic methods for the micro fabrication of structures on silicon chips. These require expensive photo-mask development and complex photolithographic processing. Laser based patterning of cells has been studied in vitro and laser ablation of polymers is an active area of research promising high aspect ratios. This paper disseminates how 800 nm femtosecond infrared (IR) laser radiation can be successfully used to perform laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) whilst 248 nm nanosecond ultra-violet laser radiation produces photo-oxidization of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. In this work, we report the laser ablation methods used and the ablation characteristics of parylene-C for IR pulse fluences. Results follow that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells. We disseminate the variation in yield of patterned hNT astrocytes on parylene-C with laser pulse spacing, pulse number, pulse fluence and parylene-C strip width. The findings demonstrate how laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates can offer an accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning with broad application to multi-electrode arrays, cellular micro-arrays and microfluidics. (paper)

  4. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ¾c /font>, and c stands for the color quadratic Casimir of the field. Fixed points arise when R* ¼ or when R*. /nobr>. ´S-½. µ ´r ·b¿µ. The stability of the solutions may be tested by linearizing the system about the fixed points. For the non-trivial fixed points we need to consider the eigenvalues of the stability matrix whose ...

  5. DIRT: Dust InfraRed Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Marc W.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teuben, Peter; Lord, Steve

    2011-02-01

    DIRT is a Java applet for modelling astrophysical processes in circumstellar dust shells around young and evolved stars. With DIRT, you can: select and display over 500,000 pre-run model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) find the best-fit model to your data set account for beam size in model fitting manipulate data and models with an interactive viewer display gas and dust density and temperature profiles display model intensity profiles at various wavelengths

  6. DIRT: The Dust InfraRed Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, M. W.; Wolfire, M. G.; Mundy, L. G.; Teuben, P. J.; Lord, S.

    We present DIRT, a Java applet geared toward modeling a variety of processes in envelopes of young and evolved stars. Users can automatically and efficiently search grids of pre-calculated models to fit their data. A large set of physical parameters and dust types are included in the model database, which contains over 500,000 models. The computing cluster for the database is described in the accompanying paper by Teuben et al. (2000). A typical user query will return about 50-100 models, which the user can then interactively filter as a function of 8 model parameters (e.g., extinction, size, flux, luminosity). A flexible, multi-dimensional plotter (Figure 1) allows users to view the models, rotate them, tag specific parameters with color or symbol size, and probe individual model points. For any given model, auxiliary plots such as dust grain properties, radial intensity profiles, and the flux as a function of wavelength and beamsize can be viewed. The user can fit observed data to several models simultaneously and see the results of the fit; the best fit is automatically selected for plotting. The URL for this project is http://dustem.astro.umd.edu.

  7. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Molli; Kiran, Aditha Sai; Ravikanth, B.; Sowmendran, P.; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  8. Strength and water absorption characteristics of cement-bonded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to conventional practice, the boards were fabricated in the laboratory without external pressure application. The effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) addition on the hardening time, appearance, bending and compressive strength, and water absorption properties of the boards were also investigated. The boards had ...

  9. Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Shoji; Fukada, Satoshi; Koto, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Nobuo

    1979-01-01

    In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned. Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium (Zr) and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves. The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step. It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Prediction of energy absorption characteristics of aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidt, D; Figiel, Ł; Buggy, M

    2012-01-01

    This research aims ultimately at improving the impact performance of laminates by applying a coating of epoxy containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here, 2D and 3D computational modelling was carried out to predict energy absorption characteristics of aligned CNT/epoxy nanocomposites subjected to macroscopic compression under different strain rates (quasi-static and impact rates). The influence of the rate-dependent matrix behaviour, CNT aspect ratio and CNT volume fraction on the energy absorption characteristics of the nanocomposites was evaluated. A strong correlation between those parameters was found, which provides an insight into a rate-dependent behaviour of the nanocomposites, and can help to tune their energy absorption characteristics.

  11. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  12. Degradation characteristics of irradiated poly-(caprolactonechitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warastuti, Y.; Suryani, N.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation purpose was to study degradation characteristics of poly-(caprolactone -chitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. A composite membrane has been synthesized using blending and stirring method with acetic acid solvent and then molded into thin film. Electron beam radiation dose 0 - 30 kGy were done in order to evaluate radiation effects. SBF absorption with various immersing times and degradation for 0 -12 weeks were conducted. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identification functional groups of composite and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was applied to analyse micro structural surface of membrane before and after immersion. The irradiation process indicate that SBF absorption decrease because NH 2 groups in chitosan which contributes to the hydrophilicity was broken. The composite III indicate maximum absorption (58,2% ± 2,22) due to its smallest concentration of polycaprolactone and highest concentration of chitosan that caused decrease of hydrophobicity. Optimum degradation of composite III (1,3% ± 0,98) was reached after 8 weeks of immersion time. FTIR spectrum indicate the unity of typical peaks of the constituent materials and specific spectrum of CO 3 2- of carbonated apatite which was formed because immersion of SBF. Microstructural analysis using SEM indicate the formation of needle like apatite layer or calcium phosphate precipitate over all surface membrane. All the results indicate that these composite meet the requirements to biomaterial. (author)

  13. Deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of Zr2Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Mosley, W.C.; Holder, J.S.; Brooks, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of polished surfaces, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry indicated the presence of a continuous Zr 2 Fe phase with secondary phases of ZrFe 2 , Zr 5 FeSn, α-Zr, and Zr 6 Fe 3 O. A statistically-designed experiment to determine the effects of temperature, time, and vacuum quality On activation of St 198 revealed that when activated at low temperature (350 degrees C) deuterium absorption rate was slower when the vacuum quality was pwr (2.5 Pa vs. 3x10 -4 Pa). However, at higher activation temperature (500 degrees C), deuterium absorption rate was fast and was independent of vacuum quality. Deuterium pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) data are reported for St 198 in the temperature range 200--500 degrees C. The P-C-T data over the full range of deuterium loading and at temperatures of 350 degrees C and below is described by: K 0e -(ΔH α /RT)=PD 2 q 2 /(q*-q) 2 where ΔHα and K 0 have values of 101.8 kJ·mole -1 and 3.24x10 -8 Pa -1 , and q* is 15.998 kPa·L -1 ·g -1 . At higher temperatures, one or more secondary reactions in the solid phase occur that slowly consume D 2 from the gas phase. XRD suggests these reactions to be: 2 Zr 2 FeD x → x ZrD 2 + x/3 ZrFe 2 + (2 - 2/3x) Zr 2 Fe and Zr 2 FeD x + (2 -1/2x) D 2 → ZrD 2 + Fe, where 0 < x < 3. Reaction between gas phase deuterium and Zr2FC formed in the first reaction accounts for the observed consumption of deuterium from the gas phase by this reaction

  14. [Absorption Characteristics and Simulation of LLM-105 in the Terahertz Range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zeng-rui; Shang, Li-ping; Du, Yu; Deng, Hu

    2015-07-01

    2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), a novel explosive with high energy and low sensibility. In order to study the molecular structure characteristics of the explosive, the absorption spectra of LLM-105 in the frequency range of 0.2-2.4 THz were detected by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The results showed that a number of characteristic absorption peaks with different intensity located at 1.27, 1.59, 2.00, 2.08, 2.20, 2.29 THz. The article also simulated the absorption spectra of LLM-105 molecular crystal within 0.2-2.5 THz region by using Materials Studio 6.0 software based on density functional theory (DFT), and the simulated results agreed well with the experimental data except for the peak at 2.29 THz, which verified theoretically the accuracy of the experimental data. In addition, the vibrational modes of the characteristic peaks in the experimental absorption spectra were analyzed and identified, the results showed that the forming of the characteristic absorption peaks and the molecular vibration were closely related, which further provided important laboratory and technology support for the study of the transformation of molecule structure of LLM-105. There was no simulated frequency agreed with the experimental absorption peak at 2.29 THz, which may be caused by the vibration of the crystal lattice or other reasons.

  15. Absorption characteristics of Kupravas deposit clays modified by phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruplis, A.; Mezinskis, G.; Chaghuri, M.

    1998-01-01

    Literature data suggested that clays may be used as sorbents for waste water treatment. The surface and sorption properties of minerals changes due to the influence of acid rains. The process of recession of clay properties has been modeled in laboratory by treatment of clays with mineral acids at higher temperature that in natural conditions. The present paper is devoted to the study of influence of phosphoric acid on the sorption properties of Kupravas deposit clays. Natural clay samples and samples treated with phosphoric acid were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction an differential thermal analysis (DTA) methods These methods were used also to identify the sample of Lebanese clays. X-ray diffraction analysis data show that the samples of clays from the deposit of Kuprava contain illite and kaolinite while sample of Lebanese clay contains quartz, calcite, and montmorillonite. DTA results show characteristic features of Kuprava clays described in reference with DTA of Lebanese clay clearly demonstrate the presence of large quantity of calcite

  16. Antioxidant content and ultraviolet absorption characteristics of human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Camus Kar Man; Cho, Pauline; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-04-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common age-related disorder, and decreased antioxidant/ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection in tears may be part of the cause. This study aimed to compare the tear antioxidant content and flow rate in young and older adults. The total antioxidant content and UV absorbing properties of various commercially available ophthalmic solutions used to alleviate dry eye symptoms were also examined. Minimally stimulated tears were collected from 120 healthy Chinese adults with no ocular pathology. Two age groups were studied: 19 to 29 years (n = 58) and 50 to 75 years (n = 62). Tear samples from each subject and 13 ophthalmic solutions were analyzed for total antioxidant content (as the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power value). Tear flow rates were estimated from time taken to collect a fixed volume of tear fluid. UV absorbance spectra of pooled fresh reflex tear fluid and the ophthalmic solutions were determined. Results showed that the antioxidant content of minimally stimulated tears from older subjects (398 ± 160 μmol/l) was not significantly lower than that of younger subjects (348 ± 159 μmol/l; p = 0.0915). However, there was a significant difference in the tear flow rates between the two groups (p tears. The effect of low flow rate on the dynamic antioxidant supply to the corneal surface indicates that older subjects have poorer overall defense against photooxidative and other oxidative processes. This could predispose older persons to corneal stress and development of dry eye syndrome. The commercially available artificial tears tested lack both the antioxidant content and UV absorbing characteristics of natural tears. Artificial tears formulations that help restore natural antioxidant and UV absorbing properties to the tear film of the aging eye may help prevent or improve dry eye symptoms and promote ocular health.

  17. Experimental study on the sound absorption characteristics of continuously graded phononic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel three-dimensional (3D continuously graded phononic crystals (CGPCs have been designed, and fabricated by 3D printing. Each of the CGPCs is an entity instead of a combination of several other samples, and the porosity distribution of the CGPC along the incident direction is nearly linear. The sound absorption characteristics of CGPCs were experimentally investigated and compared with those of uniform phononic crystals (UPCs and discretely stepped phononic crystals (DSPCs. Experimental results show that CGPCs demonstrate excellent sound absorption performance because of their continuously graded structures. CGPCs have higher sound absorption coefficients in the large frequency range and more sound absorption coefficient peaks in a specific frequency range than UPCs and DSPCs. In particular, the sound absorption coefficients of the CGPC with a porosity of 0.6 and thickness of 30 mm are higher than 0.56 when the frequency is 1350–6300 Hz and are all higher than 0.2 in the studied frequency range (1000–6300 Hz. CGPCs are expected to have potential application in noise control, especially in the broad frequency and low-frequency ranges.

  18. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seaho Jeon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ2 and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18 and C60(>CPAF-C9, as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers.

  19. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M; Berthe, L; Fabbro, R; Muller, M [Laboratoire pour l' Application des Lasers de Puissance, UPR CNRS no1578, 16 Bis, Avenue Prieur de la Cote D' Or, 94114 Arcueil Cedex (France)], E-mail: matthieu.schneider@gmail.com

    2008-08-07

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm{sup -2} are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm{sup -2}. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  20. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Berthe, L.; Fabbro, R.; Muller, M.

    2008-08-01

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm-2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm-2. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  1. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f-metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  2. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f–metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  3. [Similarities and differences in absorption characteristics and composition of CDOM between Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Li, Yun-mei; Wang, Qiao; Yang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Wang, Yan-fei; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Bin

    2010-05-01

    Field experiments are conducted separately in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake on Apr. and Jun. 2009. The changes in absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics are analyzed using spectral differential analysis technology. According the spectral differential characteristic of absorption coefficient; absorption coefficient from 240 to 450 nm is divided into different stages, and the value of spectral slope S is calculated in each stage. In Stage A, S value of CDOM in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are 0.0166-0.0102 nm(-1) [average (0.0132 +/- 0.0017) nm(-1)], 0.029-0.017 nm(-1) [average (0.0214 +/- 0.0024) nm(-1)]. In Stage B, S values are 0.0187-0.0148 nm(-1) [average (0.0169 +/- 0.001) nm(-1)], 0.0179-0.0055 nm(-1) [average (0.0148 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. In Stage C, S values are 0.0208-0.0164 nm(-1) [average (0.0186 +/- 0.0009) nm(-1)], 0.0253-0.0161 nm(-1) [average (0.0197 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. The results can be concluded as: (1) Absorption coefficient of water in Taihu Lake, and its contribution to absorption of each component is less than that of water in Chaohu Lake, however the standardized absorption coefficient is larger than that in Chaohu Lake. (2) Both in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake, derivative spectra of CDOM absorption coefficient reached valley at 260nm, then rise to top at 290 nm, CDOM absorption coefficient can be delivered into three stages. (3) Generally speaking, content of CDOM in Taihu Lake is less than in Chaohu Lake. (4) pectrum slope (S value) of CDOM is related to composition of CDOM, when content of humic acid in CDOM gets higher, S value of Stage B is the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage C. Oppositely, S value of Stage B gets the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage A; the least sensitive value is in Stage B.

  4. One electron reduction and absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet in micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawandi, Vijay B.; Guha, S.N.; Hari Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Effect of surfactant micelles on absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet (CV) and on its redox reactions have been studied. Among the various surfactants investigated anionic surfactants particularly sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDDBS) showed marked effect on these properties. Reactions of hydrated electron in these micellar media were studied using the technique of nanosecond pulse radiolysis. Results of other surfactants, viz.BSS, CTAB and TritonX-100 have also been presented. (author)

  5. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  6. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.

  7. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  8. Study on new energy development planning and absorptive capability of Xinjiang in China considering resource characteristics and demand prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Miao, Xujuan; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Xuehua

    2018-02-01

    Xinjiang, as the area where wind energy and solar energy resources are extremely rich, with good resource development characteristics, can provide a support for regional power development and supply protection. This paper systematically analyzes the new energy resource and development characteristics of Xinjiang and carries out the demand prediction and excavation of load characteristics of Xinjiang power market. Combing the development plan of new energy of Xinjiang and considering the construction of transmission channel, it analyzes the absorptive capability of new energy. It provides certain reference for the comprehensive planning of new energy development in Xinjiang and the improvement of absorptive capacity of new energy.

  9. [Seasonal variation in the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of CDOM in downstream of Liaohe River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian-Tian; Zhao, Ying; Song, Kai-Shan; Du, Jia; Ding, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is an important part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), is considered as the largest storage of dissolved organic carbon in the aquatic environment. Liaohe River is the seventh largest river in China with annual runoff of 1.48 billion m3. As a result, studying on CDOM of Liaohe River is very important in estimating the organic carbon flux into sea. Seasonal optical characteristics of CDOM in the downstream of Liaohe River were investigated using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm [aCDOM (355)] in spring was lower than that in autumn and winter while low molecular weight substances were found in autumn and high molecular weight substances in spring based on the absorption coefficient and absorption slope (S) of CDOM. Samples in different seasons all exhibited fairly strong protein-like fluorophore (fluorophore B and fluorophore T) in the EEMs but the values showed apparent temporal variations. Based on the analysis of the relationships between different fluorophores, strong correlations (R2 > 0. 9) were observed between fluorophore A and C in spring, fluorophore B and T in autumn and winter, which illustrated that they had similar CDOM originalsources. However, a weak relationship (R2 = 0.21) was found between fluorophore B and T in spring, demonstrating the complexity and diversity of CDOM sources. Starting from autumn to winter and the subsequent spring, humic-like fluorophores exhibited enhanced fluorescent intensity, which could be ascribed to exogenous input. Furthermore, linear relationship between aCDOM (355) and Fn (355) in different seasons was examined in the study, and the strongest relationship was obtained in winter (R2 = 0.75), followed by autumn (R2 = 0.48) and spring (R2 = 0.01). This study indicated that fluorophore B in autumn and winter (R = 0.66; R = 0.89) as well as humic-like fluorophores (A and C, R = 0.74; R = 0

  10. InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.

  11. Cooling atomic ions with visible and infra-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium ions in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-ion control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the ion. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow ions to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped ions, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held ions.

  12. Infra-red divergences and Regge behaviour in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-01-01

    We analyze high energy behaviour of multi-gluon exchange amplitudes in the leading-lns approximation in perturbation theory. Working in the Coulomb gauge and employing Ward identities we derive an integral equation for the n-gluon system in the exchange channel. We find that the Regge behaviour is associated with exponentiation of leading infrared divergences, and the position of the j-plane singularities is determined by the colour quantum numbers of the exchanged system. (author)

  13. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  14. Influence of environmental factors on absorption characteristics of suspended particulate matter and CDOM in Liaohe River watershed, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiantian; Zheng, Hui; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bai

    2017-08-01

    Absorption characteristics of optically active substances, including non-algal particles, phytoplankton, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), were measured in conjunction with environmental factors in five rivers within the Liaohe River watershed. Spectral absorption of non-algal particles [a NAP (λ)] was similar to that of total particles for most samples, suggesting that the absorption of the total particles [a p (λ)] was dominated by a NAP (λ). The CDOM absorption spectra [a CDOM (λ)] of West Liaohe and Taizihe rivers were easily distinguished from those of Hunhe, Liaohe, and East Liaohe rivers. Redundancy analysis indicated that absorption by optically active substances and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances probably resulted in the diversity of water quality parameters. The environmental variables including dissolved organic carbon, total alkalinity (TAlk), and total nitrogen (TN) had a significant correlation with CDOM absorption at 440 nm [a CDOM (440)]. There was almost no correlation between a p (λ) and chlorophyll a, TN, total phosphorus, and TAlk. Moreover, total copper ion concentration and mercury ion concentration had a strong correlation with a p (440), a p (675), a NAP (440), and a NAP (675). The concentration of total aluminum ions exhibited a positive correlation with a p (675) and a NAP (675) (p CDOM (440). Furthermore, the interaction between metal ions and optically active substances provided an insight into particulates and CDOM properties linked to water quality characteristics for rivers in semiarid areas.

  15. Analysis and parameter identification for characteristic equations of single- and double-effect absorption chillers by means of multivariable regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; López-Villada, Jesús; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2010-01-01

    Two approaches to the characteristic equation method have been compared in order to find a simple model that best describes the performance of thermal chillers. After comparing the results obtained using experimental data from a single-effect absorption chiller, we concluded that the adaptation o...... chillers. The characteristic parameters for these chillers are given and can be incorporated as a chiller module in thermal modelling and simulation packages....

  16. Scattering and absorption characteristics of aerosols at an urban megacity over IGB: Implications to radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kishore, N.; Soni, V. K.; Singh, Siddhartha; Tiwari, S.

    2018-06-01

    Aerosol scattering and absorption characteristics were investigated at an urban megacity Delhi in the western Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) during the period from October 2011 to September 2012 using different in-situ measurements. The scattering coefficient (σsp at 550 nm) varied between 71 and 3014 Mm-1 (mean 710 ± 615 Mm-1) during the entire study period, which was about ten times higher than the absorption coefficient (σabs at 550 nm 67 ± 40 Mm-1). Seasonally, σsp and σabs were substantially higher during the winter/post-monsoon periods, which also gave rise to single scattering albedo (SSA) by 5%. The magnitude of SSA (at 550 nm) varied between 0.81 and 0.94 (mean: 0.89 ± 0.05). Further, the magnitude of scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) and back-scattering Ångström exponent (BAE) showed a wide range from -1.20 to 1.57 and -1.13 to 0.87, respectively which suggests large variability in aerosol sizes and emission sources. Relatively higher aerosol backscatter fraction (b at 550 nm) during the monsoon (0.25 ± 0.10) suggests more inhomogeneous scattering, associated with the coarser dust particles. However, lower value of b during winter (0.13 ± 0.02) is associated with more isotropic scattering due to dominance of smaller size particles. This is further confirmed with the estimated asymmetry parameter (AP at 550 nm), which exhibits opposite trend with b. The aerosol optical parameters were used in a radiative transfer model to estimate aerosol radiative forcing. A mean radiative forcing of -61 ± 22 W m-2 (ranging from -111 to -40 W m-2) was observed at the surface and 42 ± 24 W m-2 (ranging from 18 to 87 W m-2) into the atmosphere, which can give rise to the mean atmospheric heating rate of 1.18 K day-1.

  17. Iron absorption by roots of fruit plants : some characteristics of the phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindra, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Using young plants of peach, plum and almond growing in water culture, study was undertaken on the absorption and translocation of labelled iron. When peach plants deficient in this element were supplied with it, they tended to absorb it very rapidly, especially during the first 30 minutes. This absorption was not a superficial adsorption. Iron absorption was found to be linked to the length of non-lignified roots. Of the three species, almond absorbed more iron than peach but less than olum. No significant varietal difference was found regarding the iron absorption capacity of roots of different varieties of peach. Removal of foliage did not influence the absorption of iron by roots of peach plants in the early stages. (auth.)

  18. Water absorption, retention and the swelling characteristics of cassava starch grafted with polyacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witono, J R; Noordergraaf, I W; Heeres, H J; Janssen, L P B M

    2014-03-15

    An important application of starch grafted with copolymers from unsaturated organic acids is the use as water absorbent. Although much research has been published in recent years, the kinetics of water absorption and the swelling behavior of starch based superabsorbents are relatively unexplored. Also, water retention under mechanical strain is usually not reported. Cassava starch was used since it has considerable economic potential in Asia. The gelatinized starch was grafted with acrylic acid and Fenton's initiator and crosslinked with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM). Besides a good initial absorption capacity, the product could retain up to 63 g H2O/g under severe suction. The material thus combines a good absorption capacity with sufficient gel strength. The mathematical analysis of the absorption kinetics shows that at conditions of practical interest, the rate of water penetration into the gel is determined by polymer chain relaxations and not by osmotic driven diffusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mg II ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ∼ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h ≤-20.5) galaxies in SDSS DR4 and DR6 with the LRIS-B spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The primary systematic criteria for the targeted galaxies are a redshift z ∼> 0.1 and the presence of an appropriate bright background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 0.3 A) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 1-2 A) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction f c ∼ -1 kpc (f c ∼ 0.25). The data are consistent with a possible dependence of covering fraction and/or absorption halo size on the environment or star-forming properties of the central galaxy.

  20. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A., E-mail: iu.a.kuznetsova@urfu.ru; Rychkov, V. N. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Sokolov, V. I. [Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f–metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  1. Absorption characteristics of epidural levobupivacaine with adrenaline and clonidine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkiadis, George A; Abdullah, Farah; Bjorksten, Andrew R; Clarke, Alexander; Cortinez, Luis I; Udayasiri, Sonal; Anderson, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    To determine if the addition of adrenaline, clonidine, or their combination altered the pharmacokinetic profile of levobupivacaine administered via the caudal epidural route in children. Children aged adrenaline 5 mcg · ml(-1) or clonidine 2 mcg · ml(-1) or their combination. Covariate analysis included weight and postnatal age (PNA). Time-concentration profile analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed effects models. A one-compartment linear disposition model with first-order input and first-order elimination was used to describe the data. The effect of either clonidine or adrenaline on absorption was investigated using a scaling parameter (Fabs(CLON), Fabs(ADR)) applied to the absorption half-life (Tabs). There were 240 children (median weight 11.0, range 1.9-56.1 kg; median postnatal age 16.7, range 0.6-167.6 months). Absorption of levobupivacaine was faster when mixed with clonidine (Fabs(CLON) 0.60; 95%CI 0.44, 0.83) but slower when mixed with adrenaline (Fabs(ADR) 2.12; 95%CI 1.45, 3.08). The addition of adrenaline to levobupivacaine resulted in a bifid absorption pattern. While initial absorption was unchanged (Tabs 0.15 h 95%CI 0.12, 0.18 h), there was a late absorption peak characterized by a Tabs(LATE) 2.34 h (95%CI 1.44, 4.97 h). The additional use of clonidine with adrenaline had minimal effect on the bifid absorption profile observed with adrenaline alone. Neither clonidine nor adrenaline had any effect on clearance. The population parameter estimate for volume of distribution was 157 l 70 kg(-1). Clearance was 6.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1) at 1-month PNA and increased with a maturation half-time of 1.6 months to reach 90% of the mature value (18.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1)) by 5 months PNA. The addition of adrenaline decreases the rate of levobupivacaine systemic absorption, reducing peak concentration by half. Levobupivacaine concentrations with adrenaline adjuvant were reduced compared to plain levobupivacaine for up to 3.5 hours. Clonidine as an

  2. Rainfall estimation and monitoring in Senegal by cumulation of the thermal infra-red images of the Meteosat satellite; Estimation et suivi de la pluviométrie au Sénégal par satellite Météosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nègre, T. [Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Montpellier (France); Imbernon, J.; Guinot, J. P.; Seguin, B.; Bergès, J. C.; Guillot, B.

    1988-07-01

    An experimental study on the relationship between rainfall and surface temperature measured by the thermal infra-red channel of Meteosat is described for the 1984, 1985 and 1986 rainy seasons in Senegal. The mean surface temperature starting June l{sup st}, corrected by air temperature, is a good indicator of cumulative rainfall during the same period. A critical approach of theoretical foundations for this relationship made it possible to support these experimental results on the basis of simplified expressions of surface energy balance and water balance at the point level (or ''pixel''). Finally the first cumulative rainfall maps produced in 1987 and the procedure developed to draw them up are described and discussed [French] Une étude expérimentale de la relation liant la pluviométrie et la température de surface mesurée avec le canal infrarouge thermique de Météosat est présentée pour les saisons des pluies 1984,1985 et 1986 au Sénégal. La température de surface moyenne à partir du ler juin, corrigée de la température de l’air, s’avère être un bon indicateur de la pluviométrie cumulée sur la même période. Une approche critique des fondements théoriques de cette relation permet d’étayer ces résultats expérimentaux, sur la base d’expressions simplifiées du bilan énergétique de surface et du bilan hydrique à l’échelle du pixel. Enfin, les premières cartes de pluviométrie cumulée obtenues en 1987 sont présentées et commentées, ainsi que la chaîne de traitement mise au point pour leur élaboration [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio experimental de la relación que une la pluviometría y la temperatura de superficie tras medirla con el canal infrarrojo térmico de Meteosat durante la estaciones de lluvias de 1984, 1985 y 1986 en Senegal. EI promedio de temperatura de superficie a partir del 1° de junio, corregido de la temperatura del aire, resulta ser un buen indicador de la pluviometria acumulada durante el mismo per

  3. [Absorption Characteristics of Particulates and CDOM in Waters of Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir in Autumn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-jia; Song, Kai-shan; Zhao, Ying; Mu, Guang-yi; Shao, Tian-tian; Ma, Jian-hang

    2016-01-15

    Field surveys and laboratory analysis were carried out in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir under different salinity conditions in September 2012. In the laboratory, the absorption coefficients of particulates and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured, aiming to compare the absorption features, source of optical active substances and relative contribution of optical active constituents over the range of PAR (400-700 nm) in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir. The results showed that the Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir were water bodies with medium eutrophication in autumn by TAL nutrient index and the absorption spectra of particulates matters were similar to those of phytoplankton. For the Chagan Lake with high salinity( EC = 988. 87 micro S x cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles, and the contribution rate was in the order of nonalgal particles > phytoplankton > CDOM. For the Xinlicheng Reservoir with low salinity (EC = 311.67 microS x -cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the phytoplankton, and the contribution rate was ranked as phytoplankton > nonalgal particles > CDOM. Positive correlation was observed between a(p) (440), a(p) (675), a(d) (440) and total suspended matter (TSM), inorganic suspended matter (ISM), organic suspended matter (OSM) and Chl-a respectively in Chagan Lake, with correlation coefficients all above 0.55. Positive correlation was observed between a(p)(440), a(p) (675) and Chl-a (0.77 and 0.85, P CDOM in the Chagan Lake was less than that in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. The Chagan Lake was greatly affected by wind speed and shore collapse to produce suspended mineral and sediment particles. Thereby the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles. The waters in the Xinlicheng Reservoir were greatly impacted by terrestrial inorganic matter, and the growth of phytoplankton was weakened and microbes activities were strengthened

  4. An experimental study of water absorption characteristics for generator stator winding insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Bae, Y. C.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H.

    2004-01-01

    Leaking water coolant into stator electrical insulation is a growing concern for the aging water-cooled generator since leaks in the generator water-cooled stator winding can affect machine availability and insulation life. But a domestic techniques of such field are insufficient and depend wholly on GE or TOSHIBA technique. Therefore this paper introduces measuring principle and developed measuring system, which has been used to detecting wet absorption. We accomplished the experiment with a stator promotion of virtue which is used in actual power plant. Also, experimental method of generator stator winding, which is investigated into wet absorption test

  5. Water absorption, retention and the swelling characteristics of cassava starch grafted with polyacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witono, J. R.; Noordergraaf, Inge; Heeres, H. J.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero

    2014-01-01

    An important application of starch grafted with copolymers from unsaturated organic acids is the use as water absorbent. Although much research has been published in recent years, the kinetics of water absorption and the swelling behavior of starch based superabsorbents are relatively unexplored.

  6. Contrasting phytoplankton community structure and associated light absorption characteristics of the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandi, S.R.; Kiran, R.; Sarma, N.S.; Srikanth, A.S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Prasad, V.R.; Acharyya, T.; Reddy, K.G.

    (Blough and Del Vecchio 2002). CDOM absorption decreases exponentially with increasing wavelength and can be modelled by an exponential decay curve: a(λ) = a(λo) e-S(λ-λo) . . . eq. (2), where a(λ) is the absorption coefficient at wavelength λ, λ0 is a....0001). The mean slope of the conservative aCDOM(440) samples is 0.0143 ± 0.0019 nm-1, close to the global average of 0.014 nm-1 (Del Castillo et al. 2000, S300-700). The meanS300-500 of the subgroup of anomalously higher aCDOM(440) samples (T3 and T4) was lower...

  7. Graphical expression of thermodynamic characteristics of absorption process in ammonia-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortelný Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The adiabatic sorption is very interesting phenomenon that occurs when vapor of refrigerant is in contact with unsaturated liquid absorbent-refrigerant mixture and exchange of heat is forbid between the system and an environment. This contribution introduces new auxiliary lines that enable correct position determination of the adiabatic sorption process in the p-T-x diagram of ammoniawater system. The presented auxiliary lines were obtained from common functions for fast calculation of water-ammonia system properties. Absorption cycles designers often utilize p-t-x diagrams of working mixtures for first suggestion of new absorption cycles. The p-t-x diagrams enable fast correct determination of saturate states of liquid (and gaseous mixtures of refrigerants and absorbents. The working mixture isn’t only at saturated state during a real working cycle. If we know pressure and temperature of an unsaturated mixture, exact position determination is possible in the p-t-x diagrams too.

  8. Characteristics and performance of the Sunna high dose dosemeter using green photoluminescence and UV absorption readout methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.D.; Murphy, M.K.; Tinker, M.R.; Kovacs, A.; McLaughlin, W

    2002-07-01

    Growth in the use of ionising radiation for medical sterilisation and the potential for wide-scale international food irradiation have created the need for robust, mass-producible, inexpensive, and highly accurate radiation dosemeters. The Sunna dosemeter, lithium fluoride injection-moulded in a polyethylene matrix, can be read out using either green photoluminescence or ultraviolet (UV) absorption. The Sunna dosemeter can be mass-produced inexpensively with high precision. Both the photoluminescent and the UV absorption reader are simple and inexpensive. Both methods of analysis display negligible humidity effects, minimal dose rate dependence, acceptable post-irradiation effects, and permit measurements with a precision of nearly 1% 1s. The UV method shows negligible irradiation temperature effects from -30 deg. C to +60 deg. C. The photoluminescence method shows negligible irradiation temperature effects above room temperature for sterilisation dose levels and above. The dosimetry characteristics of these two readout methods are presented along with performance data in commercial sterilisation facilities. (author)

  9. Optical absorption characteristics of brown carbon aerosols during the KORUS-AQ campaign at an urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungshik; Yu, Geun-Hye; Lee, Sangil

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the absorption characteristics of brown carbon (BrC) obtained from water and methanol extracts of fine particulate matter measured at an urban site in Gwangju, Korea during the KOREA U.S. - Air Quality campaign (May 2-June 11, 2016). The measurement period was classified into two intervals: biomass burning (BB) and non-BB periods. During the non-BB period, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and humic-like substances (HULIS) primarily resulted from secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and primary vehicle emissions. Water-soluble organic aerosols during the BB period, meanwhile, were closely related to SOA formation and regionally transported BB emissions. The light absorption coefficient measured at 365 nm (babs,365) by methanol extracts was 2.6 and 6.1 times higher than the coefficients from the water and HULIS extracts, respectively, indicating the importance of BrC absorption by water-insoluble organic carbon. This was demonstrated by a good correlation between the water-insoluble BrC absorption and the elemental carbon concentration. A comparison of babs,365 between the methanol- and water-extracted BrC indicated that water-insoluble BrC accounted for approximately 61% (33-86%) of the total BrC absorption. The contributions of SOA, primary BB emissions, and traffic emissions to the water extract babs,365 were estimated using a stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis and found to be 1.17 ± 0.55, 0.65 ± 0.62, and 0.25 ± 0.09 Mm- 1, respectively, accounting for 59.6, 26.1, and 14.3% of the absorption coefficient by the water-soluble BrC. Further, it was determined that the contribution of the BB emissions to the water-soluble BrC absorption was approximately two times higher in the BB period than in the non-BB period. The average absorption Ångstrӧm exponent was 4.8 ± 0.3, 5.3 ± 0.7, and 6.8 ± 0.8 for the methanol, water, and HULIS extracts, respectively. The average mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of methanol

  10. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  11. Analytical characteristics of a continuum-source tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jennifer A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2005-08-01

    A continuum-source tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer has been assembled, evaluated, and employed in four different applications. The instrument consists of a xenon arc lamp light source, a tungsten coil atomizer, a Czerny-Turner high resolution monochromator, and a linear photodiode array detector. This instrument provides simultaneous multi-element analyses across a 4 nm spectral window with a resolution of 0.024 nm. Such a device might be useful in many different types of analyses. To demonstrate this broad appeal, four very different applications have been evaluated. First of all, the temperature of the gas phase was measured during the atomization cycle of the tungsten coil, using tin as a thermometric element. Secondly, a summation approach for two absorption lines for aluminum falling within the same spectral window (305.5-309.5 nm) was evaluated. This approach improves the sensitivity without requiring any additional preconcentration steps. The third application describes a background subtraction technique, as it is applied to the analysis of an oil emulsion sample. Finally, interference effects caused by Na on the atomization of Pb were studied. The simultaneous measurements of Pb and Na suggests that negative interference arises at least partially from competition between Pb and Na atoms for H2 in the gas phase.

  12. Radiological absorption characteristics of sedatives, hypnotic drugs and psychopharmaceuticals with respect to drug intoxications in suicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, H.

    1980-01-01

    When in cases of patients with severe intoxication aspiration is suspected clinically, an X-ray image of the thorax is made in order to prevent that atelectases or inflammatory pulmonary infiltrations remain undetected, in addition, an X-ray image of the abdomen should be made in each in which the swallowed preparation has not been identified, because our investigations have proved that any drugs of any kind with an absorption coefficient above 0.23 are radiologically detectable, when the resorption process is not finished yet. In shadow-producing pharmaceuticals these abdominal X-ray images allow not only the examination and supervision of the toxic resorption of an enterally taken preparation, but also the possible identification of the type the drug belongs to. Moreover, information about quantity, resorption, and localisation of the tablets being somewhere in the gastrointestinal tract can be obtained. (orig.) [de

  13. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  14. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm -1 (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs

  15. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm/sup -1/ (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Aerosol light absorption in the North Atlantic: trends and seasonal characteristics during the period 1989 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Junker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol light attenuation on quartz fibre filters has been measured since February 1989 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research station near Carna, Co. Galway, Ireland, using an Aethalometer. The frequency of occurrence of the hourly averaged aerosol absorption data is found to be bimodally distributed. The two modes result from clean marine air and anthropogenically polluted continental air both being advected to the station dependent on the prevailing wind direction. The hourly averages of the marine portion of the aerosol light absorption are found to follow closely a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 0.310 Mm-1. The hourly averages of continental sector aerosol absorption are neither normally nor lognormally distributed and have an arithmetic mean of 6.36 Mm-1, indicating the presence of anthropogenic sources for BC east of the Mace Head station. The time series of the monthly averaged attenuation coefficient σatt of both marine and continental sector aerosol shows an increase from 1989 to 1997 and a levelling off thereafter. The monthly maximum of marine sector σatt is found in May. Trend and seasonal characteristics of the clean marine aerosol attenuation coefficients observed at Mace Head appear to be driven by meteorological factors, as indicated by rainfall data and by trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO indices. The observed increasing trends of the continental sector σatt from 1989 up to 1997 are possibly related to changes in BC emissions over Ireland, calculated from UNSTAT (2002 fuel consumption data.

  17. Saturable Absorption and Modulation Characteristics of Laser with Graphene Oxide Spin Coated on ITO Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Haikun; Wang, Peiji; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Shengzhi; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    The graphene oxide (GO) thin film has been obtained by mixture of GO spin coated on substrate of indium tin oxide (ITO). The experiment has shown that continuous-wave laser is modulated when the graphene oxide saturable absorber (GO-SA) is employed in the 1064 nm laser cavity. The shortest pulse width is 108 ns at the pump power of 5.04 W. Other output laser characteristics, such as the threshold pump power, the repetition rate, and the peak power, have also been measured. The results have de...

  18. An organic dye-polymer (phenol red-poly (vinyl alcohol)) composite architecture towards tunable -optical and -saturable absorption characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedhar, Sreeja, E-mail: sreejasreedhar83@gmail.com; Muneera, C. I., E-mail: drcimuneera@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Illyaskutty, Navas [Institute for Sensorics and Information Systems (ISIS), Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sreedhanya, S. [School of Chemical Sciences, M. G. University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2016-05-21

    Herein, we demonstrate that blending an organic dye (guest/filler), with a vinyl polymer (host template), is an inexpensive and simple approach for the fabrication of multifunctional photonic materials which could display an enhancement in the desirable properties of the constituent materials and, at the same time provide novel synergistic properties for the guest-host system. A new guest-host nanocomposite system comprising Phenol Red dye and poly (vinyl alcohol) as guest and host template, respectively, which exhibits tunable optical characteristics and saturable absorption behavior, is introduced. The dependence of local electronic environment provided by the polymer template and the interactions of the polymer molecules with the encapsulated guest molecules on the observed optical/nonlinear absorption behavior is discussed. An understanding of the tunability of the optical/ photophysical processes, with respect to the filler content, as discussed herein could help in the design of improved optical materials for several photonic device applications like organic light emitting diodes and saturable absorbers.

  19. Evaluation of the release characteristics of covalently attached or electrostatically bound biocidal polymers utilizing SERS and UV-Vis absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mathioudakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biocidal polymers with antimicrobial quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer biocidal chains either through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction have been separately incorporated in a poly (methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The objective of present study was to highlight the release characteristics of biocidal polymers, primarily in saline but also in water ethanol solutions, utilizing UV-Vis absorption and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS. It is shown that through the combination of UV-Vis and SERS techniques, upon the release process, it is possible the discrimination of the polymeric backbone and the electrostatically bound biocidal species. Moreover, it is found that electrostatically bound and covalently attached biocidal species show different SERS patterns. The long term aim is the development of antimicrobial polymeric materials containing both ionically bound and covalently attached quaternary ammonium thus achieving a dual functionality in a single component polymeric design.

  20. Saturable Absorption and Modulation Characteristics of Laser with Graphene Oxide Spin Coated on ITO Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphene oxide (GO thin film has been obtained by mixture of GO spin coated on substrate of indium tin oxide (ITO. The experiment has shown that continuous-wave laser is modulated when the graphene oxide saturable absorber (GO-SA is employed in the 1064 nm laser cavity. The shortest pulse width is 108 ns at the pump power of 5.04 W. Other output laser characteristics, such as the threshold pump power, the repetition rate, and the peak power, have also been measured. The results have demonstrated that graphene oxide is an available saturable absorber for 1064 nm passive Q-switching laser.

  1. Evaluation of the two-photon absorption characteristics of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Carrington, P. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Krier, A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    The optical parameters describing the sub-bandgap response of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings solar cells have been obtained from photocurrent measurements using a modulated pseudo-monochromatic light source in combination with a second, continuous photo-filling source. By controlling the charge state of the quantum rings, the photoemission cross-sections describing the two-photon sub-bandgap transitions could be determined independently. Temperature dependent photo-response measurements also revealed that the barrier for thermal hole emission from the quantum rings is significantly below the quantum ring localisation energy. The temperature dependence of the sub-bandgap photo-response of the solar cell is also described in terms of the photo- and thermal-emission characteristics of the quantum rings.

  2. Charging and absorption characteristics of small particulates under alternative and electrostatic voltages in an electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue-Dong; Xu He; Wang Xin

    2014-01-01

    The charge quantity of small particulates such as PM2.5 plays a key role in the collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under a single electrostatic voltage, it is difficult to charge and absorb small particulates. A new method of superimposing an alternative voltage on the electrostatic voltage is provided in this paper. Characteristics of small particulates are analyzed under alternative and electrostatic voltages. It is demonstrated that an alternative voltage can significantly improve the collection efficiency in three aspects: preventing anti-corona, increasing the charge quantity of small particulates, and increasing the median particulate size by electric agglomeration. In addition, practical usage with the superposition of alternative voltage is provided, and the results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  3. [Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater and sources analysis in summer and winter season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Jiang, Tao; WeiI, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-Long; Wang, Qi-Lei; Gao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the variability of the optical properties including UV-Vis and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from rainwater in summer and winter seasons. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, together with Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and fire events map, were conducted to characterize DOM and investigate its sources and contributions. The results showed that as compared with aquatic and soil DOM, rainwater DOM showed similar spectral characteristics, suggesting DOM in precipitation was also an important contributor to DOM pool in terrestrial and aquatic systems. The concentrations of DOC in rainwater were 0.88-12.80 mg x L(-1), and the CDOM concentrations were 3.17-21.11 mg x L(-1). Differences of DOM samples between summer and winter were significant (P summer, DOM samples in winter had lower molecular weight and aromaticity, and also lower humification. Input of DOM in winter was predominantly derived from local and short-distance distances, while non-special scattering sources were identified as the main contributors in summer. Although absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to identify DOM composition and sources, there were obvious differences in spectra and sources analysis between rainwater DOM and the others from other sources. Thus, the classic differentiation method by "allochthonous (terrigenous) and autochthonous (authigenic)" is possibly too simple and arbitrary for characterization of DOM in rainwater.

  4. Evaluation of metal ion absorptive characteristics of three types of plastic sample bags used for pecipitation sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, A.B.; Schroder, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated precipitation samples containing 16 metal ions were prepared at 4 pH values. Absorptive characteristics of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyester/polyolefin sacks were evaluated at pH 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Simulated precipitation was in contact with the sacks for 17 days, and subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days after initial contact. All three types of plastic sacks absorbed Fe throughout the entire pH range. Polypropylene and polyethylene absorbed Pb throughout the entire pH range; polyester/polyolefin sacks absorbed Pb at pH 4.0 or greater. All plastic sacks also absorbed Cu, Mo, and V at pH 4.5 and 5.0. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.7 percent HNO3 did not result in 100 percent of Cu, Fe, Pb, and V. These sacks would be suitable collection vessels for Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Li, Mg, Mn, Na Sr and Zn in precipitation through the pH range of 3.5 to 5.0.

  5. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  6. Ionic compounds lamination reaction and characteristics of photosensitive copper indium sulfide on titania nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Horng-Yi, E-mail: hychang@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Wei-Jei [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Syh-Yuh [Ceramic Microengineering Laboratory, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung 31060, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Only good photocurrent density under UV irradiation for TiO{sub 2} (or TiCl{sub 4}) modified titania nanotubes (T-TNAs) demonstrates the response to visible light actually due to the CuInS{sub 2} photosensitivity on T-TNAs. > The suitable CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) film thickness can be completed to achieve the well crystallinity, coverage and high photosensitivity of CIS by combining the precursor concentration with deposition cycles. > An n-type CIS with a lower band gap (<1.5 eV) extending the absorption of the large solar spectrum into the infra-red range demonstrates the inorganic CIS potentially instead of organic dye to use in photosensitive solar cells by simple ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) process. - Abstract: This study investigates using an inorganic photosensitive CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) coating instead of an organic dye on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs). The stoichiometric characteristics by use of various deposition parameters such as precursor concentrations (0.1 M, 0.05 M, and 0.01 M) and deposition cycles (1-60 cycles) are then analyzed in relation to the crystallinity and photosensitivity. TNAs are synthesized by anodic oxidation of Ti metal, modified by the TiO{sub 2} film, and are subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C for 30 min, producing what are named T-TNAs. They show high photocatalytic efficiency and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The photosensitive CIS coatings on the T-TNAs are processed by an ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) method. The more immersion cycles and the higher the precursor concentration of copper sulfide, the more CIS peeled off as precipitates formed, which result in less indium sulfide deposition being required for reacting with the copper sulfide to reach stoichiometry. Near stoichiometric CIS can be obtained by controlling the precursor concentration and deposition cycles of the ICLR process. Good crystallinity and n-type characteristics are achieved by controlling

  7. A SPITZER SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK DUST IN THE YOUNG SERPENS CLOUD: HOW DO DUST CHARACTERISTICS EVOLVE WITH TIME?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isa; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; MerIn, Bruno; Geers, Vincent C.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared (5-35 μm) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (≥3 mJy at 8 μm) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and classified. Background stars (with slope consistent with a reddened stellar spectrum and silicate features in absorption), galaxies (with redshifted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features), and a planetary nebula (with high ionization lines) amount to 22% of contamination in this sample, leaving 115 true YSOs. Sources with rising spectra and ice absorption features, classified as embedded Stage I protostars, amount to 18% of the sample. The remaining 82% (94) of the disk sources are analyzed in terms of spectral energy distribution shapes, PAHs, and silicate features. The presence, strength, and shape of these silicate features are used to infer disk properties for these systems. About 8% of the disks have 30/13 μm flux ratios consistent with cold disks with inner holes or gaps, and 3% of the disks show PAH emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains in the surface of these disks have sizes of at least a few μm. The 20 μm silicate feature is sometimes seen in the absence of the 10 μm feature, which may be indicative of very small holes in these disks. No significant difference is found in the distribution of silicate feature shapes and strengths between sources in clusters and in the field. Moreover, the results in Serpens are compared with other well-studied samples: the c2d IRS sample distributed over five clouds and a large sample of disks in the Taurus star-forming region. The remarkably similar distributions of silicate feature characteristics in samples with different environment and median ages-if significant-imply that the dust population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust growth and destructive collision processes

  8. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  9. Optical band-edge absorption of oxide compound SnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, L.S.; Valaski, R.; Canestraro, C.D.; Magalhaes, E.C.S.; Persson, C.; Ahuja, R.; Silva, E.F. da; Pepe, I.; Silva, A. Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO 2 ) is an important oxide for efficient dielectrics, catalysis, sensor devices, electrodes and transparent conducting coating oxide technologies. SnO 2 thin film is widely used in glass applications due to its low infra-red heat emissivity. In this work, the SnO 2 electronic band-edge structure and optical properties are studied employing a first-principle and fully relativistic full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The optical band-edge absorption α(ω) of intrinsic SnO 2 is investigated experimentally by transmission spectroscopy measurements and their roughness in the light of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sample films were prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition method onto glass substrate considering different thickness layers. We found for SnO 2 qualitatively good agreement of the calculated optical band-gap energy as well as the optical absorption with the experimental results

  10. Cermet based metamaterials for multi band absorbers over NIR to LWIR frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Jitendra K; Behera, Gangadhar; Anantha Ramakrishna, S; Agarwal, Amit K; Ghosh, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Cermets or ceramic-metals are known for their use in solar thermal technologies for their absorption across the solar band. Use of cermet layers in a metamaterial perfect absorber allows for flexible control of infra-red absorption over the short wave infra-red, to long wave infra-red bands, while keeping the visible/near infra-red absorption properties constant. We design multilayered metamaterials consisting of a conducting ground plane, a low metal volume fraction cermet/ZnS as dielectric spacer layers, and a top structured layer of an array of circular discs of metal/high volume metal fraction cermet that give rise to specified absorption bands in the near-infra-red (NIR) frequencies, as well as any specified band at SWIR–LWIR frequencies. Thus, a complete decoupling of the absorption at optical/NIR frequencies and the infra-red absorption behaviour of a structured metamaterial is demonstrated. (paper)

  11. [Chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics with relation to fluorescence in typical macrophyte, algae lake zones of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Qin, Bo-qiang; Ma, Rong-hua; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Wei-min

    2005-03-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents one of the primary light-absorbing species in natural waters and plays a critical in determining the aquatic light field. CDOM shows a featureless absorption spectrum that increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength, which limits the penetration of biologically damaging UV-B radiation (wavelength from 280 to 320 nm) in the water column, thus shielding aquatic organisms. CDOM absorption measurements and their relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorescence are presented in typical macrophyte and algae lake zone of Lake Taihu based on a field investigation in April in 2004 and lab analysis. Absorption spectral of CDOM was measured from 240 to 800 nm using a Shimadzu UV-2401PC UV-Vis recording spectrophotometer. Fluorescence with an excitation wavelength of 355 nm, an emission wavelength of 450 nm is measured using a Shimadzu 5301 spectrofluorometer. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 6.3 to 17.2 mg/L with an average of 9.08 +/- 2.66 mg/L. CDOM absorption coefficients at 280 nm and 355 nm were in the range of 11.2 - 32.6 m(-1) (average 17.46m(-1) +/- 5.75 m(-1) and 2.4 - 8.3 m(-1) (average 4.17m(-1) +/- 1.47 m(-l)), respectively. The values of the DOC-specific absorption coefficient at 355 nm ranged from 0.31 to 0.64 L x (mg x m)-1. Fluorescence emission at 450 nm, excited at 355 nm, had a mean value of 1.32nm(-1) +/- 0.84 nm(-1). A significant lake zone difference is found in DOC concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence, but not in DOC-specific absorption coefficient and spectral slope coefficient. This regional distribution pattern is in agreement with the location of sources of yellow substance: highest concentrations close to river mouth under the influence of river inflow, lower values in East Lake Taihu. The values of algae lake zone are obvious larger than those of macrophyte lake zone. In Meiliang Bay, CDOM absorption, DOC concentration and fluorescence tend to

  12. Evaluation of gamma irradiation impact on antibacterial activity, chemical and physical characteristics of the sodium cifteraxon compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Hammouda, A.; Al-Baroudi, H.

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of ceftriaxon sodium salt (C18H16N8Na2O7S3) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporins. Solid Ceftriaxon as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of ceftriaxon have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxon was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of ceftriaxon, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the Antibacterial activity of ceftriaxon on E. Coli.(author)

  13. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    NIRIS is a large field-of-view imaging spectrograph which is sensitive to fluctuation in ..... enhancement over low-latitudes has been shown to be developed as a ..... step forward towards passive remote sensing of the mesospheric dynamics.

  14. Comparison of optical and electron spectra in an infra-red free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, A.M.; Gillespie, W.A.; Martin, P.F. [Univ. of Abertay, Dundee (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Time-resolved electron and optical spectra recently acquired at the FELIX facility are presented, showing the evolution of the respective macropulses. A comparison is made between the optical power output during the macropulse and the measured power extracted from the electron beam using a simple model of the cavity losses. Data are available for a wide range of operating conditions: the wavelength range is from 9 {mu}m to 28 {mu}m and detuning are between 1/4{lambda} and 2{lambda}. The effect of rapid electron beam energy changes on the optical and electron spectra will also be discussed.

  15. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Infra-Red (IR) 0.5 degree Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Prediction Center 0.5 degree IR dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless...

  16. Monitoring AGNs with Hbeta Asymmetry with the Wyoming Infra-Red Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Wang, Kai; Huang, Zhengpeng; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-rong; Kasper, David H.; Chick, William T.; Nguyen, My L.; Maithil, Jaya; Hand, Derek; Bai, Jin-Ming; Ho, Luis

    2018-06-01

    We present preliminary results from two seasons of reverberation mapping of AGNs using the optical longslit spectrograph on the 2.3 meter WIRO telescope. The majority of the sample is part of our "Monitoring AGNs with Hbeta Asymmetry" project, also known as MAHA, which targets rarer AGNs with extremely asymmetric profiles that may provide new insights into the full diversity of size and structure of the broad-line region (BLR). Our hundreds of nights of telescope time provide dozens of epochs of spectra for approximately two dozen objects. Notably we find that many AGNs with broader asymmetric Hbeta emission lines possess time lags significantly shorter than expected for their luminosity in comparison to the majority of AGNs reverberation mapped.

  17. Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemadri, Vadiraj A.; Gupta, Ashish; Khandekar, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of exploring potential applications of Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHP), for space/terrestrial sectors, experimental study of embedded PHP thermal radiators, having two different effective Biot numbers respectively, and subjected to conjugate heat transfer conditions on their surface, i.e., natural convection and radiation, has been carried out under different thermo-mechanical boundary conditions. High resolution infrared camera is used to obtain spatial temperature profiles of the radiators. To complement the experimental study, detailed 3D computational heat transfer simulation has also been undertaken. By embedding PHP structures, it was possible to make the net thermal resistance of the mild steel radiator plate equivalent to the aluminum radiator plate, in spite of the large difference in their respective thermal conductivities (k Al ∼ 4k MS ). The study reveals that embedded PHP structures can be beneficial only under certain boundary conditions. The degree of isothermalization achieved in these structures strongly depends on its effective Biot number. The relative advantage of embedded PHP is appreciably higher if the thermal conductivity of the radiator plate material itself is low. The study indicates that the effective thermal conductivity of embedded PHP structure is of the order of 400 W/mK to 2300 W/mK, depending on the operating conditions. - Research highlights: → Study of radiator plates with embedded Pulsating Heat Pipe by infrared thermography. → Radiator is subjected to natural convection and radiation boundary conditions. → Experimental study is supported by 3D simulation. → Effective thermal conductivity of PHPs of the order of 2000 W/mK is obtained. → Efficacy of embedded PHPs depends on the effective Biot number of the system.

  18. The use of near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to further evaluate the accuracy of the NIRS calibration a separate set of ryegrass samples were analysed for N content, by both the "wet" chemistry and NIRS methods, resulting in a correlation (r) of 0, 98 and standards error of prediction (SEP) of 0, 235. The applicability of the NIRS ryegrass calibration to other ...

  19. Near infra red light emitting Y2Sn2O7: Yb-Er nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, Sandeep; Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in erbium doped nanomaterials host, since they emit in the near-infrared region and are potential candidates for optical telecommunication, high-power and infrared lasers. Further, erbium-ytterbium-co-doped matrices have been particularly investigated as Yb 3+ ions play the role of sensitizers. In the present work, Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 nanoparticles co-doped with lanthanide ions Yb 3+ and Er 3+ were prepared based on the urea hydrolysis of Y 3+ , Sn 4+ , and Ln 3+ in ethylene glycol medium at 150 deg C followed by heating at 700 deg C. As prepared samples are amorphous in nature, and the sample heated at 700 deg C showed well crystalline pyrochlore structure. Based on TEM studies, it has been established that nano-particles are highly crystalline, with size range in the range of 2-5 nm. Luminescence measurements were carried out for the as prepared samples and those heated at 700 deg C. As prepared sampled showed very poor luminescence. However on heating to 700 deg C, strong emission in the NIR region was observed upon UV-excitation as can be seen. The peak observed around 1530 nm has been attributed to 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition of Er 3+ and the peak around 980 nm is due to 2 F 5/2 → 2 F 7/2 transition of Yb 3+ . (author)

  20. NSLS infra-red beam line (U3) conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1984-02-09

    We describe the conceptual design of an infrared (I-R) beam line on the vacuum-ultra-violet storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The beam line forms part of the Phase II expansion of the NSLS. Consistent with the implementation of the current design is the extraction of hitherto wasted radiation and the establishment of a mezzanine floor or platform to make full use of the available headroom. This means that the I-R beam line, once established, does not interfere with any existing operations on the VUV floor.

  1. Source technology as the foundation for modern infra-red counter measures (IRCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2010-10-01

    Protection of military aircraft from IR guided threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and to ensure mission success. At the foundation of all IRCM systems is the source; that component that provides the in-band radiant energy required for threat defeat. As such, source technology has evolved with IRCM technology to encompass the evolving systems architectures that encompass IRCM: 1) "Hot Brick" omni-directional sources; 2) arc lamps, and; 3) lasers. Lasers, as IRCM sources continue to evolve to meet the challenges of ever-evolving threats, superior techniques, economy of installation, and superior source technology. Lasers represent the single greatest advance in IRCM source technology and continue to evolve to meet ever more sophisticated threats. And have been used with great effect in all modern IRCM systems; evolving from frequency doubled CO2 lasers, to solid state lasers with OPOs, to semiconductor lasers including Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs); these last devices represent the latest advance in IRCM source technology offering all-band coverage, architectural simplicity, and economy of scale. While QCLs represent the latest advance in IRCM laser technology, fiber lasers show much promise in addressing multi-band operation as well as the ability to be coherently combined to achieve even greater output capability. Also, ultra-short pulse lasers are evolving to become practical for IRCM applications. Stay tuned ......

  2. A kinetic analysis of the changes in infra-red spectra of mechanical pulps during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, F.; Kimura, T.; Gray, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Photo-induced colour rever s ion of unbleached thermomechanical pulp under UV irradiation at 320 nm was studied by FT-IR transmission spectroscopy. The changes of peak heights against the irradiation time were analyzed assuming concurrent first-order reaction processes with slow and fast reaction rates, where r s and r F are slow and fast reaction rates, respectively. The values of r s were larger for peaks due to lignin than for peaks due to carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose), and the slow process predominates for both lignin and carbohydrate peaks. Carbohydrate CH bonds decreased more quickly than CO bonds in carbohydrates during irradiation; r s for the peak assignable to carbohydrate sugar ring stretching is very small. Three newly generated peaks at 2981, 1723, and 1190 cm -1 are attributed to lignin break-down products: they are assignable to CH 2 symmetric (in >CH = CH 2 ) or CH 3 asymmetric stretching vibrations, to non-conjugated carbonyl vibrations, and to C-O stretching of free phenol units, respectively. Weight loss of the sample was observed during irradiation. (author)

  3. Thermal emission before earthquakes by analyzing satellite infra-red data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Bryant, N.; Pulinets, S.; Freund, F.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite thermal imaging data indicate long-lived thermal anomaly fields associated with large linear structures and fault systems in the Earth's crust but also with short-lived anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Positive anomalous land surface temperature excursions of the order of 3-4oC have been observed from NOAA/AVHRR, GOES/METEOSAT and EOS Terra/Aqua satellites prior to some major earthquake around the world. The rapid time-dependent evolution of the "thermal anomaly" suggests that is changing mid-IR emissivity from the earth. These short-lived "thermal anomalies", however, are very transient therefore there origin has yet to be determined. Their areal extent and temporal evolution may be dependent on geology, tectonic, focal mechanism, meteorological conditions and other factors.This work addresses the relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere and increasing mid-IR flux as part of a larger family of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena related to seismic activity.We still need to understand better the link between seismo-mechanical processes in the crust, on the surface, and at the earth-atmospheric interface that trigger thermal anomalies. This work serves as an introduction to our effort to find an answer to this question. We will present examples from the strong earthquakes that have occurred in the Americas during 2003/2004 and the techniques used to record the thermal emission mid-IR anomalies, geomagnetic and ionospheric variations that appear to associated with impending earthquake activity.

  4. Penggunaan Photo Dan Infra Red Pada Perancangan Lift Untuk 3 Lantai Berbasis Mikrokontroler

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Winata Utama

    2009-01-01

    Pada gedung gedung besar yang memiliki lebih dari satu lantai diperlukan tangga yang dapat menghubungkan satu lantai ke lantai lainnya. Namun dengan menggunakan tangga masih kurang efisien. Karena itu dibutuhkan sebuah lift yang dapat menghubungkan sseluruh lantai yang terdapat dalam gedung tersebut. Untuk mengendalikan sebuah lift diperlukan sebuah motor dan pengontrol system. Dalam penelitian ini motor yang digunakan adalah motor stepper dan sebagai pengontrol system digun...

  5. Infra-red thermography for detecting frost pockets on snow-covered clear-fellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, J.O.; Odin, H.; Palenius, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to find out if IR-thermography from aircraft could be a useful method for registration and studies of regional variation of frost exposition within an area and of distribution of frost risks within individual felling areas. The technique, which was successful, has up till now not been utilized in Sweden for such studies in woodland

  6. Aerial photographs with infra-red film to survey injury to vegetation in Styria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanschuetz, J

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes a successful operation in which injuries to Norway Spruce, chiefly caused by SO/sub 2/ pollution from smelters, was mapped from the air. Four zones varying in the severity of injury could be distinguished. They were characterized chiefly by differences in the number and age of needles present on the trees. The fourth zone contained only scattered, severely injured, but apparently highly resistant individual trees of Spruce. The photographs, however, did not reveal injuries that were not already visible to the naked eye. The relative resistance to air pollution of Blaufichte (Picea glauca) was noticed incidentally. 6 references.

  7. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  8. The precise location of X-ray sources and their identification with infra-red objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhialini-Dilworth, C.

    1975-01-01

    Observations at wavelengths from 2μ to 1mm constitute one of the youngest branches of Astronomy. Sky surveys have been carried out at few wavelengths and in restricted zones of the sky. Hence a strong mutual benefit can be expected from the correlation of X-ray and infrared observations, leading to an understanding and development of both branches of astronomy

  9. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra P Singh

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... in which interference filters of different wavelengths are used in sequence to obtain the emission intensi- ties of the desired rotational lines. In such methods, it is required that the filter bandwidths be nar- row in order to discretely ...... a major step forward towards passive remote sens- ing of the mesospheric ...

  10. Laser Raman and infra-red spectra of biomolecule: 5-aminouracil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uracil derivatives are used in anti-carcinogenic drug synthesis against cancer ... scan speed of 0.1 cm−1/s and a power less than 100 mW at sample to avoid decom- position of ... To the best of my knowledge no structural data are available for.

  11. Design, Manufacturing, and Commissioning of BIRCAM (Bootes InfraRed CAMera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Riva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the various aspect of design, manufacturing and commissioning of the infrared camera BIRCAM, installed at BOOTES-IR, the 60 cm robotic infrared telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN, Granada, Spain. We describe how we achieved a quality astronomical image, moving from the scientific requirements.

  12. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At first light, a Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system will be avail- able using a Laser Guide ... The field of view of WFS is 4 arcsec. .... (g −r)MegaPrime colour into (g −r)sdss colour using the color terms between the two filters which ...

  13. Infra-red thermography for detecting drought in agricultural crops and scheduling irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal imaging is a fast growing and potentially important tool in various fields of agriculture. The technology visually identified the rise of temperature in crop canopy which occurs as a result of drought and allows the precise scheduling of crop irrigation. The aim of presenting paper was to demonstrate the application of these techniques on potato plants and to point out on the necessity of irrigation for potato sustainable and economically justified production.

  14. Calculations of magnetic field errors caused by mechanical accuracy at infra-red undulator construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushevskij, E.A.; Morozov, N.A.; Syresin, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the electromagnetic undulator with maximal magnetic field 1.2 T and 40 cm period is under development. The computer models for the undulator magnet system were realized on the basis of POISSON and RADIA codes. The undulator magnetic field imperfections due to the design errors were simulated by the models

  15. The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) with Stations (CHIRPS): Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Pedreros, D. H.; Landsfeld, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Shukla, S.

    2013-12-01

    CHIRP and CHIRPS are new quasi-global precipitation products with daily to seasonal time scales, a 0.05° resolution, and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. Developed by the Climate Hazards Group at UCSB and scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center specifically for drought early warning and environmental monitoring, CHIRPS provides moderate latency precipitation estimates that place observed hydrologic extremes in their historic context. Three main types of information are used in the CHIRPS: (1) global 0.05° precipitation climatologies, (2) time-varying grids of satellite-based precipitation estimates, and (3) in situ precipitation observations. CHIRP: The global grids of long-term (1980-2009) average precipitation were estimated for each month based on station data, averaged satellite observations, and physiographic parameters. 1981-present time-varying grids of satellite precipitation were derived from spatially varying regression models based on pentadal cold cloud duration (CCD) values and TRMM V7 training data. The CCD time-series were derived from the CPC and NOAA B1 datasets. Pentadal CCD-percent anomaly values were multiplied by pentadal climatology fields to produce low bias pentadal precipitation estimates. CHIRPS: The CHG station blending procedure uses the satellite-observed spatial covariance structure to assign relative weights to neighboring stations and the CHIRP values. The CHIRPS blending procedure is based on the expected correlation between precipitation at a given target location and precipitation at the locations of the neighboring observation stations. These correlations are estimated using the CHIRP fields. The CHG has developed an extensive archive of in situ daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation totals. The CHG database has over half a billion daily rainfall observations since 1980 and another half billion before 1980. Most of these observations come from four sets of global climate observations: the monthly Global Historical Climate Network version 2 archive, the daily Global Historical Climate Network archive, the Global Summary of the Day dataset (GSOD), and the daily Global Telecommunication System (GTS) archive provided by NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC). A screening procedure was developed to flag and remove potential false zeros from the daily data, since these potentially spurious data can artificially suppress rainfall totals. Validation: Our validation focused on precipitation products with global coverage, long periods of record and near real-time availability: CHIRP, CHIRPS, CPC-Unified, CFS Reanalysis and ECMWF datasets were compared to GPCC and high quality datasets from Uganda, Colombia and the Sahel. The CHIRP and CHIRPS are shown to have low systematic errors (bias) and low mean absolute errors. Analyses in Uganda, Colombia and the Sahel indicate that the ECMWF, CPC-Unified and CFS-Reanalysis have large inhomogeneities, making them unsuitable for drought monitoring. The CHIRPS performance appears quite similar to research quality products like the GPCC and GPCP, but with higher resolution and lower latency.

  16. Infra Red Aerial Photograph Interpretation for Soil Erosion at Wuryantoro, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suharjo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Collecting data of soil erosion hazard terrestrially needs much time, high cost, and large energy. Therefore it is needed appropriate technology in addition to terrestrially decreasing necessity of time, cost and energy. Aerial photograph is picture of earth surface, which shape and place similar to condition on earth surface. Using aerial photograph in this research is expected to be able to take account for erosion factors. This research is conducted in Kecamatan Wuryantoro Kabupaten Wonogiri. Research method that used is aerial photograph interpretation with land unit approach. Amounts of soil lost are approached with USLE formula. Aerial photograph that used in this research is aerial photograph coloured infrared with 1:10.000 in scale and 1991 in year of taking photography. The result shows that using aerial photograph is very useful in supporting soil erosion rate calculation. Erosion rate at research area is 0.0968 ton/ha/year to 100.4344 ton/ha/year. This number is included in class of light erosion hazard (

  17. Leading non-cancelling infra-red divergences in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.; Frenkel, J.; Thomaz, M.T.; Day, M.; Taylor, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    In QCD in perturbative theory, for the inclusive cross-section for the scattering of two coloured particles, graphs which contribute to the general leading order αs(αs/nΛ)(sup n) are identified and these contributions are added (Λ is the IR cut-off). The work is done in the Coulomb gauge; an appendix discusses the Feynman gauge. (Author) [pt

  18. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  19. The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, A.J.; Bhamber, S.S.; Pitt, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    We have exploited the interaction between erbium ions and silicon nanoclusters to probe the photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in the spectral region around 1.5 μm. We have produced an MOS device in which the oxide layer has been implanted with both erbium and silicon and annealed to produce silicon nanocrystals. Upon illumination with a 1480 nm laser diode, interaction between the nanocrystals and the rare-earth ions results in a modification of the conductivity of the oxide that enables a current to flow when a voltage is applied across the oxide layer

  20. Infra-red and Raman spectroscopic studies of infected and affected dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, A.; Aminzadeh, A.; Khosravy, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosis of infected and affected dentine is an important factor in clinical restorative treatment of dentine. In this study, the IR and Raman spectra of the sound dentine, infected dentine and affected dentine are reported. The structure of infected dentine and affected dentine has been compared with the sound dentine and hydroxyapatite. It is shown while the infected dentine has lost its structure, the affected dentine has more or less a structure similar to the sound dentine. The molecular structure of collagen remains unchanged in both infected and affected dentine

  1. Automated cloud classification using a ground based infra-red camera and texture analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Emal; Kerr, David; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Sandford, Andrew P.; Brettle, Mike J.

    2013-10-01

    Clouds play an important role in influencing the dynamics of local and global weather and climate conditions. Continuous monitoring of clouds is vital for weather forecasting and for air-traffic control. Convective clouds such as Towering Cumulus (TCU) and Cumulonimbus clouds (CB) are associated with thunderstorms, turbulence and atmospheric instability. Human observers periodically report the presence of CB and TCU clouds during operational hours at airports and observatories; however such observations are expensive and time limited. Robust, automatic classification of cloud type using infrared ground-based instrumentation offers the advantage of continuous, real-time (24/7) data capture and the representation of cloud structure in the form of a thermal map, which can greatly help to characterise certain cloud formations. The work presented here utilised a ground based infrared (8-14 μm) imaging device mounted on a pan/tilt unit for capturing high spatial resolution sky images. These images were processed to extract 45 separate textural features using statistical and spatial frequency based analytical techniques. These features were used to train a weighted k-nearest neighbour (KNN) classifier in order to determine cloud type. Ground truth data were obtained by inspection of images captured simultaneously from a visible wavelength colour camera at the same installation, with approximately the same field of view as the infrared device. These images were classified by a trained cloud observer. Results from the KNN classifier gave an encouraging success rate. A Probability of Detection (POD) of up to 90% with a Probability of False Alarm (POFA) as low as 16% was achieved.

  2. The IRAS minisurvey. [Infra Red Astronomy Satellite study of selected sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Emerson, J. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.

    1984-01-01

    Before the main Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey was started, a preliminary survey of 900 sq deg was carried out. Some results from this 'minisurvey' are given here. The completeness of the minisurvey at galactic latitudes from 20 to 40 deg drops sharply at flux densities below 0.4, 0.4, 0.5, and 2.5 Jy at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. The corresponding surface densities of point sources brighter than these flux levels are 1.1, 0.4, 0.65, and 1.25/sq deg, respectively. Outside the galactic plane, the majority of the sources at 12 and 25 microns are stars, while galaxies make up a significant proportion of 60 micron sources. The 100 micron band is dominated by emission from interstellar dust over much of the minisurvey area.

  3. Measurement of the internal organs' absorption and extracorporeal excretion of radioactive iodine fit to the characteristics of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Tae Man; Whang, Joo Ho

    2005-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry will prove helpful to active approaches, such as limiting the amount of radiation exposure, which can be called the negative effect of radiation on the body, or using radiation to treat diseases. Defective nuclear fuel at a nuclear power plant or 131 I used for oral thyroid gland examination and treatment of cancer may cause internal exposure during the replacement of nuclear fuel, or maintenance. Also, it is reported that, clinically, 131 I has the negative function of increasing the radiation exposure of the other organs as well as the positive function related to thyroid gland diagnosis and cancer treatment. Estimation of internal exposure to 131 I must take the physical properties of 131 I and the physiological properties of individuals into account. The extracorporeal excretion rate of radionuclides and the proportion remaining in the body may vary depending on the physiological properties of the Oriental and Occidental people. The existing physiological properties are data originating from Westerners, so if the data are applied to Koreans, differences in dietary life and physiological properties may lead to underestimation or overestimation of internal exposure. Therefore, this study aims at measuring the radionuclide absorption and excretion rates in human organs to establish the physiological radionuclide metabolism fit to Koreans and the Oriental people whose physique is similar to that of Koreans

  4. Environmental Temperature Effect on the Far-Infrared Absorption Features of Aromatic-Based Titan's Aerosol Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Benzene detection has been reported in Titans atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titans atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500/cm, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared. In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titans stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  5. Contribution to the study and to the development of continuous infrared absorption analyzers; Contribution a l'etude et a la mise au point des analyseurs en continu par absorption infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    The continuous infra-red absorption determination of corrosive gases implies the construction of an original single-beam spectrometer. The use of a vibration-rotation line means that the apparatus function has to undergo an alternating displacement: for one position this function is centered on the line, for other position it is placed close by, but away from any absorption. A non-linear relationship is derived between the concentration of the impurity under consideration, the optical density measured at the centre of the line and the total pressure of the gas mixture. The problem is then solved using an associated specific analog computer. The system is applicable to the determination of low concentrations. The principle proposed in then adapted to an analysis using a non-resolved vibration-rotation band. (authors) [French] Le dosage en continu par absorption infrarouge des gaz corrosifs, implique la construction d'un spectrometre original en simple faisceau. L'utilisation d'une raie de vibration - rotation, conduit a effectuer un deplacement alternatif de la fonction d'appareil: pour une position, celle-ci est centree sur la raie, pour l'autre position elle est placee a proximite mais en dehors de toute absorption. On etablit une relation non lineaire entre la concentration de l'impurete consideree, la densite optique mesuree au centre de la raie et la pression totale du melange gazeux. Le probleme est alors resolu par un calculateur analogique specifique associe. Le systeme s'applique au dosage des faibles concentrations. Le principe propose est ensuite adapte a l'analyse a partir d'une bande de vibration - rotation non resolue. (auteurs)

  6. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  7. Characteristics of alkali activated material (geopolymer) in sulfuric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simatupang, Partogi H.

    2017-09-01

    Alkali Activated Material (AAM) or Geopolymer is a solid material which made by mixing rich silica alumina material with alkaline activator. AAM is a well known candidate to replace cement based material. Many researches have claimed that AAM has better durability compared to cement based material in agressive environment. However, there was rare paper presented the direct comparison of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM in such aggresive environment. Because of that, this paper present material characteristics of Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM if the materials were immersed in 10% sulfuric acid solution for 65 days. Material characteristics evaluated were (1) weight loss, (2) mineral of the material which evaluated by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), (3) morphology and oxide compounds of material which evaluated by SEM/EDXA (Scanning Electron Microscopic/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer) and (4) compound bond which evaluated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) Spectroscopy Testing. Alkali Activated Material used were Class F fly ash based AAM Mortar and Class C fly ash based AAM Mortar. The result is a quite difference of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM.

  8. Moisture Absorption Characteristics of Epoxy Based Adhesive Reinforced with CTBN and Ceramic Particles for Bonded-in Timber Connection: Fickian or Non-Fickian Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Z; Ansell, M P; Smedley, D

    2011-01-01

    For in-situ bonding of pultruded rod into timber structural members, such as in the construction of bonded-in timber connection, strengthening and repair of timber structures, the adhesive used must be thixotropic, room temperature cure, environmentally stable and friendly and applied at without pressure. This study investigates the moisture absorption characteristics of three adhesives specially formulated for bonded-in timber connections where the adhesives are reinforced with nano- and micro-particles denoted as CB10TSS (standard adhesive), Albipox (CB10TSS/CTBN) and Timberset (ceramics filled adhesive) with the aim to improve mechanical properties and raise glass transition temperature. The effect of high temperatures and high humidity on the properties of adhesives were determined following conditioning at different temperatures (20 deg. C, 30 deg. C and 50 deg. C) and relative humidities (65%, 75% and 95%) and soaking in water at 20 deg. C In all cases the properties of Albipox were least affected by environment but Timberset exhibited the lowest moisture uptake. Exposure to humid environments at temperatures 20 deg. C and 30 deg. C for CB10TSS and Albipox and 50deg. C for Timberset resulted in water uptake characterized as Fickian which had only a modest effect on properties. However, exposure to humid environments at temperature (50 deg. C) which is higher than Tg resulted in non-Fickian uptake of water for CB10TSS and Albipox and a more adverse effect on properties.

  9. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  10. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  11. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  12. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to the centre of inversion give rise in infra-red absorption to a. Single sharp intense maximum at about 3650 cm.1 as is to be theoretically expected. In all cases, the infra-red active hydroxyl frequency is found io be higher than the corresponding Raman active mode and the origin of this feature is explained.

  13. Constraints on the OH-to-H Abundance Ratio in Infrared-bright Galaxies Derived from the Strength of the OH 35 μm Absorption Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Myra; Veilleux, Sylvain; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Spoon, Henrik; Sturm, Eckhard

    2018-02-01

    We analyze Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the OH 35 μm feature in 15 nearby (z ≲ 0.06) (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). All objects exhibit OH 35 μm purely in absorption, as expected. The small optical depth of this transition makes the strength of this feature a good indicator of the true OH column density. The measured OH 35 μm equivalent widths imply an average OH column density and a 1-σ standard deviation to the mean of {N}{OH}=1.31+/- 0.22× {10}17 cm‑2. This number is then compared with the hydrogen column density for a typical optical depth at 35 μm of ∼0.5 and gas-to-dust ratio of 125 to derive an OH-to-H abundance ratio of {X}{OH}=1.01+/- 0.15× {10}-6. This abundance ratio is formally a lower limit. It is consistent with the values generally assumed in the literature. The OH 35 μm line profiles predicted from published radiative transfer models constrained by observations of OH 65, 79, 84, and 119 μm in 5 objects (Mrk 231, Mrk 273, IRAS F05189-2524, IRAS F08572+3915, and IRAS F20551-4250) are also found to be consistent with the IRS OH 35 μm spectra.

  14. Rapid screening and identification of illicit drugs by IR absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.

  15. A Cluster of CO2 Change Characteristics with GOSAT Observations for Viewing the Spatial Pattern of CO2 Emission and Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can be used to detect the changes of CO2 concentration at global and regional scales. With the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (Xco2 data derived from satellite observations, the issue is how to extract and assess these changes, which are related to anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions. We propose a k-means cluster analysis to extract the temporally changing features of Xco2 in the Central-Eastern Asia using the data from 2009 to 2013 obtained by Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, and assess the effects of anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions on CO2 changes combining with the data of emission and vegetation net primary production (NPP. As a result, 14 clusters, which are 14 types of Xco2 seasonal changing patterns, are obtained in the study area by using the optimal clustering parameters. These clusters are generally in agreement with the spatial pattern of underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions. According to correlation analysis with emission and NPP, these 14 clusters are divided into three groups: strong emission, strong absorption, and a tendency of balancing between emission and absorption. The proposed clustering approach in this study provides us with a potential way to better understand how the seasonal changes of CO2 concentration depend on underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions.

  16. Study of Absorption Characteristics of the Total Saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis in an In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP Rat Model by Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the extensively reported therapeutic activities, far less attention has been paid to the intestinal absorption of the total saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis (in Chinese Mao-Dong-Qing, MDQ. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of ilexgenin A (C1, ilexsaponin A1 (C2, ilexsaponin B1 (C3, ilexsaponin B2 (C4, ilexsaponin B3 (DC1, and ilexoside O (DC2 when administrated with the total saponins from MDQ (MDQ-TS. An UPLC method for simultaneous determination of C1, C2, C3, C4, DC1, and DC2 in intestinal outflow perfusate was developed and validated. The absorption characteristics of MDQ-TS were investigated by evaluating the effects of intestinal segments, drug concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor (verapomil, endocytosis inhibitor (amantadine and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, tight junction modulator on the intestinal transportation of MDQ-TS by using a single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP rat model, and the influence of co-existing components on the intestinal transport of the six saponins was discussed. The results showed that effective apparent permeability (Papp of C1, C2, C3, C4, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form had no segment-dependent changes at low and middle dosage levels. C1, C2, C3, D4, DC1, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form all exhibited excellent transmembrane permeability with Papp > 0.12 × 10−2 cm·min−1. Meanwhile, Papp and effective absorption rate constant (Ka values for the most saponins showed concentration dependence and saturation characteristics. After combining with P-gp inhibitor of verapamil, Papp of C2, C3, and DC1 in MDQ-TS group was significantly increased up to about 2.3-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.4-fold, respectively in comparison to that of non-verapamil added group. Verapamil was found to improve the absorption of C2, C3, and DC1, indicating the involvement of an active transport mechanism in the absorption process. Compared with the

  17. The influence of alkalinity of portland cement on the absorption characteristics of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) for use in internally cured concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares Tamayo, Juan D.

    The concrete industry increasingly emphasizes advances in novel materials that promote construction of more resilient infrastructure. Due to its potential to improve concrete durability, internal curing (IC) of concrete by means of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) has been identified as one of the most promising technologies of the 21st century. The addition of superabsorbent polymers into a cementitious system promotes further hydration of cement by providing internal moisture during the hardening and strength development periods, and thus limits self-desiccation, shrinkage, and cracking. This thesis presents the work performed on the series of cement pastes with varying alkalinity of their pore solutions to provide a better understanding of: (1) the influence of the chemistry of the pore solution (i.e. its level of alkalinity and the type of ionic species present) on the absorption capacity of SAP, and (2) the effectiveness of SAP with different absorption capacities as an internal curing agent. This research work was divided into three stages: (a) materials characterization, (b) measurement of absorption capacity of SAP in synthetic pore solutions, and (c) evaluation of the internal curing effectiveness of SAP. During the first stage (Materials Characterization), pore solutions were extracted from the fresh (5 minutes old) cement pastes prepared using cements with three different levels of alkalinity. The pH values of the extracted solutions were determined (using the pH meter) and their chemical analysis was performed by means of titration (concentration of hydroxyl), ion chromatography (sulfates and chlorides), atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) (sodium, potassium and calcium). The commercial SAP adopted for this study was used with "as-supplied" gradation and with the finer gradation obtained by grinding the original polymer in the 6850 Cryomilling Freezer/Mill. The physical properties of these SAP's, such

  18. Long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and determine their characteristics in wood flour/polypropylene/Nano SiO2 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismaeilimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nano SiO2 on long-term water absorption and thickness swelling, humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate of wood plastic composite. For this purpose, 60% wood flour, 40% polypropylene, 2 per hundred compound (phc MAPP in internal mixer (HAAKE were mixed. Nano SiO2 with 0, 1, 3 and 5 (phc ratios as a reinforcing was used too. Finally test samples were fabricated by using the injection molding machine. Then long-term water absorption and thickness swelling for 1848 hours according to the ASTM standard on the samples were measured. Humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate for closer look long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behavior in wood plastic nanocomposite were calculated too. For ensure to the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl grope of SiO2 nanoparticles with hydroxyl grope of wood flour form Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy tests was used. The results showed that water absorption behavior of nanocomposite is according to Fick's law, in addition with increasing to SiO2 nanoparticles, long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and humidity coefficient diffusion in wood plastic nanocomposite decreased. The results of infrared spectroscopy showed that hydrogen bond between the nano SiO2 and wood flour confirmed. Statistical analysis showed that after 1848 hours of immersion, nano SiO2 showed a significant effect at a confidence level of 99% on water absorption and thickness swelling, so the sample with 5% silica nanoparticles was chosen as the best treatment.

  19. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  20. Absorptive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Applications for hydrophile gels produced by the radiation induced cross-linking in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide and starch, as described in Norwegian patent 133501 (INIS RN 281494), such as sanitary napkins (diapers) and sanitary towels, are discussed. The process itself is also discussed and results, expressed as the percentage of insoluble gel and its absorptive capacity for saline solution as functions of the ratio of polyethylene oxide to starch and the radiation dose, are presented. (JIW)

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF POLY (BUTYL ACRYLATE AND CELLULOSE WITH ULTRASONIC PROCESSING AS A MATERIAL FOR OIL ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Qu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of materials used for oil absorption based on cellulose fiber grafted with butyl acrylate (BuAc have been prepared by radical polymerization under ultrasonic waves processing. Effects of ultrasonic dose for the maximum graft yield were considered. The dependency of optimum conditions for oil absorption rate on parameters such as ultrasonic processing time and ultrasonic power were also determined. Fourier infrared (FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the chemical reaction taking place between cellulose and butyl acrylate. The thermogravimetric behavior of the graft copolymer was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis was used to determine the surface structure of the grafted material. With the increase of the ultrasonic treatment dose, the surface of the ultrasonic processed material became more regular, and the material was transformed into a homogeneous network polymer having a good structure and good adsorbing ability.

  2. Methanol absorption characteristics for the removal of H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in a pilot-scale biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Myung Won; Yun, Young Min; Cho, Won Chul; Ra, Ho Won; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Kim, Yong Ku; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, See Hoon; Eom, Won Hyun; Lee, Uen Do; Lee, Sang Bong

    2014-01-01

    The BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is an attractive process that produces liquid biofuels from biomass. The FT (Fisher–Tropsch) process is used to produce synfuels such as diesel and gasoline from gasified biomass. However, the H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) in the syngas that are produced from the biomass gasifiers cause a decrease of the conversion efficiency and deactivates the catalyst that is used in the FT process. To remove the acid gases, a pilot-scale methanol absorption tower producing diesel at a rate of 1 BPD (barrel per day) was developed, and the removal characteristics of the acid gases were determined. A total operation time of 500 h was achieved after several campaigns. The average syngas flow rate at the inlet of methanol absorption tower ranged from 300 to 800 L/min. The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S from 30 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV and COS from 2 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV with a removal of CO 2 from 20% to 5%. The outlet gas composition adhered to the guidelines for FT reactors. No remaining sulfurous components were found, and the tar component was analyzed in the spent methanol after long-term operations. - Highlights: • The gas cleaning system in a pilot-scale BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is reported. • Although methanol absorption tower is conventional process, its application to BTL process is attempted. • The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S, COS and CO 2 in the syngas. • The sulfurous and tar components in the methanol are analyzed

  3. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Fengfu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu Xueqin; Xu Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-01-01

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 o N, 140.36 o E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm -1 ), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC + BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 μm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation

  4. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation.

  5. Extending Organizational Antecedents Of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Lettl, Christopher; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    on organizational characteristics that encourage experimentation. Specifically, we argue that characteristics such as slack resources, tolerance for failure, willingness to cannibalize and external openness are important organizational antecedents for knowledge absorption activities as they prevent inertia. Drawing...

  6. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  7. Synthesis Study Of Surfactants Sodium Ligno Sulphonate (SLS From Biomass Waste Using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto Slamet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin from biomass waste (Black Liquor was isolated by using sulfuric acid 25% and sodium hydroxide solutions 2N. The obtained lignin was reacted with Sodium Bisulfite to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS. The best result was achieved at 80 ° C, pH 9, ratio of lignin and bisulfite 4: 1, for 2 hours, and 290 rpm stirring rate. The result of lignin formed was sulfonated using Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3 to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS whose results were tested by the role of groups in peak formation by FTIR and compared to the spectrum of Sodium Ligno Sulfonate made from pure Lignin (commercial reacted with the commercial Sodium Bisulfite. The result can be seen by the typical functional groups present in the SLS.

  8. HOW MANY HIPPOS (HOMHIP: ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTS OF ANIMALS WITH INFRA-RED THERMAL IMAGERY FROM UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lhoest

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L. is part of the animal species endangered because of multiple human pressures. Monitoring of species for conservation is then essential, and the development of census protocols has to be chased. UAV technology is considering as one of the new perspectives for wildlife survey. Indeed, this technique has many advantages but its main drawback is the generation of a huge amount of data to handle. This study aims at developing an algorithm for automatic count of hippos, by exploiting thermal infrared aerial images acquired from UAV. This attempt is the first known for automatic detection of this species. Images taken at several flight heights can be used as inputs of the algorithm, ranging from 38 to 155 meters above ground level. A Graphical User Interface has been created in order to facilitate the use of the application. Three categories of animals have been defined following their position in water. The mean error of automatic counts compared with manual delineations is +2.3% and shows that the estimation is unbiased. Those results show great perspectives for the use of the algorithm in populations monitoring after some technical improvements and the elaboration of statistically robust inventories protocols.

  9. Magneto-optical studies of InAsSb emitters for the mid-infra red region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, J.

    2000-01-01

    Room-temperature InAs/lnAsSb light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated for use in gas sensing applications. Molecular beam epitaxy single quantum-well (SQW) and strained-layer superlattice (SLS) samples were grown with band gaps in the mid-infrared region from 3 to 5 μm. AISb and InAIAs barriers were incorporated into the structures in order to enhance the electron confinement in the active region. Electroluminescence measurements were taken at temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 300 K. Room-temperature total output powers of 67 μW/A at λ ∼4.2 μm and 110 μW/A at λ ∼4.3 μm were measured for the best SLS and SQW samples respectively. These powers correspond to internal conversion efficiencies of 2.8% and 2.61%. Typically, an improvement by a factor of 4 to 6 was achieved compared to samples without incorporated electron confining barrier. A further systematic investigation was conducted into the band parameters of the samples. Magneto-electroluminescence experiments were performed at 4.2 K for various injection currents at magnetic fields ranging from 0 T to 5 T. An 8x8 k.p model was implemented for comparison with the experimental results. The magneto-optical experiments on the SLS samples confirm the very good structural quality of the samples. The linewidth of the SLS ground state is less than 8 meV. With a measured reduced effective mass of 0.020 m 0 , the experimental data is in excellent agreement with the theoretical value of 0.019 m 0 obtained from our k.p model. The k.p model assumes a type-ll heterostructure band offset and uses no free fitting parameters. The excellent agreement between theoretical values is evidence for the type-ll band offset in this materials system. In the ca,se of the SQW samples, the magneto-electroluminescence measurements reveal s'everal very narrow subband transitions with a typical FWHM as low as 7.5 meV. For the first time, two quantum well transitions, (e1,hh1) and (e1,lh1), with a reduced effective mass of 0.017 m 0 and 0.009 m 0 respectively were identified from the spectra. The transitions are separated by ∼30 meV. The theoretical values obtained from our k.p model are again in excellent agreement with the experimental data and confirm the identity of the transitions. The observation that the valence band quasi-Fermi energy even at low current densities of 71 A/cm 2 is ∼30 meV is shown to be evidence for population inversion. Excellent prospects for high gain in laser diode structures made from these heterostructures are therefore demonstrated. (author)

  10. Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, P. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-25

    We solve Schroedinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of nitroglycerin effect on remote photoplethysmogram waveform acquired at green and near infra-red illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkevics, Z.; Rubins, U.; Caica, A.; Grabovskis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of skin microcirculation provides diagnostically valuable information during the early stages of pathologies. The simple, cost-effective and intrusive alternative to existing circulation assessment methods is remote photoplethysmography (rPPG). The objective of the present pilot study was to reveal an effect on sublingual administration of 1 mg nitroglycerin on systemic hemodynamic parameters and rPPG waveforms, at 810 nm and 530nm illumination. The protocol comprised 3 minutes of baseline recording, 15 minutes recording of NTG effect, 2 minutes of arterial occlusion and the following 3 min reactive hyperemia. Two PPG signals were acquired from glabrous skin of the middle finger distal phalange, consecutively at 530 nm and 810nm, 125 fps per channel, and systemic cardiovascular parameters were continuously registered in a beat-to-beat manner with a Finameter-midi system. The NTG effect was observed 0.7- 1.2 minutes post administration, reaching its maximum after 3 minutes. Systemic cardiovascular parameters significantly changed: mean arterial pressure decreased by 7.7+/-3.6%, total peripheral resistance by 10.5+/-9.0%, whereas the heart rate increased by 27.2+/-11.8%. Substantial alterations were observed for rPPG waveforms during NTG effect, decreasing reflection and stiffness indices. It has been concluded that rPPG waveform may provide information related to arterial stiffness, and could be potentially utilized in the clinics.

  12. Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Paul

    1994-04-01

    We solve Schrödinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero.

  13. Continuum strong-coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory: quark confinement and infra-red slavery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, P.

    1994-01-01

    We solve Schroedinger's equation for the ground-state of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory as an expansion in inverse powers of the coupling. Expectation values computed with the leading-order approximation are reduced to a calculation in two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory which is known to confine. Consequently the Wilson loop in the four-dimensional theory obeys an area law to leading order and the coupling becomes infinite as the mass scale goes to zero. (orig.)

  14. Design and analysis of dual-resonant filters in visible and infra-red region based on polymer LPWG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kushwaha, Aniruddha Singh; Pal, Suchandan

    2013-01-01

    Long-period waveguide gratings (LPWGs), by using a SU-8 polymer-based channel waveguide along with NOA61 optical epoxy coated upper- and lower-cladding, are designed and theoretical analyzed. Grating period of ~ 68μm is considered with optimized grating tooth-heights, so that the transmission spectra of the gratings show strong rejection bands both at visible (450 - 460 nm) and infrared (1530 - 1540 nm) wavelength regions. Phase-matching graphs are studied in order to observe the change in resonance wavelength of the grating with the variation of waveguide parameters. LPWG-based band pass filter are also designed and analyzed by considering the same set of polymer materials. Further, temperature sensitivity of these LPWGs is analyzed theoretically. These types of waveguide gratingbased filters can widely be used for visible and infrared wavelength sensing applications.

  15. Synthesis Study Of Surfactants Sodium Ligno Sulphonate (SLS) From Biomass Waste Using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanto Slamet; Pramudono Bambang; Kusworo Tutuk Djoko; Suherman; Aji Hapsoro Aruno; Untoro Edi; Ratu Puspa

    2018-01-01

    Lignin from biomass waste (Black Liquor) was isolated by using sulfuric acid 25% and sodium hydroxide solutions 2N. The obtained lignin was reacted with Sodium Bisulfite to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS). The best result was achieved at 80 ° C, pH 9, ratio of lignin and bisulfite 4: 1, for 2 hours, and 290 rpm stirring rate. The result of lignin formed was sulfonated using Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3) to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS) whose results were tested by the role of groups in peak formation...

  16. Infra-red spectra of systems containing hydrogen-bonds; Spectres dans l'infrarouge de corps a liaison hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A new theory of the infrared spectra of H-bonded systems is presented, which analyses the different stretching motions in an X-H...Y bond, and studies the validity of their separation. We attribute the structure in the spectra of H-bond stretching motions to the anharmonic coupling of the modes X-H...Y with the modes X-H...H. Starting with the hypothesis that the X-H...Y motion is harmonic, but depends parametrically upon the X...Y distance, and taking into account the interaction between different H-bonds, we have been able to simulate quantitatively (intensity and position) the I.R. spectra of species such as imidazole and acetic acid dimers, which are the experimentally best resolved spectra. The isotope effect (substitution of H by D) is explained quite naturally, and the experimental spectrum of deuterated species is simulated quantitatively, without introducing any other hypothesis; this fact gives us a positive test for the validity of our theory. We have extended those previous considerations to the case of H-bonded crystals, in view of a future reconstitution of their I.R. spectra. The physical meaning of our theory is quite different to most of the previously proposed theories, which have not been confirmed quantitatively, to the best of our knowledge. Those theories did not take into account the interactions between different H-bonds. Thus our quantitative simulation of complex spectra of imidazole and acetic acid, together with the correct prediction of the isotope effect, help us thinking that the proposed mechanism is responsible for the different stretching motions in H-bonded systems. (author) [French] Nous exposons une nouvelle theorie des spectres infra-rouge de la liaison hydrogene, basee sur l'analyse des mouvements d'elongation des atomes d'une liaison X-H...Y, et nous recherchons les conditions de la separabilite de ces differents mouvements. L'origine de la structure des spectres d'elongation de l'hydrogene est attribuee au couplage des modes du type X-H...Y et X-H...Y. En supposant que le mouvement X-H...Y est harmonique, mais depend parametriquement de la distance X...Y, et en tenant compte de l'interaction entre differentes liaisons hydrogene, nous pouvons reconstituer quantitativement les spectres des corps tels que l'imidazole et les dimeres d'acide acetique, qui forment les spectres les mieux resolus experimentalement. L'effet isotopique (remplacement de H par D) decoule tout naturellement de cette supposition, et le spectre experimental des corps deuteres est reconstitue quantitativement, sans aucune hypothese supplementaire, ce qui nous donne une confirmation independante de la validite de notre theorie. Nous etendons ces considerations au cas de cristaux a liaison hydrogene en vue d'une reconstitution future de leurs spectres infrarouge. Par sa signification physique, notre theorie s'oppose aux theories proposees anterieurement, qui ne tenaient pas compte de ce mecanisme de couplage ni de l'interaction entre liaisons hydrogene. Ces theories anterieures n'ont pas recu, a notre connaissance, de verification quantitative. Aussi notre reconstitution quantitative des spectres a structure complexe de l'imidazole et de l'acide acetique, ainsi que notre prevision correcte de l'effet isotopique, semblent indiquer que le mecanisme propose est le facteur principal qui intervient dans les differents mouvements d'elongation de la liaison hydrogene. (auteur)

  17. The infra-red spectrum of the molecular dication (doubly positively charged molecule) D35Cl2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusen, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The ion-beam/laser-beam spectrometer used in this work was designed, built and commissioned for the experimental investigation of doubly charged molecular species [Shiell 1995]. Using this spectrometer the photodissociation spectrum of the X 3 Σ - state of the molecular dication D 35 Cl 2+ was measured in the infrared. It has not yet been possible to assign and fit the observed transitions in the usual way, but comparisons of our spectra with ab-initio generated spectra show good agreement and form the basis for our preliminary assignments. Our preliminary analysis shows a good agreement between the measured spectra and an ab-initio theoretical spectra of the ν = 2-1 band, including the rotational constants and tunneling lifetimes, calculated from the potential energy of Bennett and McNab [1995]. The theoretical spectrum was brought into agreement with the measured spectra by moving its band origin by -21.1 cm -1 . The theoretical rotational constants that give good agreement with the spectrum are (in cm -1 ) B'' = 3.898, D'' = 3.561, H'' = 1.04 x 10 -9 , B' = 3.648, D' = 3.163 x 10 -4 , H' = -9.269 x 10 -8 . The shifted origin of the ν = 2-1 band is 994.3 cm -1 . A Fortran computer program was written to simulate 3Σ-3Σ vibration-rotation spectra. The theoretical spectrum obtained with this computer program has been compared with our measured spectrum. Our experimentally measured line widths and wavenumbers have been compared with the ab-initio theoretical spectrum and a good agreement obtained. This is good evidence that we are observing the ν=2-1 band of D 35 CI 2+ in the ground electronic state (X 3 Σ - state). Good agreement between measured and predicted hyperfine patterns was found using a Fermi contact constant (for the chlorine nucleus) of 190 MHz. (author)

  18. Bifurcation of the Quark Self-Energy: Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Cut-Offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    The quark self-energy in massless QCD is studied in the approximation that both the quark-gluon vertex and the gluon propagator remain bare. It is shown that chiral invariance is not spontaneously broken at a critical coupling λc>0, unless both infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs are introduced.

  19. Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Albrektsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Amplification of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in planar metal-dielectric structure through stimulated emission is investigated using leakage-radiation microscopy configuration. The gain medium is a thin polymethylmethacrylate layer doped with lead-sulphide nanocrystals emitting at near-infrared...

  20. Infra-red asymptotic behaviour of the one-fermion Green's function in a scalar model with isospin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.N.; Wu, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    In a theory where massive fermions interact with a massless scalar field of isospin 1, the behaviour of the one-fermion Green's function is found to differ from the free Green's function by a factor (1 - (2g 2 /π 2 )ln mmod(x-y))sup(-3/8), in the limit of large separation mod(x-y). (Auth.)

  1. Ultra-fast all-optical plasmonic switching in near infra-red spectrum using a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohammadi, Tofiq; Abbasian, Karim; Yadipour, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an all-optical plasmonic switch based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanoplasmonic waveguide with a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator is introduced and studied. Two-dimensional simulations utilizing the finite-difference time-domain algorithm are used to demonstrate an apparent optical bistability and significant switching mechanisms (in enabled-low condition: T(ON/OFF) =21.9 and in enabled-high condition: T(ON/OFF) =24.9) of the signal light arisen by altering the pump-light intensity. The proposed all-optical switching demonstrates femtosecond-scale feedback time (90 fs) and then ultra-fast switching can be achieved. The offered all-optical switch may recognize potential significant applications in integrated optical circuits.

  2. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  3. Coriandrum sativum mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their biological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, N.; Aravindhan, V.; Ruckmani, K.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2018-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by percolated green synthesis method using Coriandrum sativum leaf, root, seed and stem extracts and reported its antibacterial activity. The synthesized Ag NPs were confirmed by UV–visible Spectroscopy, Powder x-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analyzes. The Maximum absorbance observed around 400–450 nm reveal the characteristic absorbance of Ag NPs. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis shows the stability of synthesized NPs with average size varying from 35 to 53 nm and also zeta potential stability varying from ‑20 to ‑30 mV. The cubic structure, crystalline nature and purity of the material was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum shows the presence of various functional groups in the resultant material. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) image shows the surface morphology of the synthesized NPs and the Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of silver metal ions. The Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram -ve) bacteria. Numerous studies have been made previously in our field of study but optimization has not been carried out by both extract (different parts like leaf, root, seed and stem) and without addition of any external source such as chemicals, heat etc.

  4. Deposition and light absorption characteristics of precipitation dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at three remote stations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Hu, Zhaofu; Han, Xiaowen; Zhang, Guoshuai; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-12-15

    The concentrations, depositions and optical properties of precipitation DOC at three remote stations (Nam Co, Lulang and Everest) were investigated in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The results showed that their volume-weighted mean DOC concentrations were 1.05±1.01mgCL -1 , 0.83±0.85mgCL -1 and 0.86±0.91mgCL -1 , respectively, close to those of other remote areas in the world and lower than those of typical polluted urban cities. Combined with precipitation amounts, the DOC depositions at these three stations were calculated to be 0.34±0.32gCm -2 yr -1 , 0.84±0.86gCm -2 yr -1 and 0.16±0.17gCm -2 yr -1 , respectively. The annual DOC deposition in the HTP was approximately 0.94±0.87TgC, the highest and lowest values appeared in the southeastern and northwestern plateau, respectively. The sources of DOC in the precipitation at these three stations were remarkably different, indicating large spatial heterogeneity in the sources of precipitation DOC over the HTP. Nam Co presented combustion sources from South Asia and local residents, Lulang showed biomass combustion source from South Asia, and Everest was mainly influenced by local mineral dust. The values of the MAC DOC at 365nm were 0.48±0.47m 2 g -1 , 0.25±0.15m 2 g -1 , and 0.64±0.49m 2 g -1 , respectively, for the precipitation at the three stations. All of these values were significantly lower than those of corresponding near-surface aerosol samples because precipitation DOC contains more secondary organic aerosol with low light absorption abilities. Additionally, this phenomenon was also observed in seriously polluted urban areas, implying it is universal in the atmosphere. Because precipitation DOC contains information for both particle-bound and gaseous components from the near surface up to the altitude of clouds where precipitation occurs, the MAC DOC of precipitation is more representative than that of near-surface aerosols for a given region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Hydrogen absorption/desorption characteristics of room temperature ZrMn2-xNix system (x = 1.25-1.50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Pukazhselvan, D.; Singh, S.K.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present communication deals with the hydrogen storage characteristics of C15 laves phase ZrMn 2-x Ni x system tailored within the x values of 1.25 to 1.50. Drastic variations in thermodynamics of the hydride phase is observed for any little changes of concentration x within this narrow range. The most promising room temperature hydrogen storage materials are found to be formed within the range of 1.35 to 1.45 where ∼ 2.5 to 2.9 H/F.U. can be reversibly stored under the ideal operating conditions. The heat of the reaction is found to be ∼ 17 kJ/mol, which means these are promising candidates for stationary and short range mobile applications. The phase structural features and the thermodynamic aspects of all the materials are discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  7. Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusif Rehab Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eudragit E (EE-sodium alginate (SA polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH and low viscosity (SAL. The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3 as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05 decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs.

  8. Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah

    2014-03-01

    Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs.

  9. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  10. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  11. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  12. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption behavior of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using tartaric acid fuel for electromagnetic interference suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Strontium hexaferrites, doped with varying Co-Zr content (x) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion route using tartaric acid as fuel at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Infra-red have been carried out to confirm the phase formation, particle size (average 21.9–36.8 nm) and the bond formation respectively. Magnetic properties are scrutinized using vibrating sample magnetometer. Techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive scattering have been employed to explore the surface morphology, particle size and composition of the nano-powders. Electromagnetic characterization of the prepared ferrites has been done using Vector Network Anlyzer in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The effect of calcination temperature (500–1000 °C) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties has also been studied for x=0.2 and 800 °C has been found to be the most suitable temperature with the best magnetic properties. Increase in doping has resulted in resonance peaks in dielectric and magnetic loss spectra, leading to microwave absorption peaks. Ferrites with x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 have appropriate reflection loss less than −10 dB and bandwidth in Ku-band, hence can be used as effective absorbers in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The governance of impedance matching in deciding the absorption properties has been proved by using input impedance calculations. - Highlights: • Co-Zr doped strontium hexaferrite nanopowders have been prepared by sol-gel route. • 800 °C was most suitable temperaturewith best structural and magnetic properties. • Samples have M-type hexagonal structure with an average particle size of 36.47 nm. • Samples x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 are suitable for suppression of EM waves in Ku-band. • The origin of absorption peaks: impedance matching and losses has been explained.

  13. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has bee...

  14. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  16. Characteristics and thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for application in hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnashis

    The locomotive industry accounts for 2.5 % of the total fuel consumption in the US. Thus the necessity for reducing fuel consumption and emissions led to the development of the concept of hybrid locomotive which is dual powered by the diesel engine and electric motors. But the energy dissipated in braking such a locomotive in a year is enough to power over 9100 average US households over the same period of time. Recovering this energy using regenerative braking system and storing it in a electric battery is of great interest among researchers for improving overall efficiency and reducing consumption of fuels. In the present study, LiFePO4 batteries, a type of the state-of-art lithium-ion batteries, have been tested under different environmental and load conditions. Environmental temperatures were varied to analyze their effects on the charging and discharging patterns of the battery by using the CADEX battery analyzer in order to find the temperature range for optimum battery performance. The fluctuations of temperature of the battery surface were monitored along the length of the tests, using Infra-Red imaging and thermocouple probes at different points on the battery surface. Both battery performance characteristics and the variation of the battery surface temperature were also recorded for different load cycles in order to get a comprehensive picture of the heat generation and its effect on the behavior of the battery under different load conditions. Lastly a practical Load Cycle analysis of the battery has been performed which gave a picture of the heat generated by the battery and also the performance characteristics as it is subjected to a practical Load Cycle.

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  18. A SPITZER SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK DUST IN THE YOUNG SERPENS CLOUD : HOW DO DUST CHARACTERISTICS EVOLVE WITH TIME?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Isa; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Merin, Bruno; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Geers, Vincent C.; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared (5-35 mu m) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (>= 3 mJy at 8 mu m) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and

  19. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  20. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  1. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  2. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  3. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  4. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  5. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  6. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  7. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  8. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  9. Comment on resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerling, P.

    1977-01-01

    An average over angles of incidence of the usual resonant absorption function is presented. This form is appropriate under experimental conditions where the angles of incidence vary greatly and in an unknown manner. For comparison a lens-ellipsoidal mirror illumination system with a known longitudinal aberration is considered. In the latter example the angles of incidence are readily obtained and the resulting resonance absorption function evaluated. The associated fields are calculated in a similar fashion. (author)

  10. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  11. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  12. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  13. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  14. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  15. Mid infra-red hyper-spectral imaging with bright super continuum source and fast acousto-optic tuneable filter for cytological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Valle, Stefano; Stephens, Gary; Moselund, Peter; Van der Zanden, Koen; Napier, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to offer an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis. Current development of bright super-continuum sources, narrow band acousto-optic tunable filters and fast cameras have made feasible a system that can be used for fast diagnosis of cancer in vivo at point of care. The performance of a proto system that has been developed under the Minerva project is described. (paper)

  16. Validation Studies of the Accuracy of Various SO2 Gas Retrievals in the Thermal InfraRed (8-14 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.; Honniball, C.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying hazardous SO2 in the atmosphere and in volcanic plumes is important for public health and volcanic eruption prediction. Remote sensing measurements of spectral radiance of plumes contain information on the abundance of SO2. However, in order to convert such measurements into SO2 path-concentrations, reliable inversion algorithms are needed. Various techniques can be employed to derive SO2 path-concentrations. The first approach employs a Partial Least Square Regression model trained using MODTRAN5 simulations for a variety of plume and atmospheric conditions. Radiances at many spectral wavelengths (8-14 μm) were used in the algorithm. The second algorithm uses measurements inside and outside the SO2 plume. Measurements in the plume-free region (background sky) make it possible to remove background atmospheric conditions and any instrumental effects. After atmospheric and instrumental effects are removed, MODTRAN5 is used to fit the SO2 spectral feature and obtain SO2 path-concentrations. The two inversion algorithms described above can be compared with the inversion algorithm for SO2 retrievals developed by Prata and Bernardo (2014). Their approach employs three wavelengths to characterize the plume temperature, the atmospheric background, and the SO2 path-concentration. The accuracy of these various techniques requires further investigation in terms of the effects of different atmospheric background conditions. Validating these inversion algorithms is challenging because ground truth measurements are very difficult. However, if the three separate inversion algorithms provide similar SO2 path-concentrations for actual measurements with various background conditions, then this increases confidence in the results. Measurements of sky radiance when looking through SO2 filled gas cells were collected with a Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI) under various atmospheric background conditions. These data were processed using the three inversion approaches, which were tested for convergence on the known SO2 gas cell path-concentrations. For this study, the inversion algorithms were modified to account for the gas cell configuration. Results from these studies will be presented, as well as results from SO2 gas plume measurements at Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i.

  17. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP), InfraRed Integrating Sphere (IRIS), and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Comparisons and CIMO Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Ruedi, Isabelle [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Forgan, Bruce [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne; Turner, Dave [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

    2018-03-05

    Presenting results of five comparisons between ACPs and IRISs and the difference between the longwave irradiance measured by the ACPs and IRISs versus the average irradiance measured by the WISG. The process of CIMO recommendation to establish the world reference for measuring the atmospheric longwave irradiance with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is also presented.

  18. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to examine the effects of change.

  19. Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

    2014-10-15

    Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch.

  20. Quasielastic neutron scattering and infra-red band contour study of H2O reorientations in [Ni(H2O)6] (ClO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, J.A.; Janik, J.M.; Otnes, K.; Stanek, T.

    1980-01-01

    IR band contour measurements carried out for [Ni(H 2 O) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 revealed an existence of fast H 2 O 180 deg flips around Ni-O axes at room temperatures. These flips were subjected to a more accurate study by the quasielastic neutron scattering method. Correlation times of the order of picosecond were obtained for room temperatures and the barrier to rotation of ca. 7 kcal/mole. The results are compared to those previously obtained for [Mg(H 2 O) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 and also to those for [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 and [Mg(NH 3 ) 6 ] (ClO 4 ) 2 . (author)

  1. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower and soybean are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpful for crop management. We developed and validated calibration models for Near-infrar...

  2. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation of calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpf...

  3. WHY ARE RAPIDLY ROTATING M DWARFS IN THE PLEIADES SO (INFRA)RED? NEW PERIOD MEASUREMENTS CONFIRM ROTATION-DEPENDENT COLOR OFFSETS FROM THE CLUSTER SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham WA 98225-9164 (United States); Agüeros, Marcel A.; Liu, Jiyu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Ahmadi, Aida [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sesar, Branimir, E-mail: kevin.covey@wwu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar rotation periods ( P {sub rot}) measured in open clusters have proved to be extremely useful for studying stars’ angular momentum content and rotationally driven magnetic activity, which are both age- and mass-dependent processes. While P {sub rot} measurements have been obtained for hundreds of solar-mass members of the Pleiades, measurements exist for only a few low-mass (<0.5 M {sub ⊙}) members of this key laboratory for stellar evolution theory. To fill this gap, we report P {sub rot} for 132 low-mass Pleiades members (including nearly 100 with M ≤ 0.45 M {sub ⊙}), measured from photometric monitoring of the cluster conducted by the Palomar Transient Factory in late 2011 and early 2012. These periods extend the portrait of stellar rotation at 125 Myr to the lowest-mass stars and re-establish the Pleiades as a key benchmark for models of the transport and evolution of stellar angular momentum. Combining our new P {sub rot} with precise BVIJHK photometry reported by Stauffer et al. and Kamai et al., we investigate known anomalies in the photometric properties of K and M Pleiades members. We confirm the correlation detected by Kamai et al. between a star's P {sub rot} and position relative to the main sequence in the cluster's color–magnitude diagram. We find that rapid rotators have redder ( V − K ) colors than slower rotators at the same V , indicating that rapid and slow rotators have different binary frequencies and/or photospheric properties. We find no difference in the photometric amplitudes of rapid and slow rotators, indicating that asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of starspots do not scale grossly with rotation rate.

  4. Near infra-red spectroscopy quantitative modelling of bivalve protein, lipid and glycogen composition using single-species versus multi-species calibration and validation sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jill K.; Maher, William A.; Purss, Matthew B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantitative modelling was used to measure the protein, lipid and glycogen composition of five marine bivalve species (Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anadara trapezia) from multiple locations and seasons. Predictive models were produced for each component using individual species and aggregated sample populations for the three oyster species (S. glomerata, O. angasi and C. gigas) and for all five bivalve species. Whole animal tissues were freeze dried, ground to > 20 μm and scanned by NIRS. Protein, lipid and glycogen composition were determined by traditional chemical analyses and calibration models developed to allow rapid NIRS-measurement of these components in the five bivalve species. Calibration modelling was performed using wavelet selection, genetic algorithms and partial least squares analysis. Model quality was assessed using RPIQ and RMESP. For protein composition, single species model results had RPIQ values between 2.4 and 3.5 and RMSEP between 8.6 and 18%, the three oyster model had an RPIQ of 2.6 and an RMSEP of 10.8% and the five bivalve species had an RPIQ of 3.6 and RMSEP of 8.7% respectively. For lipid composition, single species models achieved RPIQ values between 2.9 and 5.3 with RMSEP between 9.1 and 11.2%, the oyster model had an RPIQ of 3.6 and RMSEP of 6.8 and the five bivalve model had an RPIQ of 5.2 and RMSEP of 6.8% respectively. For glycogen composition, the single species models had RPIQs between 3.8 and 18.9 with RMSEP between 3.5 and 9.2%, the oyster model had an RPIQ of 5.5 and RMSEP of 7.1% and the five bivalve model had an RPIQ of 4 and RMSEP of 7.6% respectively. Comparison between individual species models and aggregated models for three oyster species and five bivalve species for each component indicate that aggregating data from like species produces high quality models with robust and reliable quantitative application. The benefit of aggregated multi-species models include a greater range of bivalve composition, greater application to different bivalve species and reduced need to extensively sample individual species, that is required for obtain robust single species NIRS models.

  5. Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, D. A.; Gibbs, K. W. E.; Collins, S. F.; Blanc, W.; Dussardier, B.; Monnom, G.; Baxter, G.; Peterka, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 18 (2008), s. 13781-13799 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : fiber amplifiers, fiber lasers * fiber optic communications * spectroscopy, fluorescence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.880, year: 2008

  6. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of ULF magnetic pulsations, air conductivity changes, and infra red signatures associated with the 30 October Alum Rock M5.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several electromagnetic signal types were observed prior to and immediately after 30 October 2007 (Local Time M5.4 earthquake at Alum Rock, Ca with an epicenter ~15 km NE of San Jose Ca. The area where this event occurred had been monitored since November 2005 by a QuakeFinder magnetometer site, unit 609, 2 km from the epicenter. This instrument is one of 53 stations of the QuakeFinder (QF California Magnetometer Network-CalMagNet. This station included an ultra low frequency (ULF 3-axis induction magnetometer, a simple air conductivity sensor to measure relative airborne ion concentrations, and a geophone to identify the arrival of the P-wave from an earthquake. Similar in frequency content to the increased ULF activity reported two weeks prior to the Loma Prieta M7.0 quake in 1989 (Fraser-Smith, 1990, 1991, the QF station detected activity in the 0.01–12 Hz bands, but it consisted of an increasing number of short duration (1 to 30 s duration pulsations. The pulsations peaked around 13 days prior to the event. The amplitudes of the pulses were strong, (3–20 nT, compared to the average ambient noise at the site, (10–250 pT, which included a component arising from the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART operations. The QF station also detected different pulse shapes, e.g. negative or positive only polarity, with some pulses including a combination of positive and negative. Typical pulse counts over the previous year ranged from 0–15 per day, while the count rose to 176 (east-west channel on 17 October, 13 days prior to the quake. The air conductivity sensor saturated for over 14 h during the night and morning prior to the quake, which occurred at 20:29 LT. Anomalous IR signatures were also observed in the general area, within 50 km of the epicenter, during the 2 weeks prior to the quake. These three simultaneous EM phenomena were compared with data collected over a 1–2-year period at the site. The data was also compared against accounts of air ionization reported to be associated with radon emission from the ground (Ouzounov, 2007, and a series of laboratory rock stressing experiments (Freund, 2006, 2007a, b, c to determine if field data was consistent either of these accounts. We could not find a data set with pre-earthquake radon measurements taken near the Alum Rock epicenter to compare against our field data. However, based on the Alum Rock data set example and another data set at Parkfield, the field tests are at least consistent with the lab experiments showing currents, magnetic field disturbances, air conductivity changes, and IR signatures. This is encouraging, but more instrumented earthquake examples are needed to prove a repeating pattern for these types of pre-earthquake EM signatures.

  8. Rate of absorption and interfacial area of chlorine into aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Due to excellent mass transfer characteristics with energy efficiency jet ejectors can be used in place of ... developed. The rate of absorption predicted from developed model is compared with experimental results. .... Numerical implementation.

  9. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  10. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  11. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  12. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  13. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  14. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  15. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.cn; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  17. Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Nano-Therapeutics and Photo-Thermal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Mukti; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Baghini, Mahdieh Shojaei; Chauhan, Deepak S.; Srivastava, Rohit; De, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    The unresolved and paramount challenge in bio-imaging and targeted therapy is to clearly define and demarcate the physical margins of tumor tissue. The ability to outline the healthy vital tissues to be carefully navigated with transection while an intraoperative surgery procedure is performed sets up a necessary and under-researched goal. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, there is a need to optimize design considerations in order to not only obtain an effective imaging agent but to also achieve attributes like favorable water solubility, biocompatibility, high molecular brightness, and a tissue specific targeting approach. The emergence of near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF) light for tissue scale imaging owes to the provision of highly specific images of the target organ. The special characteristics of near infra-red window such as minimal auto-fluorescence, low light scattering, and absorption of biomolecules in tissue converge to form an attractive modality for cancer imaging. Imparting molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent is the most beneficial attribute of NIRF light as a clinical imaging technology. Additionally, many such agents also display therapeutic potentials as photo-thermal agents, thus meeting the dual purpose of imaging and therapy. Here, we primarily discuss molecular imaging and therapeutic potentials of two such classes of materials, i.e., inorganic NIR dyes and metallic gold nanoparticle based materials. PMID:28452928

  18. Absorption and luminescence characteristics of {sup 5}I{sub 7} ↔ {sup 5}I{sub 8} transitions of the holmium ion in Ho{sup 3+}-doped aluminosilicate preforms and fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabochkina, P A; Chabushkin, A N [N.P. Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk (Russian Federation); Kosolapov, A F [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurkov, A S [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-28

    We have obtained the spectral dependences of the absorption cross sections for the Ho{sup 3+} {sup 5}I{sub 8} → {sup 5}I{sub 6} and {sup 5}I{sub 8} → {sup 5}I{sub 7} transitions in Ho{sup 3+}-doped aluminosilicate fibres and the spectral dependence of the stimulated emission cross section for the Ho{sup 3+} {sup 5}I{sub 7} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} laser transition in Ho{sup 3+}-doped aluminosilicate fibre preforms. The lifetime of the Ho{sup 3+} {sup 5}I{sub 7} upper laser level in the preforms has been determined. (lasers)

  19. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  20. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  1. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  3. Controlling enhanced absorption in graphene metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qihui; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Genghui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a controllable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MA) is designed with the circuit analog method. Taking advantage of the patterned graphene on SiO2/doped Si/polyimide substrates with a gold reflector, the controllable MA achieves perfect absorption at 0.75 THz. The chemical potential of graphene is regulated by controlling the voltage between graphene and doped Si layers. As the chemical potential varies from 0 eV to 0.5 eV, the MA is changed from reflection (0.99). The distributions of surface current and electric field are illustrated to analyze the resonant characteristic of patterned graphene. According to the resonant characteristic, we introduce patterned graphene elements with different dimension in a unit cell, which effectively extends the effective absorption bandwidth (absorption > 0 . 9) from 0.67-0.93 THz to 0.52-0.95 THz. Moreover, replacing part of the graphene structure with gold, the switchable MA is turned into a frequency tunable MA. The absorption peak moves from 0.62 THz to 0.92 THz as the chemical potential increases from 0.1 eV to 0.5 eV. These designs overcome limitation of traditional absorbers and exhibit great potentials in many practical applications.

  4. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) double selenates were studied using common analytical methods, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction infra-red absorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These compounds were prepared from the mixture of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) selenates aqueous solution and basic beryllium selenates aqueous solution, obeying equimolar relation (1:1) to the cation

  5. Optical absorption in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  6. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  7. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  8. Evaluation of biodegradable plastics for rubber seedling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd Khairulniza; Dayang Habibah A. I., H.; Kamal, Mazlina Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    The main negative consequence of conventional plastics in agriculture is related to handling the wastes plasticand the associated environmental impact. Hence, a study of different types of potentially biodegradable plastics used for nursery applications have been evaluated on its mechanical,water absorption propertiesand Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Supplied samples from different companies were designated as SF, CF and CO. Most of the polybags exhibited mechanical properties quite similar to the conventional plastics (polybag LDPE). CO polybag which is based on PVA however had extensively higher tensile strength and water absorption properties. FTIR study revealed a characteristics absorbance of conventional plastic, SF, CF and CO biodegradable polybag are associated with polyethylene, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) structures respectively.

  9. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  10. Decision trees to characterise the roles of permeability and solubility on the prediction of oral absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, Danielle; Freitas, Alex. A.; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Oral absorption of compounds depends on many physiological, physiochemical and formulation factors. Two important properties that govern oral absorption are in vitro permeability and solubility, which are commonly used as indicators of human intestinal absorption. Despite this, the nature and exact characteristics of the relationship between these parameters are not well understood. In this study a large dataset of human intestinal absorption was collated along with in vitro permeability, aqu...

  11. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  12. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Jiang, Han; Huang, Guangrong

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements. PMID:28617327

  13. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements.

  14. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    In atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a reference path may be provided for radiation which excludes the flame. This radiation provides a signal from a detector which varies only with the instrumental drift produced by variations in the radiation source brightness and by variations in detector gain. The signal can be used to compensate for drift in other signals received through a sample path including the flame. In the present invention, radiation passes through the sample path continuously during measurement, and only through the reference path between sample measurements. Movable mirrors shift the radiation between the paths upon externally applied commands. Conveniently, the reference path measurement is made while the flame is stabilized during the change between samples. The reference path measurements are stored and used to correct for drift

  16. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  17. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  18. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  19. Water vapor absorption of carbon dioxide laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.; Margolis, J. S.; Rosengren, L.-G.

    1976-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A (C-12) (O-16)2 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 to 10.7 microns. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5-10% lower than previous measurements.

  20. Application of Peleg\\'s Equation to Model Water Absorption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum and millet water absorption characteristics at temperature range 20 to 500C were investigated using the Peleg\\'s model or equation. Two sorghum varieties and one pearl millet variety were used in this investigation. Water absorption characteristics of the grain were investigated by soaking samples of the grain in ...

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  2. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  3. Galactic absorption line coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  4. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor. The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  5. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  6. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  7. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  8. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  9. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  10. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  11. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  12. Subgap absorption in conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); McBranch, D.; Heeger, A.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Baker, G.L. (Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Synthesis of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Gas Absorption and Release Characteristics of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, Ni, or Ti-Added MgH{sub 2}–Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Jun; Lee, Seong Ho; Kwon, Sung Nam; Park Il Woo; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A sample [named Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)] was synthesized by milling ZnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} at 400 rpm under argon gas for 2 h. And Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} sample was prepared by milling MgH{sub 2} in a planetary ball mill and mixing with the Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) synthesized by milling for 4 h in a mortar with a pestle. Then the gas-release characteristics of the two samples were investrigated. Analyses of XRD patterns and FT-IR spectra, as well as TGA, DTA, and SEM observations, were also performed. After heating the samples to 400 ℃, the weight losses of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) and Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} were 11.2 and 8.2 wt%, respectively, with respect to the sample weight. The DTA results for the two samples showed a decomposition peak for Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} at about 61 ℃. The DTA result of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) + MgH{sub 2} showed a decomposition peak for MgH{sub 2} at about 374 ℃. A sample of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} to which Ni, and Ti were added, with a composition of 90 wt% MgH{sub 2}-5 wt% Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)-2.5 wt% Ni-2.5 wt% Ti, in which a large amount of MgH2 is contained in order to make a large quantity of hydrogen be absorbed and released reversibly, was also prepared. The experimental results showed that addition of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl), Ni, or Ti increased the dehydriding rate of MgH{sub 2}, while decreased its initial hydriding rate.

  14. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  15. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  16. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  17. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  18. Cosmological Evolution of QSO Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik

    1995-08-01

    First, the evolution with cosmic time of the hydrogen clouds which produce the Lyman-alpha absorption lines is studied in dependence on the strength of these lines. From the analysis it is concluded that the results show no evidence of a dependence in the sense of stronger lines evolving faster, although for the resolution at which the used observations were done, it can not be ruled out. Within the same analysis, a distribution of the Doppler parameter of the lines was obtained, with large values and a wide spread. This parameter being an indicator of the gas temperature, this result is in accordance with high temperatures and, consequently, large ionised fractions and a large fraction of the baryonic matter of the universe being associated with these clouds. However, recent high resolution studies seem to reveal that much lower temperatures are characteristic of the clouds. The main content of this thesis, however, focuses on the redshift evolution of the absorbing systems producing absorption at the Lyman limit and of the amount of CIV producing CIV absorption lines. Regarding the CIV absorbers, previous predictions on the effects underlying their redshift distribution pointed to an increase with redshift of the absorbing column densities. In this thesis the first direct measurements of such column densities by profile fitting of a large number of absorption systems (73) are presented, confirming the predictions of a decrease of at least a factor of 3 between z=1.5 and z=3.0. The study on the evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs) puts an end to previous discrepancies between the results of different groups. Both a smooth single power law dependence of the LLS number density on redshift indicating no evolution in number density for 0.4 Team of the HST Key Project on QSO absorption lines, and in particular to estimate the necessary exposure times, the magnitudes of several of these objects had to be re-measured. The acquisition of their images and the

  19. Artificial neural network analysis of triple effect absorption refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh Aghdam, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: a.hajizadeh@iaukashan.ac.ir; Nazmara, H.; Farzaneh, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: h.nazmara@nioec.org, email: b_farzaneh_ms@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are utilized to predict the performance of triple effect series and parallel flow absorption refrigeration systems, with lithium bromide/water as the working fluid. Important parameters such as high generator and evaporator temperatures were varied and their effects on the performance characteristics of the refrigeration unit were observed. Absorption refrigeration systems make energy savings possible because they can use heat energy to produce cooling, in place of the electricity used for conventional vapour compression chillers. In addition, non-conventional sources of energy (such as solar, waste heat, and geothermal) can be utilized as their primary energy input. Moreover, absorption units use environmentally friendly working fluid pairs instead of CFCs and HCFCs, which affect the ozone layer. Triple effect absorption cycles were analysed. Results apply for both series and parallel flow systems. A relative preference for parallel-flow over series-flow is also shown.

  20. Synthesis of nano-sized PbSe from octeno-1,2,3-selenadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Singh, Narendra; Charan, Shobhit; Viswanath, A.K.; Patil, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction between trioctylphosphine selenide (TOPSe), generated from an organo-selenium compound, i.e. octeno-1,2,3-selenadiazole in tri-octylphosphine (TOP), and lead acetate has resulted formation of PbSe nano-crystals (cubes). TOPSe generated from the current method is first of its kind approach and is a novel concept. Characteristic absorption bands between 1.8-2.1 μm in near infra-red spectrum (NIR) are observed from sonicated PbSe crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed rock-salt crystal structure of PbSe with crystallite size of less than 10 nm. Observations made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed well-defined particles of the cubical crystals. XPS analysis showed that nano-crystals of PbSe were prone to air-oxidation due to 'not-so-efficient' capping

  1. Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; McSween, H. Y.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; McFadden, L. A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater. The combined presence on Ceres of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and organic material indicates a very complex chemical environment, suggesting favorable environments to prebiotic chemistry.

  2. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  3. Impurity identification and characterization by electrical optical and nuclear methods. The ZnTe: Au case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnea, N.; Pautrat, J.L.; Saminadayar, K.; Martin, P.; Bontemps, A.

    1979-01-01

    Gold is characterized in pure ZnTe by capacitance, luminescence and infra-red absorption experiments. The position of gold in the lattice is analysed by channeling of charged particles. We show that gold is principally introduced in substitutional position (Ausub(Zn)) and give a simple acceptor level at Esub(V) + 272 meV

  4. IRRAS, a new tool in food science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Bosch, van den G.G.M.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This report illustrates that infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) is a new powerful and promising technique to obtain detailed molecular information of biomolecules at and near the air/water interface of complex food solutions. Here it is demonstrated that in combination with

  5. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  6. Frenkel defect absorption on dislocations and dislocation discharge rate. Modeling determination of the absorption zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, Eh.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    A situation connected with the fact that evaluations of dislocation discharge strength which somehow or other are based on the elasticity theory in the dislocation nucleus or near it, do not lead to results complying with experimental data, is discussed. Bases of the alternative approach to this problem consisting in direct investigation into the process of Frenkel defect absorption on dislocation by its computerized simulation at the microscopic level are also presented. Methods of investigation and results are described using α dislocation in iron-alpha as an example. The concept of zones of vacancy and interstitial atom absorption on dislocation is discussed. It is shown that a spontaneous transition, performed by any of these defects near a dislocation is not always identical to absorption and usually appears to be only a part of a multistage process leading to the defect disappearance. Potential relief characteristics for vacancy movement near the dislocation are found. An area wide enough in a transverse direction is found around the dislocation. Vacncies reaching this area can be easily transported to places of their disappearance. Therefore the vacancy entry to this area is equivalent to the absorption. the procedure of simulating the atomic structure of a crystallite containing a dislocation with a step is described. Positions from which these defects perform spontaneous transitions, reaching the disappearance places are found on the dislocation near the step

  7. Metamaterials for perfect absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Pak; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practical development of metamaterial-based perfect absorbers (MMPAs). It begins with a brief history of MMPAs which reviews the various theoretical and experimental milestones in their development. The theoretical background and fundamental working principles of MMPAs are then discussed, providing the necessary background on how MMPAs work and are constructed. There then follows a section describing how different MMPAs are designed and built according to the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave, and how their behavior is changed. Methods of fabricating and characterizing MMPAs are then presented. The book elaborates on the performance and characteristics of MMPAs, including electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). It also covers recent advances in MMPAs and their applications, including multi-band, broadband, tunability, polarization independence and incidence independence. Suitable for graduate students in optical sciences and e...

  8. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  9. Microwaves absorption in superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, R.S. de; Fernandes, A.A.R.; Pereira, R.F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Microwaves absorption measures in two superconductors ceramics systems, Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O are compared with similars datas obtained in the same band of temperature by a conventional method, mutual inductance. The results suggest that the microwaves absorption can be used as single and non-destructive method for investigating the properties of ceramics superconductors. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. Absorption of solar radiation in broken clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.; Zhuravleva, T.B. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    It is recognized now that the plane-parallel model unsatisfactorily describes the transfer of radiation through broken clouds and that, consequently, the radiation codes of general circulation models (GCMs) must be refined. However, before any refinement in a GCM code is made, it is necessary to investigate the dependence of radiative characteristics on the effects caused by the random geometry of cloud fields. Such studies for mean fluxes of downwelling and upwelling solar radiation in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range were performed by Zuev et al. In this work, we investigate the mean spectral and integrated absorption of solar radiation by broken clouds (in what follows, the term {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} will be implied but not used, for convenience). To evaluate the potential effect of stochastic geometry, we will compare the absorption by cumulus (0.5 {le} {gamma} {le} 2) to that by equivalent stratus ({gamma} <<1) clouds; here {gamma} = H/D, H is the cloud layer thickness and D the characteristic horizontal cloud size. The equivalent stratus clouds differ from cumulus only in the aspect ratio {gamma}, all the other parameters coinciding.

  11. Hydrogen absorption/desorption characteristics of room temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZrMn2-Ni system; metal hydrides; hydrogen storage materials. ... where ∼ 2.5 to 2.9 H/F.U. can be reversibly stored under the ideal operating conditions. ... these are promising candidates for stationary and short range mobile applications.

  12. Hydrogen absorption/desorption characteristics of room temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mising light weight hydrides such as NaAlH4 (5\\5 wt.%) and MgH2 (7\\6 wt. ... high performance STP system with ~ 1\\5 wt.% reversible ... Ni–H is weaker than the bonding of both Zr–H and Mn– ... technique and the size of crystallites was calculated using. Scherror ... 2007) along with a smaller amount of Zr7Ni10 alloy (Yang.

  13. Rate of absorption and interfacial area of chlorine into aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to excellent mass transfer characteristics with energy efficiency jet ejectors can be used in place of conventional countercurrent systems, namely, packed bed contactors as well as venturi scrubbers, cyclones and airlift pumps. The removal of chlorine from certain gases by absorption in aqueous solutions of sodium ...

  14. Absorption dynamics and delay time in complex potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of absorption is analyzed by using an exactly solvable model that deals with an analytical solution to Schrödinger’s equation for cutoff initial plane waves incident on a complex absorbing potential. A dynamical absorption coefficient which allows us to explore the dynamical loss of particles from the transient to the stationary regime is derived. We find that the absorption process is characterized by the emission of a series of damped periodic pulses in time domain, associated with damped Rabi-type oscillations with a characteristic frequency, ω = (E + ε)/ℏ, where E is the energy of the incident waves and ‑ε is energy of the quasidiscrete state of the system induced by the absorptive part of the Hamiltonian; the width γ of this resonance governs the amplitude of the pulses. The resemblance of the time-dependent absorption coefficient with a real decay process is discussed, in particular the transition from exponential to nonexponential regimes, a well-known feature of quantum decay. We have also analyzed the effect of the absorptive part of the potential on the dynamical delay time, which behaves differently from the one observed in attractive real delta potentials, exhibiting two regimes: time advance and time delay.

  15. Decision trees to characterise the roles of permeability and solubility on the prediction of oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Danielle; Freitas, Alex A; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-27

    Oral absorption of compounds depends on many physiological, physiochemical and formulation factors. Two important properties that govern oral absorption are in vitro permeability and solubility, which are commonly used as indicators of human intestinal absorption. Despite this, the nature and exact characteristics of the relationship between these parameters are not well understood. In this study a large dataset of human intestinal absorption was collated along with in vitro permeability, aqueous solubility, melting point, and maximum dose for the same compounds. The dataset allowed a permeability threshold to be established objectively to predict high or low intestinal absorption. Using this permeability threshold, classification decision trees incorporating a solubility-related parameter such as experimental or predicted solubility, or the melting point based absorption potential (MPbAP), along with structural molecular descriptors were developed and validated to predict oral absorption class. The decision trees were able to determine the individual roles of permeability and solubility in oral absorption process. Poorly permeable compounds with high solubility show low intestinal absorption, whereas poorly water soluble compounds with high or low permeability may have high intestinal absorption provided that they have certain molecular characteristics such as a small polar surface or specific topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions

  17. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  18. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  19. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...... for absorption. This article presents research on phytase catalysis in gastric conditions and considers potential benefits and drawbacks for using phytases as a food supplement....

  1. Electronic absorption spectrum of copper-doped magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. N.; Sivaprasad, P.; Reddy, Y. P.; Rao, P. S.

    1992-04-01

    The optical absorption and EPR spectra of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPPH) doped with copper ions are recorded both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectrum is characteristic of Cu2+ in tetragonal symmetry. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital coefficients are evaluated. A correlation between EPR and optical absorption studies is drawn.

  2. Laser light absorption and harmonic generation due to self-generated magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that self-generated magnetic fields can play a significant role in laser light absorption. Even normally incident light will then be resonantly absorbed. Computer simulations and theoretical estimates for this absorption and the concomitant harmonic generation are given for parameters characteristic of some recent experiments

  3. Acoustic absorption of natural gas compression facility enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, P.; Wong, G. [Noise Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Noise sources at gas compressor facilities include the enclosure/building housing a gas engine and compressor, the ventilation openings, doors and windows for the enclosure, the engine air intake and exhaust, and a cooler. Accurate predictions of the noise levels inside the enclosure, the breakout noise from open windows and doors and ventilation, as well as the transmission through the walls, is necessary in order to determine cost effective noise mitigation for the facility. In order to accurately predict the sound breakout from these facilities it is necessary to know the acoustic absorption of the interior of these equipment enclosures. Although the acoustic absorption data of the wall systems may be available, the absorption attributable to the non-enclosure surfaces, the equipment and fittings, is not usually known and is difficult to predict. Since piping, instrumentation and mechanical equipment often take on a typical arrangement, shape, volumetric density and material composition, it is useful to know the typical acoustic absorption attributable to these items. In this study, reverberation time (RT) measurements were taken at 2 decommissioned gas compressor facilities in order to determine the absorption characteristics of the enclosure. The RT was measured according to ASTM C423-02a. The overall absorption coefficient of a compressor enclosure with a solid liner was found to be similar to that of steel decking. Fittings within the enclosure did not increase the high frequency absorption of the enclosure. It was concluded that room modes, structural vibrations, and fittings may serve to increase the effective absorption at frequencies below 630 Hz. Because of the small dimensions of the enclosure, low-frequency response of the room affected the reliability of the data below 160Hz. Structural vibration of the enclosure was investigated, and may considerably influence the noise breakout from the enclosure apart from the interior acoustical considerations. 4

  4. Acoustic absorption of natural gas compression facility enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, P.; Wong, G.

    2009-01-01

    Noise sources at gas compressor facilities include the enclosure/building housing a gas engine and compressor, the ventilation openings, doors and windows for the enclosure, the engine air intake and exhaust, and a cooler. Accurate predictions of the noise levels inside the enclosure, the breakout noise from open windows and doors and ventilation, as well as the transmission through the walls, is necessary in order to determine cost effective noise mitigation for the facility. In order to accurately predict the sound breakout from these facilities it is necessary to know the acoustic absorption of the interior of these equipment enclosures. Although the acoustic absorption data of the wall systems may be available, the absorption attributable to the non-enclosure surfaces, the equipment and fittings, is not usually known and is difficult to predict. Since piping, instrumentation and mechanical equipment often take on a typical arrangement, shape, volumetric density and material composition, it is useful to know the typical acoustic absorption attributable to these items. In this study, reverberation time (RT) measurements were taken at 2 decommissioned gas compressor facilities in order to determine the absorption characteristics of the enclosure. The RT was measured according to ASTM C423-02a. The overall absorption coefficient of a compressor enclosure with a solid liner was found to be similar to that of steel decking. Fittings within the enclosure did not increase the high frequency absorption of the enclosure. It was concluded that room modes, structural vibrations, and fittings may serve to increase the effective absorption at frequencies below 630 Hz. Because of the small dimensions of the enclosure, low-frequency response of the room affected the reliability of the data below 160Hz. Structural vibration of the enclosure was investigated, and may considerably influence the noise breakout from the enclosure apart from the interior acoustical considerations. 4

  5. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  7. The renewed absorption refrigerating engineering; Le groupe frigorifique a absorption, technique d`avenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumajon, J. [BETM (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of a refrigerating unit based on absorption. The main advantages are: silence, no vibration, security (no pressure, no inflammable and toxic gas), and a broad range of energy sources can be used (solar, geothermal, natural gas). The main disadvantages compared to a current compression cooling machine are: low yield, important volume of equipment, high cost and great amount of heat released. An installation based on a lithium bromide-water mixture is described, the role played by the different parts of the installation is explained. (A.C.)

  8. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  9. Gamm-ray absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the principles of gamma-ray absorption are described and important applications in plant and process techniques such as measurement of thickness of deposits on pipes, checking for voids in concrete, metal corrosion, measurement of the density of materials inside vessels in industrial radiography are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Emission and absorption of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    A full understanding of fissile-material detection requires a solid knowledge of nuclear physics, especially the emission and absorption of radiation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to give a brief explanation of these processes so that the reader can better understand the assumptions leading to the results in the main text

  11. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  12. Synthesis and characterization of composite based on cellulose acetate and hydroxyapatite application to the absorption of harmful substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaoui, Khalil; Lamhamdi, Abdelatif; Mejdoubi, El Miloud; Berrabah, Mohammed; Hammouti, Belkheir; Elidrissi, Abderrahman; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-10-13

    The aim of this work is to develop composite materials with hydroxyapatite (HAp) mineral and organic matrix such as cellulosic polymers. We use cellulose acetate with different percentages, and then inorganic-organic films were fabricated by evaporation of solvent. The composite films were characterized using emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra. Test results show that these films are uniform and have good ductility. A strong interaction existed between HAp and cellulosic polymers, and the method allows the production of very fine particles size of about 92 nm. We have developed a new chromatographic method for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) in samples of baby food. The result of this study demonstrates how to use this type of composite materials to remove pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  14. Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.

  15. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  16. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H2 EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 μm PAH ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ∼1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H 2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 μm PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 μm imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ∼1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H 2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 x 10 -5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 x 10 -5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ∼ 1000 K) H 2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 x 10 -7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 x 10 -7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10 -3 , of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H 2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H 2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10 4 cm -3 ≤ n H ≤ 10 5 cm -3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H ≤ 10 3 cm -3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s -1 ≤ v s ≤ 10 km s -1 for the redshifted gas and v s = 10 km s -1 for the blueshifted gas

  17. The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener’s music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content. PMID:27828970

  18. The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah E; Schubert, Emery; Wilson, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener's music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content.

  19. Absorption of CO2 in Biogas with Amine Solution for Biomethane Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Kamopas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogas upgrading with carbon dioxide absorption in a column of monoethanolamine (MEA solution was carried out. The effects of controlled parameters on the CO2 absorption such as gas flow rate, solution concentration, height to diameter ratio of the column were considered. High CH4 concentration could be achieved at low gas flow rate and high MEA concentration. The CH4 concentration could be up from 70-75% to 92-95% by volume for 0.2 M MEA. A set of breakthrough curves was obtained to determine the absorption characteristics, such as the absorption constant (k, the absorption time when the CO2 concentration at the outlet was 50% of the concentration at the inlet (t, and the absorption period (t* when the CH4 concentration was over 90%. An empirical equation of the methane enrichment with the related parameters was developed.

  20. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  1. Enhanced index and negative dispersion without absorption in driven cascade media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangming; Xu Jun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the dispersive and absorptive properties of a system of three-level cascade atoms driven by a strong coherent field. Three characteristic features are found. First, for the same set of atom-light interaction parameters, the indices of refraction are large at three different frequencies where the absorption vanishes. These three frequencies are determined by the resonance transition frequencies between dressed states produced by the strong driving field. Second, negative dispersion without absorption, which leads to superluminal light propagation, is achievable in the central resonance structure of the dispersion spectrum. Third, the whole absorption spectrum displays, in general, three pairs of absorption peaks and three pairs of gain (negative absorption) peaks. The minimal spacing between dressed states determines whether the outer adjacent gain peaks are separated from each other

  2. Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser–matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption

  3. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  4. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    by applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  5. Absorption of UV-B to blue light radiation by leaf cuticles of selected crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, P.; Stulle, K.; Schönherr, J.; Uhlig, B.

    1998-01-01

    Plants have protective pigments absorbing destructive shortwave radiation. These pigments have been found in the epidermis and mesophyll of leaves. We studied the absorption characteristics of the leaf cuticle, the outermost part of the epidermis that is directly exposed to radiation. Adaxial leaf cuticles of apple, pear, sour cherry, strawberry, cauliflower, sugarbeet, and 13 other plant species were tested. The UV-B absorption was highest in Citrus aurantium and Citrus maxima (<3 % transmittance) and lowest in sugarbeet and peach (>64 % transmittance). The absorption maxima are at wavelenghts below 320 nm. Significant absorption was also determined at 500 nm, which correlated with cuticle thickness of the plant species (r(2)=0.72). The absorption in the range of 250 to 350 nm is caused by pigments with a high extinction coefficient. This absorption is species dependent and the patterns were designated to three different types. The highest absorption was found in evergreen species. The extraction of cuticular waxes had little effect on absorption. The specific absorption of shortwave radiation by plant cuticles is probably caused by pigments covalently bound to cut in. It is known for some plant species that cuticles can contain the phenolics p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid. Mixtures of these phenolics had spectra similar to cuticles. For most species absorption of shortwave radiation by the cuticle alone does not give complete protection

  6. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  7. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  8. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  9. Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks

  10. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  11. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  12. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  13. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  14. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I; Klemsdal, E [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P; Hornut, J M [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  15. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  16. 1998 Earth and Planetary Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Anantha Ramakrishna

    ... estimated from INSAT infra red digital cloud imagery data — Onkari Prasad, Sant ... An ocean-atmosphere index for ENSO and its relation to Indian monsoon rainfall — ... Numerical study of the effects of urban heat island on the characteristic ... two-dimensional modelling of preseismic deformation — Sarva Jit Singh and ...

  17. A search for IRSL-Active dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity : a spectroscopic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnson, O.

    1997-01-01

    The spectral and radiation dose characteristics of a range of previously uninvestigated alumine-silicate materials are surveyed, with the intention of searching for alternative, high sensitivity materials that could potentially be used as InfraRed Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dosemeters...

  18. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  19. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1987-07-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  20. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  1. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  2. The electronic and optical properties of germanium tellurite glasses containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Various transition metal oxides, such as TiO 2 , V 2 O 5 , NiO, CuO, and ZnO are added to germanium-tellurite glass and measurements are reported of the electrical conductivity, density, optical absorption, infra-red absorption spectra, and electron spin resonance. It is found that the d.c. conductivity of glasses containing the same amount of V 2 O 5 is higher than that of germanium tellurite glasses containing a similar amount of other transition metal oxides, and is due to hopping between localized states. The optical absorption measurements show that the fundamental absorption edge is a function of glass composition and the optical absorption is due to forbidden indirect transitions. From the infra-red absorption spectra, it is found that the addition of transition metal oxides does not introduce any new absorption band in the infra-red spectrum of germanium tellurite glasses. A small shift of existing absorptions toward higher wave number is observed. The ESR measurements revealed that some transition metal ions are diamagnetic while others are paramagnetic in the glass network. (author)

  3. [The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, W; Schmid, K; Botta, L; Kobayashi, K; Moppert, J; Schneider, W; Sioufi, A; Strusberg, A; Tomasi, M

    1986-07-01

    The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylammonium 1.16% (w/w) in a combination of emulsion cream and gel (Voltaren Emulgel) and of diclofenac sodium 1% (w/w) in a cream formulation (Voltaren cream) was investigated in guinea-pig, rabbit and man. The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium in guinea-pig was 3 to 6% of the dose when the cream formulation in doses of 320, 100 or 40 mg was applied on 10 cm2 of occluded skin and left in place for 6 h. The transdermal delivery of 14C-labelled diclofenac yielded plateau plasma concentrations of radiotracer from 1.5 h after application until removal of the residual cream. Subsequently the steady state drug depots in the skin and muscle tissue were depleted promptly. During daily administration the steady state levels in the muscle tissue in proximity to the application site were about 3 times higher than in distant muscle tissue. By topical application on knee joints of rabbits diclofenac penetrated into the patellar ligament, the adipose corpus and the synovial fluid. In man the percutaneous absorption was 6% of the dose when the Emulgel formulation was spread by 5 mg/cm2 and left for 12 h on non-occluded skin. The pattern of metabolites of diclofenac in human urine was the same after topical and oral administration. In man, upon daily topical administration of 3 times 2.5 g cream formulation (10 mg/cm2) the diclofenac steady state plasma levels were 20 to 40 nmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  5. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  6. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  7. Multiplate ionization total absorption spectrometer with a compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskakov, V.I.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kantserov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of a multiplate total absorption spectrometer working with the compressed xenon (up to 25 atm) containing up to 23 radiation lengths of matter are studied. The dependence of the spectrometer energy resolution on the detecting matter density, on the material and thickness of the absorber plates has been studied. The ability of the spectrometer with a tungsten absorber to select hadrons and electrons with P=6 GeV/c by total energy release and characteristics of the cascade longitudinal development has been also studied. The gas spectrometer as it is shown differs quite slightly from the similar spectrometer with liquid argon as for its time resolution it is much better

  8. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V A Hansen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown.We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose.Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001 and metabolic activity (p < 0.001 of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing.Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development.

  9. Narrow absorption lines complex I: one form of broad absorption line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Jian; Lin, Ying-Ru

    2018-03-01

    We discover that some of the broad absorption lines (BALs) are actually a complex of narrow absorption lines (NALs). As a pilot study of this type of BAL, we show this discovery through a typical example in this paper. Utilizing the two-epoch observations of J002710.06-094435.3 (hereafter J0027-0944) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that each of the C IV and Si IV BAL troughs contains at least four NAL doublets. By resolving the Si IV BAL into multiple NALs, we present the following main results and conclusions. First, all these NALs show coordinated variations between the two-epoch SDSS observations, suggesting that they all originate in the quasar outflow, and that their variations are due to global changes in the ionization condition of the absorbing gas. Secondly, a BAL consisting of a number of NAL components indicates that this type of BAL is basically the same as the intrinsic NAL, which tends to support the inclination model rather than the evolution model. Thirdly, although both the C IV and Si IV BALs originate from the same clumpy substructures of the outflow, they show different profile shapes: multiple absorption troughs for the Si IV BAL in a wider velocity range, while P-Cygni for the C IV BAL in a narrower velocity range. This can be interpreted by the substantial differences in fine structure and oscillator strength between the Si IVλλ1393, 1402 and C IVλλ1548, 1551 doublets. Based on the above conclusions, we consider that the decomposition of a BAL into NALs can serve as a way to resolve the clumpy structure for outflows, and it can be used to learn more about characteristics of the clumpy structure and to test the outflow model, when utilizing high-resolution spectra and photoionization model.

  10. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  11. Plant root absorption and metabolic fate of technetium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1984-10-01

    Root absorption characteristics for the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) were determined using hydroponically grown soybean seedlings (Glycine max, cv. Williams). Absorption of TcO 4 - was found to be linear with time, sensitive to metabolic inhibitors, and exhibit multiple absorption isotherms over the concentration range 0.02 to 10 μM. The isotherms had calculated K/sub s/ values of 0.09, 8.9, and 54 μM for intact seedlings. The uptake of TcO 4 - (0.25 μM) was inhibited by a fourfold concentration excess of sulfate, phosphate, and selenate, but not by borate, nitrate, tungstate, perrhenate, iodate or vanadate. Kinetic studies demonstrated that sulfate, phosphate, and selenate were competitive inhibitors of TcO 4 - absorption. Once absorbed, Tc was readily transported as TcO 4 - to shoot tissues of soybean and subsequently associated with protein constituents. The chemical fate of Tc in plants varies with plant species. Plants high in nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds (Allium species) exhibited markedly different root/shoot distribution and protein incorporation patterns from species with low sulfur requirements (soybean, alfalfa, mustard). Based on these differences, Tc/S/Se tracer studies were employed to resolve the comparative fate of these probable analogs. 20 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  12. Nonlinear Cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, I.F.; Bugal' ter, G.A.; Demikhovskii, V.Y.; Fisher, L.M.; Yudin, V.A.

    1977-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the nonlinear behavior of the impedance of a cadmium plate in the region of existence of the hole doppleron. It is shown theoretically that this phenomenon can be attributed to nonlinear cyclotron absorption of the wave in the metal. A theory of nonlinear cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium is constructed. The nonlinearity is due to the influence of the wave magnetic field H that alters the trajectories of the resonant electrons responsible for the cyclotron asorption. The Lorentz force connected with the field H modulates the particle velocity along the magnetic field at a characteristic frequency ..omega../sub 0/ proportional to the square root of the wave amplitude. The modulation of the longitudinal particle velocity leads to violation of the condition of their resonant interaction with the wave, as a result of which the absorption coefficient decreases. The nonlinearity is significant when the frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the electron-collision frequency. A decrease of the cyclotron absorption changes radically the picture of the surface-impedance oscillations of the plate in the magnetic field. We studied in the experiment the influence of the temperature, of the angle of inclination of the magnetic field, and of the frequency on the nonlinear-effect threshold field that separates the regions of linear and nonlinear behavior of the sample impedance. The measurement results are in qualitative agreement with the conclusions of the theory.

  13. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, David J., E-mail: butcher@email.wcu.edu

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS.

  14. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guozhen; Sheng Guogang; Bansal, Pradeep Kumar; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure

  15. Measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section on small rock samples. Part of coord. prog. F2 10 05: Nuclear techniques in exploration and exploitation of natural resources: Nuclear bore-hole logging techniques for the determination of rock characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1989-01-01

    The research in the classification of special techniques needed in the method of absorption cross section measurements applied for rocks of different lithology and the theoretical approach to the application lower than that for typical rock material are presented. The conclusions also contain the proposal of the research for the next year. 13 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (author)

  16. Nanocellulose based polymer composite for acoustical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Purniawan, Agung; Susanti, Diah; Priyono, Slamet; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rahmasita, Mutia E.

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibers are biodegradable materials that are innovatively and widely used for composite reinforcement in automotive components. Nanocellulose derived from natural fibers oil palm empty bunches have properties that are remarkable for use as a composite reinforcement. However, there have not been many investigations related to the use of nanocellulose-based composites for wideband sound absorption materials. The specimens of nanocellulose-based polyester composite were prepared using a spray method. An impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of this composite material. To reveal the characteristics of the nanocellulose-based polyester composite material, SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), and density tests were performed. Sound absorption test results showed the average value of sound absorption coefficient of 0.36 to 0,46 for frequency between 500 and 4000 Hz indicating that this nanocellulose-based polyester composite materials had a tendency to wideband sound absorption materials and potentially used as automotive interior materials.

  17. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  18. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  19. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  20. Sound absorption with green materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  1. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  2. Determination of rare earth element content in yttrium aluminium garnet crystals by absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejl'man, M.L.; Kolomijtsev, A.I.; Baskakova, Z.M.; Bagdasarov, Kh.S.; Kevorkov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of determination of relative and absolute contents of impurity trivalent REE ions in yttrium aluminium garnet of (YAG) monocrystals has been studied by the absorption spectrophotometry method. Absorption spectra in UV and visible regions YAG monocrystals doped by REE are studied. For each admixture the characteristic lines or absorption bands not overlapping with lines of other admixtures are defined and investigated. The extinction coefficients of characteristic lines are determined which allow one to measure absolute REE admixture concentrations in garnet crystals. A conclusion is drawn that the absorption spectrophotometry method permits to measure REE admixture content in YAG monocrystals within the concentration range of approximately 1x10sup(-3)-5 mas. % with an accuracy not less than 20% (with sample thickness of approximately 1 cm)

  3. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Vithória A. D.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the effect of water absorption on the performance of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechnological process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree.Water resistance is an important characteristic of structural composites, that may exposed to rain and humid environments. Both water absorption capacity (water solubility in the material) and the rate of water absorption (controlled by the diffusivity of water in the material) are important parameters. However, water absorption per se may not be the most important characteristic, insofar as the performance and applications of the compounds. It is the effect of the water content on the ultimate properties that determine the suitability of the material for applications that involve prolonged exposure to water.PHB/babassu composites with 0-20% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers having two different article size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. The water absorption capacity and the kinetic constant of water absorption were measured in triplicate. Mechanical properties under tension were measured for dry and moist specimens with different amounts of absorbed water.Results indicate that the performance of the composites is comparable to that of the pure matrix. Water absorption capacity increases from 0.7% (pure PHB) to 4% (PHB/20% babassu), but the water diffusivity (4.10□8 cm2/s) was found to be virtually independent of the water absorption level. Water absorption results in moderate drop in elastic modulus (10-30% at saturation, according to fiber content) but has little effect on tensile strength and elongation at break. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on water absorption or mechanical properties.

  4. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Toon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric OCS abundances have been retrieved from infrared spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL MkIV Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometer during 24 balloon flights and during nearly 1100 days of ground-based observations since 1985. Our spectral fitting approach uses broad windows to enhance the precision and robustness of the retrievals. Since OCS has a vertical profile similar in shape to that of N2O, and since tropospheric N2O is very stable, we reference the OCS observations to those of N2O, measured simultaneously in the same air mass, to remove the effects of stratospheric transport, allowing a clearer assessment of secular changes in OCS. Balloon measurements reveal less than 5 % change in stratospheric OCS amounts over the past 25 years. Ground-based measurements reveal a springtime peak of tropospheric OCS, followed by a rapid early-summer decrease, similar to the behavior of CO2. This results in a peak-to-peak seasonal cycle of 5–6 % of the total OCS column at northern mid-latitudes. In the long-term tropospheric OCS record, a 5 % decrease is seen from 1990 to 2002, followed by a 5 % increase from 2003 to 2012.

  5. Dynamic model of an autonomous solar absorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Fellah; Tahar Khir; Ammar Ben Brahim

    2009-01-01

    The performance analysis of a solar absorption refrigerator operating in an autonomous way is investigated. The water/LiBr machine satisfies the air-conditioning needs along the day. The refrigerator performances were simulated regarding a dynamic model. For the solar driven absorption machines, two applications could be distinguished. The sun provides the thermal part of the useful energy. In this case, it is necessary to use additional energy as the electric one to activate the pumps, the fans and the control system. On the other hand, the sun provides all the necessary energy. Here, both photovoltaic cells and thermal concentrators should be used. The simulation in dynamic regime of the cycle requires the knowledge of the geometric characteristics of every component as the exchange areas and the internal volumes. Real characteristics of a refrigerator available at the applied thermodynamic research unit (ATRU) at the engineers' national school of Gabes are notified. The development of the thermal and matter balances in every component of the cycle has permitted to simulate in dynamic regime the performances of a solar absorption refrigerator operating with the water/LiBr couple for air-conditioning needs. The developed model could be used to perform intermittent refrigeration cycle autonomously driven. (author)

  6. Laser radiation short pulse absorption in a high-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A.V.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    Dependences of the absorption coefficients for s and p polarized electromagnetic waves (laser radiation) in a semi-bound plasma on the temperature and incidence angle are found for an arbitrary ratio of the skin-layer depth to the electron free path length t. The dependences obtained describe transition from the normal skin effect to abnormal one and permit quantitatively to determine the absorption coefficients in the intermediate range of the parameter t, characteristic for the majority of modern experiments

  7. Storage characteristics of hydrogen by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Kang, H. S.; Back, S. W.; Choi, H. J.; Kim, K. R.; An, D. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jung, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption experiments were performed by the sponge, strip and rod types of titanium(Ti) for investigating the absorption characteristics of hydrogen. From experimental results, Ti sponge showed the high hydrogen absorption capacity inspite of low reaction temperature(25 .deg. C), the H/M, which mean the capacity of hydrogen absorption was measured 2.0 for Ti sponge at 25 .deg. C. However, in case of strip and rod type of Ti, the hydrogen absorption capacities were very low in the experimental condition of 25 .deg. C. The pulverizing phenomena after metal hydriding reaction was observed in both Ti strip and Ti rod. However, the pulverizing phenomena was not observed in the Ti sponges because of high surface area

  8. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series ...

  9. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  10. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  11. Experimental investigation of sound absorption of acoustic wedges for anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Zverev, A. Ya.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Sobolev, A. F.; Chernykh, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The results of measuring the sound absorption by acoustic wedges, which were performed in AC-3 and AC-11 reverberation chambers at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), are presented. Wedges of different densities manufactured from superfine basaltic and thin mineral fibers were investigated. The results of tests of these wedges were compared to the sound absorption of wedges of the operating AC-2 anechoic facility at TsAGI. It is shown that basaltic-fiber wedges have better sound-absorption characteristics than the investigated analogs and can be recommended for facing anechoic facilities under construction.

  12. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor...... materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  13. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  14. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-2) satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites are spin stabilized geostationary satellites operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-1) satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites are spin stabilized geostationary satellites operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of...

  16. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Imaging of Femoral Neck Bone: Reduced Heterogeneity of Mineral-to-Matrix and Carbonate-to-Phosphate and more Variable Crystallinity in Treatment-Naïve Fracture Cases compared to Fracture-Free Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L.

    2012-01-01

    After age 60 hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and non-fractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck’s axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed Tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared to controls. While our treatment-naïve patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone’s toughness as a material. PMID:22865771

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-3) satellite (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-3) satellites are spin stabilized geostationary satellites operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of...

  18. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  19. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Kheireddine, Malika; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non

  20. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  1. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  2. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1979-01-01

    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  3. Process for neptunium analysis by absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of a neptunium compounds is treated by a reagent, preferentially a vanadyl sulfate oxidized by cerium IV ions, to obtain neptunium V by oxidation of neptunium IV and reduction of neptunium VI. The reagent is chosen for a negligible absorption at the wavelength used for neptunium V absorption spectrophotometry for instance 981 nm [fr

  4. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  5. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  6. Cimetidine absorption in humans during sucralfate coadministration.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angio, R; Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Bliss, M

    1986-01-01

    Cimetidine absorption after a single 300 mg oral dose was evaluated in six normal subjects in the absence or presence of sucralfate. Sucralfate was ingested four times a day for 2 days prior to and for two additional doses on the day of cimetidine ingestion. Sucralfate coadministration had no statistically significant influence on the rate or extent of cimetidine absorption.

  7. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  8. Unveiling the Microfoundations of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    2017-01-01

    to absorptive capacity at the organizational level and that this relationship is mediated through a microlevel process. The findings reveal that knowledge workers’ cognitive process of perspective taking and their creative behavior are important microfoundations of absorptive capacity. Moreover, the results...... emphasize the critical role of key employees in explaining firm-level heterogeneity in building organizational capabilities....

  9. Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muys, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Background: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. Design:

  10. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  11. Absorption of controlled-release iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.D.; Lipschitz, D.A.; Skikne, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple-dose double radioiron technic was used to compare absorption of iron administered as a controlled release (CR) capsule and as an elixir; both formulations contained 50 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate. When taken by normal subjects in the fasting state, mean absorption from the elixir and CR capsule averaged 4.92% and 4.38%, which gave a CR capsule:elixir ratio of 0.89. This difference was not significant, but when taken with meals that inhibit absorption of dietary iron by different degrees, absorption of the CR formulation was superior. CR capsule:elixir absorption ratios averaged 1.70 from a meal that is mildly inhibitory and 3.13 from a meal that causes more marked inhibition. It is concluded that CR iron formulations may offer a therapeutic advantage to patients who take oral iron with meals to avoid gastrointestinal side effects

  12. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  13. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  14. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  15. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  16. Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, C; Haupt, F; Hanl, M; Weichselbaum, A; Claassen, M; Wuester, W; Fallahi, P; Faelt, S; Glazman, L; von Delft, J; Türeci, H E; Imamoglu, A

    2011-06-29

    The interaction between a single confined spin and the spins of an electron reservoir leads to one of the most remarkable phenomena of many-body physics--the Kondo effect. Electronic transport measurements on single artificial atoms, or quantum dots, have made it possible to study the effect in great detail. Here we report optical measurements on a single semiconductor quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a degenerate electron gas which show that absorption of a single photon leads to an abrupt change in the system Hamiltonian and a quantum quench of Kondo correlations. By inferring the characteristic power-law exponents from the experimental absorption line shapes, we find a unique signature of the quench in the form of an Anderson orthogonality catastrophe, induced by a vanishing overlap between the initial and final many-body wavefunctions. We show that the power-law exponent that determines the degree of orthogonality can be tuned using an external magnetic field, which unequivocally demonstrates that the observed absorption line shape originates from Kondo correlations. Our experiments demonstrate that optical measurements on single artificial atoms offer new perspectives on many-body phenomena previously studied using transport spectroscopy only.

  17. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  18. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of PPy/Co nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua@163.com [School of Materials Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Gao, Duoduo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cobalt (Co) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of synthesized Co nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was accomplished by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, VSM, and vector network analyzer techniques. XRD analysis revealed that characteristic diffraction peaks of polypyrrole and Co appeared at the same time in nanocomposites. FT-IR analysis indicated a successful conjugation of Co particles with polypyrrole. TEM confirmed the formation of a core-shell structure with a wide particle size distribution. Magnetization measurements showed that polypyrrole coating decreased the saturation magnetization of Co significantly. With the increase of the matching thickness, the absorption peak varied towards low frequency direction. When the matching thickness was 3.0 mm, the value of the maximum reflection loss (RL) was −20.0 dB at 13.8 GHz with the 7.2 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • The influence of PPy on the structure of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the magnetic properties of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the absorption property of Co is discussed. • PPy/Co possessed the excellent absorption property.

  19. Absorption and luminescence of crystalline quartz under electron nanosecond irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, B P; Lisitsyn, V M; Stepanchuk, V N [Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the study is continuation of investigations of principal regularities of production and destruction of short-lived defects in quartz and accompanying luminescence under electron pulse irradiation. For investigation purposes samples of crystalline synthetic quartz have been used. The irradiation has been performed at 80-400 K temperatures by means of an electron pulse accelerator with parameters: electron flow pulse duration 10 ns, pulse current density up to 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, electron mean energy 200 keV. Temperature-time characteristics of absorption and luminescence spectrum are studied. It has been found that quartz irradiation by electron pulses of nanosecond duration leads to appearance of short-lived bands of optical absorption at 4.1 and 5.15 eV to which by kinetic parameters correspond luminescence bands at 2.6 and 3.1 eV, respectively. The enumerated absorption bands are induced by quartz irradiation independently of the prehistory and phase state of the sample and are caused obviously by intrinsic radiation defects. Possible models of such defects are suggested.

  20. Glucose absorption in acute peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podel, J; Hodelin-Wetzel, R; Saha, D C; Burns, G

    2000-04-01

    During acute peritoneal dialysis (APD), it is known that glucose found in the dialysate solution contributes to the provision of significant calories. It has been well documented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that glucose absorption occurs. In APD, however, it remains unclear how much glucose absorption actually does occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether it is appropriate to use the formula used to calculate glucose absorption in CAPD (Grodstein et al) among patients undergoing APD. Actual measurements of glucose absorption (Method I) were calculated in 9 patients undergoing APD treatment for >24 hours who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Glucose absorption using the Grodstein et al formula (Method II) was also determined and compared with the results of actual measurements. The data was then further analyzed based on the factors that influence glucose absorption, specifically dwell time and concentration. The mean total amount of glucose absorbed was 43% +/- 15%. However, when dwell time and concentration were further examined, significant differences were noted. Method I showed a cumulative increase over time. Method II showed that absorption was fixed. This suggests that with the variation in dwell time commonly seen in the acute care setting, the use of Method II may not be accurate. In each of the 2 methods, a significant difference in glucose absorption was noted when comparing the use of 1.5% and 4.25% dialysate concentrations. The established formula designed for CAPD should not be used for calculating glucose absorption in patients receiving APD because variation in dwell time and concentration should be taken into account. Because of the time constraints and staffing required to calculate each exchange individually, combined with the results of the study, we recommend the use of the percentage estimate of 40% to 50%.

  1. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 75 - Paris (France); Paris-11 Univ., 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution + /sup 45/Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/) with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution results in decreased /sup 45/Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl/sub 2/ (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon /sup 45/Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system.

  2. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon/polyaniline nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liuding; Wu, Hongjing; Shen, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaoli; Wang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► OMC-Ni/PANI nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The effective absorption bandwidth was 4.7 GHz for OMC-Ni0.15/PANI. ► OMC-Ni/PANI showed excellent microwave absorption with respect to OMC-Ni. ► This effect could be mainly attributed to the improvement of impendence matching. - Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a new scheme to improve microwave absorption property through polyaniline (PANI)-functionalized Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by in situ polymerization method. The polymer-functionalized nanocomposites, embedding polyaniline within ordered mesoporous carbon, exhibit strong and broadband microwave absorption due to its better dielectric loss characteristic. OMC-Ni0.15/PANI exhibits an effective absorption bandwidth (i.e., reflection loss (RL) ≤ −10 dB) of 4.7 GHz and an absorption peak of −51 dB at 9.0 GHz. The absorption peak intensity and position can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the coating.

  3. Effect of oils on drug absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Palin, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Oil and emulsion vehicles have been shown to alter the oral absorption of many drugs. This may be due to enhanced lymph flow and/or altered gastro-intestinal motility in the presence of the oils. The oral absorption of a model compound (DOT) in the presence of three chemically different oils, arachis oil, Miglyol 812 and liquid paraffin was investigated in rats, the influence of lymphatic absorption and gastro-intestinal motility being determined. The findings were applied to the for.mulation...

  4. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  5. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  6. Evidence for pion absorption on four nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzehorz, B.; Backenstoss, G.; Dzemidzic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Furic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Hoffart, A.; Petkovic, T.; Zagreb Univ.; Ullrich, H.; Weyer, H.J.; Weiser, D.; Wildi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental spectra from the coincident detection of three nucleons after the pion absorption in 4 He are displayed. The presence of a mechanism with four nucleons participating in the absorption process is made obvious. The total cross-sections for this absorption mode are: σ 4NA abs =(1.0±0.2)mb at T π =120 MeV and σ 4NA abs =(2.18± 0.65) mb at T π =210 MeV. (orig.)

  7. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234 U to 238 U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234 U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234 U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238 U, using a literature value for the 238 U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  8. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  9. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  10. Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

  11. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  12. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  13. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  14. Laser absorption of carbon fiber reinforced polymer with randomly distributed carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Xu, Hebing; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a non-traditional machining method which has many prospective applications. The laser absorption characteristics of CFRP are analyzed in this paper. A ray tracing model describing the interaction of the laser spot with CFRP is established. The material model contains randomly distributed carbon fibers which are generated using an improved carbon fiber placement method. It was found that CFRP has good laser absorption due to multiple reflections of the light rays in the material’s microstructure. The randomly distributed carbon fibers make the absorptivity of the light rays change randomly in the laser spot. Meanwhile, the average absorptivity fluctuation is obvious during movement of the laser. The experimental measurements agree well with the values predicted by the ray tracing model.

  15. Capturing Absorptive Capacity: Concepts, Determinants, Measurement Modes and Role in Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Małgorzata Stefania

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Absorptive capacity (ACAP enables firm to adjust to a rapidly changing environment and achieve sustained competitive advantage. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on ACAP by providing a comprehensive literature review of the various conceptual attributes of the construct, its determinants, outcomes, and positive and negative consequences of using its input-oriented, output-oriented, and perceptive measurement modes. Proposals for constructing ACAP based on the Community Innovation Survey (CIS empirically illustrate for the conceptual part of the paper. Additionally, combining concepts of absorptive capacity and open innovation (which is still rare in the literature provides a new perspective on the role of absorptive capacity in opening up the innovation process. This advances the understanding of both inter-related proposals. The article also identifies key problems and formulates future research directions to improve the multi-level characteristics of absorptive capacity.

  16. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  17. On pair-absorption in intrinsic vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotop, R.; Niemax, K.; Schlueter, D.

    1982-01-01

    The bound-state pair-absorption bands Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + hν → Cs(5 2 D 5 sub(/) 2 sub(,) 3 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 P 1 sub(/) 2 ) and the K-K continuum-state pair-absorptions in the wavelength region 2.350 <= lambda <= 2.850 Angstroem have been investigated experimentally. In the case of the bound-state pair-absorption bands a theoretical approach for the absorption cross section at the band centre is given which is in good agreement with the experimental observation. Differences between our and the theoretical formulas given by the Stanford group are discussed. (orig.)

  18. evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    1Department of Agricultural and Food Science and 2Department of ... used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and ..... fact that more preparation steps were involved in the Ashing procedure and thus.

  19. Enriching Absorptive Capacity Through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper Jaap; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    their organization’s capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer initiative at two subsidiaries of the same MNE. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a key requirement for subsidiary....... These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as the key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity.......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within MNEs. But how individual behaviour translates to absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and exactly how this is contingent on subsidiaries’ social context, remains under-addressed. This not only...

  20. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    their organization's capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer at two subsidiaries of the same multinational enterprise. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a prerequisite...... or constraining local interaction patterns. These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as a key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity.......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under...

  1. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhionero, A.J.; Hughes, P.J.; Reid, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  3. (EXAFS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The technique EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is presented and its applications using the synchrotron radiation as an incidente beam in Science of Materials and Biophysics are shown. (L.C.) [pt

  4. The origin of electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Dae; Hwang, Sung Tae; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Sung Jong; Cho, Hyuck; Choi, Won Sik

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there have been a lot of interests in the coherence superposition of atomic states which are formed by laser fields. Coherent population trapping(CTP), electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT), enhancement of the refractive index without absorption, lasing without inversion(LWI), and electromagnetically induced absorption(EIA) are the examples where coherence effects are important. Previously, the spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence from the excited level to the ground one was emphasized for the essential ingredient for electromagnetically induced absorption. In this paper, we have considered a case where linearly polarized coupling laser and probe laser are applied to the same degenerated ground and excited levels. We have solved the master equations for density matrix using time varying Hamiltonian and studied the absorption spectra at various conditions. We demonstrate that EIA can be observed without spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence in F g = 1 -> F e = 2 D2 transitions of Hydrogen atoms

  5. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  6. Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Fernando; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zenghu

    2015-01-01

    We extend attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) to the study of hydrogen molecules, demonstrating the potential of the technique to resolve – simultaneously and with state resolution – both the electronic and nuclear dynamics. (paper)

  7. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  8. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  9. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations.

  10. Determination of hafnium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum conditions for atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of hafnium were investigated by use of a Jarrel-Ash AA-1 instrument which was equipped with a premixed gas burner slotted 50 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width. Absorption of hafnium, which was atomized in an nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, was measured on a resonance line at 307.29 nm. The absorption due to hafnium was enhanced in the presence of ammonium fluoride and iron(III) ion, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, depending on their concentration. The highest absorption was attained by the addition of (0.15 -- 0.3)M ammonium fluoride, 0.07 M of iron(III) ion and 0.05 M of hydrochloric acid. An excess of the additives decreased the absorption. The presence of zirconium, which caused a significant interference in the ordinary analytical methods, did not affect the absorption due to hafnium, if the zirconium concentration is less than 0.2 M. A standard procedure was proposed; A sample containing a few mg of hafnium was dissolved in a 25-ml volumetric flask, and ammonium fluoride, ferric nitrate and hydrochloric acid were added so that the final concentrations were 0.3, 0.07 and 0.05 M, respectively. Atomic absorption was measured on the aqueous solution in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the hafnium content was calculated from the absorbance. Sensitivity was as high as 12.5 μg of Hf/ml/l% absorption. The present method is especially recommendable to the direct determination of hafnium in samples containing zirconium. (auth.)

  11. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  12. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of 4-dimethyl amino benzal pyruvate of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Solid state compounds involving Ln and DMBP, where Ln trivalent lanthanides (except promethium) and yttrium; DMBP 4-dimethyl amino benzylidene pyruvate, were prepared by addition of ligand to the corresponding metal ions chlorides, both in aqueous solution. The precipitates were washed with distilled water and dried at 40 0 C in a forced circulation oven. Complexometry with EDTA, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), infra-red absorption and X-ray diffraction have been used in the study of these compounds. (author)

  13. Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Lazzara, L.; Prieur, L.

    Absorption spectra of laboratory cultures of eight species of phytoplankton were studied. These spectra, normalized per unit of chlorophyll a concentration (specific absorption) show variability in magnitude and spectral form. Specific absorption...

  14. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  15. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  16. Dataset on the absorption of PCDTBT:PC70BM layers and the electro-optical characteristics of air-stable, large-area PCDTBT:PC70BM-based polymer solar cell modules, deposited with a custom built slot-die coater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar I. Kutsarov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled “Fabrication of air-stable, large-area, PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer solar cell modules using a custom built slot-die coater” (D.I. Kutsarov, E. New, F. Bausi, A. Zoladek-Lemanczyk, F.A. Castro, S.R.P. Silva, 2016 [1]. The repository name and reference number for the raw data from the abovementioned publication can be found under: https://doi.org/10.15126/surreydata.00813106. In this data in brief article, additional information about the absorption properties of PCDTBT:PC70BM layers deposited from a 12.5 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml photoactive layer dispersion are shown. Additionally, the best and average J-V curves of single cells, fabricated from the 10 and 15 mg/ml dispersions, are presented.

  17. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  18. Precise Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Near Millimeter Wave and Far Infrared Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    polyethylene. The plexiglass is a polymethyl methacrylate and the acrylic is a polymethacrylate . The polyamide(nylon) is made with adipic acid and hexamethylene...are made with acrylic acid . It was not sur- prizing to see both exhibiting similar absorption characteristics atleast 30 times higher than

  19. Phytoplankton absorption and pigment adaptation of a red tide in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton absorption and pigment characteristics of a red tide were investigated in coastal waters of the southern Benguela. Diagnostic indices indicated that dinoflagellates were the dominant phytoplankton group, with diatoms and small flagellates being of secondary importance. Very high biomass was observed ...

  20. Chemical modifiers in electrothermal atomic absorption determination of Platinum and Palladium containing preparations in blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аntonina Alemasova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological liquids matrixes influence on the characteristic masses and repeatability of Pt and Pd electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS determination was studied. The chemical modifiers dimethylglyoxime and ascorbic acid for matrix interferences elimination and ETAAS results repeatability improvement were proposed while bioliquids ETAAS analysis, and their action mechanism was discussed.