Sample records for information system arctic

  1. Information security of power enterprises of North-Arctic region (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.


    The role of information technologies in providing technological security for energy enterprises is a component of the economic security for the northern Arctic region in general. Applying instruments and methods of information protection modelling of the energy enterprises' business process in the northern Arctic region (such as Arkhenergo and Komienergo), the authors analysed and identified most frequent risks of information security. With the analytic hierarchy process based on weighting factor estimations, information risks of energy enterprises' technological processes were ranked. The economic estimation of the information security within an energy enterprise considers weighting factor-adjusted variables (risks). Investments in information security systems of energy enterprises in the northern Arctic region are related to necessary security elements installation; current operating expenses on business process protection systems become materialized economic damage.

  2. The Arctic Cooperative Data and Information System: Data Management Support for the NSF Arctic Research Program (Invited) (United States)

    Moore, J.; Serreze, M. C.; Middleton, D.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Yarmey, L.


    The NSF funds the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information System (ACADIS), url: ( It serves the growing and increasingly diverse data management needs of NSF's arctic research community. The ACADIS investigator team combines experienced data managers, curators and software engineers from the NSIDC, UCAR and NCAR. ACADIS fosters scientific synthesis and discovery by providing a secure long-term data archive to NSF investigators. The system provides discovery and access to arctic related data from this and other archives. This paper updates the technical components of ACADIS, the implementation of best practices, the value of ACADIS to the community and the major challenges facing this archive for the future in handling the diverse data coming from NSF Arctic investigators. ACADIS provides sustainable data management, data stewardship services and leadership for the NSF Arctic research community through open data sharing, adherence to best practices and standards, capitalizing on appropriate evolving technologies, community support and engagement. ACADIS leverages other pertinent projects, capitalizing on appropriate emerging technologies and participating in emerging cyberinfrastructure initiatives. The key elements of ACADIS user services to the NSF Arctic community include: data and metadata upload; support for datasets with special requirements; metadata and documentation generation; interoperability and initiatives with other archives; and science support to investigators and the community. Providing a self-service data publishing platform requiring minimal curation oversight while maintaining rich metadata for discovery, access and preservation is challenging. Implementing metadata standards are a first step towards consistent content. The ACADIS Gateway and ADE offer users choices for data discovery and access with the clear objective of increasing discovery and use of all Arctic data especially for analysis activities

  3. Application of Network Analysis to Identify and Map Relationships between Information Systems in the context of Arctic Sustainability (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.


    The Arctic Council is an intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States and indigenous communities on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the North. The work of the Council is primarily carried out by six Working Groups: Arctic Contaminants Action Program, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response, Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment, and Sustainable Development Working Group. The Working Groups are composed of researchers and representatives from government agencies. Each Working Group issues numerous scientific assessments and reports on a broad field of subjects, from climate change to emergency response in the Arctic. A key goal of these publications is to contribute to policy-making in the Arctic. Complex networks of information systems and the connections between the diverse elements within the systems have been identified via network analysis. This allowed to distinguish data sources that were used in the composition of the primary publications of the Working Groups. Next step is to implement network analysis to identify and map the relationships between the Working Groups and policy makers in the Arctic.

  4. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change—A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Eicken, H.; Fox, S. E.


    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary and interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of arctic change. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. Towards this end, SEARCH: 1. Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. 2. Identifies emerging issues in arctic environmental change. 3. Provides information resources to arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them respond to arctic environmental change. 4. Coordinates with national arctic science programs integral to SEARCH goals. 5. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales with stakeholder concerns incorporated from the start of the planning process. 6. Represents the U.S. arctic environmental change science community in international and global change research initiatives. Specific current activities include: Arctic Observing Network (AON) - coordinating a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. Arctic Sea Ice Outlook ¬- an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. In April, the SEARCH Science Steering Committee (SSC) released a set of draft 5-year goals and objectives for review by the broader arctic science community. The goals and objectives will direct the SEARCH program in the next five years. The draft SEARCH goals focus on four areas: ice-diminished Arctic Ocean, warming

  5. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  6. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.


    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  7. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective. (United States)

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M


    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  8. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.


    internationally). The workshop brought together approximately 40 participants, with roughly equal numbers from North America and Europe/Scandinavia, and included representatives from Canada, Russia, Germany, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark/Greenland, and the US. This talk will focus on findings of the workshop, highlighting advances in Arctic research that have taken flight over the last decade, specifically stimulated by considering the hydrologic cycle as an integrating force and fundamental building block uniting atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric and terrestrial domains of the pan-Arctic system. The authors will present a future vision for systems-level science of Arctic hydrology and affiliated energy and carbon cycles. A scientific roadmap will be introduced, outlining the main research priorities, robust global and regional geo-information data products, improved models and effective data assimilation systems to forward the science of water in the Arctic.

  9. INTAROS: Development of an integrated Arctic observation system under Horizon 2020 (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sandven, Stein; Sagen, Hanne


    INTAROS is a research and innovation action funded under the H2020-BG-09 call for the five-year period 2016-2021. INTAROS will develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation (EO) data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. EO data will therefore be integrated into iAOS based on existing products and databases. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing Arctic observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the selected networks. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote, including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. Multidisciplinary data integrated under INTAROS will contribute to better understanding of interactions and coupling in the complex Arctic ice-ocean-land-atmosphere system. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism

  10. Roshydromet system of environment radioactive contamination monitoring in the Arctic region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelukanov, V.


    159 arctic hydrometerological stations take measurements of gamma radiation. 51 stations monitor the density of atmospheric radioactive fallout and 12 stations monitor the concentration of aerosols. 13 hydrological stations sited in the mouths of main Arctic Ocean rivers take water samples. Regional laboratories carry out isotop analysis of samples. Information on high levels of a radioactivity measured at the monitoring stations, as well as information on abnormal radioactivity from regional laboratories are transmitted to the Information Centers on the monitoring system (Moscow and Obnisk) by cable. 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Trajectory of the Arctic as an integrated system. (United States)

    Hinzman, Larry D; Deal, Clara J; McGuire, A David; Mernild, Sebastian H; Polyakov, Igor V; Walsh, John E


    Although much remains to be learned about the Arctic and its component processes, many of the most urgent scientific, engineering, and social questions can only be approached through a broader system perspective. Here, we address interactions between components of the Arctic system and assess feedbacks and the extent to which feedbacks (1) are now underway in the Arctic and (2) will shape the future trajectory of the Arctic system. We examine interdependent connections among atmospheric processes, oceanic processes, sea-ice dynamics, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, land surface stocks of carbon and water, glaciers and ice caps, and the Greenland ice sheet. Our emphasis on the interactions between components, both historical and anticipated, is targeted on the feedbacks, pathways, and processes that link these different components of the Arctic system. We present evidence that the physical components of the Arctic climate system are currently in extreme states, and that there is no indication that the system will deviate from this anomalous trajectory in the foreseeable future. The feedback for which the evidence of ongoing changes is most compelling is the surface albedo-temperature feedback, which is amplifying temperature changes over land (primarily in spring) and ocean (primarily in autumn-winter). Other feedbacks likely to emerge are those in which key processes include surface fluxes of trace gases, changes in the distribution of vegetation, changes in surface soil moisture, changes in atmospheric water vapor arising from higher temperatures and greater areas of open ocean, impacts of Arctic freshwater fluxes on the meridional overturning circulation of the ocean, and changes in Arctic clouds resulting from changes in water vapor content.

  12. Middle Range Sea Ice Prediction System of Voyage Environmental Information System in Arctic Sea Route (United States)

    Lim, H. S.


    Due to global warming, the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is melting dramatically in summer, which is providing a new opportunity to exploit the Northern Sea Route (NSR) connecting Asia and Europe ship route. Recent increases in logistics transportation through NSR and resource development reveal the possible threats of marine pollution and marine transportation accidents without real-time navigation system. To develop a safe Voyage Environmental Information System (VEIS) for vessels operating, the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) which is supported by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea has initiated the development of short-term and middle range prediction system for the sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea ice thickness (SIT) in NSR since 2014. The sea ice prediction system of VEIS consists of AMSR2 satellite composite images (a day), short-term (a week) prediction system, and middle range (a month) prediction system using a statistical method with re-analysis data (TOPAZ) and short-term predicted model data. In this study, the middle range prediction system for the SIC and SIT in NSR is calibrated with another middle range predicted atmospheric and oceanic data (NOAA CFSv2). The system predicts one month SIC and SIT on a daily basis, as validated with dynamic composite SIC data extracted from AMSR2 L2 satellite images.

  13. Collaborations for Arctic Sea Ice Information and Tools (United States)

    Sheffield Guy, L.; Wiggins, H. V.; Turner-Bogren, E. J.; Rich, R. H.


    informed decision-making. One of SEARCH's primary science topics is focused on Arctic sea ice; the SEARCH Sea Ice Action Team is leading efforts to advance understanding and awareness of the impacts of Arctic sea-ice loss.

  14. The Arctic Observing Network (AON)Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) (United States)

    Moore, J.; Fetterer, F.; Middleton, D.; Ramamurthy, M.; Barry, R.


    The Arctic Observing Network (AON) is intended to be a federation of 34 land, atmosphere and ocean observation sites, some already operating and some newly funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. This International Polar Year (IPY) initiative will acquire a major portion of the data coming from the interagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH). AON will succeed in supporting the science envisioned by its planners only if it functions as a system and not as a collection of independent observation programs. Development and implementation of a comprehensive data management strategy will key a key to the success of this effort. AON planners envision an ideal data management system that includes a portal through which scientists can submit metadata and datasets at a single location; search the complete archive and find all data relevant to a location or process; all data have browse imagery and complete documentation; time series or fields can be plotted on line, and all data are in a relational database so that multiple data sets and sources can be queried and retrieved. The Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) will provide near-real-time data delivery, a long-term repository for data, a portal for data discovery, and tools to manipulate data by building on existing tools like the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). Our approach to the data integration challenge is to start by asking investigators to provide metadata via a general purpose user interface. An entry tool assists PIs in writing metadata and submitting data. Data can be submitted to the archive in NetCDF with Climate and Forecast conventions or in one of several other standard formats where possible. CADIS is a joint effort of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). In the first year, we are concentrating on establishing metadata protocols that

  15. Toward Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting Using the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) (United States)

    Kamal, S.; Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.


    The Regional Arctic system model has been developed and used to advance the current state of Arctic modeling and increase the skill of sea ice forecast. RASM is a fully coupled, limited-area model that includes the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land hydrology and runoff routing components and the flux coupler to exchange information among them. Boundary conditions are derived from NCEP Climate Forecasting System Reanalyses (CFSR) or Era Iterim (ERA-I) for hindcast simulations or from NCEP Coupled Forecast System Model version 2 (CFSv2) for seasonal forecasts. We have used RASM to produce sea ice forecasts for September 2016 and 2017, in contribution to the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) of the Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN). Each year, we produced three SIOs for the September minimum, initialized on June 1, July 1 and August 1. In 2016, predictions used a simple linear regression model to correct for systematic biases and included the mean September sea ice extent, the daily minimum and the week of the minimum. In 2017, we produced a 12-member ensemble on June 1 and July 1, and 28-member ensemble August 1. The predictions of September 2017 included the pan-Arctic and regional Alaskan sea ice extent, daily and monthly mean pan-Arctic maps of sea ice probability, concentration and thickness. No bias correction was applied to the 2017 forecasts. Finally, we will also discuss future plans for RASM forecasts, which include increased resolution for model components, ecosystem predictions with marine biogeochemistry extensions (mBGC) to the ocean and sea ice components, and feasibility of optional boundary conditions using the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM).

  16. Arctic System Science: Meeting Earth System and Social Impact Challenges through Integrative Approaches and Synthesis (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.; Rawlins, M. A.; Serreze, M. C.; Francis, J. A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; McDonald, K. C.; Piasecki, M.; Rich, R. H.; Holland, M. M.


    The Arctic is an integral part of the Earth system where multiple interactions unite its natural and human elements. Recent observations show the Arctic to be experiencing rapid and amplified signatures of global climate change. At the same time, the Arctic system's response to this broader forcing has itself become a central research topic, given its potential role as a critical throttle on future planetary dynamics. Changes are already impacting life systems and economic prosperity and continued change is expected to bear major implications far outside the region. We also have entered an era when environmental management, traditionally local in scope, must confront regional, whole biome, and pan-Arctic biogeophysical challenges. While challenges may appear to operate in isolation, they emerge within the context of an evolving, integrated Arctic system defined by interactions among natural and social sub-systems. Clearly, new efforts aimed at community planning, industrial development, and infrastructure construction must consider this multiplicity of interacting processes. We recently organized an "Arctic System Synthesis Workshop Series" supported by the Arctic Systems Science Program of NSF and devoted to exploring approaches capable of uncovering the systems-level behavior in both the natural and social sciences domains. The series featured two topical meetings. The first identified the sources responsible for extreme climate events in the Arctic. The second focused on multiple "currencies" within the system (i.e., water, energy, carbon, nutrients) and how they interact to produce systems-level behaviors. More than 40 experts participated, drawn from the ranks of Arctic natural and social sciences. We report here on the workshop series consensus report, which identifies a broad array of topics. Principal among these are a consideration of why study the Arctic as a system, as well as an articulation of the major systems-level approaches to support basic as well

  17. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit


    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  18. Persistent maritime traffic monitoring for the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Ulmke, M.; Battistello, G.; Biermann, J.; Mohrdieck, C.; Pelot, R.; Koch, W.


    This paper presents results of the Canadian-German research project PASSAGES (Protection and Advanced Surveillance System for the Arctic: Green, Efficient, Secure)1 on an advanced surveillance system for safety and security of maritime operations in Arctic areas. The motivation for a surveillance system of the Northwest Passage is the projected growth of maritime traffic along Arctic sea routes and the need for securing Canada's sovereignty by controlling its arctic waters as well as for protecting the safety of international shipping and the intactness of the arctic marine environment. To ensure border security and to detect and prevent illegal activities it is necessary to develop a system for surveillance and reconnaissance that brings together all related means, assets, organizations, processes and structures to build one homogeneous and integrated system. The harsh arctic conditions require a new surveillance concept that fuses heterogeneous sensor data, contextual information, and available pre-processed surveillance data and combines all components to efficiently extract and provide the maximum available amount of information. The fusion of all these heterogeneous data and information will provide improved and comprehensive situation awareness for risk assessment and decision support of different stakeholder groups as governmental authorities, commercial users and Northern communities.

  19. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.


    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  20. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.


    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  1. Factors Reducing Efficiency of the Operational Oceanographic Forecast Systems in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belokopytov


    Full Text Available Reliability of the forecasted fields in the Arctic Basin is limited by a number of problems resulting, in the first turn, from lack of operational information. Due to the ice cover, satellite data on the sea level and the sea surface temperature is either completely not available or partially accessible in summer. The amount of CTD measuring systems functioning in the operational mode (3 – 5 probes is not sufficient. The number of the temperature-profiling buoys the probing depth of which is limited to 60 m, is not enough for the Arctic as well. Lack of spatial resolution of the available altimetry information (14 km, as compared to the Rossby radius in the Arctic Ocean (2 – 12 km, requires a thorough analysis of the forecasting system practical goals. The basic factor enhancing reliability of the oceanographic forecast consists in the fact that the key oceanographic regions, namely the eastern parts of the Norwegian and Greenland seas, the Barents Sea and the Chukchi Sea including the Bering Strait (where the Atlantic and Pacific waters flow in and transform, and the halocline structure is formed are partially or completely free of ice and significantly better provided with operational information.

  2. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.


    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  3. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.


    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  4. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): visualize project-level information for U.S. funded research in the Arctic (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Score, R.; Dover, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Habermann, T.; Tweedie, C. E.


    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information. The mapping application includes new reference data layers and an updated ship tracks layer. Visual enhancements are achieved by redeveloping the front-end from FLEX to HTML5 and JavaScript, which now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. New tools have been added that allow users to navigate, select, draw, measure, print, use a time slider, and more. Other module additions include a back-end Apache SOLR search platform that provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the ARMAP database. Furthermore, a new query builder interface has been developed in order to provide more intuitive controls to generate complex queries. These improvements have been made to increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research efforts supported by the U.S. Government.

  5. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald


    Full Text Available Transitions of social-ecological systems (SES expose governance systems to new challenges. This is particularly so in the Arctic where resource systems are increasingly subjected to global warming, industrial development and globalization which subsequently alter the local SES dynamics. Based on common-pool resource theory, we developed a dynamic conceptual model explaining how exogenous drivers might alter a traditional subsistence system from a provisioning to an appropriation actions situation. In a provisioning action situation the resource users do not control the resource level but adapt to the fluctuating availability of resources, and the collective challenge revolve around securing the subsistence in the community. An increased harvest pressure enabled by exogenous drivers could transform the SES to an appropriation action situation where the collective challenge has changed to avoid overuse of a common-pool resource. The model was used as a focal lens to investigate the premises for broad-scale transitions of subsistence-oriented SESs in Arctic Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We synthesized data from documents, official statistics and grey and scientific literature to explore the different components of our model. Our synthesis suggests that the traditional Arctic subsistence SESs mostly comply with a provisioning action situation. Despite population growth and available technology; urbanization, increased wage labor and importation of food have reduced the resource demand, and we find no evidence for a broad-scale transition to an appropriation action situation throughout the Western Arctic. However, appropriation ­challenges have emerged in some cases either as a consequence of commercialization of the resource or by severely reduced resource stocks due to various exogenous drivers. Future transitions of SESs could be triggered by the emergence of commercial local food markets and Arctic warming. In particular, Arctic warming is an

  6. Arctic sea-ice syntheses: Charting across scope, scale, and knowledge systems (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Perovich, D. K.; Francis, J. A.


    Arctic sea ice supports and intersects a multitude of societal benefit areas, including regulating regional and global climates, structuring marine food webs, providing for traditional food provisioning by indigenous peoples, and constraining marine shipping and access. At the same time, sea ice is one of the most rapidly changing elements of the Arctic environment and serves as a source of key physical indicators for monitoring Arctic change. Before the present scientific interest in Arctic sea ice for climate research, it has long been, and remains, a focus of applied research for industry and national security. For generations, the icy coastal seas of the North have also provided a basis for the sharing of local and indigenous knowledge between Arctic residents and researchers, including anthropologists, biologists, and geoscientists. This presentation will summarize an ongoing review of existing synthesis studies of Arctic sea ice. We will chart efforts to achieve system-level understanding across geography, temporal scales, and the ecosystem services that Arctic sea ice supports. In doing so, we aim to illuminate the role of interdisciplinary science, together with local and indigenous experts, in advancing knowledge of the roles of sea ice in the Arctic system and beyond, reveal the historical and scientific evolution of sea-ice research, and assess current gaps in system-scale understanding.

  7. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.; ,


    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  8. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre


    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  9. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)


    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo


    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  10. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)


    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  11. Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system (United States)

    Sudakov, I.; Vakulenko, S. A.; Golden, K. M.


    Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo - a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a conceptual sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point - an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a bifurcation analysis of the energy balance climate model with ice-albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to bifurcation points.

  12. Progress report for project modeling Arctic barrier island-lagoon system response to projected Arctic warming (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Storlazzi, Curt; B.M. Jones,


    Changes in Arctic coastal ecosystems in response to global warming may be some of the most severe on the planet. A better understanding and analysis of the rates at which these changes are expected to occur over the coming decades is crucial in order to delineate high-priority areas that are likely to be affected by climate changes. In this study we investigate the likelihood of changes to habitat-supporting barrier island – lagoon systems in response to projected changes in atmospheric and oceanographic forcing associated with Arctic warming. To better understand the relative importance of processes responsible for the current and future coastal landscape, key parameters related to increasing arctic temperatures are investigated and used to establish boundary conditions for models that simulate barrier island migration and inundation of deltaic deposits and low-lying tundra. The modeling effort investigates the dominance and relative importance of physical processes shaping the modern Arctic coastline as well as decadal responses due to projected conditions out to the year 2100.

  13. Toward Process-resolving Synthesis and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change Using the Regional Arctic System Model (United States)

    Maslowski, W.


    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) has been developed to better understand the operation of Arctic System at process scale and to improve prediction of its change at a spectrum of time scales. RASM is a pan-Arctic, fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere-land model with marine biogeochemistry extension to the ocean and sea ice models. The main goal of our research is to advance a system-level understanding of critical processes and feedbacks in the Arctic and their links with the Earth System. The secondary, an equally important objective, is to identify model needs for new or additional observations to better understand such processes and to help constrain models. Finally, RASM has been used to produce sea ice forecasts for September 2016 and 2017, in contribution to the Sea Ice Outlook of the Sea Ice Prediction Network. Future RASM forecasts, are likely to include increased resolution for model components and ecosystem predictions. Such research is in direct support of the US environmental assessment and prediction needs, including those of the U.S. Navy, Department of Defense, and the recent IARPC Arctic Research Plan 2017-2021. In addition to an overview of RASM technical details, selected model results are presented from a hierarchy of climate models together with available observations in the region to better understand potential oceanic contributions to polar amplification. RASM simulations are analyzed to evaluate model skill in representing seasonal climatology as well as interannual and multi-decadal climate variability and predictions. Selected physical processes and resulting feedbacks are discussed to emphasize the need for fully coupled climate model simulations, high model resolution and sensitivity of simulated sea ice states to scale dependent model parameterizations controlling ice dynamics, thermodynamics and coupling with the atmosphere and ocean.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern processes of formation and development of the marine transportation system in the Russian Arctic, analyzes its problem areas and reserves growth. Shows the status and prospects of development of cargo specialized fl eet of ice-class and icebreakers. Particular attention is paid to infrastructure, port management, port The possibility of creating special economic zones. Systematized direction of modernization of the Arctic marine transportation system.

  15. Beyond Thin Ice: Co-Communicating the Many Arctics (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Francis, J. A.; Huntington, H.


    Science communication, typically defined as informing non-expert communities of societally relevant science, is persuaded by the magnitude and pace of scientific discoveries, as well as the urgency of societal issues wherein science may inform decisions. Perhaps nowhere is the connection between these facets stronger than in the marine and coastal Arctic where environmental change is driving advancements in our understanding of natural and socio-ecological systems while paving the way for a new assortment of arctic stakeholders, who generally lack adequate operational knowledge. As such, the Arctic provides opportunity to advance the role of science communication into a collaborative process of engagement and co-communication. To date, the communication of arctic change falls within four primary genres, each with particular audiences in mind. The New Arctic communicates an arctic of new stakeholders scampering to take advantage of unprecedented access. The Global Arctic conveys the Arctic's importance to the rest of the world, primarily as a regulator of lower-latitude climate and weather. The Intra-connected Arctic emphasizes the increasing awareness of the interplay between system components, such as between sea ice loss and marine food webs. The Transforming Arctic communicates the region's trajectory relative to the historical Arctic, acknowledging the impacts on indigenous peoples. The broad societal consensus on climate change in the Arctic as compared to other regions in the world underscores the opportunity for co-communication. Seizing this opportunity requires the science community's engagement with stakeholders and indigenous peoples to construct environmental change narratives that are meaningful to climate responses relative to non-ecological priorities (e.g., infrastructure, food availability, employment, or language). Co-communication fosters opportunities for new methods of and audiences for communication, the co-production of new interdisciplinary

  16. Research Experience for Undergraduates: Understanding the Arctic as a System (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Arp, C. D.; Hock, R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kaden, U.; Polyakov, I.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Trainor, S.


    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to understand and explain changes in the Arctic and the implications of those changes. Responding to needs in innovative research and education for understanding high-latitude rapid climate change, scientists at the International Arctic research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) established a new REU (=Research Experience for Undergraduates) NSF-funded site, aiming to attract more undergraduates to arctic sciences. The science focus of this program, building upon the research strengths of UAF, is on understanding the Arctic as a system with emphasis on its physical component. The goals, which were to disseminate new knowledge at the frontiers of polar science and to ignite the enthusiasm of the undergraduates about the Arctic, are pursued by involving undergraduate students in research and educational projects with their mentors using the available diverse on-campus capabilities. IARC hosted the first group of eight students this past summer, focusing on a variety of different disciplines of the Arctic System Science. Students visited research sites around Fairbanks and in remote parts of Alaska (Toolik Lake Field Station, Gulkana glacier, Bonanza Creek, Poker Flats, the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel and others) to see and experience first-hand how the arctic science is done. Each student worked on a research project guided by an experienced instructor. The summer program culminated with a workshop that consisted of reports from the students about their experiences and the results of their projects.

  17. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    Northern Sea Route will steadily improve (Arctic Council 2009), and sovereign claims over the Arctic Ocean will increasingly be subject to international negotiations (Proelss 2009). Issues such as these have led to an expanding demand for Arctic climate projections to aid national and commercial decisions. However, detailed information from existing models is lacking. RASM will enhance the existing Arctic system modeling capabilities and align them with the scientific and societal needs outlined above. The science involved in the development of RASM will be integrated with teaching and training at a few different levels. RASM PIs will supervise at least six postdoctoral and doctoral students with additional involvement of undergraduate research assistants. RASM postdoctoral fellows and graduate trainees will benefit from being a part of a large, collaborative, and multi-disciplinary research projects employing state-of-the-art modeling and computational tools. They will also have the opportunity to contribute to the UTEP-led education and outreach effort developed specifically for RASM. The UTEP team will use RASM as a platform for education and outreach. First, we will develop products for public dissemination, such as curriculum units, lesson plans and other materials (simulations, movies, and images) for use by students and teachers in high school and university classrooms. Second, we will facilitate bringing RASM PIs, postdocs, and graduate students into the classroom, through electronic mentorship and by contributing content via online lectures and presentations. Third, by the use of problem-based learning (PBL) approaches, we will provide real-world scenarios and problems enabling students to do research and develop position papers or presentations on topics related to RASM. (Problem-based learning is a student-centered, inquiry-based approach in which students work in teams to solve challenging, open-ended problems.) Fourth, we will develop teacher

  18. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda

    , technical and logistical challenges facing scientists intending to use UAS in their arctic work. Future planned campaigns and science goals under the Coordinated Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions (CICCI) umbrella will be outlined. A new AMAP report on conducting safe UAS operations......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...... on the environment. Operating UAS present unique challenges and it is necessary to understand and overcome those challenges. Based on the recommendations put forth by the Arctic scientists, the Arctic Council created a UAS Expert Group under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) to help address...

  19. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi


    countries were conducted and mooring buoy observations were also carried out. The data retrieved during these observations was accumulated in the "Arctic Data archive System (ADS)" ( and served with interfaces for analysis. In addition, modeling studies have been promoted from fundamental process model to general circulation model. The successor of the project, ArCS (Arctic Challenge for Sustainability), which lays delivering emphasis 
on robust scientific information to stakeholders for decision making and solving problems, was started in FY2015. Within this project, a cooperative observation of black carbon are planned to be started at Cape Baranova Station (AARI, Rusia), Severnaya Zemlya, and new activities including emphasizing aerological observations are also planned to be started for contributing to "Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP)" of Polar Prediction Project (PPP/ WMO). It will be desirable to have a future collaboration with IASOA.

  20. A Compendium of Arctic Environmental Information (United States)


    shoulders if it is facing you. Do not try a shot to the head unless you are absolutely sure of a hit . It is better to hit one of the two recommended areas...pp. 29-49, in Japanese. Sater, J. E. (ed.) (1969). The Arctic Basin. Arctic Inst. of North Am., Washington, D.C. Tabata , T., Y. Nohuguchi, and...T. Saito (1980). Observed Sea Ice Thickness in the Northern Okhotsk Sea. Low Temp. Sci. Ser. A, (Japan), n. 39, pp. 153-158. Tabata , Tadashi (1979

  1. ARM Aerial Facility ArcticShark Unmanned Aerial System (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Hubbell, M.; Mei, F.; Carroll, P.; Mendoza, A.; Ireland, C.; Lewko, K.


    The TigerShark Block 3 XP-AR "ArcticShark" Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), developed and manufactured by Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation (NASC), is a single-prop, 60 hp rotary-engine platform with a wingspan of 6.5 m and Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight of 295 Kg. The ArcticShark is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since March 2017. The UAS will serve as an airborne atmospheric research observatory for DOE ARM, and, once fully operational, can be requested through ARM's annual call for proposals. The Arctic Shark is anticipated to measure a wide range of radiative, aerosol, and cloud properties using a variable instrument payload weighing up to 46 Kg. SATCOM-equipped, it is capable of taking measurements up to altitudes of 5.5 Km over ranges of up to 500 Km. The ArcticShark operates at airspeeds of 30 to 40 m/s, making it capable of slow sampling. With a full fuel load, its endurance exceeds 8 hours. The aircraft and its Mobile Operations Center (MOC) have been hardened specifically for operations in colder temperatures.ArcticShark's design facilitates rapid integration of various types of payloads. 2500 W of its 4000 W electrical systems is dedicated to payload servicing. It has an interior payload volume of almost 85 L and four wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying external probes. Its payload bay volume, electrical power, payload capacity, and flight characteristics enable the ArcticShark to accommodate multiple combinations of payloads in numerous configurations. Many instruments will be provided by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), but other organizations may eventually propose instrumentation for specific campaigns. AAF-provided measurement capabilities will include the following atmospheric state and thermodynamics: temperature, pressure, winds; gases: H2O and CO2; up- and down-welling broadband infrared and visible radiation; surface temperature; aerosol number concentration

  2. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.


    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty


    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  4. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger


    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  5. Rift systems of the Russian Eastern Arctic shelf and Arctic deep water basins: link between geological history and geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nikishin


    Full Text Available In our study, we have developed a new tectonic scheme of the Arctic Ocean, which is based mainly on seismic profiles obtained in the Arctic-2011, Arctic-2012 and Arctic-2014 Projects implemented in Russia. Having interpreted many seismic profiles, we propose a new seismic stratigraphy of the Arctic Ocean. Our main conclusions are drawn from the interpretation of the seismic profiles and the analysis of the regional geological data. The results of our study show that rift systems within the Laptev, the East Siberian and the Chukchi Seas were formed not earlier than Aptian. The geological structure of the Eurasian, Podvodnikov, Toll and Makarov Basins is described in this paper. Having synthesized all the available data on the study area, we propose the following model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean: 1. The Canada Basin formed till the Aptian (probably, during Hauterivian-Barremian time. 2. During the Aptian-Albian, large-scale tectonic and magmatic events took place, including plume magmatism in the area of the De Long Islands, Mendeleev Ridge and other regions. Continental rifting started after the completion of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenу, and rifting occurred on the shelf of the Laptev, East Siberian, North Chukchi and South Chukchi basins, and the Chukchi Plateau; simultaneously, continental rifting started in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 3. Perhaps the Late Cretaceous rifting continued in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 4. At the end of the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, the Makarov basin was formed by rifting, although local spreading of oceanic crust during its formation cannot be excluded. 5. The Eurasian Basin started to open in the Early Eocene. We, of course, accept that our model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean, being preliminary and debatable, may need further refining. In this paper, we have shown a link between the continental rift systems on the shelf and the formation history of the Arctic

  6. Emergent Behavior of Arctic Precipitation in Response to Enhanced Arctic Warming (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Feldl, Nicole; Lintner, Benjamin R.


    Amplified warming of the high latitudes in response to human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases has already been observed in the historical record and is a robust feature evident across a hierarchy of model systems, including the models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main aims of this analysis are to quantify intermodel differences in the Arctic amplification (AA) of the global warming signal in CMIP5 RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) simulations and to diagnose these differences in the context of the energy and water cycles of the region. This diagnosis reveals an emergent behavior between the energetic and hydrometeorological responses of the Arctic to warming: in particular, enhanced AA and its associated reduction in dry static energy convergence is balanced to first order by latent heating via enhanced precipitation. This balance necessitates increasing Arctic precipitation with increasing AA while at the same time constraining the magnitude of that precipitation increase. The sensitivity of the increase, 1.25 (W/m2)/K ( 240 (km3/yr)/K), is evident across a broad range of historical and projected AA values. Accounting for the energetic constraint on Arctic precipitation, as a function of AA, in turn informs understanding of both the sign and magnitude of hydrologic cycle changes that the Arctic may experience.

  7. Relating Radiative Fluxes on Arctic Sea Ice Area Using Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS) (United States)

    Sledd, A.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.


    With Arctic sea ice declining rapidly and Arctic temperatures rising faster than the rest of the globe, a better understanding of the Arctic climate, and ice cover-radiation feedbacks in particular, is needed. Here we present the Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS), a dataset of integrated products to facilitate studying the Arctic using satellite, reanalysis, and in-situ datasets. The data include cloud properties, radiative fluxes, aerosols, meteorology, precipitation, and surface properties, to name just a few. Each dataset has uniform grid-spacing, time-averaging and naming conventions for ease of use between products. One intended use of ArORIS is to assess Arctic radiation and moisture budgets. Following that goal, we use observations from ArORIS - CERES-EBAF radiative fluxes and NSIDC sea ice fraction and area to quantify relationships between the Arctic energy balance and surface properties. We find a discernable difference between energy budgets for years with high and low September sea ice areas. Surface fluxes are especially responsive to the September sea ice minimum in months both leading up to September and the months following. In particular, longwave fluxes at the surface show increased sensitivity in the months preceding September. Using a single-layer model of solar radiation we also investigate the individual responses of surface and planetary albedos to changes in sea ice area. By partitioning the planetary albedo into surface and atmospheric contributions, we find that the atmospheric contribution to planetary albedo is less sensitive to changes in sea ice area than the surface contribution. Further comparisons between observations and reanalyses can be made using the available datasets in ArORIS.

  8. Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory: A Virtual Organization for Transformative Research and Education on a Changing Arctic (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Hinzman, L.; Holland, M.; Murray, M. S.; Vörösmarty, C.; Loring, A. J.


    -enabled model library, user forums, a data search and discovery system, and an online library. Support Scientist Professional Development: Experts at all career levels must keep pace with the newest developments in data integration and modeling, interdisciplinary science, and cyber-enabled collaboration. Specific project activities could include: web seminars, short courses, and a mentor program. Education, Outreach, and Policy Resources: An Arctic Virtual Outreach Center (AVOC) will provide critical education, outreach, and policy elements of the Collaboratory. Specific activities could include: public eSeminars, a virtual pressroom, K-12 classroom resources, and an eNewsletter. A Collaboratory Implementation Workshop is being planned for winter 2009; further details will be available soon. For more information, contact Helen V. Wiggins, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) at:, or go to the website of the community workshop, "New Perspectives through Data Discovery and Modeling," at:

  9. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities (United States)

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.


    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress over such a large expanse of the Arctic. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and other related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 7700 observation sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. During 2015, the web mapping application has been enhanced by the addition of a query builder that allows users to create rich and complex queries. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. Substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database and the application front-end has been ported to HTML5 to enable mobile access. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches and an administration web based data management system that allows administrators to add, update, and delete information in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but

  10. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Per


    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  11. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)


    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  12. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.


    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  13. Engaging Local Communities in Arctic Observing Networks: A Collaborative Shoreline Change Risk WebGIS for Alaska's Arctic Slope Region (United States)

    Brady, M.


    This study engaged local community stakeholders in Alaska's Arctic Slope Region to develop a web-based shoreline change risk geographic information system (WebGIS) in collaboration with the North Slope Borough and its residents. The value of the effort includes rich spatial documentation of local risks across the vast, remote, and rapidly changing shoreline, and identification of local manager information needs to direct WebGIS development. The study advances our understanding of shoreline change problems from the perspective of local Arctic communities beyond municipal impacts while building decision support. Over fifty local residents in three communities with collective coastal knowledge that extends across the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge shared their perspectives on hard copy maps. Sixteen managers provided usability perceptions of a beta WebGIS with shoreline change susceptibility information summarized at relevant asset locations such as subsistence camps. The hard copy maps with 300 "problem places" were digitized for analysis, which revealed problems across the coastline, especially challenges to boating for subsistence hunting such as shoaling cutting off access and creating hazards. The usability workshop revealed specific information needs including the need to monitor impacts at decommissioned national defense radar sites repurposed by locals to centralize oil and gas activity. These results were analyzed using an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework consisting of front-end and formative WebGIS evaluation phases. The front-end evaluation is the local input on hard copy maps, which provided local verification of coastal risks. The formative evaluation is the usability workshop with managers, which informed WebGIS development while promoting user buy-in. In terms of product and process, the local knowledge and information needs collected are significant because they establish local engagement with the

  14. Arctic Haze Analysis (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong


    , including satellite remote sensing, ground-based observations and modelling. The key question is which information should be used for analysis and how to integrate the source information. The behavior of different atmospheric parameters as described in the paper is consistent and the analysis using satellite atmospheric parameters is in line with synoptic charts. Hence the different data sources are complementary and the results support each other (Mei et al., 2011). In the paper, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from both satellite retrieval data and ground-based measurements were analyzed the characteristic, especially the absorption. We also discuss the effect of Arctic haze to the Arctic temperature, snow albedo and arctic flux in details.

  15. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars


    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  16. Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations (United States)

    Rawlins, M.A.; Steele, M.; Holland, M.M.; Adam, J.C.; Cherry, J.E.; Francis, J.A.; Groisman, P.Y.; Hinzman, L.D.; Huntington, T.G.; Kane, D.L.; Kimball, J.S.; Kwok, R.; Lammers, R.B.; Lee, C.M.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; McDonald, K.C.; Podest, E.; Pundsack, J.W.; Rudels, B.; Serreze, Mark C.; Shiklomanov, A.; Skagseth, O.; Troy, T.J.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Wensnahan, M.; Wood, E.F.; Woodgate, R.; Yang, D.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, T.


    observation system are needed to reduce uncertainties and to detect and document ongoing changes in all system components for further evidence of Arctic FWC intensification.

  17. A nowcast-forecast information system for PWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.L.; Cox, W.


    The development of the Prince William Sound Oil Spill Recovery Institute's (ORI) nowcast-forecast information system was discussed. OSRI addresses oil spill response and prevention research and development in the Arctic and subArctic. A realistic electronic model of the ecosystem was a much needed tool for efficient prioritization of oil spill technologies. The OSRI Sound Ecosystem Assessment (SEA) research program focused on developing a physical-biological model that consisted of static and biological resources that change over long time periods. This includes bathymetry, shoreline type, and substrate-dependent vegetation. It also focused on developing a model of dynamic properties such as wind, weather, plankton, and wildlife populations that undergo significant changes on annual or shorter time scales. The nowcast information system is a long-term development project which uses the Princeton ocean model (POM), a static runoff model, a network of weather and water observation stations, an Intranet which allows the observational data to run in near-real time and an Internet home page. It will contribute to sustaining the natural resources of coastal areas. It was concluded that the nowcast-forecast information system has short-term applications to oil spill prevention and response and long-term applications to the natural resources at risk to spills. 33 refs

  18. Russia in the Arctic. Will the State Commission be its helmsman?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy P. Zhuravel


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of the decisions on the development and exploration of the Arctic. It also reveals the activity of the State Commission on the Development of the Arctic. It notes the slow solution of problems of energy, information, transportation security of the remote settlements in the Russian Arctic. Unresolved issues of legal support of the guarantee and compensation system caused a certain degree of concern for persons working on the territory of the North in the Arctic. This list of existing problems could be extended. Activities of the State Commission confirm the thesis that Russia intends to provide reliable and long-term national interests in the Arctic.

  19. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting (United States)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.


    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  20. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P


    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  1. Connecting Arctic Research Across Boundaries through the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.


    The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science

  2. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.


    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  3. The Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV): Visualization, Data Discovery, Strategic Assessment, and Decision Support for Arctic Observing (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Villarreal, S.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.


    To better assess progress in Arctic Observing made by U.S. SEARCH, NSF AON, SAON, and related initiatives, an updated version of the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; has been released. This web mapping application and information system conveys the who, what, where, and when of "data collection sites" - the precise locations of monitoring assets, observing platforms, and wherever repeat marine or terrestrial measurements have been taken. Over 13,000 sites across the circumarctic are documented including a range of boreholes, ship tracks, buoys, towers, sampling stations, sensor networks, vegetation plots, stream gauges, ice cores, observatories, and more. Contributing partners are the U.S. NSF, NOAA, the NSF Arctic Data Center, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, CAFF, GINA, IASOA, INTERACT, NASA ABoVE, and USGS, among others. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, view details, and follow links to obtain a comprehensive perspective of environmental monitoring efforts. We continue to develop, populate, and enhance AOV. Recent updates include: a vastly improved Search tool with free text queries, autocomplete, and filters; faster performance; a new clustering visualization; heat maps to highlight concentrated research; and 3-D represented data to more easily identify trends. AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, such that agencies and organizations can use the AOV Viewer and web services for their own purposes. In this way, AOV complements other distributed yet interoperable cyber resources and helps science planners, funding agencies, investigators, data specialists, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, optimize sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, and collaborate to meet Arctic Observing goals. AOV is a companion application to the Arctic Research Mapping Application (, which is focused on general project information at a

  4. Scenarios in Social-Ecological Systems: Co-Producing Futures in Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Lovecraft, A. L.; Eicken, H.


    Companies use scenarios to gain the capacity to think ahead in rapidly changing complex competitive environments and make crucial decisions in absence of complete information about the future. Currently, at many regional scales of governance there is a growing need for tools that enable the actors at local-scales to address pressing concerns in the midst of uncertainty. This is particularly true of areas experiencing rapidly changing environments (e.g., drought, floods, diminishing sea ice, erosion) and complex social problems (e.g., remote communities, resource extraction, threatened cultures). Resilience theory and deliberative democracy both promote governance by informed actors in an effort to produce decisions that avoid social-environmental collapse. The former focusing on resilient ecosystems, the latter on informed social choices. Scenario exercises produce neither forecasts of what is to come nor are they visions of what participants would like to happen. Rather, they produce pertinent and accurate information related to questions of "what would happen if…" and thus provide the possibility of strategic decision-making to reduce risk and promote community resilience. Scenarios can be forms of social learning and among local-scale experts they create a deliberative process to make decisions about proactive adaptation. This talk represents the results from two projects from Alaska's Arctic Slope region. Resident expert participants from the Northwest Arctic and North Slope Boroughs addressed the focal question "What is needed for healthy sustainable communities by 2040?" Our findings reinforce the growing evidence from studies related to Arctic community sustainability and human development that indicate tight connections between fate-control, health, and environmental change. Our work differs, however, in using a future studies approach. The participants are addressing social-ecological resilience from a proactive standpoint thinking long-term about local

  5. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.


    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  6. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma


    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing

  7. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments: An Arctic Application (United States)

    Lewis, Carol E.; Stanford, Kerry L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)


    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S. Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions (U.S. Arctic Research Commission). These solutions are also damaging to the environment. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. About one-fourth of Alaska's 86.000 Native residents live in these communities. They are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain (Office of Technology Assessment, 1994). Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) provides a solution to sanitation and safe water problems. The system uses an advanced integrated technology developed for Antarctic and space applications. ALSEE uses the systems approach to address more than waste and water problems. By incorporating hydroponic horticulture and aquaculture into the waste treatment system, ALSEE addresses the quality and quantity of fresh foods available to Arctic residents. A temperate climate is required for year-round plant growth. ALSEE facilities can be designed to include a climate controlled area within the structure. This type of environment is a change from the long periods of darkness and cold found in the Arctic and can help alleviate stress so often associated with these extremes. While the overall concept of ALSEE projects is advanced, system facilities can be operated by village residents with appropriate training. ALSEE provides continuing training and

  8. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Advance Understanding and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at Process Scales (United States)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Clement Kinney, J. L.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Hamman, J.; Hughes, M.; Nijssen, B.; Zeng, X.


    The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic changes, which are some of the most coordinated changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. They are exemplified by the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Global Climate and Global Earth System Models (GC/ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in the GC/ESMs remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that stem from a combination of coarse model resolution, inadequate parameterizations, unrepresented processes and a limited knowledge of physical and other real world interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the GC/ESM limitations in simulating observed seasonal to decadal variability and trends in the sea ice cover and climate. RASM is a high resolution, fully coupled, pan-Arctic climate model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It uses the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP) configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) models at 50 km resolution. All RASM components are coupled via the CESM flux coupler (CPL7) at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled earth system model, which due to the additional constraints from lateral boundary conditions and nudging within a regional model domain facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with GC/ESMs. In this talk, we will emphasize the utility of RASM to understand sensitivity to variable parameter space, importance of critical processes, coupled feedbacks and ultimately to reduce uncertainty in arctic climate change projections.

  9. Arctic circulation regimes. (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L


    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.


    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 ( ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  11. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk


    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  12. Water balance of the Arctic drainage system using GRACE gravimetry products


    Frappart, F; Ramillien, G; Famiglietti, JS


    International audience; Land water and snow mass anomalies versus time were computed from the inversion of 50 GRACE geoids (August 2002 to February 2007) from the RL04 GFZ release and used to characterize the hydrology of the Arctic drainage system. GRACE-based time series have been compared to snow water equivalent and snow depth climatologies, and snowfall for validation purpose. Time series of regional averages of water volume were estimated for the 11 largest Peri-Arctic basins. Strong co...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov


    Full Text Available The National Atlas of the Arctic is a set of spatio-temporal information about the geographic, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural, and social features of theArcticcompiled as a cartographic model of the territory. The Atlas is intended for use in a wide range of scientific, management, economic, defense, educational, and public activities. The state policy of theRussian Federationin the Arctic for the period until 2020 and beyond, states that the Arctic is of strategic importance forRussiain the 21st century. A detailed description of all sections of the Atlas is given. The Atlas can be used as an information-reference and educational resource or as a gift edition.

  14. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.


    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 6100 sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. In the last year, substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies and demand for the application, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database; furthermore, the application front-end has been ported to HTML5. Porting the application to HTML5 will now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the AOV dataset, and an administration web based data management system which allows the administrators to add, update, and delete data in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but interoperable resources in this

  15. Preliminary Modeling of Acoustic Detection Capability for the Drifting Arctic Monitoring System (United States)


    Sedimentary Basins in the Arctic, Polarforschung, 69, 243–249. [22] Poore, Richard Z, Ishman, Scott E, Phillips, R Lawrence, and McNeil, David H (1994...93, 1784. [28] Metzler, Adam M, Collis , Jon M, and Siegmann, William L (2012), Modeling low-frequency seismo-acoustic propagation in the Arctic using a...Atlantic. [50] Shnidman, David A (1998), Binary integration for Swerling target fluctuations, Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

  16. U.S. Arctic research in a technological age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.L.


    The United States Arctic Research Commission was established in 1984 primarily as an advisory agency. An Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee is one of the main recipients of the Commission's recommendations. The Committee formulated an Arctic research policy calling for research focused on national security concerns, regional development with minimal environmental or adverse social impact, and scientific research on Arctic phenomena and processes. In basic science, emphasis is placed on the need to understand Arctic processes as part of the global earth system. These processes include those that affect and are affected by climatic change. A new research program in Arctic systems science has three components: paleoenvironmental studies on ice core from Greenland; ocean-atmosphere interactions; and land-atmosphere interactions. The Commission also recognizes a need to focus on issues relevant to the Arctic as an integral component of the world economic system, since the Arctic is a significant source of petroleum and minerals. The Commission recommended that the Committee develop an Arctic engineering research plan with emphasis on such topics as oil spill prevention, waste disposal, small-scale power generation, and Arctic construction techniques. The USA is also cooperating in international Arctic research through the International Arctic Science Committee, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization

  17. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASM can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are: - Changes

  18. Airborne contaminants in the Arctic: What we need to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, D.H.; Bangay, G.; Sisula, H.; Colborn, T.; Liljelund, L.E.


    Arctic contaminant research is expensive and current international resources are restricted. It is incumbent upon current and future arctic research programs to focus efforts where the greatest and most relevant information can be gained. This paper is an attempt to help guide future work to focus on the most pressing information needs. Several summary points are related to environmental research in the Arctic; some may also relate to environmental research outside the Arctic

  19. Evidence and Options for Informed Decision-Making to Achive Arctic Sustainability (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.


    This presentation will consider the development of evidence and options for informed decision-making that will need to operate across generations to achieve Arctic sustainability (Figure). Context of these Arctic decisions is global, recognizing that we live in an interconnected civilization on a planetary scale, as revealed unambiguously with evidence from the `world' wars in the first half of the 20thcentury. First, for clarification, data and evidence are not the same. Data is generated from information and observations to answer specific questions, posed with methods from the natural and social sciences as well as indigenous knowledge. These data reveal patterns and trends in our societies and natural world, underscoring the evidence for decisions to address impacts, issues and resources within, across and beyond the boundaries of nations - recognizing that nations still are the principal jurisdictional unit. However, for this decision-support process to be effective, options (without advocacy) - which can be used or ignored explicitly - must be generated from the evidence, taking into consideration stakeholder perspectives and governance records in a manner that will contribute to informed decision-making. The resulting decisions will involve built elements that require capitalization and technology as well as governance mechanisms coming from diverse jurisdictional authorities. The innovation required is to balance economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being. These three pillars of sustainability further involve stability, balancing urgencies of the moment and of future generations, recognizing that children born today will be alive in the 22nd century. Consequently, options for informed decisions must operate across a continuum of urgencies from security time scales to sustainability time scales. This decision-support process is holistic (international, interdisciplinary and inclusive), reflecting the applications of science

  20. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.; Meltofte, H.; Rysgaard, S.; Rasch, M.; Jonasson, S.; Christensen, T.R.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.; Pedersen, S.A.


    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  1. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan


    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  2. Arctic Research Plan: FY2017-2021 (United States)

    Starkweather, Sandy; Jeffries, Martin O; Stephenson, Simon; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Loehman, Rachel A.; von Biela, Vanessa R.


    The United States is an Arctic nation—Americans depend on the Arctic for biodiversity and climate regulation and for natural resources. America’s Arctic—Alaska—is at the forefront of rapid climate, environmental, and socio-economic changes that are testing the resilience and sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Research to increase fundamental understanding of these changes is needed to inform sound, science-based decision- and policy-making and to develop appropriate solutions for Alaska and the Arctic region as a whole. Created by an Act of Congress in 1984, and since 2010 a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) in the Executive Office of the President, the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) plays a critical role in advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of the changing Arctic and its impacts far beyond the boundaries of the Arctic. Comprising 14 Federal agencies, offices, and departments, IARPC is responsible for the implementation of a 5-year Arctic Research Plan in consultation with the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, the Governor of the State of Alaska, residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and public interest groups.

  3. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.


    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  4. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): a Geoportal for Visualizing Project-level Information About U.S. Funded Research in the Arctic (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Tweedie, C. E.


    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP; is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. In collaboration with 17 research agencies, project locations are displayed in a visually enhanced web mapping application. Key information about each project is presented along with links to web pages that provide additional information, including links to data where possible. The latest ARMAP iteration has i) reworked the search user interface (UI) to enable multiple filters to be applied in user-driven queries and ii) implemented ArcGIS Javascript API 4.0 to allow for deployment of 3D maps directly into a users web-browser and enhanced customization of popups. Module additions include i) a dashboard UI powered by a back-end Apache SOLR engine to visualize data in intuitive and interactive charts; and ii) a printing module that allows users to customize maps and export these to different formats (pdf, ppt, gif and jpg). New reference layers and an updated ship tracks layer have also been added. These improvements have been made to improve discoverability, enhance logistics coordination, identify geographic gaps in research/observation effort, and foster enhanced collaboration among the research community. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate past, present, and future research effort supported by the U.S. Government.

  5. A dynamical link between the Arctic and the global climate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Benkel, A.


    and snow albedo treatment changes the ice-albedo feedback and the radiative exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean-sea-ice system. The planetary wave energy fluxes in the middle troposphere of mid-latitudes between 30 and 50°N are redistributed, which induces perturbations in the zonal...... and meridional planetary wave trains from the tropics over the mid-latitudes into the Arctic. It is shown, that the improved parameterization of Arctic sea-ice and snow albedo can trigger changes in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillation pattern with strong implications for the European climate.......By means of simulations with a global coupled AOGCM it is shown that changes in the polar energy sink region can exert a strong influence on the mid- and high-latitude climate by modulating the strength of the mid-latitude westerlies and storm tracks. It is found, that a more realistic sea-ice...

  6. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.


    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  7. Arctic Legal System: a New Sustainable Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sahu Manjeet


    Full Text Available Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made this place a center for the regulation of oil and gas activities. However, petroleum exploration and its operation have had significant local detrimental impacts on the atmosphere, inhabitants and marine environment. Geologists have always believed in the huge reserves of oil and gas in the Arctic Region. However, the exploration of oil and gas started as recently as the mid-1950s. An increase in the demand of oil and gas in the international market, as well as its growing scarcity, compelled the world to locate oil and gas reserves in various regions. It is significant to note that the Arctic states are strategically going to control the excessive exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbon with much profitability. However, it is still a far sighted question ‘whether Arctic will provide direct competition to the Middle East’ and become another hub in the energy market.

  8. Variability of the Arctic Basin Oceanographic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabinin, K


    ...." Special attention was paid to Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean which seems to be the main source of information in acoustic monitoring of the ocean, in the framework of the Arctic-ATOC program...

  9. SIOS: A regional cooperation of international research infrastructures as a building block for an Arctic observing system (United States)

    Holmen, K. J.; Lønne, O. J.


    The Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a regional response to the Earth System Science (ESS) challenges posed by the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. SIOS is intended to develop and implement methods for how observational networks in the Arctic are to be designed in order to address such issues in a regional scale. SIOS builds on the extensive observation capacity and research installations already in place by many international institutions and will provide upgraded and relevant Observing Systems and Research Facilities of world class in and around Svalbard. It is a distributed research infrastructure set up to provide a regional observational system for long term measurements under a joint framework. As one of the large scale research infrastructure initiatives on the ESFRI roadmap (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures), SIOS is now being implemented. The new research infrastructure organization, the SIOS Knowledge Center (SIOS-KC), is instrumental in developing methods and solutions for setting up its regional contribution to a systematically constructed Arctic observational network useful for global change studies. We will discuss cross-disciplinary research experiences some case studies and lessons learned so far. SIOS aims to provide an effective, easily accessible data management system which makes use of existing data handling systems in the thematic fields covered by SIOS. SIOS will, implement a data policy which matches the ambitions that are set for the new European research infrastructures, but at the same time be flexible enough to consider `historical' legacies. Given the substantial international presence in the Svalbard archipelago and the pan-Arctic nature of the issue, there is an opportunity to build SIOS further into a wider regional network and pan-Arctic context, ideally under the umbrella of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative. It is necessary to anchor SIOS strongly in a European

  10. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  11. Arctic action against climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njaastad, Birgit


    The articles describes efforts to map the climatic changes in the Arctic regions through the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Project which is a joint venture between eight Arctic countries: Denmark, Canada, the USA, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The project deals with the consequences of the changes such as the UV radiation due to diminishing ozone layers. The aims are: Evaluate and integrate existing knowledge in the field and evaluate and predict the consequences particularly on the environment both in the present and the future and produce reliable and useful information in order to aid the decision-making processes

  12. Development of pan-Arctic database for river chemistry (United States)

    McClelland, J.W.; Holmes, R.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Amon, R.; Brabets, T.; Cooper, L.; Gibson, J.; Gordeev, V.V.; Guay, C.; Milburn, D.; Staples, R.; Raymond, P.A.; Shiklomanov, I.; Striegl, Robert G.; Zhulidov, A.; Gurtovaya, T.; Zimov, S.


    More than 10% of all continental runoff flows into the Arctic Ocean. This runoff is a dominant feature of the Arctic Ocean with respect to water column structure and circulation. Yet understanding of the chemical characteristics of runoff from the pan-Arctic watershed is surprisingly limited. The Pan- Arctic River Transport of Nutrients, Organic Matter, and Suspended Sediments ( PARTNERS) project was initiated in 2002 to help remedy this deficit, and an extraordinary data set has emerged over the past few years as a result of the effort. This data set is publicly available through the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). Details about data access are provided below.

  13. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.


    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  14. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.


    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  15. Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks: On relationships between Arctic clouds, sea ice, and lower tropospheric stability (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Boeke, R.; Hegyi, B.


    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence other important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these Arctic climate system elements creating the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks, we quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE). In addition, we quantify the covariability between surface CRE and sea ice concentration (SIC). This paper builds on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, a statistically insignificant covariability is found between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, we find a statistically significant increase in the average surface longwave CRE at lower SIC values in fall. Specifically, a +3-5 W m-2 larger longwave CRE is found over footprints with 0% versus 100% SIC. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m-2 are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume, under certain meteorological conditions. Our results also suggest that a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  16. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.


    these actors in the research process could strongly influence the resilience of arctic social-ecological systems to climate change.

  17. Regional cooperation and sustainable development: The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartanov, R.V.


    The Arctic is one of the regions most alienated from sustainable development, due to consequences of nuclear testing, long-range pollution transport, large-scale industrial accidents, irrational use of natural resources, and environmentally ignorant socio-economic policies. Revelations of the state of the USSR Arctic shows that air quality in northern cities is below standard, fish harvests are declining, pollution is not being controlled, and native populations are being affected seriously. The presence of immense resources in the Arctic including exploitable offshore oil reserves of 100-200 billion bbl and the prospect of wider utilization of northern sea routes should stimulate establishment of a new international regime of use, research, and protection of Arctic resources in favor of sustainable development in the region. The Arctic marine areas are the key component of the Arctic ecosystem and so should receive special attention. A broad legal framework has already been provided for such cooperation. Included in such cooperation would be native peoples and non-Arctic countries. Specifics of the cooperation would involve exchanging of scientific and technical information, promotion of ecologically sound technologies, equipping Arctic regions with means to control environmental quality, harmonizing environmental protection legislation, and monitoring Arctic environmental quality

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)


    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  19. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayden, Meredith G.; Arsenault, Lilianne M.; Kidd, Karen A.; O'Driscoll, Nelson J.; Mallory, Mark L.


    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ 15 N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas

  20. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic? (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.


    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  1. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Cassano, John J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gutowski, Jr., William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Lipscomb, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijssen, Bart [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Tulaczyk, Slawek [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    The primary outcome of the project was the development of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and evaluation of its individual model components, coupling among them and fully coupled model results. Overall, we have demonstrated that RASM produces realistic mean and seasonal surface climate as well as its interannual and decadal variability and trends.

  2. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  3. Creating collaboration opportunities for marine research across the Arctic: The SEARCH-ACCESS partnership and an emerging sea ice prediction research network (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Bitz, C. M.; Gascard, J.; Kaminski, T.; Karcher, M. J.; Kauker, F.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Wiggins, H. V.


    Rapid Arctic environmental and socio-economic change presents major challenges and opportunities to Arctic residents, government agencies and the private sector. The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover, in particular, are in the midst of transformative change, ranging from declines in sea-ice thickness and summer ice extent to threats to coastal communities and increases in maritime traffic and offshore resource development. The US interagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) project are addressing both scientific research needs and stakeholder information priorities to improve understanding and responses to Arctic change. Capacity building, coordination and integration of activities at the international level and across sectors and stakeholder groups are major challenges that have to be met. ACCESS and SEARCH build on long-standing collaborations with a focus on environmental change in the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system and the most pressing research needs to inform marine policy, resource management and threats to Arctic coastal communities. To illustrate the approach, key results and major conclusions from this international coordination and collaboration effort, we focus on a nascent sea-ice prediction research network. This activity builds on the Arctic Sea Ice Outlook that was initiated by SEARCH and the European DAMOCLES project (a precursor to ACCESS) and has now grown into an international community of practice that synthesizes, evaluates and discusses sea-ice predictions on seasonal to interannual scales. Key goals of the effort which is now entering into a new phase include the comparative evaluation of different prediction approaches, including the combination of different techniques, the compilation of reference datasets and model output, guidance on the design and implementation of observing system efforts to improve predictions and information transfer into private


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klementeva


    Full Text Available In the industrially developed countries about 80–95% of the GDP increase is provided by new knowledge represented by new technologies and machinery. This transition to the new innovative development became possible with the creation of new technological patterns for organization of R&D, industrial and innovative activities. Despite of the fact that the structures of national and regional innovative systems of diff erent countries have much in common which concerns the components, the functional classifi cation and the interaction procedures, the question of theoretical structural description of the regional innovative system seems to be of importance. The object of research is the interaction between the entities of the Russian Arctic innovative system from the viewpoint of the complex information inputs. The subject of research is the model-algorithmic support of the automated system providing for innovative activities within the Russian Arctic zone.The article is aimed to work out the theoretical and practical methods for automation of the regional innovative system management with application of modern information technologies. In order to achieve the specifi ed goal, the following tasks are solved in the article: determining of the modern methods and approaches of organization and management of the information flows within the contemporary business communities; the analysis and structural description of the regional innovative system; working out of the concept for the complex automated information system supporting the innovative activity. The research methods. For solving of the stated tasks some methods and approaches for creating of the social networks, methods of organization of the information fl ows based on the Web 2.0 technology and some expert methods of innovation were used. Finally, the following results were obtained: the structural description of the regional innovative system has been worked out. The main

  5. The international arctic seas assessment project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.L.; Linsley, G.S.


    The article provides some background information on wastes dumped into the Arctic Seas and describes the progress made within the framework of International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) lunched to assess the health and environmental implications of the dumping. 1 tab

  6. Operationalising a social-ecological system perspective on the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Gren, Åsa; Engström, Gustav; Ospina, Daniel


    We propose a framework to support management that builds on a social-ecological system perspective on the Arctic Ocean. We illustrate the framework's application for two policy-relevant scenarios of climate-driven change, picturing a shift in zooplankton composition and alternatively a crab invasion. We analyse archetypical system dynamics between the socio-economic, the natural, and the governance systems in these scenarios. Our holistic approach can help managers identify looming problems arising from complex system interactions and prioritise among problems and solutions, even when available data are limited.

  7. Detecting and Understanding Changing Arctic Carbon Emissions (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.


    Warming in the Arctic has proceeded faster than anyplace on Earth. Our current understanding of biogeochemistry suggests that we can expect feedbacks between climate and carbon in the Arctic. Changes in terrestrial fluxes of carbon can be expected as the Arctic warms, and the vast stores of organic carbon frozen in Arctic soils could be mobilized to the atmosphere, with possible significant impacts on global climate. Quantifying trends in Arctic carbon exchanges is important for policymaking because greater reductions in anthropogenic emissions may be required to meet climate goals. Observations of greenhouse gases in the Arctic and globally have been collected for several decades. Analysis of this data does not currently support significantly changed Arctic emissions of CH4, however it is difficult to detect changes in Arctic emissions because of transport from lower latitudes and large inter-annual variability. Unfortunately, current space-based remote sensing systems have limitations at Arctic latitudes. Modeling systems can help untangle the Arctic budget of greenhouse gases, but they are dependent on underlying prior fluxes, wetland distributions and global anthropogenic emissions. Also, atmospheric transport models may have significant biases and errors. For example, unrealistic near-surface stability can lead to underestimation of emissions in atmospheric inversions. We discuss our current understanding of the Arctic carbon budget from both top-down and bottom-up approaches. We show that current atmospheric inversions agree well on the CH4 budget. On the other hand, bottom-up models vary widely in their predictions of natural emissions, with some models predicting emissions too large to be accommodated by the budget implied by global observations. Large emissions from the shallow Arctic ocean are also inconsistent with atmospheric observations. We also discuss the sensitivity of the current atmospheric network to what is likely small, gradual increases in

  8. Arctic transitions in the Land - Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Sturm, M.; Chapin, F. S.


    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.

  9. The great challenges in Arctic Ocean paleoceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Ruediger


    Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key areas and approaches for drilling and recovering undisturbed and complete sedimentary sequences are depth transects across the major ocean ridge systems, i.e., the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, and the Chukchi Plateau/Northwind Ridge, the Beaufort, Kara and Laptev sea continental margins, as well as the major Arctic gateways towards the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The new detailed climate records from the Arctic Ocean spanning time intervals from the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene Greenhouse world to the Neogene-Quaternary Icehouse world and representing short- and long-term climate variability on scales from 10 to 10 6 years, will give new insights into our understanding of the Arctic Ocean within the global climate system and provide an opportunity to test the performance of climate models used to predict future climate change. With this, studying the Arctic Ocean is certainly one of the major challenges in climate research for the coming decades.

  10. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.


    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  11. Earth System Modeling and Field Experiments in the Arctic-Boreal Zone - Report from a NASA Workshop (United States)

    Sellers, Piers; Rienecker Michele; Randall, David; Frolking, Steve


    Early climate modeling studies predicted that the Arctic Ocean and surrounding circumpolar land masses would heat up earlier and faster than other parts of the planet as a result of greenhouse gas-induced climate change, augmented by the sea-ice albedo feedback effect. These predictions have been largely borne out by observations over the last thirty years. However, despite constant improvement, global climate models have greater difficulty in reproducing the current climate in the Arctic than elsewhere and the scatter between projections from different climate models is much larger in the Arctic than for other regions. Biogeochemical cycle (BGC) models indicate that the warming in the Arctic-Boreal Zone (ABZ) could lead to widespread thawing of the permafrost, along with massive releases of CO2 and CH4, and large-scale changes in the vegetation cover in the ABZ. However, the uncertainties associated with these BGC model predictions are even larger than those associated with the physical climate system models used to describe climate change. These deficiencies in climate and BGC models reflect, at least in part, an incomplete understanding of the Arctic climate system and can be related to inadequate observational data or analyses of existing data. A workshop was held at NASA/GSFC, May 22-24 2012, to assess the predictive capability of the models, prioritize the critical science questions; and make recommendations regarding new field experiments needed to improve model subcomponents. This presentation will summarize the findings and recommendations of the workshop, including the need for aircraft and flux tower measurements and extension of existing in-situ measurements to improve process modeling of both the physical climate and biogeochemical cycle systems. Studies should be directly linked to remote sensing investigations with a view to scaling up the improved process models to the Earth System Model scale. Data assimilation and observing system simulation

  12. Does Funding for Arctic Research Align with Research Priorities and Policy Needs? Trends in the USA, Canada and Europe (United States)

    Murray, M. S.; Ibarguchi, G.; Rajdev, V.


    Over the past twenty years, increasing awareness and understanding of changes in the Arctic system, the stated desires of Arctic Peoples to be engaged in the research process, and a growing international interest in the region's resources have informed various stakeholders to undertake many Arctic science planning activities. Some examples of science planning include priority-setting for research, knowledge translation, stakeholder engagement, improved coordination, and international collaboration. The International Study of Arctic Change recently initiated an analysis of the extent to which alignment exists among stated science priorities, recognized societal needs, and funding patterns of the major North American and European agencies. In this paper, we present a decade of data on international funding patterns and data on two decades of science planning. We discuss whether funding patterns reflect the priority research questions and identified needs for information that are articulated in a myriad of Arctic research planning documents. The alignment in many areas remains poor, bringing into question the purpose of large-scale science planning if it does not lead to funding of those priorities identified by Arctic stakeholder communities (scientists, Arctic Peoples, planners, policy makers, the private sector, and others).

  13. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.


    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs

  14. Arctic pipeline planning design, construction, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh


    Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to: Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction Is packed with easy-to-read and under...

  15. Arctic Messages: Arctic Research in the Vocabulary of Poets and Artists (United States)

    Samsel, F.


    Arctic Messages is a series of prints created by a multidisciplinary team designed to build understanding and encourage dialogue about the changing Arctic ecosystems and the impacts on global weather patterns. Our team comprised of Arctic researchers, a poet, a visual artist, photographers and visualization experts set out to blend the vocabularies of our disciplines in order to provide entry into the content for diverse audiences. Arctic Messages is one facet of our broader efforts experimenting with mediums of communication able to provide entry to those of us outside scientific of fields. We believe that the scientific understanding of change presented through the languages art will speak to our humanity as well as our intellect. The prints combine poetry, painting, visualization, and photographs, drawn from the Arctic field studies of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments research team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The artistic team interviewed the scientists, read their papers and poured over their field blogs. The content and concepts are designed to portray the wonder of nature, the complexity of the science and the dedication of the researchers. Smith brings to life the intertwined connection between the research efforts, the ecosystems and the scientist's experience. Breathtaking photography of the research site is accompanied by Samsel's drawings and paintings of the ecosystem relationships and geological formations. Together they provide entry to the variety and wonder of life on the Arctic tundra and that resting quietly in the permafrost below. Our team has experimented with many means of presentation from complex interactive systems to quiet individual works. Here we are presenting a series of prints, each one based on a single thread of the research or the scientist's experience but containing intertwined relationships similar to the ecosystems they represent. Earlier interactive systems, while engaging, were not tuned to those seeking

  16. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.


    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  17. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.


    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  18. Raman lidars for a better understanding of pollution in the Arctic System (PARCS) (United States)

    Patrick, Chazette; Jean-Christophe, Raut; Julien, Totems; Xiaoxia, Shang; Christophe, Caudoux; Julien, Delanoë; Kathy, Law


    The development of oil and gas drilling and the opening of new shipping routes, in the Barents and Norway seas, poses new challenges for the Arctic environment due to the impact of air pollution emissions on climate and air quality. To improve our knowledge of the interactions between aerosols, water vapor and cloud cover, within the French PARCS (Pollution in the ARCtic System) project, Raman lidar observations were performed from the ground and from an ultra-light aircraft near the North Cape in northern Norway, and coupled with measurements from a 95 GHz ground-based Doppler radar.

  19. From the field to classrooms: Scientists and educators collaborating to develop K-12 lessons on arctic carbon cycling and climate change that align with Next Generation Science Standards, and informal outreach programs that bring authentic data to informal audiences. (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Cory, R. M.


    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) calls for students across grade levels to understand climate change and its impacts. To achieve this goal, the NSF-sponsored PolarTREC program paired an educator with scientists studying carbon cycling in the Arctic. The data collection and fieldwork performed by the team will form the basis of hands-on science learning in the classroom and will be incorporated into informal outreach sessions in the community. Over a 16-day period, the educator was stationed at Toolik Field Station in the High Arctic. (Toolik is run by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology.) She participated in a project that analyzed the effects of sunlight and microbial content on carbon production in Artic watersheds. Data collected will be used to introduce the following NGSS standards into the middle-school science curriculum: 1) Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence. 2) Develop a model to explain cycling of water. 3) Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. 4) Analyze and interpret data. 5) A change in one system causes and effect in other systems. Lessons can be telescoped to meet the needs of classrooms in higher or lower grades. Through these activities, students will learn strategies to model an aspect of carbon cycling, interpret authentic scientific data collected in the field, and conduct geoscience research on carbon cycling. Community outreach sessions are also an effective method to introduce and discuss the importance of geoscience education. Informal discussions of firsthand experience gained during fieldwork can help communicate to a lay audience the biological, physical, and chemical aspects of the arctic carbon cycle and the impacts of climate change on these features. Outreach methods will also include novel use of online tools to directly connect audiences with scientists in an effective and time-efficient manner.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.


    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  1. Quantum imaging for underwater arctic navigation (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    The precise navigation of underwater vehicles is a difficult task due to the challenges imposed by the variable oceanic environment. It is particularly difficult if the underwater vehicle is trying to navigate under the Arctic ice shelf. Indeed, in this scenario traditional navigation devices such as GPS, compasses and gyrocompasses are unavailable or unreliable. In addition, the shape and thickness of the ice shelf is variable throughout the year. Current Arctic underwater navigation systems include sonar arrays to detect the proximity to the ice. However, these systems are undesirable in a wartime environment, as the sound gives away the position of the underwater vehicle. In this paper we briefly describe the theoretical design of a quantum imaging system that could allow the safe and stealthy navigation of underwater Arctic vehicles.

  2. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sakov


    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003–2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates – a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  3. Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion. (United States)

    English, M J; Hemmerling, T M


    To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.

  4. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y A; Bolsunovskaya, L M


    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed

  5. Progress in the Mallik 2002 Data and Information System (United States)

    Loewner, R.; Conze, R.; Laframboise, R. R.; Working Group, M.


    Since December 2001 scientific investigations in a gas hydrate research well program were undertaken in the Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic, supported by a new Data and Information System. The program comprised a main production well and two scientific observation wells. During the drilling period of the main Mallik well hole we were able to elaborate an information system very close in time and space to the activities and operations at the drill site and in the laboratories of the Inuvik Research Center. Due to the particular conditions and characteristics of Methane Drilling Projects, the technical realization and the structure of the data management required adapted individual solutions. On the one hand, the physical properties of the Methane and the climate in the Arctic enforced working under extreme conditions not only for the staff but also for the technical equipment. On the other hand, the sensitive data demanded security on a very high level. Considering these characteristics, a database structure has been set up successfully on a server in Inuvik, supported by our Drilling Information System (DIS). The drilling period ended in March 2002 and the scientific evaluation phase began. Until now a detailed database with all on-site gained information and data from the succeeding analyses has been made available in the ICDP information network ( Lithological descriptions, borehole measurements, monitoring data and an archive of all the core runs and samples are stored in the Mallik Data Warehouse. A request started from the Internet generates results dynamically which accomplish the needs of the user. The user even can generate own litho-logs which enables him/her to compare all kinds of borehole information for his/her scientific work. All these functions and sevices are covered by an highly sophisticated security management due to different defined areas of confidentiality within the Mallik

  6. Changing Arctic ecosystems: resilience of caribou to climatic shifts in the Arctic (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Adams, Layne G.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative strives to inform key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information and forecasts for current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. Over the past 5 years, a focal area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the North Slope of Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 60 years, yet the rate of change has been varied across the North Slope, leading scientists to question the future response and resilience of wildlife populations, such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus), that rely on tundra habitats for forage. Future changes in temperature and precipitation to coastal wet sedge and upland low shrub tundra are expected, with unknown consequences for caribou that rely on these plant communities for food. Understanding how future environmental change may affect caribou migration, nutrition, and reproduction is a focal question being addressed by the USGS CAE research. Results will inform management agencies in Alaska and people that rely on caribou for food.

  7. The nature of spatial transitions in the Arctic. (United States)

    H. E. Epstein; J. Beringer; W. A. Gould; A. H. Lloyd; C. D. Thompson; F. S. Chapin III; G. J. Michaelson; C. L. Ping; T. S. Rupp; D. A. Walker


    Aim Describe the spatial and temporal properties of transitions in the Arctic and develop a conceptual understanding of the nature of these spatial transitions in the face of directional environmental change. Location Arctic tundra ecosystems of the North Slope of Alaska and the tundraforest region of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Methods We synthesize information from...

  8. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)


    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  9. Cyclone Activity in the Arctic From an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models (Arctic CORDEX) (United States)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Mokhov, Igor I.; Matthes, Heidrun; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Adakudlu, Muralidhar; Cassano, John; Christensen, Jens H.; Dembitskaya, Mariya A.; Dethloff, Klaus; Fettweis, Xavier; Glisan, Justin; Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther; Koenigk, Torben; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Laprise, René; Mottram, Ruth; Nikiéma, Oumarou; Scinocca, John F.; Sein, Dmitry; Sobolowski, Stefan; Winger, Katja; Zhang, Wenxin


    The ability of state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate cyclone activity in the Arctic is assessed based on an ensemble of 13 simulations from 11 models from the Arctic-CORDEX initiative. Some models employ large-scale spectral nudging techniques. Cyclone characteristics simulated by the ensemble are compared with the results forced by four reanalyses (ERA-Interim, National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2, and Japan Meteorological Agency-Japanese 55-year reanalysis) in winter and summer for 1981-2010 period. In addition, we compare cyclone statistics between ERA-Interim and the Arctic System Reanalysis reanalyses for 2000-2010. Biases in cyclone frequency, intensity, and size over the Arctic are also quantified. Variations in cyclone frequency across the models are partly attributed to the differences in cyclone frequency over land. The variations across the models are largest for small and shallow cyclones for both seasons. A connection between biases in the zonal wind at 200 hPa and cyclone characteristics is found for both seasons. Most models underestimate zonal wind speed in both seasons, which likely leads to underestimation of cyclone mean depth and deep cyclone frequency in the Arctic. In general, the regional climate models are able to represent the spatial distribution of cyclone characteristics in the Arctic but models that employ large-scale spectral nudging show a better agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis than the rest of the models. Trends also exhibit the benefits of nudging. Models with spectral nudging are able to reproduce the cyclone trends, whereas most of the nonnudged models fail to do so. However, the cyclone characteristics and trends are sensitive to the choice of nudged variables.

  10. State of the Arctic Coast 2010: Scientific Review and Outlook (United States)

    Rachold, V.; Forbes, D. L.; Kremer, H.; Lantuit, H.


    The coast is a key interface in the Arctic environment. It is a locus of human activity, a rich band of biodiversity, critical habitat, and high productivity, and among the most dynamic components of the circumpolar landscape. The Arctic coastal interface is a sensitive and important zone of interaction between land and sea, a region that provides essential ecosystem services and supports indigenous human lifestyles; a zone of expanding infrastructure investment and growing security concerns; and an area in which climate warming is expected to trigger landscape instability, rapid responses to change, and increased hazard exposure. Starting with a collaborative workshop in October 2007, the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Project and the International Permafrost Association (IPA) decided to jointly initiate an assessment of the state of the Arctic coast. The goal of this report is to draw on initial findings regarding climate change and human dimensions for the Arctic as a whole provided by the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) to develop a comprehensive picture of status and current and anticipated change in the most sensitive Arctic coastal areas. Underlying is the concept of a social ecological system perspective that explores the implications of change for the interaction of humans with nature. The report is aimed to be a first step towards a continuously updated coastal assessment and to identify key issues seeking future scientific concern in an international Earth system research agenda. The report titled “State of the Arctic Coast 2010: Scientific Review and Outlook” is the outcome of this collaborative effort. It is organized in three parts: the first provides an assessment of the state of Arctic coastal systems under three broad disciplinary themes - physical systems, ecological systems, and human concerns in the coastal zone; the

  11. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic - Present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.


    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In 1991, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (author)

  12. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  13. Games in the Arctic: applying game theory insights to Arctic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cole


    Full Text Available We illustrate the benefits of game theoretic analysis for assisting decision-makers in resolving conflicts and other challenges in a rapidly evolving region. We review a series of salient Arctic issues with global implications—managing open-access fisheries, opening Arctic areas for resource extraction and ensuring effective environmental regulation for natural resource extraction—and provide insights to help reach socially preferred outcomes. We provide an overview of game theoretic analysis in layman's terms, explaining how game theory can help researchers and decision-makers to better understand conflicts, and how to identify the need for, and improve the design of, policy interventions. We believe that game theoretic tools are particularly useful in a region with a diverse set of players ranging from countries to firms to individuals. We argue that the Arctic Council should take a more active governing role in the region by, for example, dispersing information to “players” in order to alleviate conflicts regarding the management of common-pool resources such as open-access fisheries and natural resource extraction. We also identify side payments—that is, monetary or in-kind compensation from one party of a conflict to another—as a key mechanism for reaching a more biologically, culturally and economically sustainable Arctic future. By emphasizing the practical insights generated from an academic discipline, we present game theory as an influential tool in shaping the future of the Arctic—for individual researchers, for inter-disciplinary research and for policy-makers themselves.

  14. Distribution of Po-210 and Pb-210 in Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an Arctic freshwater lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, J.P.; Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)


    There is little information available with regard to the accumulation of Po-210 and Pb-210 by freshwater fish in natural freshwater systems despite the potential for relevant ingestion doses to man. This is maybe of particular pertinence for certain population groups where freshwater fish are an important dietary food item. Equally, it is important to understand the body distributions of these naturally occurring radionuclides to quantify the resulting doses to different tissues and organs of freshwater fish. With regard to the latter, it is important to consider not only the doses arising from bio-accumulated Po-210 and Pb-210 in various body compartments but additionally the internal dose from unabsorbed Po-210 and Pb-210 in the digestive tract. In this study, activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 were determined in muscle and various internal organs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled from a lake in the Norwegian Arctic (69 deg. 4' N, 19 deg. 20' E). Observed activity concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 in different tissues will be discussed in relation to physiological parameters and ambient lake water activity concentrations. Results from this study will be compared to two similar studies conducted in freshwater systems where elevated activity concentrations of these radionuclides have been observed. Ingestion dose rates to man and effective absorbed dose rates to different tissues and organs of Arctic Charr from Po-210 and Pb-210 will be derived and compared to those from observed activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radionuclide Cs-137. (authors)

  15. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.


    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  17. A lake-centric geospatial database to guide research and inform management decisions in an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska experiencing climate and land-use changes (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Nigro, Debora A.; Nitze, Ingmar; Beaver, John; Gadeke, Anne; Zuck, Callie; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Daanen, Ronald; Torvinen, Eric; Fritz, Stacey; Grosse, Guido


    Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Further development of similar geospatial databases is needed to better understand and plan for the impacts of ongoing climate and land-use changes occurring across lake-rich landscapes in the Arctic.

  18. Tsunami in the Arctic (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey


    rate of 10-3 per year. Additional tsunami threat might arise from rare earthquake occurrences within the continental slope of deep-sea basin of the Arctic Ocean and near the coast of the continent, where high probability of triggering submarine landslides exists that can generate even more dangerous tsunamis than those of seismotectonic origin. The most reliable information about the manifestation of the tsunami in the Arctic is associated with submarine landslide Storegga located on the continental slope of the Norwegian Sea and collapsed 8,200 years ago. Traces of sediment left behind by the tsunami waves on the coast, show that the maximum vertical tsunami runup could reach 20 meters. Factors causing the potential tsunami thread of landslides in Russian Arctic are sedimentation processes that can be associated with the formation of the alluvial fans of the great Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisei and Lena.

  19. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  20. Multinational Experiment 7. Maritime Security Region: The Arctic (United States)


    increasingly affect human communities , natural systems, and infrastructure. Resources and Trade Routes in the Arctic Climate change in the Far...capelin, herring, navaga, and wolffishes. Some areas of the Arctic and sub-Arctic suffer from high levels of illegal fishing and overfishing , and...maneuvering, joint air defense drills, communications and search and rescue operations. The exercise is normally held every second year. 8 In

  1. Radiative Impacts of Further Arctic Sea Ice Melt: Using past Observations to Inform Future Climate Impacts (United States)

    Pistone, K.; Eisenman, I.; Ramanathan, V.


    The Arctic region has seen dramatic changes over the past several decades, from polar amplification of global temperature rise to ecosystem changes to the decline of the sea ice. While there has been much speculation as to when the world will see an ice-free Arctic, the radiative impacts of an eventual disappearance of the Arctic sea ice are likely to be significant regardless of the timing. Using CERES radiation and microwave satellite sea ice data, Pistone et al (2014) estimated the radiative forcing due to albedo changes associated with the Arctic sea ice retreat over the 30 years of the satellite data record. In this study, we found that the Arctic Ocean saw a decrease in all-sky albedo of 4% (from 52% to 48%), for an estimated increase in solar heating of 6.4 W/m(exp 2) between 1979 and 2011, or 0.21 W/m(exp 2) when averaged over the globe. This value is substantial--approximately 25% as large as the forcing due to the change in CO2 during the same period. Here we update and expand upon this previous work and use the CERES broadband shortwave observations to explore the radiative impacts of a transition to completely ice-free Arctic Ocean. We estimate the annually-averaged Arctic Ocean planetary albedo under ice-free and cloud-free conditions to be 14% over the region, or approximately 25% lower in absolute terms than the Arctic Ocean cloud-free albedo in 1979. However, the question of all-sky conditions (i.e. including the effects of clouds) introduces a new level of complexity. We explore several cloud scenarios and the resultant impact on albedo. In each of these cases, the estimated forcing is not uniformly distributed throughout the year. We describe the relative contributions of ice loss by month as well as the spatial distributions of the resulting changes in absorbed solar energy. The seasonal timing and location—in addition to magnitude—of the altered solar absorption may have significant implications for atmospheric and ocean dynamics in the

  2. Arctic Ocean Paleoceanography and Future IODP Drilling (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger


    Although the Arctic Ocean is a major player in the global climate/earth system, this region is one of the last major physiographic provinces on Earth where the short- and long-term geological history is still poorly known. This lack in knowledge is mainly due to the major technological/logistical problems in operating within the permanently ice-covered Arctic region which makes it difficult to retrieve long and undisturbed sediment cores. Prior to 2004, in the central Arctic Ocean piston and gravity coring was mainly restricted to obtaining near-surface sediments, i.e., only the upper 15 m could be sampled. Thus, all studies were restricted to the late Pliocene/Quaternary time interval, with a few exceptions. These include the four short cores obtained by gravity coring from drifting ice floes over the Alpha Ridge, where older pre-Neogene organic-carbon-rich muds and laminated biosiliceous oozes were sampled. Continuous central Arctic Ocean sedimentary records, allowing a development of chronologic sequences of climate and environmental change through Cenozoic times and a comparison with global climate records, however, were missing prior to the IODP Expedition 302 (Arctic Ocean Coring Expedition - ACEX), the first scientific drilling in the central Arctic Ocean. By studying the unique ACEX sequence, a large number of scientific discoveries that describe previously unknown Arctic paleoenvironments, were obtained during the last decade (for most recent review and references see Stein et al., 2014). While these results from ACEX were unprecedented, key questions related to the climate history of the Arctic Ocean remain unanswered, in part because of poor core recovery, and in part because of the possible presence of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus or interval of starved sedimentation within the ACEX record. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key

  3. U.S. Arctic Voyage Planning Guide (AVPG) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic Voyage Planning Guide is a compilation of official U.S. Government information and references to sources of information that may be consulted by mariners...

  4. The influence of human activity in the Arctic on climate and climate impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.P. [23834 The Clearing Dr., Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Boyle, M. [Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6S 1K4 (Canada); Flowers, G.E. [Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Weatherly, J.W. [Snow and Ice Division, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Hamilton, L.C. [Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, 20 College Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Hinzman, L. [Water and Environment Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755860, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gerlach, C. [Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 757720, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Zulueta, R. [Department of Biology, Global Change Research Group, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, PS-240, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Nicolson, C. [Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA , 01003 (United States); Overpeck, J. [Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona, 715 North Park Avenue, 2nd Floor, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States)


    Human activities in the Arctic are often mentioned as recipients of climate-change impacts. In this paper we consider the more complicated but more likely possibility that human activities themselves can interact with climate or environmental change in ways that either mitigate or exacerbate the human impacts. Although human activities in the Arctic are generally assumed to be modest, our analysis suggests that those activities may have larger influences on the arctic system than previously thought. Moreover, human influences could increase substantially in the near future. First, we illustrate how past human activities in the Arctic have combined with climatic variations to alter biophysical systems upon which fisheries and livestock depend. Second, we describe how current and future human activities could precipitate or affect the timing of major transitions in the arctic system. Past and future analyses both point to ways in which human activities in the Arctic can substantially influence the trajectory of arctic system change.

  5. Detection, prevalence, and transmission of avian hematozoa in waterfowl at the Arctic/sub-Arctic interface: co-infections, viral interactions, and sources of variation. (United States)

    Meixell, Brandt; Arnold, Todd W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Smith, Matthew M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Ramey, Andy M.


    Background: The epidemiology of avian hematozoa at high latitudes is still not well understood, particularly in sub-Arctic and Arctic habitats, where information is limited regarding seasonality and range of transmission, co-infection dynamics with parasitic and viral agents, and possible fitness consequences of infection. Such information is important as climate warming may lead to northward expansion of hematozoa with unknown consequences to northern-breeding avian taxa, particularly populations that may be previously unexposed to blood parasites.

  6. Controlled meteorological (CMET free balloon profiling of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer around Spitsbergen compared to ERA-Interim and Arctic System Reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roberts


    Full Text Available Observations from CMET (Controlled Meteorological balloons are analysed to provide insights into tropospheric meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, wind around Svalbard, European High Arctic. Five Controlled Meteorological (CMET balloons were launched from Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard (Spitsbergen over 5–12 May 2011 and measured vertical atmospheric profiles over coastal areas to both the east and west. One notable CMET flight achieved a suite of 18 continuous soundings that probed the Arctic marine boundary layer (ABL over a period of more than 10 h. Profiles from two CMET flights are compared to model output from ECMWF Era-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I and to a high-resolution (15 km Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR product. To the east of Svalbard over sea ice, the CMET observed a stable ABL profile with a temperature inversion that was reproduced by ASR but not captured by ERA-I. In a coastal ice-free region to the west of Svalbard, the CMET observed a stable ABL with strong wind shear. The CMET profiles document increases in ABL temperature and humidity that are broadly reproduced by both ASR and ERA-I. The ASR finds a more stably stratified ABL than observed but captured the wind shear in contrast to ERA-I. Detailed analysis of the coastal CMET-automated soundings identifies small-scale temperature and humidity variations with a low-level flow and provides an estimate of local wind fields. We demonstrate that CMET balloons are a valuable approach for profiling the free atmosphere and boundary layer in remote regions such as the Arctic, where few other in situ observations are available for model validation.

  7. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.


    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  8. Application of fuzzy neural network technologies in management of transport and logistics processes in Arctic (United States)

    Levchenko, N. G.; Glushkov, S. V.; Sobolevskaya, E. Yu; Orlov, A. P.


    The method of modeling the transport and logistics process using fuzzy neural network technologies has been considered. The analysis of the implemented fuzzy neural network model of the information management system of transnational multimodal transportation of the process showed the expediency of applying this method to the management of transport and logistics processes in the Arctic and Subarctic conditions. The modular architecture of this model can be expanded by incorporating additional modules, since the working conditions in the Arctic and the subarctic themselves will present more and more realistic tasks. The architecture allows increasing the information management system, without affecting the system or the method itself. The model has a wide range of application possibilities, including: analysis of the situation and behavior of interacting elements; dynamic monitoring and diagnostics of management processes; simulation of real events and processes; prediction and prevention of critical situations.

  9. 78 FR 52941 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Next Generation Arctic Navigational Safety... (United States)


    ... advantages, disadvantages, required technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated... technology approach to the ``Next Generation Arctic Maritime Navigational Safety Information System,'' which... Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-502, codified at 15 U.S.C. 3710(a)). A CRADA [[Page...

  10. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  11. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  12. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  13. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice


    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René


    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  14. Modern pollen data from the Canadian Arctic, 1972-1973 (United States)

    Nichols, Harvey; Stolze, Susann


    This data descriptor reports results of a 1972-73 baseline study of modern pollen deposition in the Canadian Arctic to originally aid interpretation of Holocene pollen diagrams from that region, especially focussed on the arctic tree-line. The data set is geographically unique due to its extent, and allows the assessment of the effects of modern climate change on northern ecosystems, including fluctuations of the a arctic tree-line. Repeated sampling was conducted along an interior transect at 29 sites from the Boreal Forest to the High Arctic, with five additional coastal sites covering a total distance of 3,200 km. Static pollen samplers captured both local pollen and long-distance pollen wind-blown from the Boreal Forest. Moss and lichen polsters provided multi-year pollen fallout to assess the effectiveness of the static pollen samplers. The local vegetation was recorded at each site. This descriptor provides information on data archived at the World Data Center PANGAEA, which includes spreadsheets detailing site and sample information as well as raw and processed pollen data obtained on over 500 samples.

  15. Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers (United States)

    Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.


    BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held

  16. The Experience of Barometric Drifter Application for Investigating the World Ocean Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev


    Full Text Available Efficiency of the problem solution to create a regionally-oriented data computing system for marine dynamics and ecosystem evolution modeling and forecasting (that should be capable for providing reliable information for managerial decision making, justifying future economic projects and adjusting the existing ones depends on development level of observational systems, environmental evolution, mathematical models and techniques for observational data assimilation. The analysis of the system as an observational segment of modern geo-informational technology allows us to draw a conclusion that the system of drifter observations is one of the most effective ones nowadays. Surface drifter network, continuously operating in the World Ocean, provides systematic operational data on the surface water circulation, thermal processes in the upper ocean and air pressure. Drifter data, acquired over the past 15 years, allowed one to improve and even change the existing concepts of patterns and mechanisms of regional climatic trend and hydrometeorological anomaly formation under effect of global processes in the Ocean – Atmosphere model (in the high latitudes as well. In the present paper the principle results of the analysis of expediency and feasibility of drifting systematic operative pressure field monitoring establishment in the near-surface atmosphere layer over the Arctic Ocean and the seas of the Russian Federation Arctic Zone have been considered. More than 30 drifters of BTC60/GPS/ice type, whose summarized lifetime as for June 2015 exceeded 6500 days, were deployed in the Arctic in 2012–2015. According to data acquired from the drifters, more than 155 000 air pressure readings were received. The most intensive drifter observations were carried out in two regions: in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and in the Central Arctic. The results of experiments revealed that hardware-software solutions implemented in polar modifications of barometric

  17. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.


    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  18. Radar studies of arctic ice and development of a real-time Arctic ice type identification system (United States)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.; Permenter, J. A.


    Studies were conducted to develop a real-time Arctic ice type identification system. Data obtained by NASA Mission 126, conducted at Pt. Barrow, Alaska (Site 93) in April 1970 was analyzed in detail to more clearly define the major mechanisms at work affecting the radar energy illuminating a terrain cell of sea ice. General techniques for reduction of the scatterometer data to a form suitable for application of ice type decision criteria were investigated, and the electronic circuit requirements for implementation of these techniques were determined. Also, consideration of circuit requirements are extended to include the electronics necessary for analog programming of ice type decision algorithms. After completing the basic circuit designs a laboratory model was constructed and a preliminary evaluation performed. Several system modifications for improved performance are suggested. (Modified author abstract)

  19. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.


    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  20. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I


    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  1. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.


    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  2. Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time Ground-Truth Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic (United States)

    Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.


    The work had been funded by NASA HQ's office of Cryospheric Sciences Program. Recent observations of the Arctic have shown that sea ice has diminished drastically, consequently impacting the environment in the Arctic and beyond. Certain factors such as atmospheric anomalies, wind forces, temperature increase, and change in the distribution of cold and warm waters contribute to the sea ice reduction. However current measurement capabilities lack the accuracy, temporal sampling, and spatial coverage required to effectively quantify each contributing factor and to identify other missing factors. Addressing the need for new measurement capabilities for the new Arctic regime, we propose a game-changing in-situ Arctic-wide Distributed Mobile Monitoring system called Moball-buoy Network. Moball-buoy Network consists of a number of wind-propelled self-powered inflatable spheres referred to as Moball-buoys. The Moball-buoys are self-powered. They use their novel mechanical control and energy harvesting system to use the abundance of wind in the Arctic for their controlled mobility and energy harvesting. They are equipped with an array of low-power low-mass sensors and micro devices able to measure a wide range of environmental factors such as the ice conditions, chemical species wind vector patterns, cloud coverage, air temperature and pressure, electromagnetic fields, surface and subsurface water conditions, short- and long-wave radiations, bathymetry, and anthropogenic factors such as pollutions. The stop-and-go motion capability, using their novel mechanics, and the heads up cooperation control strategy at the core of the proposed distributed system enable the sensor network to be reconfigured dynamically according to the priority of the parameters to be monitored. The large number of Moball-buoys with their ground-based, sea-based, satellite and peer-to-peer communication capabilities would constitute a wireless mesh network that provides an interface for a global

  3. Human-induced Arctic moistening. (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis


    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  4. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon


    In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister......, a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......’s nonappearance did, however, betray the low status that Arctic affairs had in the halls of government in Copenhagen. Since the end of the Cold War, where Greenland had helped tie Denmark and the US closer together due to its geostrategically important position between North America and the Soviet Union, Arctic...

  5. Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin


    There is intense public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact midlatitude weather such as cold air outbreaks on the central and east side of continents. Although there is progress in linkage research for eastern Asia, a clear gap is conformation for North America. We show two stationary temperature/geopotential height patterns where warmer Arctic temperatures have reinforced existing tropospheric jet stream wave amplitudes over North America: a Greenland/Baffin Block pattern during December 2010 and an Alaska Ridge pattern during December 2017. Even with continuing Arctic warming over the past decade, other recent eastern US winter months were less susceptible for an Arctic linkage: the jet stream was represented by either zonal flow, progressive weather systems, or unfavorable phasing of the long wave pattern. The present analysis lays the scientific controversy over the validity of linkages to the inherent intermittency of jet stream dynamics, which provides only an occasional bridge between Arctic thermodynamic forcing and extended midlatitude weather events.

  6. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities? (United States)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka


    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  7. Radio-positioning for arctic seismic refraction surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearnley-Davison, J. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)); Forsyth, D.A. (Continental Geoscience Div., Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))


    The full extent of hydrocarbon reserves within Canada's Arctic margin is not appreciated at present. With the exception of the southern Beaufort Sea, the crustal structure of most of Canada's offshore polar margin remains a mystery, even at reconnaissance level. Navigation to support offshore Arctic surveys have required a special application and adaptation of the conventional SYLEDIS (SYsteme LEgere de DIStance) range-range navigational system to perform under the northeast Actic margin's environment. Once adapted, the system has proven very effective with a few Arctic environment servicing problems. The total number of locations involved in the earlier surveys ranged from 20 to aproximately 50 per project in a season. The SYLEDIS operation has enabled real-time positioning with a precision of better than 10 metres for approximately 350 separate sites in the 1985 and 1986 surveys inclusive. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin


    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  9. The Impact of Oil and Gas Resources In the Arctic on the Development of the Transport System in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Salygin


    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the Russian economy today is the development of the Arctic region. Given the key role of the energy sector in the economic balance of the country, as well as the problem of exhaustion of hydrocarbon resources, the Arctic is of particular interest from an economic and geopolitical point of view, ensuring the energy security of Russia. Active development of the region leads to the development of transport infrastructure, which is one of the priorities of Russia's energy policy. The issue of transportation plays a leading role in the context of the development of Arctic resources and involves a number of tasks. The first step is to ensure the safety of navigation in the Arctic ice. Also existing infrastructure needs substantial upgrading, as well as construction of new facilities (including ports, railways, roads, etc.. Of particular note is a unique transcontinental route - the Northern Sea Route. There is a need to modernize the Arctic Fleet, including the construction of modern icebreakers of the Arctic class. The current state of the port system, which does not fully meet the latest international standards, is of crucial importance as well. In addition, along the route the development of railway infrastructure is required. In addition, there is the problem of underdevelopment of the road network, which leads to a re-run and lack of access of some are as to the road network of Russia. Thus, the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic region contributes to the development of infrastructure of the transport system in the region and, consequently, its economic development that contributes to the economic well-being of the country as a whole.

  10. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... in the Arctic. The report focus on the surface exchange of mercury, the uptake of abiotic mercury into the biological system, and the bioaccumulation in the first steps of the food web, and the resulting distribution and time trend of mercury in selected animals feeding on various trophic levels...

  11. Modern pollen data from the Canadian Arctic, 1972–1973 (United States)

    Nichols, Harvey; Stolze, Susann


    This data descriptor reports results of a 1972–73 baseline study of modern pollen deposition in the Canadian Arctic to originally aid interpretation of Holocene pollen diagrams from that region, especially focussed on the arctic tree-line. The data set is geographically unique due to its extent, and allows the assessment of the effects of modern climate change on northern ecosystems, including fluctuations of the a arctic tree-line. Repeated sampling was conducted along an interior transect at 29 sites from the Boreal Forest to the High Arctic, with five additional coastal sites covering a total distance of 3,200 km. Static pollen samplers captured both local pollen and long-distance pollen wind-blown from the Boreal Forest. Moss and lichen polsters provided multi-year pollen fallout to assess the effectiveness of the static pollen samplers. The local vegetation was recorded at each site. This descriptor provides information on data archived at the World Data Center PANGAEA, which includes spreadsheets detailing site and sample information as well as raw and processed pollen data obtained on over 500 samples. PMID:28509898

  12. The Arctic Circle (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan


    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  13. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho


    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  14. Collaboration in Arctic Research: Best Practices to Build and Sustain Successful Cross- and Trans-disciplinary Efforts (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Rich, R. H.


    The rapid physical and social changes currently underway in the Arctic - and changes in the way in which we study and manage the region -- require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems and the implications of change at many scales. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the "new Arctic". There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such efforts. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. Efforts must draw on bodies of knowledge from project management, strategic planning, organizational development, and group dynamics. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies - both successes and failures -- will be presented that draw on several projects at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS;, a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.

  15. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  16. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Matt


    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  17. Counterterrorism in the Russian Arctic: legal framework and central actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvill M. Elgsaas


    Full Text Available Russia’s strategic interests in the Arctic coupled with a complex and diffuse terrorist threat has produced a niche topic: Arctic counterterrorism. Arctic counterterrorism is a new and underdeveloped topic that has received only limited attention. This article contributes a discussion of the legal framework and the main actors involved in countering terrorism in the Russian Arctic. The author finds that the legal framework for counterterrorism is extensive yet centered in core documents. Similarly, counterterrorism involves many and varied actors united in a relatively simple and streamlined national system for counterterrorism. Current legal regulation and organisation provide a solid base that may support efficient management of counterterrorism, also in the Arctic. A notable strength is the concentration of coordination responsibilities in the hands of one central actor, the FSB. Another important characteristic is that the system is symmetrical and follows Russia’s federal organisation with coordinating bodies for all regions including those in the Arctic. Counterterrorism legislation is kept up to date and the trend is towards tougher punishments and a wide understanding of terrorist offenses. A potential weak spot is the unclear role of the newly formed National Guard. The uncertainty surrounding the role of the National Guard in the fight against terrorism may challenge the FSB and weaken coordination of the system for counterterrorism in the future.

  18. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K


    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the

  19. Live from the Arctic (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.


    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  20. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  1. Understanding Mesoscale Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Arctic Region (United States)

    Hong, X.; Wang, S.; Nachamkin, J. E.


    Land-atmosphere interactions in Arctic region are examined using the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©*) with the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM). Initial land surface variables in COAMPS are interpolated from the real-time NASA Land Information System (LIS). The model simulations are configured for three nest grids with 27-9-3 km horizontal resolutions. The simulation period is set for October 2015 with 12-h data assimilation update cycle and 24-h integration length. The results are compared with those simulated without using LSM and evaluated with observations from ONR Sea State R/V Sikuliaq cruise and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). There are complex soil and vegetation types over the surface for simulation with LSM, compared to without LSM simulation. The results show substantial differences in surface heat fluxes between bulk surface scheme and LSM, which may have an important impact on the sea ice evolution over the Arctic region. Evaluations from station data show surface air temperature and relative humidity have smaller biases for simulation using LSM. Diurnal variation of land surface temperature, which is necessary for physical processes of land-atmosphere, is also better captured than without LSM.

  2. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.


    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is a complex landscape of lakes, streams, and wetlands scattered across low-relief tundra that is underlain by permafrost. This region of the Arctic has experienced a warming trend over the past three decades leading to thawing of on-shore permafrost and the disappearance of sea ice at unprecedented rates. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) research initiative was developed to investigate and forecast these rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic, and the associated changes to wildlife populations, in order to inform key management decisions by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Forecasting future wildlife responses to changes in the Arctic can benefit greatly from historical records that inform what changes have already occurred. Several Arctic wildlife and plant species have already responded to climatic and physical changes to the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Thus, we located historical aerial imagery to improve our understanding of recent habitat changes and the associated response to such changes by wildlife populations.

  3. Collaboration across the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppert, Verena Gisela; Chuffart, Romain François R.


    The Arctic is witnessing the rise of a new paradigm caused by an increase in pan-Arctic collaborations which co-exist with the region’s traditional linkages with the South. Using an analysis of concrete examples of regional collaborations in the Arctic today in the fields of education, health...... and infrastructure, this paper questions whether pan-Arctic collaborations in the Arctic are more viable than North-South collaborations, and explores the reasons behind and the foreseeable consequences of such collaborations. It shows that the newly emerging East-West paradigm operates at the same time...... as the traditional North-South paradigm, with no signs of the East-West paradigm being more viable in the foreseeable future. However, pan-Arctic collaboration, both due to pragmatic reasons and an increased awareness of similarities, is likely to increase in the future. The increased regionalization process...

  4. Redevelopment of the Arctic Area of Russia as an Objective of Systems Research and Special-Purpose Program Management Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Leksin


    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the methodological foundations of implementation of the rules and regulations of the development of the Arctic region of Russia, which relies on the hypothesis interpreting such development as the biggest integrated megaproject in the history of Russia. The substantiation involves both the project-oriented approach to identify the subject-matter of the research and the systems approach to assess the key opportunities of providing the integrative structure of the megaproject in the conditions of drastic differences between the areal components of the Arctic region, and to study the internal and external factors’ impact on the character, drivers and pace of the region redevelopment. The set of consistent methodological positions concerning their policy implementation by responsible governmental agencies in the foreseeable future of the Arctic is developed. The most important position involves the identification of the objective of the public administration of the Arctic region development as a systemically organized entity of multiple coordinated actions of the federal, regional and municipal authorities, corporations and civil society institutions integrated by the unique policy target and economic, social and infrastructure links. Implementation of the public administration requires the principles of systems approach, the reasonable trade-off between centralization, decentralization and continuity of governance focused exclusively on the Arctic issues. At the same time, the integration of the projects of the region’s areal components development to insure the common targets of the Arctic’s megaproject accompanied by the reconsideration of the earlier developed programs turns into a genuinely new methodological issue. In the article, recommendations to provide such integration are introduced.

  5. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål


    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  6. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  7. A pan-Arctic Assessment of Hydraulic Geometry (United States)

    Chen, H. Z. D.; Gleason, C. J.


    Arctic Rivers are a crucial part of the global hydrologic cycle, especially as our climate system alters toward an uncertain future. These rivers have many ecological and societal functions, such as funneling meltwater to the ocean and act as critical winter transport for arctic communities. Despite this importance, their fluvial geomorphology, in particular their hydraulic geometry (HG) is not fully understood due to their often remote locations. HG, including at-a-station (AHG), downstream (DHG), and the recently discovered At-many-stations (AMHG), provides the empirical basis between gauging measurements and how rivers respond to varying flow conditions, serving as an indicator to the critical functions mentioned above. Hence, a systematic cataloging of the AHG, DHG, and AMHG, of Arctic rivers is needed for a pan-Arctic view of fluvial geomorphic behavior. This study will document the width-based AHG, DHG, and AMHG for rivers wider than 120m with an Arctic Ocean drainage and gauge data with satellite records. First, we will make time-series width measurements from classified imagery at locations along all such rivers from Landsat archive since 1984, accessed within the Google Earth Engine cloud computing environment. Second, we will run available gauge data for width-based AHG, DHG, and AMHG over large river reaches. Lastly, we will assess these empirical relationships, seek regional trends, and changes in HG over time as climate change has on the Arctic system. This is part of an ongoing process in the larger scope of data calibration/validation for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite planned for 2020, and HG mapping will aid the selection of field validation sites. The work showcase an unprecedented opportunity to process and retrieve scientifically significant HG data in the often inaccessible Arctic via Google Earth Engine. This unique platform makes such broad scale study possible, providing a blueprint for future large-area HG research.

  8. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.


    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  9. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project


    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader

  10. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils


    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...

  11. The "Physical feedbacks of Arctic PBL, Sea ice, Cloud and AerosoL (PASCAL)" campaign during the Arctic POLARSTERN expedition PS106 in spring 2017. (United States)

    Macke, A.


    The Polar regions are important components in the global climate system. The widespread surface snow and ice cover strongly impacts the surface energy budget, which is tightly coupled to global atmospheric and oceanic circulations. The coupling of sea ice, clouds and aerosol in the transition zone between Open Ocean and sea ice is the focus of the PASCAL investigations to improve our understanding of the recent dramatic reduction in Arctic sea-ice. A large variety of active/passive remote sensing, in-situ-aerosol observation, and spectral irradiance measurements have been obtained during the German research icebreaker POLARSTERN expedition PS106, and provided detailed information on the atmospheric spatiotemporal structure, aerosol and cloud chemical and microphysical properties as well as the resulting surface radiation budget. Nearly identical measurements at the AWIPEV Base (German - French Research Base) in Ny-Ålesund close to the Open Ocean and collocated airborne activities of the POLAR 5 and POLAR 6 AWI aircraft in the framework of the ACLOUD project have been carried out in parallel. The airborne observations have been supplemented by observations of the boundary layer structure (mean and turbulent quantities) from a tethered balloon reaching up to 1500 m, which was operated at an ice floe station nearby POLARSTERN for two weeks. All observational activities together with intense modelling at various scales are part of the German Collaborative Research Cluster TR 172 "Arctic Amplification" that aims to provide an unprecedented picture of the complex Arctic weather and climate system. The presentation provides an overview of the measurements on-board POLARSTERN and on the ice floe station during PASCAL from May 24 to July 21 2017. We conclude how these and future similar measurements during the one-year ice drift of POLARSTERN in the framework of MOSAiC help to reduce uncertainties in Arctic aerosol-cloud interaction, cloud radiative forcing, and surface

  12. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge


    Dahle, H?kon; ?kland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H


    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent f...

  13. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng


    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  14. Advancing research collaborations among agencies through the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee: A necessary step for linking science to policy. (United States)

    LaValley, M.; Starkweather, S.; Bowden, S.


    The Arctic is changing rapidly as average temperatures rise. As an Arctic nation, the United States is directly affected by these changes. It is imperative that these changes be understood to make effective policy decisions. Since the research needs of the Arctic are large and wide-ranging, most Federal agencies fund some aspect of Arctic research. As a result, the U.S. government regularly works to coordinate Federal Arctic research in order to reduce duplication of effort and costs, and to enhance the research's system perspective. The government's Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) accomplishes this coordination through its policy-driven five-year Arctic Research Plans and collaboration teams (CTs), which are research topic-oriented teams tasked with implementing the plans. The policies put forth by IARPC thus inform science, however IARPC has been less successful of making these science outcomes part of an iterative decision making process. IARPC's mandate to facilitate coordinated research through information sharing communities can be viewed a prerequisite step in the science-to- decision making process. Research collaborations and the communities of practice facilitated by IARPC allow scientists to connect with a wider community of scientists and stakeholders and, in turn, the larger issues in need of policy solutions. These connections help to create a pathway through which research may increasingly reflect policy goals and inform decisions. IARPC has been growing into a more useful model for the science-to-decision making interface since the publication of its Arctic Research Plan FY2017-2021, and it is useful to evaluate how and why IARPC is progressing in this realm. To understand the challenges facing interagency research collaboration and the progress IARPC has made, the Chukchi Beaufort and Communities CTs, were evaluated as case studies. From the case studies, several recommendations for enhancing collaborations across Federal

  15. Mapping the Delivery of Societal Benefit through the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Gallo, J.


    The international Arctic scientific community has identified the need for a sustained and integrated portfolio of pan-Arctic Earth-observing systems. In 2017, an international effort was undertaken to develop the first ever Value Tree framework for identifying common research and operational objectives that rely on Earth observation data derived from Earth-observing systems, sensors, surveys, networks, models, and databases to deliver societal benefits in the Arctic. A Value Tree Analysis is a common tool used to support decision making processes and is useful for defining concepts, identifying objectives, and creating a hierarchical framework of objectives. A multi-level societal benefit area value tree establishes the connection from societal benefits to the set of observation inputs that contribute to delivering those benefits. A Value Tree that relies on expert domain knowledge from Arctic and non-Arctic nations, international researchers, Indigenous knowledge holders, and other experts to develop a framework to serve as a logical and interdependent decision support tool will be presented. Value tree examples that map the contribution of Earth observations in the Arctic to achieving societal benefits will be presented in the context of the 2017 International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. These case studies will highlight specific observing products and capability groups where investment is needed to contribute to the development of a sustained portfolio of Arctic observing systems.

  16. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein


    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  17. An Arctic source for the Great Salinity Anomaly - A simulation of the Arctic ice-ocean system for 1955-1975 (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa


    The paper employs a fully prognostic Arctic ice-ocean model to study the interannual variability of sea ice during the period 1955-1975 and to explain the large variability of the ice extent in the Greenland and Iceland seas during the late 1960s. The model is used to test the contention of Aagaard and Carmack (1989) that the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA) was a consequence of the anomalously large ice export in 1968. The high-latitude ice-ocean circulation changes due to wind field changes are explored. The ice export event of 1968 was the largest in the simulation, being about twice as large as the average and corresponding to 1600 cu km of excess fresh water. The simulations suggest that, besides the above average ice export to the Greenland Sea, there was also fresh water export to support the larger than average ice cover. The model results show the origin of the GSA to be in the Arctic, and support the view that the Arctic may play an active role in climate change.

  18. Enhancing a Socio-technical Data Ecosystem for Societally Relevant, Sustained Arctic Observing (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.


    In recent years, much has been learned about the state of data and related systems for the Arctic region, however work remains to be done to achieve an envisioned integrated and well-defined pan-Arctic observing and data network. The envisioned comprehensive network will enables access to high quality data, expertise and information in support of scientific understanding, stakeholder needs, and agency operations. In this paper we argue that priorities for establishing such a network are in the areas of better understanding the current system, machine-enhanced data discovery and mediation, and the human aspects of community building. The author has engaged extensively in international, Canadian and U.S.-based data coordination and system design efforts. This includes a series of meetings, workshops, systems design activities, and publications. The results of these efforts have been analyzed and a synthesis of these analyses are presented here. Analysis reveals that there are a large number of polar data resources interacting in a complex network that functions as a data ecosystem. Understanding this ecosystem is critical and required to guide design. Given the size and complexity of the network, achieving broad data discovery and access and meaningful data integration will require advanced techniques including machine learning, semantic mediation, and the use of highly connected virtual research environments. To achieve the aforementioned goal will require a community of engaged researchers, technologists, and stakeholders to establish requirements and the social and organizational context needed for effective approaches. The results imply that: i) an effective governance mechanism must be established that includes "bottom up" and "top down" control; ii) the established governance mechanism must include effective networking of actors in the system; iii) funders must adopt a long-term, sustainable infrastructure approach to systems development; iv) best practices

  19. Does Arctic governance hold the key to achieving climate policy targets? (United States)

    Forbis, Robert, Jr.; Hayhoe, Katharine


    Arctic feedbacks are increasingly viewed as the wild card in the climate system; but their most unpredictable and potentially dangerous aspect may lie in the human, rather than the physical, response to a warming climate. If Arctic policy is driven by agendas based on domestic resource development, the ensuing oil and gas extraction will ensure the failure of the Paris Agreement. If Arctic energy policy can be framed by the Arctic Council, however, its environmental agenda and fragmented governance structure offers the scientific community a fighting chance to determine the region’s energy future. Connecting Arctic climate science to resource economics via its unique governance structure is one of the most powerful ways the scientific community can protect the Arctic region’s environmental, cultural, and scientific resources, and influence international energy and climate policy.

  20. The future of Arctic benthos: Expansion, invasion, and biodiversity (United States)

    Renaud, Paul E.; Sejr, Mikael K.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Sirenko, Boris; Ellingsen, Ingrid H.


    One of the logical predictions for a future Arctic characterized by warmer waters and reduced sea-ice is that new taxa will expand or invade Arctic seafloor habitats. Specific predictions regarding where this will occur and which taxa are most likely to become established or excluded are lacking, however. We synthesize recent studies and conduct new analyses in the context of climate forecasts and a paleontological perspective to make concrete predictions as to relevant mechanisms, regions, and functional traits contributing to future biodiversity changes. Historically, a warmer Arctic is more readily invaded or transited by boreal taxa than it is during cold periods. Oceanography of an ice-free Arctic Ocean, combined with life-history traits of invading taxa and availability of suitable habitat, determine expansion success. It is difficult to generalize as to which taxonomic groups or locations are likely to experience expansion, however, since species-specific, and perhaps population-specific autecologies, will determine success or failure. Several examples of expansion into the Arctic have been noted, and along with the results from the relatively few Arctic biological time-series suggest inflow shelves (Barents and Chukchi Seas), as well as West Greenland and the western Kara Sea, are most likely locations for expansion. Apparent temperature thresholds were identified for characteristic Arctic and boreal benthic fauna suggesting strong potential for range constrictions of Arctic, and expansions of boreal, fauna in the near future. Increasing human activities in the region could speed introductions of boreal fauna and reduce the value of a planktonic dispersal stage. Finally, shelf regions are likely to experience a greater impact, and also one with greater potential consequences, than the deep Arctic basin. Future research strategies should focus on monitoring as well as compiling basic physiological and life-history information of Arctic and boreal taxa, and

  1. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification (United States)


    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  2. Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions during the 1992 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Carter, Arlen F.


    The NASA Langley airborne differential absorption lidar system was operated from the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and ozone (O3) across the Arctic vortex from January to March 1992. Aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were found outside and inside the Arctic vortex with distinctly different scattering characteristics and spatial distributions in the two regions. The aerosol and O3 distributions clearly identified the edge of the vortex and provided additional information on vortex dynamics and transport processes. Few polar stratospheric clouds were observed during the AASE-2; however, those that were found had enhanced scattering and depolarization over the background Pinatubo aerosols. The distribution of aerosols inside the vortex exhibited relatively minor changes during the AASE-2. Ozone depletion inside the vortex as limited to less than or equal to 20 percent in the altitude region from 15-20 km.

  3. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka


    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate...... the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...

  4. Communicates Real-Time Developments in the Arctic (United States)

    Langen, P. L.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, K. K.; Andersen, M. L.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; van As, D.; Barletta, V. R.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Dybkjær, G.; Forsberg, R.; Høyer, J. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Kliem, N.; Mottram, R.; Nielsen, K. P.; Olesen, M.; Quaglia, F. C.; Rasmussen, T. A.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Stendel, M.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Tonboe, R. T.

    2014-12-01 was launched in June 2013 by a consortium of Danish institutions, including the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the National Space Institute at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU-Space). Polar Portal is a single web portal presenting a wide range of near real-time information on both the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice in a format geared for non-specialists. Polar Portal aims to meet widespread public interest in a diverse range of climate-cryosphere processes in the Arctic: What is the present Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea level rise? How quickly are outlet glaciers retreating or advancing right now? How extensive is Arctic sea-ice or how warm is the Arctic Ocean at this moment? Although public interest in such topics is widely acknowledged, an important primary task for the scientists behind Polar Portal was collaborating with media specialists to establish the knowledge range of the general public on these topics, in order for Polar Portal to appropriately present useful climate-cryosphere information. Consequently, Polar Portal is designed in a highly visual exploratory format, where individual data products are accompanied by plain written summaries, with hyperlinks to relevant journal papers for more scrutinizing users. Numerous satellite and in situ observations, together with model output, are channeled daily into the Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea-ice divisions of Polar Portal.

  5. Integrating Access to Arctic Environmental Change and Human Health Research for the International Polar Year and Beyond (United States)

    Garrett, C. L.


    Each day, people in the communities of the Arctic face challenges to their health and well-being from changing climatic and environmental conditions and increasing levels of pollution to emerging infectious diseases. For this reason, it is critical that Arctic researchers and residents have access to timely, accurate, and relevant information addressing their unique concerns. To meet this need, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) have developed the Arctic Health website, The website provides an easy-to-use one-stop shop for information on the diverse health-related aspects of the Arctic region. It is organized around relevant topics, including climate change and environmental health, traditional healing and telehealth/telemedicine. The Arctic Health website provides links to the most reliable resources available from local, state, and international agencies, universities, and professional organizations. Two major goals of the site are to create a comprehensive, accessible repository for various media and a listing of research projects, past and present that relate to climate change and human health in the Arctic. To increase the site's relevance, the project has established and continues to create collaborations with researchers, communities, and other organizations to supply publications not available elsewhere, including gray literature, streaming video of traditional healers, and oral histories. These collaborations will also help ensure a database with a comprehensive list of research projects being done in the Arctic, from the international to the local level. Finding ways to negotiate the legal, cultural and national concerns of data sharing are a continuing job for the management team. All of this helps to create a system that will eventually track and ensure that data and reports from the research database translate to the publications database. As part of these efforts, the site is

  6. Climbing the Slope of Enlightenment during NASA's Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (United States)

    Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, D.; McInerney, M.


    The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a new field campaign sponsored by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program and designed to improve understanding of the vulnerability and resilience of Arctic and boreal social-ecological systems to environmental change ( ABoVE is integrating field-based studies, modeling, and data from airborne and satellite remote sensing. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) has partnered with the NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Office (CCEO) to create a high performance science cloud for this field campaign. The ABoVE Science Cloud combines high performance computing with emerging technologies and data management with tools for analyzing and processing geographic information to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale modeling, analysis of remote sensing data, copious disk storage for "big data" with integrated data management, and integration of core variables from in-situ networks. The ABoVE Science Cloud is a collaboration that is accelerating the pace of new Arctic science for researchers participating in the field campaign. Specific examples of the utilization of the ABoVE Science Cloud by several funded projects will be presented.

  7. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.


    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  8. Does a Relationship Between Arctic Low Clouds and Sea Ice Matter? (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.


    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these elements of the Arctic climate system, and these interactions create the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of potential Arctic cloudclimate feedbacks, the goal of this paper is to quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) and its covariation with sea ice concentration (SIC). We build on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, there is a weak covariation between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, the results show statistically significant differences in the average surface CRE under different SIC values in fall indicating a 3-5 W m(exp -2) larger LW CRE in 0% versus 100% SIC footprints. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m(exp -2) are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback, under certain meteorological conditions, that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume. Lastly, a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  9. Monitoring Freeze Thaw Transitions in Arctic Soils using Complex Resistivity Method (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ulrich, C.; Dafflon, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    The Arctic region, which is a sensitive system that has emerged as a focal point for climate change studies, is characterized by a large amount of stored carbon and a rapidly changing landscape. Seasonal freeze-thaw transitions in the Arctic alter subsurface biogeochemical processes that control greenhouse gas fluxes from the subsurface. Our ability to monitor freeze thaw cycles and associated biogeochemical transformations is critical to the development of process rich ecosystem models, which are in turn important for gaining a predictive understanding of Arctic terrestrial system evolution and feedbacks with climate. In this study, we conducted both laboratory and field investigations to explore the use of the complex resistivity method to monitor freeze thaw transitions of arctic soil in Barrow, AK. In the lab studies, freeze thaw transitions were induced on soil samples having different average carbon content through exposing the arctic soil to temperature controlled environments at +4 oC and -20 oC. Complex resistivity and temperature measurements were collected using electrical and temperature sensors installed along the soil columns. During the laboratory experiments, resistivity gradually changed over two orders of magnitude as the temperature was increased or decreased between -20 oC and 0 oC. Electrical phase responses at 1 Hz showed a dramatic and immediate response to the onset of freeze and thaw. Unlike the resistivity response, the phase response was found to be exclusively related to unfrozen water in the soil matrix, suggesting that this geophysical attribute can be used as a proxy for the monitoring of the onset and progression of the freeze-thaw transitions. Spectral electrical responses contained additional information about the controls of soil grain size distribution on the freeze thaw dynamics. Based on the demonstrated sensitivity of complex resistivity signals to the freeze thaw transitions, field complex resistivity data were collected over

  10. Arctic Forecasts Available from Polar Bear Exhibit as an Example of Formal/Informal Collaboration (United States)

    Landis, C. E.; Cervenec, J.


    A subset of the general population enjoys and frequents informal education venues, offering an opportunity for lifelong learning that also enhances and supports formal education efforts. The Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) at The Ohio State University collaborated with the Columbus Zoo & Aquarium (CZA) in the development of their Polar Frontier exhibit, from its initial planning to the Grand Opening of the exhibit, through the present. Of course, the addition to the Zoo of polar bears and Arctic fox in the Polar Frontier has been very popular, with almost a 7% increase in visitors in 2010 when the exhibit opened. The CZA and BPRC are now investigating ways to increase the climate literacy impact of the exhibit, and to increase engagement with the topics through follow-on activities. For example, individuals or classes anywhere in the world can check forecasts from the Polar Weather and Research Forecasting model and compare them to observed conditions-- allowing deep investigation into changes in the Arctic. In addition, opportunities exist to adapt the Zoo School experience (affecting several Central Ohio school districts) and/or to enable regular participation through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and other forms of digital communication. BPRC's sustained engagement with the CZA is an example of a trusted and meaningful partnership where open dialogue exists about providing the best learning experience for visitors. This presentation will share some of the lessons learned from this unique partnership, and strategies that are adopted to move it forward.

  11. Social-Ecological Soundscapes: Examining Aircraft-Harvester-Caribou Conflict in Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Stinchcomb, Taylor R.

    quantify interactions and provide baseline data that may foster mitigation discourses among stakeholders. In Chapter 2, I employed a soundscape-ecology approach to address concerns about aircraft activity expressed by the Alaska Native community of Nuiqsut. Nuiqsut faces the greatest volume of aircraft activity of any community in Arctic Alaska because of its proximity to intensive oil and gas activity. However, information on when and where these aircraft are flying is unavailable to residents, managers, and researchers. I worked closely with Nuiqsut residents to deploy acoustic monitoring systems along important caribou harvest corridors during the peak of caribou harvest, from early June through late August 2016. This method successfully captured aircraft sound and the community embraced my science for addressing local priorities. I found aircraft activity levels near Nuiqsut and surrounding oil developments (12 daily events) to be approximately six times greater than in areas over 30 km from the village (two daily events). Aircraft sound disturbance was 26 times lower in undeveloped areas (Noise Free Interval =13 hrs) than near human development (NFI = 0.5 hrs). My study provided baseline data on aircraft activity and noise levels. My research could be used by stakeholders and managers to develop conflict avoidance agreements and minimize interference with traditional harvest practices. Soundscape methods could be adapted to rural regions across Alaska that may be experiencing conflict with aircraft or other sources of noise that disrupt human-wildlife interactions. By quantifying aircraft activity using a soundscape approach, I demonstrated a novel application of an emerging field in ecology and provided the first scientific data on one dimension of a larger social-ecological system. Future soundscape studies should be integrated with research on both harvester and caribou behaviors to understand how the components within this system are interacting over space and

  12. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy (United States)


    responsibility shifts 21 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. The Anti-Access Challenge you’re not thinking...International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009). 38 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. THE ANTI-ACCESS CHALLENGE YOU’RE NOT THINKING ABOUT, 05 May 2015...and Rescue in the Arctic, 22 June 2011. Arctic Council Secretariat. About the Arctic Council, Arctic Council, 2011. Barno, David and Nora

  13. Biological Chlorine Cycling in Arctic Peat Soils (United States)

    Zlamal, J. E.; Raab, T. K.; Lipson, D.


    Soils of the Arctic tundra near Barrow, Alaska are waterlogged and anoxic throughout most of the profile due to underlying permafrost. Microbial communities in these soils are adapted for the dominant anaerobic conditions and are capable of a surprising diversity of metabolic pathways. Anaerobic respiration in this environment warrants further study, particularly in the realm of electron cycling involving chlorine, which preliminary data suggest may play an important role in arctic anaerobic soil respiration. For decades, Cl was rarely studied outside of the context of solvent-contaminated sites due to the widely held belief that it is an inert element. However, Cl has increasingly become recognized as a metabolic player in microbial communities and soil cycling processes. Organic chlorinated compounds (Clorg) can be made by various organisms and used metabolically by others, such as serving as electron acceptors for microbes performing organohalide respiration. Sequencing our arctic soil samples has uncovered multiple genera of microorganisms capable of participating in many Cl-cycling processes including organohalide respiration, chlorinated hydrocarbon degradation, and perchlorate reduction. Metagenomic analysis of these soils has revealed genes for key enzymes of Cl-related metabolic processes such as dehalogenases and haloperoxidases, and close matches to genomes of known organohalide respiring microorganisms from the Dehalococcoides, Dechloromonas, Carboxydothermus, and Anaeromyxobacter genera. A TOX-100 Chlorine Analyzer was used to quantify total Cl in arctic soils, and these data were examined further to separate levels of inorganic Cl compounds and Clorg. Levels of Clorg increased with soil organic matter content, although total Cl levels lack this trend. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) was used to provide information on the structure of Clorg in arctic soils, showing great diversity with Cl bound to both aromatic and alkyl groups

  14. Synthesis of User Needs for Arctic Sea Ice Predictions (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Turner-Bogren, E. J.; Sheffield Guy, L.


    Forecasting Arctic sea ice on sub-seasonal to seasonal scales in a changing Arctic is of interest to a diverse range of stakeholders. However, sea ice forecasting is still challenging due to high variability in weather and ocean conditions and limits to prediction capabilities; the science needs for observations and modeling are extensive. At a time of challenged science funding, one way to prioritize sea ice prediction efforts is to examine the information needs of various stakeholder groups. This poster will present a summary and synthesis of existing surveys, reports, and other literature that examines user needs for sea ice predictions. The synthesis will include lessons learned from the Sea Ice Prediction Network (a collaborative, multi-agency-funded project focused on seasonal Arctic sea ice predictions), the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters and coastal communities, that provides reports on weather and sea ice conditions), and other efforts. The poster will specifically compare the scales and variables of sea ice forecasts currently available, as compared to what information is requested by various user groups.

  15. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cole


    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  16. Quantifying the Fluxes of Atmospherically Derived Trace Elements in the Arctic Ocean/Ice System using 7Be (United States)

    Landing, W. M.; Kadko, D. C.; Shelley, R.; Galfond, B.


    Aerosol deposition is an important pathway for delivering biologically-essential and anthropogenically-derived trace elements to the Arctic Ocean. Limited field study in the harsh Arctic environment has forced a reliance on poorly constrained models for the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. Here we use the cosmic ray produced radioisotope 7Be to link aerosol concentrations to flux to the Arctic water/ice system. Seawater, ice, snow, melt pond, and aerosol samples were collected during late summer 2011 as part of the RV Polarstern ARK-XXVI/3 campaign. The average 7Be aerosol loading was 0.018 dpm m-3 and we determined an average 7Be flux of 125 dpm m-2 d-1, consistent with results from previous studies in the region. None of the lithogenic aerosol elements showed any significant enrichment above crustal composition, while the pollution-type elements showed varying degrees of enrichment relative to crustal values. In addition to our own measurements, we use two years of continuous aerosol 7Be and trace element data from the Alert (Canada) monitoring site to generate seasonal and annual estimates for the fluxes of 7Be and trace elements to the Arctic water/ice system. Fluxes of 7Be are 30% higher in Winter (Nov-May) than in Summer (Jun-Oct) due to the strong seasonality in aerosol 7Be concentrations. Fluxes of lithogenic elements (Al, Mn, Fe) are 2-3 times higher in Summer, possibly due to local dust sources on Ellesmere Island. Fluxes of V and Pb are strongly correlated and are 2-3 times higher in Winter, while fluxes of Ni, Cu, and Zn are relatively uniform for both seasons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev


    Full Text Available The general line of research is concerned with development of information technologies and computer simulation tools for management information and analytical support of complex semistructured systems. Regional socio-economic systems are consideredas a representative of this system type. Investigation is carried out within the bounds of development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safety until 2020 in the Murmansk region, specifically under engineering of high end information infrastructure for innovation and security control problem-solving of regional development. Research methodology consists of system dynamics modeling method, distributed information system engineering technologies, pattern-based modeling and design techniques. The work deals with development of toolkit for decision-making information support problem-solving in the field of innovation security management of regional economics. For that purpose a system-dynamic models suite of innovation process standard components and information technology for remote formation and control of innovation business simulation models under research have been developed. Designed toolkit provides innovation security index dynamics forecasting and innovation business effectiveness of regional economics. Information technology is implemented within the bounds of thin client architecture and is intended for simulation models design process automation of complex systems. Technology implementation software tools provide pattern-based system-dynamic models distributed formation and simulation control of innovation processes. The technology provides availability and reusability index enhancement of information support facilities in application to innovation process simulation at the expense of distributed access to innovation business simulation modeling tools and model synthesis by the reusable components, simulating standard elements of innovation

  18. Replacement cost valuation of Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) subsistence harvest in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Semmens, Darius J.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.


    Migratory species provide economically beneficial ecosystem services to people throughout their range, yet often, information is lacking about the magnitude and spatial distribution of these benefits at regional scales. We conducted a case study for Northern Pintails (hereafter pintail) in which we quantified regional and sub-regional economic values of subsistence harvest to indigenous communities in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America. As a first step, we used the replacement cost method to quantify the cost of replacing pintail subsistence harvest with the most similar commercially available protein (chicken). For an estimated annual subsistence harvest of ˜15,000 pintail, our mean estimate of the total replacement cost was ˜$63,000 yr−1 ($2010 USD), with sub-regional values ranging from \\$263 yr−1 to \\$21,930 yr−1. Our results provide an order-of-magnitude, conservative estimate of one component of the regional ecosystem-service values of pintails, providing perspective on how spatially explicit values can inform migratory species conservation.

  19. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center


    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  20. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited) (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.


    The arctic shoreline is, according to the CIA World Factbook, 45,389 km long. However, a more realistic length from the standpoint of detailed research is the 200,000 km proposed at the 1999 Arctic Coastal Dynamics Workshop. Highly varied in form and material it is dominated by a variety of processes, is relatively remote, is ice-bound much of the year, and has generally been neglected by the scientific community. Before the 20th century, most of the information about its geology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biology was recorded in ship's logs or in explorer's books and was for the most part incidental to the narrative being related. The paucity of specific research is indicated by the relatively few relevant papers included in the more than 100,000 annotated entries published in the 15 volumes of the Arctic Bibliography (1953-1971) and in the nearly as extensive 27 volume bibliography prepared by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) between 1952 and 1973. Nonetheless, there were some distinctive research endeavors during the early part of the 20th century; e.g., Leffingwell's 1919 Alaskan Arctic Coast observations, Nansen's 1921 strandflat studies, and Zenkovich's 1937 Murmansk research. During that period some organizations devoted to polar research, especially the USSR's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and the Scott Polar Research Institute (both in 1920) were established, although the amount of their research that could be considered coastal and arctic was limited. Specific research of the arctic's shoreline was mainly academic until after World War II when military, economic, industrial, and archaeological interests began demanding reliable, contemporary data. At the time numerous organizations with a primary focus on the Arctic were formed. Included are the Arctic Institute of North America (1945), the Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (latter to become CRREL) and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Research

  1. Predicting Changes in Arctic Tundra Vegetation: Towards an Understanding of Plant Trait Uncertainty (United States)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Serbin, S.; Carman, T.; Iversen, C. M.; Salmon, V.; Helene, G.; McGuire, A. D.


    Arctic tundra plant communities are currently undergoing unprecedented changes in both composition and distribution under a warming climate. Predicting how these dynamics may play out in the future is important since these vegetation shifts impact both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes. More precise estimates of these future vegetation shifts is a key challenge due to both a scarcity of data with which to parameterize vegetation models, particularly in the Arctic, as well as a limited understanding of the importance of each of the model parameters and how they may vary over space and time. Here, we incorporate newly available field data from arctic Alaska into a dynamic vegetation model specifically developed to take into account a particularly wide array of plant species as well as the permafrost soils of the arctic tundra (the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model with Dynamic Vegetation and Dynamic Organic Soil, Terrestrial Ecosystem Model; DVM-DOS-TEM). We integrate the model within the Predicative Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), an open-source integrated ecological bioinformatics toolbox that facilitates the flows of information into and out of process models and model-data integration. We use PEcAn to evaluate the plant functional traits that contribute most to model variability based on a sensitivity analysis. We perform this analysis for the dominant types of tundra in arctic Alaska, including heath, shrub, tussock and wet sedge tundra. The results from this analysis will help inform future data collection in arctic tundra and reduce model uncertainty, thereby improving our ability to simulate Arctic vegetation structure and function in response to global change.

  2. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man


    Arctic peoples are spread over eight countries and comprise 3.74 million residents, of whom 9% are indigenous. The Arctic countries include Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Although Arctic peoples are very diverse, there are a variety...... of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...

  3. Biological Environmental Arctic Project (BEAP) Preliminary Data (Arctic West Summer 1986 Cruise). (United States)


    predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . Data were collected during Arctic West Summer 1986 from USCG POLAR STAR (WAGB 10). . %. J...2 20ODISTRIBUTION AVAILABILIT "Y OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION C]UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED SAME AS RPT C] DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED David...correlates for a predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . - In previous years, these measurements were conducted from the USCG

  4. The Importance of Earth Observations and Data Collaboration within Environmental Intelligence Supporting Arctic Research (United States)

    Casas, Joseph


    Within the IARPC Collaboration Team activities of 2016, Arctic in-situ and remote earth observations advanced topics such as :1) exploring the role for new and innovative autonomous observing technologies in the Arctic; 2) advancing catalytic national and international community based observing efforts in support of the National Strategy for the Arctic Region; and 3) enhancing the use of discovery tools for observing system collaboration such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Arctic Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project geo reference visualization decision support and exploitation internet based tools. Critical to the success of these earth observations for both in-situ and remote systems is the emerging of new and innovative data collection technologies and comprehensive modeling as well as enhanced communications and cyber infrastructure capabilities which effectively assimilate and dissemination many environmental intelligence products in a timely manner. The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is well positioned to greatly enhance user capabilities for accessing, organizing, visualizing, sharing and producing collaborative knowledge for the Arctic.

  5. Contamination of the Arctic by exotic air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.; Landers, D.


    Various kinds of atmospheric pollutants are commonly known to occur in arctic environments. These include organic contaminants, pollutants associated with fossil fuel combustion, smelting, industrial development, and radionuclides. Recently, additional concern has arisen from studies suggesting that at least some atmospheric contaminants may be susceptible to poleward redistribution as a result of their physical and chemical properties. Thus, contamination of the arctic may be exacerbated by the tendency of selected contaminants produced at lower latitudes to be transported to polar regions and incorporated into high latitude food chains. Although awareness of exotic contaminants in high latitude food chains is not new, regional baseline data are needed to document the spatial extent and magnitude of this potentially serious problem. The US Arctic is little studied in this regard relative to several other circumpolar nations (e.g., Canada, Sweden); over the next year the authors will be designing a regional survey to begin remedying this information gap. A major focus of this activity will be to ensure compatibility with both ongoing international studies of arctic contamination, and the USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Issues related to sampling design will be outlined and discussed

  6. Diversifying the Geosciences: Examples from the Arctic (United States)

    Holmes, R. M.


    Like other realms of the geosciences, the scientists who comprise the Arctic research community tends to be white and male. For example, a survey of grants awarded over a 5-year period beginning in 2010 by NSF's Arctic System Science and Arctic Natural Sciences programs showed that over 90% of PIs were white whereas African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans together accounted for only about 1% of PIs. Over 70% of the PIs were male. I will suggest that involving diverse upper-level undergraduate students in authentic field research experiences may be one of the shortest and surest routes to diversifying the Arctic research community, and by extension, the geoscientific research community overall. Upper-level undergraduate students are still open to multiple possibilities, but an immersive field research experience often helps solidify graduate school and career trajectories. Though an all-of-the-above strategy is needed, focusing on engaging a diverse cohort of upper-level undergraduate students may provide one of the most efficient means of diversifying the geosciences over the coming years and decades.

  7. Status and Impacts of Arctic Freshwater Export (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.


    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈5000 km3—about 25%—being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200±730 km3yr-1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice (Figure, right). Evidence exists that such discharges can impact the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and hence Atlantic sector climate. Nevertheless, it appears that the observed AMOC variability since 2004, when high quality measurements began, is not attributable to anthropogenic influence. This work is based on, and updated from, Haine et al. (2015), Carmack et al. (2016), and Haine (2016). Haine, T. W. N. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning. Nature Geoscience, 9, 479-480, 10.1038/ngeo2748, 2016. T. W. N. Haine et al., Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects, Global Planetary Change, 125, 13-35, 10.1016/j.glopacha.2014.11.013, 2015. E. Carmack et al., Fresh water and its role in the Arctic Marine System: sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans. J. G. Res. Biogeosciences, 10.1002/2015JG003140, 2016.

  8. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  9. Exploring the diversity of Arctic eelpouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghigliotti, L.; Møller, Peter Rask; Cheng, C.-H. C.


    Zoarcidae (eelpouts), including 298 recognized valid species, is the most diverse family in the suborder Zoarcoidei (order Perciformes). Many of the species exhibit a great degree of phenotypic plasticity. In the present work, we analyze the genome of six Arctic species from the most diversified...... zoarcid genus Lycodes (L. eudipleurostictus, L. paamiuti, L. pallidus, L. seminudus, L. squamiventer, and L. reticulatus) providing the first information on the species-specific karyotype and pattern of major ribosomal genes chromosomal localization. The study revealed an unexpected consistency...... of the chromosomal features across species that apparently contrasts with the high level of inter-specific and intra-specific plasticity of morphological characters. The comparison between the chromosomal features of these Arctic eelpouts with those of the Antarctic species Lycodichthys dearborni (same subfamily...

  10. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  11. Trophic pathways supporting Arctic grayling in a small stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska (United States)

    McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.


    Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.

  12. Networking 2.0: Expanding your collaboration circles through the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) (United States)

    Rohde, J. A.; Bowden, S.; Stephenson, S. N.; Starkweather, S.


    The Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) envisions a prosperous, sustainable, and healthy Arctic understood through innovative and collaborative research coordinated among Federal agencies and domestic and international partners. IARPC's approach is to harnesses the talent of the scientific and stakeholder community through Federally-run but broadly open collaboration teams, and an innovative website that expands the frontiers of collaborative research. The Obama Administration released the five-year Arctic Research Plan: FY2013-2017 in February 2013. The Plan focuses on advancing knowledge and sustainability of the Arctic by improving collaboration in seven priority research areas: sea ice and marine ecosystems, terrestrial ice and ecosystems, atmospheric studies, observing systems, regional climate models, human health studies, and adaptation tools for communities. From these seven research areas, 12 collaboration teams were formed to respond to the 145 milestones laid out in the Plan. The collaboration teams are charged with enhancing inter-institutional and interdisciplinary implementation of scientific research on local, regional, and circumpolar environmental and societal issues in the Arctic. The collaboration teams are co-chaired by Federal program managers, and, in some cases, external partners and are open to research and stakeholder communities. They meet on a regular basis by web- or teleconference to inform one another about ongoing and planned programs and new research results, as well as to inventory existing programs, identify gaps in knowledge and research, and address and implement the Plan's milestones. In-between meetings, team members communicate via our innovative, user-driven, collaboration website. Members share information about their research activities by posting updates, uploading documents, and including events on our calendar, and entering into dialogue about their research activities. Conversations taking place on the

  13. Mercury in Arctic snow: Quantifying the kinetics of photochemical oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, E.A. [Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada); Environmental Science Programme, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada); Ziegler, S.E. [Environmental Science Programme, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Tordon, R. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); O' Driscoll, N.J., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada)


    Controlled experiments were performed with frozen and melted Arctic snow to quantify relationships between mercury photoreaction kinetics, ultra violet (UV) radiation intensity, and snow ion concentrations. Frozen (− 10 °C) and melted (4 °C) snow samples from three Arctic sites were exposed to UV (280–400 nm) radiation (1.26–5.78 W · m{sup −2}), and a parabolic relationship was found between reduction rate constants in frozen and melted snow with increasing UV intensity. Total photoreduced mercury in frozen and melted snow increased linearly with greater UV intensity. Snow with the highest concentrations of chloride and iron had larger photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants, while also having the lowest Hg(0) production. Our results indicate that the amount of mercury photoreduction (loss from snow) is the highest at high UV radiation intensities, while the fastest rates of mercury photoreduction occurred at both low and high intensities. This suggests that, assuming all else is equal, earlier Arctic snow melt periods (when UV intensities are less intense) may result in less mercury loss to the atmosphere by photoreduction and flux, since less Hg(0) is photoproduced at lower UV intensities, thereby resulting in potentially greater mercury transport to aquatic systems with snowmelt. - Highlights: • Mercury photochemical kinetics were studied in frozen and melted Arctic snow. • UV-induced photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants were quantified. • Chloride ion, iron, and DOC influence mercury photoreactions in snow. • Frozen and melted snow have different mercury photoreduction characteristics. • Kinetic information provided can be used to model mercury fate in the Arctic.

  14. Mercury in Arctic snow: Quantifying the kinetics of photochemical oxidation and reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, E.A.; Mallory, M.L.; Ziegler, S.E.; Tordon, R.; O'Driscoll, N.J.


    Controlled experiments were performed with frozen and melted Arctic snow to quantify relationships between mercury photoreaction kinetics, ultra violet (UV) radiation intensity, and snow ion concentrations. Frozen (− 10 °C) and melted (4 °C) snow samples from three Arctic sites were exposed to UV (280–400 nm) radiation (1.26–5.78 W · m −2 ), and a parabolic relationship was found between reduction rate constants in frozen and melted snow with increasing UV intensity. Total photoreduced mercury in frozen and melted snow increased linearly with greater UV intensity. Snow with the highest concentrations of chloride and iron had larger photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants, while also having the lowest Hg(0) production. Our results indicate that the amount of mercury photoreduction (loss from snow) is the highest at high UV radiation intensities, while the fastest rates of mercury photoreduction occurred at both low and high intensities. This suggests that, assuming all else is equal, earlier Arctic snow melt periods (when UV intensities are less intense) may result in less mercury loss to the atmosphere by photoreduction and flux, since less Hg(0) is photoproduced at lower UV intensities, thereby resulting in potentially greater mercury transport to aquatic systems with snowmelt. - Highlights: • Mercury photochemical kinetics were studied in frozen and melted Arctic snow. • UV-induced photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants were quantified. • Chloride ion, iron, and DOC influence mercury photoreactions in snow. • Frozen and melted snow have different mercury photoreduction characteristics. • Kinetic information provided can be used to model mercury fate in the Arctic

  15. Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Anderson, Leif G.; Christensen, Torben R.; Dallimore, Scott; Guo, Laodong; Hayes, Daniel J.; Heimann, Martin; Lorenson, T.D.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Roulet, Nigel


    The recent warming in the Arctic is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems that may be irreversible on century time scales and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the earth system. The response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to changes in climate is a major issue of global concern, yet there has not been a comprehensive review of the status of the contemporary carbon cycle of the Arctic and its response to climate change. This review is designed to clarify key uncertainties and vulnerabilities in the response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to ongoing climatic change. While it is clear that there are substantial stocks of carbon in the Arctic, there are also significant uncertainties associated with the magnitude of organic matter stocks contained in permafrost and the storage of methane hydrates beneath both subterranean and submerged permafrost of the Arctic. In the context of the global carbon cycle, this review demonstrates that the Arctic plays an important role in the global dynamics of both CO2 and CH4. Studies suggest that the Arctic has been a sink for atmospheric CO2 of between 0 and 0.8 Pg C/yr in recent decades, which is between 0% and 25% of the global net land/ocean flux during the 1990s. The Arctic is a substantial source of CH4 to the atmosphere (between 32 and 112 Tg CH4/yr), primarily because of the large area of wetlands throughout the region. Analyses to date indicate that the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic during the remainder of the 21st century is highly uncertain. To improve the capability to assess the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to projected climate change, we recommend that (1) integrated regional studies be conducted to link observations of carbon dynamics to the processes that are likely to influence those dynamics, and (2) the understanding gained from these integrated studies be incorporated into both uncoupled and fully coupled carbon

  16. Genetic Diversity of Eukaryotic Picoplankton in the Arctic Ocean (Fram Strait)


    Kilias, Estelle; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Peeken, Ilka; Wolf, Christian; Metfies, Katja


    Climate change is expected to be particularly intense in the Arctic Ocean having as well extensive consequences on Arctic pelagic ecosystems. Thus, evaluations of the impact on the base of the food web, on local phytoplankton communities, are required. Prerequisite of such an evaluation is comprehensive information about the present phytoplankton diversity and distribution. Recent investigations indicate that rising temperatures as well as freshening of surface waters in the marine environmen...

  17. Arctic shipping and risks: Emergency categories and response capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Nataly A.; Andreassen, Natalia; Borch, Odd Jarl


    The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. The transport pattern has as a result partly changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may influence the risk pattern. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability of natur...... are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic maritime accidents. Hence, this study offers a qualitative analysis and an expert-based risk assessment. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the Arctic region are discussed........ In this paper, we look into the risk of accidents in Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of emergency response. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location. As accidents...

  18. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in Northern Alaska and other Arctic regions (United States)

    Hinzman, L.D.; Bettez, N.D.; Bolton, W.R.; Chapin, F.S.; Dyurgerov, M.B.; Fastie, C.L.; Griffith, B.; Hollister, R.D.; Hope, A.; Huntington, H.P.; Jensen, A.M.; Jia, G.J.; Jorgenson, T.; Kane, D.L.; Klein, D.R.; Kofinas, G.; Lynch, A.H.; Lloyd, A.H.; McGuire, A.D.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Oechel, W.C.; Osterkamp, T.E.; Racine, C.H.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Stone, R.S.; Stow, D.A.; Sturm, M.; Tweedie, C.E.; Vourlitis, G.L.; Walker, M.D.; Walker, D.A.; Webber, P.J.; Welker, J.M.; Winker, K.S.; Yoshikawa, K.


    The Arctic climate is changing. Permafrost is warming, hydrological processes are changing and biological and social systems are also evolving in response to these changing conditions. Knowing how the structure and function of arctic terrestrial ecosystems are responding to recent and persistent climate change is paramount to understanding the future state of the Earth system and how humans will need to adapt. Our holistic review presents a broad array of evidence that illustrates convincingly; the Arctic is undergoing a system-wide response to an altered climatic state. New extreme and seasonal surface climatic conditions are being experienced, a range of biophysical states and processes influenced by the threshold and phase change of freezing point are being altered, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are shifting, and more regularly human sub-systems are being affected. Importantly, the patterns, magnitude and mechanisms of change have sometimes been unpredictable or difficult to isolate due to compounding factors. In almost every discipline represented, we show how the biocomplexity of the Arctic system has highlighted and challenged a paucity of integrated scientific knowledge, the lack of sustained observational and experimental time series, and the technical and logistic constraints of researching the Arctic environment. This study supports ongoing efforts to strengthen the interdisciplinarity of arctic system science and improve the coupling of large scale experimental manipulation with sustained time series observations by incorporating and integrating novel technologies, remote sensing and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Temporal Arctic longwave surface emissivity feedbacks in the Community Earth System Model (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Chen, X.


    We have investigated how the inclusion of realistic and consistent surface emissivity in both land-surface and atmospheric components of the CESM coupled-climate model affects a wide range of climate variables. We did this by replacing the unit emissivity values in RRTMG_LW for water, fine-grained snow, and desert scenes with spectral emissivity values, and by replacing broadband emissivity values in surface components with the Planck-curve weighted counterparts. We find that this harmonized treatment of surface emissivity within CESM can be important for reducing high-latitude temperature biases. We also find that short-term effects of atmospheric dynamics and spectral information need to be considered to understand radiative effects in higher detail, and are possible with radiative kernels computed for every grid and time point for the entire model integration period. We find that conventional climatological feedback calculations indicate that sea-ice emissivity feedback is positive in sign, but that the radiative effects of the difference in emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit seasonal dependence. Furthermore, this seasonality itself exhibits meridional asymmetry due to differences in sea-ice response to climate forcing between the Arctic and the Antarctic. In the Arctic, this seasonal, temporally higher order analysis exhibits increasing outgoing surface emissivity radiative response in a warming climate. While the sea-ice emissivity feedback and seasonal sea-ice emissivity radiative response amplitudes are a few percent of surface albedo feedbacks, the feedback analysis methods outlined in this work demonstrate that spatially and temporally localized feedback analysis can give insight into the mechanisms at work on those scales which differ in amplitude and sign from conventional climatological analyses. We note that the inclusion of this realistic physics leads to improved agreement between CESM model results and Arctic surface

  20. Feasibility of hydrogen from renewable energy in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, B.


    'Full text:' There is an abundance of renewable resources in the Canadian Arctic. Despite that diesel is still the conventional source used by homes and businesses for their electrical and space heating needs. Electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen using renewable resources is under investigation. A techno-economic feasibility has been conducted for hybrid systems including wind turbine, photovoltaic system, electrolyser and fuel cells. Different scenarios have been considered for meeting the needs of a small, remote community in the Arctic. Results will be presented indicating the most cost-effective Wind-PV-Electrolyser-Fuel Cell system for combined heat and power. (author)

  1. “An Arctic Great Power”? Recent Developments in Danish Arctic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon


    Denmark has been a firm advocate for Arctic cooperation in the recent decade, most importantly as the initiator of the 2008 Ilulissat meeting. Two new strategic publications – a foreign policy report (Danish Diplomacy and Defence in a Time of Change) and a defense report (The Ministry of Defence......’s Future Activities in the Arctic), which were published in May and June 2016 –highlight the Kingdom of Denmark’s status as “an Arctic great power” and the importance of pursuing Danish interests, which could indicate a shift away from a cooperation-oriented policy. This article investigates whether...... the documents represent a break in Danish Arctic policy. It argues that the two documents represent continuation, rather than change. They show that the High North continues to become steadily more important on the Danish foreign policy agenda, although the region remains just one of several regional priorities...

  2. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.


    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing

  3. Arctic carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, SØREN; Bendtsen, JØRGEN; Else, Brent; Glud, Ronnie N; van Huissteden, J.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Sachs, Torsten; Vonk, J.E.


    The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, with large regional differences in uptake rates. More regional modelling and observational studies are required to reduce the uncertainty among current estimates. Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbon sink may evolve in the future are

  4. Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change (United States)

    A.D. McGuire; L.G. Anderson; T.R. Christensen; S. Dallimore; L. Guo; D.J. Hayes; M. Heimann; T.D. Lorenson; R.W. Macdonald; N. Roulet


    The recent warming in the Arctic is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems that may be irreversible on century time scales and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the earth system. The response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to changes in climate is a major issue of global concern, yet there has not been a...

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Environmental and Human Exposure to Mercury in the Arctic (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Rautio, Arja


    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure. PMID:25837201

  6. Climate change impacts on environmental and human exposure to mercury in the arctic. (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Rautio, Arja


    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure.

  7. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L


    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  8. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment in the Arctic: Challenges and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Berg Pettersen


    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is increasingly used for environmental assessment of products and production processes to support environmental decision-making both worldwide and in the Arctic. However, there are several weaknesses in the impact assessment methodology in LCA, e.g., related to uncertainties of impact assessment results, absence of spatial differentiation in characterization modeling, and gaps in the coverage of impact pathways of different “archetypal” environments. Searching for a new resource base and areas for operation, marine and marine-based industries are continuously moving north, which underlines the need for better life cycle impact assessment in the Arctic, particularly to aid in industrial environmental management systems and stakeholder communications. This paper aims to investigate gaps and challenges in the application of the currently available impact assessment methods in the Arctic context. A simplified Arctic mining LCA case study was carried out to demonstrate the relevance of Arctic emissions at the midpoint and endpoint levels, as well as possible influences of the Arctic context on the impact assessment results. Results of this study showed that significant research gaps remain in Arctic-dependent life cycle impact assessment, particularly on: (i the possible influences of the Arctic-specific features on characterization factors for impact assessment (such as seasonality, cold climate, precipitation, and marine dependence; and (ii the coverage of impact pathways, especially on the under-addressed marine impacts and marine/near-shore dispersion processes. Addressing those identified research gaps and demand for future Arctic life cycle impact assessment could increase the credibility of LCA as an environmental decision-making support tool for Arctic industries and better support sustainable Arctic development.

  10. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update. (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng


    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomics of Arctic cod (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.


    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  12. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn


    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  13. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, S.; Cobben, M.M.P.; Ens, B.J.; Nolet, B.A.


    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset

  14. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  15. Arctic ecosystem responses to a warming climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.

    sheet, loss of multiannual sea-ice and significant advances in snowmelt days. The biotic components of the arctic ecosystem have also been affected by the rapid changes in climate, for instance resulting in the collapse of the collared lemming cycle, advances in spring flowering and changes in the intra...... biotic interactions. Hence, through the use of up-to-date multivariate statistical tools, this Ph.D. study has been concerned with analyzing how the observed rapid climate changes are affecting the arctic ecosystems. The primary tool has been the implementation of structural equation modeling (SEM) which....... Additionally, the study demonstrated that climate effects had distinct direct and indirect effects on different trophic levels, indicating cascading effects of climate through the trophic system. Results suggest that the Arctic is being significantly affected by the observed climate changes and depending...

  16. A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.


    On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia

  17. Changing Conditions in the Arctic: An Analysis of 45 years of Tropospheric Ozone Measurements at Barrow Observatory (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Crepinsek, S.; Jefferson, A.; Emmons, L. K.; Oltmans, S. J.


    In order to understand the impact of climate on local bio-systems, understanding the changes to the atmospheric composition and processes in the Arctic boundary layer and free troposphere is imperative. In the Arctic, many conditions influence tropospheric ozone variability such as: seasonal halogen caused depletion events, long range transport of pollutants from mid-northern latitudes, compounds released from wildfires, and different meteorological conditions. The Barrow station in Utqiagvik, Alaska has collected continuous measurements of ground-level ozone since 1973. This unique long-term time series allows for analysis of the influence of a rapidly changing climate on ozone conditions in this region. Specifically, this study analyzes the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes over time and provides in depth analysis of periods of positive deviations from the expected conditions. To discern the contribution of different pollutant sources to observed ozone variability, co-located measurements of aerosols, carbon monoxide, and meteorological conditions are used. In addition, the NCAR Mozart-4/MOPITT Chemical Forecast model and NOAA Hysplit back-trajectory analysis provide information on transport patterns to the Arctic and confirmation of the emission sources that influenced the observed conditions. These anthropogenic influences on ozone variability in and below the boundary layer are essential for developing an understanding of the interaction of climate change and the bio-systems in the Arctic.

  18. Investigating the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the arctic: their atmospheric behaviour and interaction with the seasonal snow pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, Crispin J.


    POPs in the Arctic are the focus of international concern due to their occurrence and accumulation in Arctic food webs. This paper presents an overview of the major pathways into the Arctic and details contemporary studies that have focused on the occurrence and transfer of POPs between the major Arctic compartments, highlighting areas where there is a lack of quantitative information. The behaviour of these chemicals in the Arctic atmosphere is scrutinised with respect to long-term trends and seasonal behaviour. Subtle differences between the PCBs and OC pesticides are demonstrated and related to sources outside of the Arctic as well as environmental processes within the Arctic. Unlike temperate regions, contaminant fate is strongly affected by the presence of snow and ice. A description of the high Arctic snow pack is given and the physical characteristics that determine chemical fate, namely the specific surface area of snow and wind driven ventilation, are discussed. Using a well-characterised fresh snow event observed at Alert (Canadian high Arctic) [Atmos. Environ. 36(2002) 2767] the flux of γ-HCH out of the snow is predicted following snow ageing. Under conditions of wind (10 m/s) it is estimated that ∼75% of the chemical may be re-emitted to the atmosphere within 24 h following snowfall, compared with just ∼5% under conditions of no wind. The implications of this are raised and areas of further research suggested. - The fluxes and fate of POPs in snowpacks are key to their behaviour in polar systems

  19. Ground based remote sensing and physiological measurements provide novel insights into canopy photosynthetic optimization in arctic shrubs (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.; Greaves, H.; Prager, C.; Logan, B.; Oliver, R.; Fortin, L.; Vierling, L. A.


    Because changes in vegetation structure and function in the Arctic are rapid and highly dynamic phenomena, efforts to understand the C balance of the tundra require repeatable, objective, and accurate remote sensing methods for estimating aboveground C pools and fluxes over large areas. A key challenge addressing the modelling of aboveground C is to utilize process-level information from fine-scale studies. Utilizing information obtained from high resolution remote sensing systems could help to better understand the C source/sink strength of the tundra, which will in part depend on changes in photosynthesis resulting from the partitioning of photosynthetic machinery within and among deciduous shrub canopies. Terrestrial LiDAR and passive hyperspectral remote sensing measurements offer an effective, repeatable, and scalable method to understand photosynthetic performance and partitioning at the canopy scale previously unexplored in arctic systems. Using a 3-D shrub canopy model derived from LiDAR, we quantified the light regime of leaves within shrub canopies to gain a better understanding of how light interception varies in response to the Arctic's complex radiation regime. This information was then coupled with pigment sampling (i.e., xanthophylls, and Chl a/b) to evaluate the optimization of foliage photosynthetic capacity within shrub canopies due to light availability. In addition, a lab experiment was performed to validate evidence of canopy level optimization via gradients of light intensity and leaf light environment. For this, hyperspectral reflectance (photochemical reflectance index (PRI)), and solar induced fluorescence (SIF)) was collected in conjunction with destructive pigment samples (xanthophylls) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in both sunlit and shaded canopy positions.

  20. Using an Environmental Intelligence Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Ocean Acidification in the Arctic (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Baskin, M.; Cross, J.


    The highly productive coastal seas of the Arctic Ocean are located in areas that are projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that may be most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) and other environmental stressors contribute substantially to the commercial fisheries of the Bering Sea and traditional subsistence food supplies across the Arctic. This could represent a looming challenge in many communities as the average prevalence of household food insecurity and very low food security in Alaska are already 12 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively. Here, we evaluate the patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska's Arctic that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. We used a risk assessment framework to analyze an earth-system global model of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The analysis showed that regions around Alaska vary in their vulnerability to OA, but that each one will have to deal with possible impacts. Therefore, OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains. With this in mind, we will present a number of adaptation strategies for communities living throughout Alaska's Arctic that could be applicable to other Arctic regions.

  1. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick


    outside organizations. Because changes in the Arctic environment are happening so rapidly, a successful program will be one that can adapt very quickly to new information as it becomes available, and can provide decision makers with projections on the 1-5 year time scale over which the most disruptive, high-consequence changes are likely to occur. The greatest short-term impact would be to initiate exploratory simulations to discover new emergent and robust phenomena associated with one or more of the following changing systems: Arctic hydrological cycle, sea ice extent, ocean and atmospheric circulation, permafrost deterioration, carbon mobilization, Greenland ice sheet stability, and coastal erosion. Sandia can also contribute to new technology solutions for improved observations in the Arctic, which is currently a data-sparse region. Sensitivity analyses have the potential to identify thresholds which would enable the collaborative development of 'early warning' sensor systems to seek predicted phenomena that might be precursory to major, high-consequence changes. Much of this work will require improved regional climate models and advanced computing capabilities. Socio-economic modeling tools can help define human and national security consequences. Formal uncertainty quantification must be an integral part of any results that emerge from this work.

  2. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René


    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  3. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Rashed [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Department of Meteorology, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Pakistan; von Salzen, Knut [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment and Climate Change Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Flanner, Mark [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Sand, Maria [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, Oslo Norway; Langner, Joakim [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping Sweden; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Huang, Lin [Climate Chemistry Measurements and Research, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto Ontario Canada


    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  4. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.


    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  5. Technological and economic factors in the future development and utilization of Arctic natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumppanen, P.; Sackinger, W.M.


    Development of Arctic gas reserves will be accelerated during the next two decades in response to higher oil prices, environmental and safety advantages of gas, and the potentially low costs of tapping giant reservoirs. Total Arctic gas reserves are estimated at over 63 trillion m 3 . Due to low population and industrial activity in the Arctic, only limited markets for Arctic gas exist in the Arctic itself. The main part of Arctic gas must therefore be transported over long distances. Giant Arctic gas fields will provide a basis for different production alternatives including both pipeline gas, liquefied gas, and converted gas products. Transportation systems are the most critical part of Arctic natural gas development and the sector requiring the greatest investment. Major investment decisions will depend on accurate estimates of gas transport technology and economics, as well as on perceived energy market share growth and geopolitical stability. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. An approach for prediction of petroleum production facility performance considering Arctic influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xueli; Barabady, Javad; Markeset, Tore


    As the oil and gas (O and G) industry is increasing the focus on petroleum exploration and development in the Arctic region, it is becoming increasingly important to design exploration and production facilities to suit the local operating conditions. The cold and harsh climate, the long distance from customer and suppliers' markets, and the sensitive environment may have considerable influence on the choice of design solutions and production performance characteristics such as throughput capacity, reliability, availability, maintainability, and supportability (RAMS) as well as operational and maintenance activities. Due to this, data and information collected for similar systems used in a normal climate may not be suitable. Hence, it is important to study and develop methods for prediction of the production performance characteristics during the design and operation phases. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for prediction of the production performance for oil and gas production facilities considering influencing factors in Arctic conditions. The proportional repair model (PRM) is developed in order to predict repair rate in Arctic conditions. The model is based on the proportional hazard model (PHM). A simple case study is used to demonstrate how the proposed approach can be applied.

  7. Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Overland


    Full Text Available Recent Arctic changes are likely due to coupled Arctic amplification mechanisms with increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-Arctic weather. Historically, sea ice grew rapidly in autumn, a strong negative radiative feedback. But increased sea-ice mobility, loss of multi-year sea ice, enhanced heat storage in newly sea ice-free ocean areas, and modified wind fields form connected positive feedback processes. One-way shifts in the Arctic system are sensitive to the combination of episodic intrinsic atmospheric and ocean variability and persistent increasing greenhouse gases. Winter 2009/10 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather patterns when the typical polar vortex was replaced by high geopotential heights over the central Arctic and low heights over mid-latitudes that resulted in record snow and low temperatures, a warm Arctic—cold continents pattern. The negative value of the winter (DJF 2009/10 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index associated with enhanced meridional winds was the lowest observed value since the beginning of the record in 1865. Wind patterns in December 2007 and 2008 also show an impact of warmer Arctic temperatures. A tendency for higher geopotential heights over the Arctic and enhanced meridional winds are physically consistent with continued loss of sea ice over the next 40 years. A major challenge is to understand the interaction of Arctic changes with climate patterns such as the NAO, Pacific North American and El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  8. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.


    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  9. Metals and alloys for Arctic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, R C.A. [ed.


    The northlands of Canada can be regarded as a vast, but not inexhaustible, storehouse of mineral, oil and gas reserves. At the same time, this area is a delicate ecology that can easily be irreversibly damaged. It is vitally important that industrial activity associated with these reserves should proceed with a maximum of safety and a minimum risk of pollution, with optimum utilization of materials. In order to facilitate these objectives, appropriate technical information is required on the characteristics of available engineering metals and alloys with respect to service in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments. The body of this monograph consists of data sheets on irons and steels, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, copper, lead, tin, nickel and zinc alloys. Background information is given on the general characteristics of the various alloy systems, their advantages and disadvantages, on typical engineering applications, and on potential problem areas. Human difficulties associated with low temperature will exert some measure of control over the available construction periods, and may influence the techniques and materials used. A second important factor is the general inaccessibility of the northern regions. The designer must pay attention to reliability, ease of maintenance and ease of transportation. A premium is placed on the lightness and compactness of equipment, and may emphasize low density or high strength materials. Easy installation and removal is advantageous, due to the temporary nature of many operations, and the limited local labor available. Pollution avoidance must be considered, and aspects such as scrap recovery value and rate of degradation are important. In cases with little recovery value, corrosion resistance may be a disadvantage rather than an advantage. 238 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Centered On The Pole: NCEI Interdisciplinary Arctic Data Stewardship (United States)

    Zweng, M.


    In 2014, NOAA's data centers (National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanographic Data Center, National Geophysical Data Center and its affiliated program within the National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the National Coastal Data Development Center) merged to form NCEI, the National Centers for Environmental Information- the largest repository of publicly accessible earth system science data in the world. The merger has forced a reconciling of different workflows, data types, and cultures. However, the Arctic has emerged as a common area where the different centers can integrate their expertise, data assets, and services, and use this information to better align the entire organization. The centers face a unique challenge as they move forward: how to archive, steward and provide access to environmental data to fulfil their mission of providing the best information to help protect life and property. A pressing national need for information that supports policy decisions drives our work.

  11. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk


    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  12. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.


    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  13. Upper-Ocean Variability in the Arctic’s Amundsen and Nansen Basins (United States)


    public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Toole, John M. WHOI132547SP Krishfield, Richard A. Se. TASK NUMBER Cole, Sylvia T. Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER...findings of the MIZ program to the European sector of the Arctic with its markedly different thermohaline stratification. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic

  14. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.


    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  15. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context....

  16. Arctic amplification: does it impact the polar jet stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. Meleshko


    Full Text Available It has been hypothesised that the Arctic amplification of temperature changes causes a decrease in the northward temperature gradient in the troposphere, thereby enhancing the oscillation of planetary waves leading to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. To test this hypothesis, we study the response of the atmosphere to Arctic amplification for a projected summer sea-ice-free period using an atmospheric model with prescribed surface boundary conditions from a state-of-the-art Earth system model. Besides a standard global warming simulation, we also conducted a sensitivity experiment with sea ice and sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arctic. We show that when global climate warms, enhancement of the northward heat transport provides the major contribution to decrease the northward temperature gradient in the polar troposphere in cold seasons, causing more oscillation of the planetary waves. However, while Arctic amplification significantly enhances near-surface air temperature in the polar region, it is not large enough to invoke an increased oscillation of the planetary waves.

  17. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic--sources, dose assessment and potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Balonov, M.; Tsaturov, Y.; Bewers, J.M.; Salo, A.; Sickel, M.; Bergman, R.; Rissanen, K.


    Arctic residents, whose diets comprise a large proportion of traditional terrestrial and freshwater foodstuffs, have received the highest radiation exposures to artificial radionuclides in the Arctic. Doses to members of both the average population and selected indigenous population groups in the Arctic depend on the rates of consumption of locally-derived terrestrial and freshwater foodstuffs, including reindeer/caribou meat, freshwater fish, goat cheese, berries, mushrooms and lamb. The vulnerability of arctic populations, especially indigenous peoples, to radiocaesium deposition is much greater than for temperate populations due to the importance of terrestrial, semi-natural exposure pathways where there is high radiocaesium transfer and a long ecological half-life for this radionuclide. In contrast, arctic residents with diets largely comprising marine foodstuffs have received comparatively low radiation exposures because of the lower levels of contamination of marine organisms. Using arctic-specific information, the predicted collective dose is five times higher than that estimated by UNSCEAR for temperate areas. The greatest threats to human health and the environment posed by human and industrial activities in the Arctic are associated with the potential for accidents in the civilian and military nuclear sectors. Of most concern are the consequences of potential accidents in nuclear power plant reactors, during the handling and storage of nuclear weapons, in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines and in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from vessels. It is important to foster a close association between risk assessment and practical programmes for the purposes of improving monitoring, formulating response strategies and implementing action plans

  18. The Evolving Arctic: Current State of U.S. Arctic Policy (United States)


    to advance national interests. The U.S. has not yet acceded to UNCLOS, and trails its Arctic neighbors in regards to national policy and direction...maritime transportation, and maritime tourism are expanding exponentially. As commercial opportunities increase in the region, the U.S. needs an...UNCLOS without having ratified it, it trails behind the remainder of the Arctic states on its policy and in asserting its

  19. Geophysical Investigations of Hypersaline Subglacial Water Systems in the Canadian Arctic: A Planetary Analog (United States)

    Rutishauser, A.; Sharp, M. J.; Blankenship, D. D.; Skidmore, M. L.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Young, D. A.


    Robotic exploration and remote sensing of the solar system have identified the presence of liquid water beneath ice on several planetary bodies, with evidence for elevated salinity in certain cases. Subglacial water systems beneath Earth's glaciers and ice sheets may provide terrestrial analogs for microbial habitats in such extreme environments, especially those with higher salinity. Geological data suggest that several ice caps and glaciers in the eastern Canadian High Arctic are partially underlain by evaporite-rich sedimentary rocks, and subglacial weathering of these rocks is potentially conducive to the formation of hypersaline subglacial waters. Here, we combine airborne geophysical data with geological constraints to identify and characterize hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath ice caps in Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands. High relative bedrock reflectivity and specularity anomalies that are apparent in radio-echo sounding data indicate multiple locations where subglacial water is present in areas where modeled ice temperatures at the glacier bed are well below the pressure melting point. This suggests that these water systems are hypersaline, with solute concentrations that significantly depress the freezing point of water. From combined interpretations of geological and airborne-magnetic data, we define the geological context within which these systems have developed, and identify possible solute-sources for the inferred brine-rich water systems. We also derive subglacial hydraulic potential gradients using airborne laser altimetry and ice thickness data, and apply water routing models to derive subglacial drainage pathways. These allow us to identify marine-terminating glaciers where outflow of the brine-rich waters may be anticipated. These hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath Canadian Arctic ice caps and glaciers may represent robust microbial habitats, and potential analogs for brines that may exist beneath ice masses on planetary

  20. Development of efficiency module of organization of Arctic sea cargo transportation with application of neural network technologies (United States)

    Sobolevskaya, E. Yu; Glushkov, S. V.; Levchenko, N. G.; Orlov, A. P.


    The analysis of software intended for organizing and managing the processes of sea cargo transportation has been carried out. The shortcomings of information resources are presented, for the organization of work in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of the Far East: the lack of decision support systems, the lack of factor analysis to calculate the time and cost of delivery. The architecture of the module for calculating the effectiveness of the organization of sea cargo transportation has been developed. The simulation process has been considered, which is based on the neural network. The main classification factors with their weighting coefficients have been identified. The architecture of the neural network has been developed to calculate the efficiency of the organization of sea cargo transportation in Arctic conditions. The architecture of the intellectual system of organization of sea cargo transportation has been developed, taking into account the difficult navigation conditions in the Arctic. Its implementation will allow one to provide the management of the shipping company with predictive analytics; to support decision-making; to calculate the most efficient delivery route; to provide on demand online transportation forecast, to minimize the shipping cost, delays in transit, and risks to cargo safety.

  1. Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic. (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A


    Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.

  2. Arctic Ice Management: an integrated approach to climate engineering (United States)

    Desch, S. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Groppi, C. E.; Romaniello, S. J.


    The warming climate is having the most rapid and pronounced effects in the high Arctic. The loss of Arctic sea ice is not only changing the physical oceanography of the Arctic Ocean and its coastlines; it is also promoting new conversations about the dangers and benefits for trade, transportation, and industry in the Arctic. The rate of decrease of summer sea ice in the Arctic is currently -300 km3 yr-1, a rate that will lead to complete loss of end-summer sea ice as soon as 2030. Preventing the strong positive feedbacks and increased warming due to sea ice albedo loss must be an important component of climate mitigation strategies. Here, we explore a direct engineering approach we call Arctic Ice Management (AIM) to reduce the loss of Arctic sea ice. We predict that pumping seawater onto the ice surface during the Arctic winter using wind-powered pumps can thicken sea ice by up to 1 m per year, reversing the current loss rates and prolonging the time until the Arctic Ocean is ice-free. Thickening sea ice would not change CO2 levels, which are the underlying cause of ice loss, but it would prevent some of the strongest feedbacks and would buy time to develop the tools and governance systems necessary to achieve carbon-neutrality. We advocate exploration of AIM as a mitigation strategy employed in parallel with CO2 reduction efforts. The opportunity and risk profiles of AIM differ from other geoengineering proposals. While similar in principle to solar radiation management, AIM may present fewer large-scale environmental risks. AIM is separate from greenhouse gas emission reduction or sequestration, but might help prevent accelerated release of methane from thawing permafrost. Further, AIM might be usefully employed at regional and local scales to preserve Arctic ecosystems and possibly reduce the effects of ice-loss induced coastal erosion. Through presentation of the AIM concept, we hope to spark new conversations between scientists, stakeholders, and decision

  3. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel


    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  4. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.


    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  5. Arctic Cisco, Coregonus autumnalis, distribution, migration and spawning in the Mackenzie River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillinger, R.E. Jr.; Birt, T.P.; Green, J.M.


    Oil exploration along the Beaufort Sea coast of North America has raised interest in populations of Arctic Cisco. A synopsis is presented of research on Arctic Cisco distributions and spawning activities in the Mackenzie River system. The distribution, migration, and spawning activities of Arctic Cisco in the tributaries of the Mackenzie River system were found to be more extensive than previously reported. The Peel River population had the earliest migration time, mid-July; however, a small movement of mature males upriver also occurred there in mid-September. Major movements of mature males and females took place in both late July and early to mid-Spetember in the Arctic Red River. Migrations in the other river systems occurred in late August and early September. Arctic Ciscoes in the only river south of Great Bear Lake that has been found to contain this species, the Liard River, may show a mixed life history strategy. The apparently long distance the fish must swim, the lack of any known populations in any of the rivers between the Liard and the Great Bear rivers, and the lack of evidence of migrations past Fort Simpson suggest that this population may contain non-anadromous forms. No actual spawning was seen in any of the populations, but possible areas were noted, one in the Peel River and one in the Liard River. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Role of polar anticyclones and mid-latitude cyclones for Arctic summertime sea-ice melting (United States)

    Wernli, Heini; Papritz, Lukas


    Annual minima in Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been decreasing rapidly since the late 1970s, with substantial interannual variability. Summers with a particularly strong reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent are characterized by anticyclonic circulation anomalies from the surface to the upper troposphere. Here, we investigate the origin of these seasonal circulation anomalies by identifying individual Arctic anticyclones (with a lifetime of typically ten days) and analysing the air mass transport into these systems. We reveal that these episodic upper-level induced Arctic anticyclones are relevant for generating seasonal circulation anomalies. Sea-ice reduction is systematically enhanced during the transient episodes with Arctic anticyclones and the seasonal reduction of sea-ice volume correlates with the area-averaged frequency of Arctic anticyclones poleward of 70° N (correlation coefficient of 0.57). A trajectory analysis shows that these anticyclones result from extratropical cyclones injecting extratropical air masses with low potential vorticity into the Arctic upper troposphere. Our results emphasize the fundamental role of extratropical cyclones and associated diabatic processes in establishing Arctic anticyclones and, in turn, seasonal circulation anomalies, which are of key importance for understanding the variability of summertime Arctic sea-ice melting.

  7. The Arctic Marine Pulses Model: Linking Contiguous Domains in the Pacific Arctic Region (United States)

    Moore, S. E.; Stabeno, P. J.


    The Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem extends from the northern Bering Sea, across the Chukchi and into the East Siberian and Beaufort seas. Food webs in this domain are short, a simplicity that belies the biophysical complexity underlying trophic linkages from primary production to humans. Existing biophysical models, such as pelagic-benthic coupling and advective processes, provide frameworks for connecting certain aspects of the marine food web, but do not offer a full accounting of events that occur seasonally across the Pacific Arctic. In the course of the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) project, a holistic Arctic Marine Pulses (AMP) model was developed that depicts seasonal biophysical `pulses' across a latitudinal gradient, and linking four previously-described contiguous domains, including the: (i) Pacific-Arctic domain = the focal region; (ii) seasonal ice zone domain; (iii) Pacific marginal domain; and (iv) riverine coastal domain. The AMP model provides a spatial-temporal framework to guide research on dynamic ecosystem processes during this period of rapid biophysical changes in the Pacific Arctic. Some of the processes included in the model, such as pelagic-benthic coupling in the Northern Bering and Chukchi seas, and advection and upwelling along the Beaufort shelf, are already the focus of sampling via the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and other research programs. Other aspects such as biological processes associated with the seasonal ice zone and trophic responses to riverine outflow have received less attention. The AMP model could be enhanced by the application of visualization tools to provide a means to watch a season unfold in space and time. The capability to track sea ice dynamics and water masses and to move nutrients, prey and upper-trophic predators in space and time would provide a strong foundation for the development of predictive human-inclusive ecosystem models for the Pacific Arctic.

  8. International student Arctic Field School on Permafrost and urban areas study (United States)

    Suter, L.; Tolmanov, V. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.


    Arctic regions are experiencing drastic climatic and environmental changes. These changes are exacerbated in the Russian Arctic, where active resource development resulted in further land cover transformations, especially near large settlements. There is a growing need in multidisciplinary studies of climate and human- induced changes in the Arctic cities. In order to fill this gap, International Arctic Field Course on Permafrostand Northern Studies was organized in July 2017 to the Russian Arctic. The course was organized under the umbrella of the Arctic PIRE project in cooperation between the George Washington University, Moscow State University, and the Russian Center for Arctic Development. The course attracted twenty undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, USA, and EU countries and involved instructors specializing in Arctic system science, geocryology, permafrost engineering, and urban sustainability. The field course was focused on studying typical natural Arctic landscapes of tundra and forest tundra; transformations of natural landscapes in urban and industrial areas around Vorkuta and Salekhard; construction and planning on permafrost and field methods and techniques, including permafrost and soil temperature monitoring, active layer thickness (ALT) measurements, studying of cryogenic processes, stratigraphic and soil investigations, vegetation and microclimate studies. The students were also engaged in a discussion of climatic change and historical development of urban areas on permafrost,and were exposed to examples of both active and passive construction principles while conducting a field survey of permafrost related building deformations. During the course, students collected more than 800 ALT and soil temperature measurements in typical landscapes around Vorkuta and Salekhard to determine effects of soil and vegetation factors on ground thermal regime; surveyed several hundreds of buildings to determine locations with most deformation

  9. AMBON - the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (United States)

    Iken, K.; Danielson, S. L.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Kuletz, K.; Stafford, K.; Mueter, F. J.; Collins, E.; Bluhm, B.; Moore, S. E.; Bochenek, R. J.


    The goal of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON) is to build an operational and sustainable marine biodiversity observing network for the US Arctic Chukchi Sea continental shelf. The AMBON has four main goals: 1. To close current gaps in taxonomic biodiversity observations from microbes to whales, 2. To integrate results of past and ongoing research programs on the US Arctic shelf into a biodiversity observation network, 3. To demonstrate at a regional level how an observing network could be developed, and 4. To link with programs on the pan-Arctic to global scale. The AMBON fills taxonomic (from microbes to mammals), functional (food web structure), spatial and temporal (continuing time series) gaps, and includes new technologies such as state-of-the-art genomic tools, with biodiversity and environmental observations linked through central data management through the Alaska Ocean Observing System. AMBON is a 5-year partnership between university and federal researchers, funded through the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP), with partners in the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management (BOEM), and Shell industry. AMBON will allow us to better coordinate, sustain, and synthesize biodiversity research efforts, and make data available to a broad audience of users, stakeholders, and resource managers.

  10. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km 2 , is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.


    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Mazurov


    Full Text Available In September 2010, Moscow hosted the International Arctic Forum “The Arctic—Territory of Dialogue.” The Arctic Forum focused its attention on elements of sustainable development in the Arctic region, i.e., ecology, economics, infrastructure, social services, security, and geopolitics. Many Russian experts and many well-known politicians and experts from leading research centers of the Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and USA, as well as by participants from France, Germany, Netherlands, and other countries attended the forum. Scholars and public figures from the European countries, representatives of the NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and other institutions were also present at the conference. In his key-note speech the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin formulated the principles of Russian national policy in the Arctic. Russian and foreign participants supported the idea of continuing dialogue on the Arctic under the RGS’s aegis and the transformation of the Arctic Forum into a permanent platform for discussions on the most urgent issues of the region.

  13. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G


    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  14. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.


    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  15. Changes in Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice as a Microcosm of Global Climate Change (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.


    Polar sea ice is a key element of the climate system and has now been monitored through satellite observations for over three and a half decades. The satellite observations reveal considerable information about polar ice and its changes since the late 1970s, including a prominent downward trend in Arctic sea ice coverage and a much lesser upward trend in Antarctic sea ice coverage, illustrative of the important fact that climate change entails spatial contrasts. The decreasing ice coverage in the Arctic corresponds well with contemporaneous Arctic warming and exhibits particularly large decreases in the summers of 2007 and 2012, influenced by both preconditioning and atmospheric conditions. The increasing ice coverage in the Antarctic is not as readily explained, but spatial differences in the Antarctic trends suggest a possible connection with atmospheric circulation changes that have perhaps been influenced by the Antarctic ozone hole. The changes in the polar ice covers and the issues surrounding those changes have many commonalities with broader climate changes and their surrounding issues, allowing the sea ice changes to be viewed in some important ways as a microcosm of global climate change.

  16. Process contributions to the intermodel spread in amplified Arctic warming (United States)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.


    The Arctic is warming at a rate more than twice the global average. This robust climate system response to an external forcing is referred to as Arctic Amplification (AA). While Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate models simulate AA, the largest intermodel spread in projected warming is also found in the Arctic. Quantifying the amount of polar warming relative to global warming influences how society adapts to climate change; a 2°C increase in global mean temperature would result in a polar warming between 4-8°C according to the intermodel spread in CMIP5 simulations. A trove of previous work has considered AA diagnostically using variations in the surface energy budget to attribute the intermodel spread in AA to an assortment of feedbacks—surface albedo, cloud, surface turbulent flux, and atmospheric and oceanic energy transport. We consider a systems-thinking approach treating AA as a process that evolves over time. We hypothesize that two specific components of the AA process are most important and influence the intermodel spread. (1) The inability of the Arctic system to effectively remove excess heat sourced from natural variability. The change in the efficiency of the `Arctic air conditioner' is thought to be due to thinner and less extensive sea ice and the resulting ice albedo feedback. (2) The process through which energy is stored in the ocean and exchanged with the atmosphere within the context of the sea ice annual cycle is also important. This study uses CMIP5 simulations from the historical and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway; an emission scenario with forcing increasing to 8.5 W m-2 by 2100) to analyze how the AA process operates in present and future climate. The intermodel spread in these processes and the influence on the spread in AA are discussed. This approach identifies models that more realistically simulate the AA process and will aid in narrowing intermodel spread in Arctic surface temperature

  17. Sensitivity of simulated regional Arctic climate to the choice of coupled model domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Sein


    Full Text Available The climate over the Arctic has undergone changes in recent decades. In order to evaluate the coupled response of the Arctic system to external and internal forcing, our study focuses on the estimation of regional climate variability and its dependence on large-scale atmospheric and regional ocean circulations. A global ocean–sea ice model with regionally high horizontal resolution is coupled to an atmospheric regional model and global terrestrial hydrology model. This way of coupling divides the global ocean model setup into two different domains: one coupled, where the ocean and the atmosphere are interacting, and one uncoupled, where the ocean model is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing and runs in a so-called stand-alone mode. Therefore, selecting a specific area for the regional atmosphere implies that the ocean–atmosphere system can develop ‘freely’ in that area, whereas for the rest of the global ocean, the circulation is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing without any feedbacks. Five different coupled setups are chosen for ensemble simulations. The choice of the coupled domains was done to estimate the influences of the Subtropical Atlantic, Eurasian and North Pacific regions on northern North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Our simulations show that the regional coupled ocean–atmosphere model is sensitive to the choice of the modelled area. The different model configurations reproduce differently both the mean climate and its variability. Only two out of five model setups were able to reproduce the Arctic climate as observed under recent climate conditions (ERA-40 Reanalysis. Evidence is found that the main source of uncertainty for Arctic climate variability and its predictability is the North Pacific. The prescription of North Pacific conditions in the regional model leads to significant correlation with observations, even if the whole North Atlantic is within the coupled model domain. However, the inclusion of the

  18. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris. (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E


    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  19. Pliocene palaeoceanography of the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas. (United States)

    Matthiessen, Jens; Knies, Jochen; Vogt, Christoph; Stein, Ruediger


    The Pliocene is important in the geological evolution of the high northern latitudes. It marks the transition from restricted local- to extensive regional-scale glaciations on the circum-Arctic continents between 3.6 and 2.4Ma. Since the Arctic Ocean is an almost land-locked basin, tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations controlled the geometry of ocean gateways and continental drainage systems, and exerted a major influence on the formation of continental ice sheets, the distribution of river run-off, and the circulation and water mass characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of a water mass exchange restricted to the Bering and Fram Straits on the oceanography is unknown, but modelling experiments suggest that this must have influenced the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Cold conditions associated with perennial sea-ice cover might have prevailed in the central Arctic Ocean throughout the Pliocene, whereas colder periods alternated with warmer seasonally ice-free periods in the marginal areas. The most pronounced oceanographic change occurred in the Mid-Pliocene when the circulation through the Bering Strait reversed and low-salinity waters increasingly flowed from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The excess freshwater supply might have facilitated sea-ice formation and contributed to a decrease in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  20. Behavioral interactions of penned red and arctic foxes (United States)

    Rudzinski, D.R.; Graves, H.B.; Sargeant, A.B.; Storm, G.L.


    Expansion of the geographical distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) into the far north tundra region may lead to competition between arctic (Alopex lagopus) and red foxes for space and resources. Behavioral interactions between red and arctic foxes were evaluated during 9 trials conducted in a 4.05-ha enclosure near Woodworth, North Dakota. Each trial consisted of introducing a male-female pair of arctic foxes into the enclosure and allowing them to acclimate for approximately a week before releasing a female red fox into the enclosure, followed by her mate a few days later. In 8 of 9 trials, red foxes were dominant over arctic foxes during encounters. Activity of the arctic foxes decreased upon addition of red foxes. Arctic foxes tried unsuccessfully to defend preferred den, resting, and feeding areas. Even though the outcome of competition between red and arctic foxes in the Arctic is uncertain, the more aggressive red fox can dominate arctic foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.

  1. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman


    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.

  2. Biodegradation of crude oil in Arctic subsurface water from the Disko Bay (Greenland) is limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye, Katrine; Christensen, Jan H.; Johnsen, Anders R.


    Biological degradation is the main process for oil degradation in a subsurface oil plume. There is, however, little information on the biodegradation potential of Arctic, marine subsurface environments. We therefore investigated oil biodegradation in microcosms at 2 °C containing Arctic subsurfac...... for the C1-naphthalenes. To conclude, the marine subsurface microorganisms from the Disko Bay had the potential for biodegradation of n-alkanes and isoprenoids while the metabolically complex and toxic PACs and their alkylated homologs remained almost unchanged.......Biological degradation is the main process for oil degradation in a subsurface oil plume. There is, however, little information on the biodegradation potential of Arctic, marine subsurface environments. We therefore investigated oil biodegradation in microcosms at 2 °C containing Arctic subsurface...... seawater from the Disko Bay (Greenland) and crude oil at three concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/L. Within 71 days, the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration decreased only by 18 ± 18% for an initial concentration of 5 mg/L. The saturated alkanes nC13-nC30 and the isoprenoids iC18-iC21 were biodegraded...

  3. An inventory of Arctic Ocean data in the World Ocean Database (United States)

    Zweng, Melissa M.; Boyer, Tim P.; Baranova, Olga K.; Reagan, James R.; Seidov, Dan; Smolyar, Igor V.


    The World Ocean Database (WOD) contains over 1.3 million oceanographic casts (where cast refers to an oceanographic profile or set of profiles collected concurrently at more than one depth between the ocean surface and ocean bottom) collected in the Arctic Ocean basin and its surrounding marginal seas. The data, collected from 1849 to the present, come from many submitters and countries, and were collected using a variety of instruments and platforms. These data, along with the derived products World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and the Arctic Regional Climatologies, are exceptionally useful - the data are presented in a standardized, easy to use format and include metadata and quality control information. Collecting data in the Arctic Ocean is challenging, and coverage in space and time ranges from excellent to nearly non-existent. WOD continues to compile a comprehensive collection of Arctic Ocean profile data, ideal for oceanographic, environmental and climatic analyses (" target="_blank">

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals. (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C


    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  5. Arctic atmospheric preconditioning: do not rule out shortwave radiation just yet (United States)

    Sedlar, J.


    Springtime atmospheric preconditioning of Arctic sea ice for enhanced or buffered sea ice melt during the subsequent melt year has received considerable research focus in recent years. A general consensus points to enhanced poleward atmospheric transport of moisture and heat during spring, effectively increasing the emission of longwave radiation to the surface. Studies have essentially ruled out the role of shortwave radiation as an effective preconditioning mechanism because of the relatively weak incident solar radiation and high surface albedo from sea ice and snow during spring. These conclusions, however, are derived primarily from atmospheric reanalysis data, which may not always represent an accurate depiction of the Arctic climate system. Here, observations of top of atmosphere radiation from state of the art satellite sensors are examined and compared with reanalysis and climate model data to examine the differences in the spring radiative budget over the Arctic Ocean for years with extreme low/high ice extent at the end of the ice melt season (September). Distinct biases are observed between satellite-based measurements and reanalysis/models, particularly for the amount of shortwave radiation trapped (warming effect) within the Arctic climate system during spring months. A connection between the differences in reanalysis/model surface albedo representation and the albedo observed by satellite is discussed. These results suggest that shortwave radiation should not be overlooked as a significant contributing mechanism to springtime Arctic atmospheric preconditioning.

  6. Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic atmospheric responses to future sea-ice loss (United States)

    England, M.; Polvani, L. M.; Sun, L.


    By the end of this century, the annual mean Antarctic sea ice area is projected to decline by over a third, an amount similar to that in the Arctic, but the effect of Antarctic sea ice loss on the atmosphere remains largely unexplored. Using the Community Earth Systems Model (CESM) Whole Atmosphere Coupled Climate Model (WACCM), we investigate the effect of future Antarctic sea ice loss, and contrast it with its Arctic counterpart. This is accomplished by analyzing integrations of the model with historic and future sea ice levels, using the RCP8.5 scenario. This allows us to disentangle the effect of future sea ice loss on the atmosphere from other aspects of the coupled system. We find that both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice loss act to shift the tropospheric jet equatorwards, counteracting the poleward shift due to increases in greenhouse gases. Although the total forcing to the atmosphere is similar in both hemispheres, the response to Arctic sea ice loss is larger in amplitude and but more seasonally varying, while the response in the Antarctic persists throughout the year but with a smaller amplitude. Furthermore, the atmospheric temperature response over the Antarctic is trapped closer to the surface than in the Arctic, and perhaps surprisingly, we find that the surface temperature response to Antarctic sea ice loss is unable to penetrate the Antarctic continent.

  7. Telemedicine Services for the Arctic: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Walderhaug, Ståle; Hartvigsen, Gunnar


    Background Telemedicine services have been successfully used in areas where there are adequate infrastructures such as reliable power and communication lines. However, despite the increasing number of merchants and seafarers, maritime and Arctic telemedicine have had limited success. This might be linked with various factors such as lack of good infrastructure, lack of trained onboard personnel, lack of Arctic-enhanced telemedicine equipment, extreme weather conditions, remoteness, and other geographical challenges. Objective The purpose of this review was to assess and analyze the current status of telemedicine services in the context of maritime conditions, extreme weather (ie, Arctic weather), and remote accidents and emergencies. Moreover, the paper aimed to identify successfully implemented telemedicine services in the Arctic region and in maritime settings and remote emergency situations and present state of the art systems for these areas. Finally, we identified the status quo of telemedicine services in the context of search and rescue (SAR) scenarios in these extreme conditions. Methods A rigorous literature search was conducted between September 7 and October 28, 2015, through various online databases. Peer reviewed journals and articles were considered. Relevant articles were first identified by reviewing the title, keywords, and abstract for a preliminary filter with our selection criteria, and then we reviewed full-text articles that seemed relevant. Information from the selected literature was extracted based on some predefined categories, which were defined based on previous research and further elaborated upon via iterative brainstorming. Results The initial hits were vetted using the title, abstract, and keywords, and we retrieved a total of 471 papers. After removing duplicates from the list, 422 records remained. Then, we did an independent assessment of the articles and screening based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, which eliminated

  8. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective. (United States)

    Corell, Robert W


    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  9. Influence of sea ice on Arctic coasts (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Kay, J. E.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.


    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a focal point for population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A key difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Changes in sea ice cover can influence the coast because (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can interact with open ocean water, which in turn governs nearshore water level and wave field. We first focus on the interaction of sea ice and ice-rich coasts. We combine satellite records of sea ice with a model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic: the median length of the open-water season has expanded by 90 percent, while coastal erosion rates have more than doubled from 8.7 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, NW winds increase shoreline water levels that control the incision of a submarine notch, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. The maximum water-level setup at Drew Point has increased consistently with increasing fetch. We extend our analysis to the entire Arctic using both satellite-based observations and global coupled climate model output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. This 30-member ensemble employs a 1-degree version of the CESM-CAM5 historical forcing for the period 1920-2005, and RCP 8.5 forcing from 2005-2100. A control model run with constant pre-industrial (1850) forcing characterizes internal variability in a constant climate. Finally, we compare observations and model results to

  10. Arctic surface temperatures from Metop AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dybkjær


    Full Text Available The ice surface temperature (IST is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ice. Clear sky conditions prevail during spring in the Arctic, while persistent cloud cover limits data coverage during summer. The cloud covered regions are detected using the EUMETSAT cloud mask. The Metop IST compares to 2 m temperature at the Greenland ice cap Summit within STD error of 3.14 °C and to Arctic drifting buoy temperature data within STD error of 3.69 °C. A case study reveals that the in situ radiometer data versus satellite IST STD error can be much lower (0.73 °C and that the different in situ measurements complicate the validation. Differences and variability between Metop IST and in situ data are analysed and discussed. An inter-comparison of Metop IST, numerical weather prediction temperatures and in situ observation indicates large biases between the different quantities. Because of the scarcity of conventional surface temperature or surface air temperature data in the Arctic, the satellite IST data with its relatively good coverage can potentially add valuable information to model analysis for the Arctic atmosphere.

  11. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.


    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  12. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Elberling, Bo; Winter, Christian


    Glacial meltwater systems supply the Arctic coastal ocean with large volumes of sediment and potentially bioavailable forms of iron, nitrogen and carbon. The particulate fraction of this supply is significant but estuarine losses have been thought to limit the iron supply from land. Here, our...... the influence of terrestrial hotspots on the nutrient and solute cycles in Arctic coastal waters....

  13. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  14. Lessons learned in managing crowdsourced data in the Alaskan Arctic. (United States)

    Mastracci, Diana


    There is perhaps no place in which the consequences of global climate change can be felt more acutely than the Arctic. However, due to lack of measurements at the high latitudes, validation processes are often problematic. Citizen science projects, co-designed together with Native communities at the interface of traditional knowledge and scientific research, could play a major role in climate change adaptation strategies by advancing knowledge of the Arctic system, strengthening inter-generational bonds and facilitating improved knowledge transfer. This presentation will present lessons learned from a pilot project in the Alaskan Arctic, in which innovative approaches were used to design climate change adaptation strategies to support young subsistence hunters in taking in-situ measurements whilst out on the sea-ice. Both the socio-cultural and hardware/software challenges presented in this presentation, could provide useful guidance for future programs that aim to integrate citizens' with scientific data in Arctic communities.

  15. Arctic environmental strategy: Progress report, April 1992 - March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Arctic Environmental Strategy is part of Canada's Green Plan and involves providing $100 million over six years to address environmental problems in the Canadian north in the areas of contaminants, waste, water, and environment/economy integration. In 1992/93, over 50 scientific studies on the origins, occurrence, and behavior of contaminants in the Arctic were conducted, and a series of large-volume atmospheric stations were established. Caribou herds, fish, and the health of aboriginal northern peoples are being monitored. Over 100 sites across the north were cleaned in 1992/93, including commercial fishing waste sites, oil/gas exploration staging sites, and diamond drill camps. In addition to ongoing monitoring of water quality and quantity, a number of studies are being conducted to respond to local water concerns. An environmental action program is working through schools and northern communities on issues such as recycling, water pollution avoidance, and resource conservation and management. In response to demand for access to information about the north, the Northern Information Network is being established which will link users of databases and encourage information sharing. 5 figs

  16. Characterizing Arctic Sea Ice Topography Using High-Resolution IceBridge Data (United States)

    Petty, Alek; Tsamados, Michel; Kurtz, Nathan; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Harbeck, Jeremy; Feltham, Daniel; Richter-Menge, Jackie


    We present an analysis of Arctic sea ice topography using high resolution, three-dimensional, surface elevation data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, flown as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Surface features in the sea ice cover are detected using a newly developed surface feature picking algorithm. We derive information regarding the height, volume and geometry of surface features from 2009-2014 within the Beaufort/Chukchi and Central Arctic regions. The results are delineated by ice type to estimate the topographic variability across first-year and multi-year ice regimes.

  17. New Visualizations Highlight New Information on the Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Trends Since the Late 1970s (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.


    Month-by-month ranking of 37 years (1979-2015) of satellite-derived sea-ice extents in the Arctic and Antarctic reveals interesting new details in the overall trends toward decreasing sea-ice coverage in the Arctic and increasing sea-ice coverage in the Antarctic. The Arctic decreases are so definitive that there has not been a monthly record high in Arctic sea-ice extents in any month since 1986, a time period during which there have been 75 monthly record lows. The Antarctic, with the opposite but weaker trend toward increased ice extents, experienced monthly record lows in 5 months of 1986, then 6 later monthly record lows scattered through the dataset, with the last two occurring in 2006, versus 45 record highs since 1986. However, in the last three years of the 1979-2015 dataset, the downward trends in Arctic sea-ice extents eased up, with no new record lows in any month of 2013 or 2014 and only one record low in 2015,while the upward trends in Antarctic ice extents notably strengthened, with new record high ice extents in 4 months (August-November) of 2013, in 6 months (April- September) of 2014, and in 3 months (January, April, and May) of 2015. Globally, there have been only 3 monthly record highs since 1986 (only one since 1988), whereas there have been 43 record lows, although the last record lows (in the 1979-2015 dataset) occurred in 2012.

  18. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf


    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  19. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change (United States)

    Hamilton, L.


    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  20. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments (United States)

    Vavrus, S. J.


    Although impending Arctic climate change is widely recognized, a wild card in its expression is how extreme weather events in this region will respond to greenhouse warming. Intense polar cyclones represent one type of high-latitude phenomena falling into this category, including very deep synoptic-scale cyclones and mesoscale polar lows. These systems inflict damage through high winds, heavy precipitation, and wave action along coastlines, and their impact is expected to expand in the future, when reduced sea ice cover allows enhanced wave energy. The loss of a buffering ice pack could greatly increase the rate of coastal erosion, which has already been increasing in the Arctic. These and related threats may amplify if extreme Arctic cyclones become more frequent and/or intense in a warming climate with much more open water to fuel them. This possibility has merit on the basis of GCM experiments, which project that greenhouse forcing causes lower mean sea level pressure (SLP) in the Arctic and a strengthening of the deepest storms over boreal high latitudes. In this study, the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate model output is used to investigate the following questions: (1) What are the spatial and seasonal characteristics of extreme Arctic cyclones? (2) How well do GCMs simulate these phenomena? (3) Are Arctic cyclones already showing the expected response to greenhouse warming in climate models? To address these questions, a retrospective analysis is conducted of the transient 20th century simulations among the CMIP5 GCMs (spanning years 1850-2005). The results demonstrate that GCMs are able to reasonably represent extreme Arctic cyclones and that the simulated characteristics do not depend significantly on model resolution. Consistent with observational evidence, climate models generate these storms primarily during winter and within the climatological Aleutian and Icelandic Low regions. Occasionally the cyclones remain very intense

  1. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald


    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  2. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Intrieri


    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  3. Biological response to climate change in the Arctic Ocean: The view from the past (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Cronin, Matthew A.


    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing rapid climatic changes including higher ocean temperatures, reduced sea ice, glacier and Greenland Ice Sheet melting, greater marine productivity, and altered carbon cycling. Until recently, the relationship between climate and Arctic biological systems was poorly known, but this has changed substantially as advances in paleoclimatology, micropaleontology, vertebrate paleontology, and molecular genetics show that Arctic ecosystem history reflects global and regional climatic changes over all timescales and climate states (103–107 years). Arctic climatic extremes include 25°C hyperthermal periods during the Paleocene-Eocene (56–46 million years ago, Ma), Quaternary glacial periods when thick ice shelves and sea ice cover rendered the Arctic Ocean nearly uninhabitable, seasonally sea-ice-free interglacials and abrupt climate reversals. Climate-driven biological impacts included large changes in species diversity, primary productivity, species’ geographic range shifts into and out of the Arctic, community restructuring, and possible hybridization, but evidence is not sufficient to determine whether or when major episodes of extinction occurred.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin


    Full Text Available In this article we presented and disclosed some abstracts related to the problems of development of the Arctic and subarctic areas, which according to various expert estimates contain from 15 to 25% of the world reserves of primary energy resources, as well as the study examines the current situation and prospects of the Russian Federation the process of development of the Arctic territories.The purpose of this article is to study Russia's priorities at the national and regional levels related to the extraction of minerals that can be used to enhance the competitiveness of Russia on the world level and to ensure national energy security. Also, a study of this article is aimed at addressing issues related to the development of recommendations for the development of the global system of economic and energy security in the context of exploitation of prospective deposits in the Arctic region.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.Results: In this article were subsequently solved the problem, to achieve this goal, in particular: examined the general trends of energy development of civilization, considered the legal issues concerning the status of the Arctic and the Arctic regions, the basic global trends of world energy development and justifi ed system for ensuring global energy security.Conclusions. There were obtained the following basic conclusions: First, the Arctic and the Arctic area are world heritage, so the development of deposits on them should be in the interest of the world community on a non-discriminatory basis; secondly, energy future civilization will be based on the harmonious combination of traditional and renewable energy sources, which determines the need to rationalize the consumption of energy resources in the present; Third, environmental issues prospects of development of the Arctic and subarctic areas suffi ciently sharp and

  5. Arctic Sea Ice in Transformation: A Review of Recent Observed Changes and Impacts on Biology and Human Activity (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Hovelsrud, Greta K.; van Oort, Bob E. H.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Michel, Christine; Haas, Christian; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Perovich, Donald K.; hide


    Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40 decline in thickness, due in large part to the loss of thicker, older ice cover. The changes in sea ice are happening faster than models have projected. With continued increasing temperatures, summer ice-free conditions are likely sometime in the coming decades, though there are substantial uncertainties in the exact timing and high interannual variability will remain as sea ice decreases. The changes in Arctic sea ice are already having an impact on flora and fauna in the Arctic. Some species will face increasing challenges in the future, while new habitat will open up for other species. The changes are also affecting peoples living and working in the Arctic. Native communities are facing challenges to their traditional ways of life, while new opportunities open for shipping, fishing, and natural resource extraction.

  6. ArcticDEM Validation and Accuracy Assessment (United States)

    Candela, S. G.; Howat, I.; Noh, M. J.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.


    ArcticDEM comprises a growing inventory Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) covering all land above 60°N. As of August, 2017, ArcticDEM had openly released 2-m resolution, individual DEM covering over 51 million km2, which includes areas of repeat coverage for change detection, as well as over 15 million km2 of 5-m resolution seamless mosaics. By the end of the project, over 80 million km2 of 2-m DEMs will be produced, averaging four repeats of the 20 million km2 Arctic landmass. ArcticDEM is produced from sub-meter resolution, stereoscopic imagery using open source software (SETSM) on the NCSA Blue Waters supercomputer. These DEMs have known biases of several meters due to errors in the sensor models generated from satellite positioning. These systematic errors are removed through three-dimensional registration to high-precision Lidar or other control datasets. ArcticDEM is registered to seasonally-subsetted ICESat elevations due its global coverage and high report accuracy ( 10 cm). The vertical accuracy of ArcticDEM is then obtained from the statistics of the fit to the ICESat point cloud, which averages -0.01 m ± 0.07 m. ICESat, however, has a relatively coarse measurement footprint ( 70 m) which may impact the precision of the registration. Further, the ICESat data predates the ArcticDEM imagery by a decade, so that temporal changes in the surface may also impact the registration. Finally, biases may exist between different the different sensors in the ArcticDEM constellation. Here we assess the accuracy of ArcticDEM and the ICESat registration through comparison to multiple high-resolution airborne lidar datasets that were acquired within one year of the imagery used in ArcticDEM. We find the ICESat dataset is performing as anticipated, introducing no systematic bias during the coregistration process, and reducing vertical errors to within the uncertainty of the airborne Lidars. Preliminary sensor comparisons show no significant difference post coregistration

  7. Observing Arctic Sea Ice from Bow to Screen: Introducing Ice Watch, the Data Network of Near Real-Time and Historic Observations from the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST) (United States)

    Orlich, A.; Hutchings, J. K.; Green, T. M.


    The Ice Watch Program is an open source forum to access in situ Arctic sea ice conditions. It provides the research community and additional stakeholders a convenient resource to monitor sea ice and its role in understanding the Arctic as a system by implementing a standardized observation protocol and hosting a multi-service data portal. International vessels use the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST) software to report near-real time sea ice conditions while underway. Essential observations of total ice concentration, distribution of multi-year ice and other ice types, as well as their respective stage of melt are reported. These current and historic sea ice conditions are visualized on interactive maps and in a variety of statistical analyses, and with all data sets available to download for further investigation. The summer of 2012 was the debut of the ASSIST software and the Ice Watch campaign, with research vessels from six nations reporting from a wide spatio-temporal scale spanning from the Beaufort Sea, across the North Pole and Arctic Basin, the coast of Greenland and into the Kara and Barents Seas during mid-season melt and into the first stages of freeze-up. The 2013 summer field season sustained the observation and data archiving record, with participation from some of the same cruises as well as other geographic and seasonal realms covered by new users. These results are presented to illustrate the evolution of the program, increased participation and critical statistics of ice regime change and record of melt and freeze processes revealed by the data. As an ongoing effort, Ice Watch/ASSIST aims to standardize observations of Arctic-specific sea ice features and conditions while utilizing nomenclature and coding based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards and the Antarctic Sea Ice and Processes & Climate (ASPeCt) protocol. Instigated by members of the CliC Sea Ice Working Group, the program has evolved with

  8. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)


    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  9. Ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Blanco, Efrén

    The terrestrial CO2 exchange in the Arctic plays an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. The Arctic ecosystems, containing a large amount of organic carbon (C), are experiencing on-going warming in recent decades, which is affecting the C cycling and the feedback interactions between its...... of measurement sites, particularly covering full annual cycles, but also the frequent gaps in data affected by extreme conditions and remoteness. Combining ecosystem models and field observations we are able to study the underlying processes of Arctic CO2 exchange in changing environments. The overall aim...... of the research is to use data-model approaches to analyse the patterns of C exchange and their links to biological processes in Arctic ecosystems, studied in detail both from a measurement and a modelling perspective, but also from a local to a pan-arctic scale. In Paper I we found a compensatory response...

  10. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.


    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  11. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.


    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  12. Information and analytical data system on radioecological impact of the Russian nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A. A.; Serezhnikov, D. A.


    The information and analytical system contains data on enterprises of the Russian nuclear complex, beginning from mining and processing of uranium ores and ending by processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and ionizing radiation sources (IRS). Radioecological information is presented about radiation hazardous objects of civil mission of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy (Rosatom): underground leaching sites, radioactive waste (RW) storage facilities, tailing dumps, burials, reactors and critical facilities, etc. Radioecological impact is examined and information and regulatory-methodical documents of Federal Agency on Hydro meteorology and Environmental Monitoring, Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Federal Agency on ecological, technological and atomic control, Federal Agency on Geodesy and Cartography is used concerning: -radionuclide discharges from the enterprises; -radionuclide releases from the enterprises under routine and accidental conditions; -contaminated lands; -radioecological consequences of RW dumped in the Arctic and Far-East seas. The report is accompanied by the operating sophisticated database demonstration

  13. Decorrelation scales for Arctic Ocean hydrography - Part I: Amerasian Basin (United States)

    Sumata, Hiroshi; Kauker, Frank; Karcher, Michael; Rabe, Benjamin; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Behrendt, Axel; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Schauer, Ursula; Shimada, Koji; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Kikuchi, Takashi


    Any use of observational data for data assimilation requires adequate information of their representativeness in space and time. This is particularly important for sparse, non-synoptic data, which comprise the bulk of oceanic in situ observations in the Arctic. To quantify spatial and temporal scales of temperature and salinity variations, we estimate the autocorrelation function and associated decorrelation scales for the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. For this purpose, we compile historical measurements from 1980 to 2015. Assuming spatial and temporal homogeneity of the decorrelation scale in the basin interior (abyssal plain area), we calculate autocorrelations as a function of spatial distance and temporal lag. The examination of the functional form of autocorrelation in each depth range reveals that the autocorrelation is well described by a Gaussian function in space and time. We derive decorrelation scales of 150-200 km in space and 100-300 days in time. These scales are directly applicable to quantify the representation error, which is essential for use of ocean in situ measurements in data assimilation. We also describe how the estimated autocorrelation function and decorrelation scale should be applied for cost function calculation in a data assimilation system.

  14. Greenland and the international politics of a changing arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenland and the International Politics of a Changing Arctic examines the international politics of semi-independent Greenland in a changing and increasingly globalised Arctic. Without sovereign statehood, but with increased geopolitical importance, independent foreign policy ambitions......, and a solidified self-image as a trailblazer for Arctic indigenous peoples’ rights, Greenland is making its mark on the Arctic and is in turn affected – and empowered – by Arctic developments. The chapters in this collection analyse how a distinct Greenlandic foreign policy identity shapes political ends and means...... for regional change in the Arctic. This is the first comprehensive and interdisciplinary examination of Greenland’s international relations and how they are connected to wider Arctic politics. It will be essential reading for students and scholars interested in Arctic governance and security, international...

  15. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.


    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  16. Transformational Change and Regime Shifts in the Circumpolar Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika E. Nilsson


    Full Text Available The Arctic is changing rapidly, and there are many indications that the region is in the midst of transformational change. While some of the focus relates to impacts of climate change, rapid economic development and the potential for shifts in political and social structures in the region have also been in the limelight. This article looks at the circumpolar Arctic as a potential case of a regime shift in a large-scale social–ecological system that includes reinforcing feedbacks. A special focus is placed on governance structures, as these play an important role in social negotiations on the relationship between societies and the environment. While climate change is often portrayed as a driver of social change in the Arctic, it does not appear that the ongoing changes in the biophysical features of the Arctic region have rocked current circumpolar governance structures out of kilter. On the contrary, the ongoing climate-related changes, in particular sea ice decline, appear to have reinforced political commitment to existing legal structures. Major past social regime shifts have mainly been related to access to resources and national identity ideology, with political dynamics reinforced at times by military security considerations.

  17. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic. (United States)

    Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C


    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities.

  18. ARCTOX: a pan-Arctic sampling network to track mercury contamination across Arctic marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Jerome; Helgason, Halfdan; Amelineau, Francoise

    and is still a source of major environmental concerns. In that context, providing a large-scale and comprehensive understanding of the Arctic marine food-web contamination is essential to better apprehend impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of Arctic species and humans to Hg....... In 2015, an international sampling network (ARCTOX) has been established, allowing the collection seabird samples all around the Arctic. Seabirds are indeed good indicators of Hg contamination of marine food webs at large spatial scale. Gathering researchers from 10 countries, ARCTOX allowed......Arctic marine ecosystems are threatened by new risks of Hg contamination under the combined effects of climate change and human activities. Rapid change of the cryosphere might for instance release large amounts of Hg trapped in sea-ice, permafrost and terrestrial glaciers over the last decades...

  19. Calculation of optimal outdoor enclosure in the arctic conditions (United States)

    Tarabukina, Sardaana; Simankina, Tatyana; Pykhtin, Kirill; Grabovyy, Kirill


    Definition of optimal thickness of thermal insulating materials, prevention of frost penetration and overheat and provision of proper thermal efficiency is an important problem in arctic conditions. This article demonstrates the results of thermotechnical calculations of enclosing constructions using SHADDAN software and economic calculations made in RIK software. These results allowed us to perform comparative analysis of two building technologies: «thermal block» and «render system». Both options met regulatory heat transfer requirements. However, regarding cost efficiency, use of «thermal blocks» technology is more effective in arctic conditions.

  20. Exploitation dynamics of small fish stocks like Arctic cisco (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.


    Potential impacts to the Arctic cisco population fall into both demographic and behavioral categories. Possible demographic impacts include stock recruitment effects, limited escapement into marine habitats, and variable age-class reproductive success. Potential behavioral impacts involve migratory patterns, variable life histories, and strategies for seasonal feeding. Arctic cisco stocks are highly susceptible to over-exploitation due to our limited basic knowledge of the highly variable Arctic environment and the role they play in this dynamic ecosystem.Our knowledge of potential demographic changes is very limited, and it is necessary to determine the abundance and recruitment of the hypothesized Mackenzie River source population, the extent of the coastal migratory corridor, growth patterns, and coastal upwelling and mixing effects on population dynamics for this species. Information needed to answer some of the demographic questions includes basic evolutionary history and molecular genetics of Arctic cisco (for instance, are there contributions to the Arctic cisco stock from the Yukon?), what is the effective population size (i.e., breeding population size), and potential links to changes in climate. The basic behavioral questions include migratory and variable life history questions. For instance, the extent of movement back and forth between freshwater and the sea, age-specific differences in food web dynamics, and nearshore brackish and high salinity habitats are topics that should be studied. Life history data should be gathered to understand the variation in age at reproduction, salinity tolerance, scale and duration of the freshwater stage, survival, and adult migration. Both molecular and ecological tools should be integrated to manage the Arctic cisco stock(s), such as understanding global climate changes on patterns of harvest and recruitment, and the genetics of population structure and colonization. Perhaps other populations are contributing to the

  1. Marine Corps Equities in the Arctic (United States)


    reduces the shipping time from Yokohama, Japan, to Hamburg , Germany, by 11 days as compared to the Suez Canal. Ships average approximately a 20...areas within the Arctic Circle. 10 Warming ocean water is causing fisheries to shift north as well. Fish populations usually found in the...people live in the Arctic region. Commercial fishing fleets are following these populations. 29 Russia holds the majority of the Arctic population

  2. Atmospheric transport, clouds and the Arctic longwave radiation paradox (United States)

    Sedlar, Joseph


    Clouds interact with radiation, causing variations in the amount of electromagnetic energy reaching the Earth's surface, or escaping the climate system to space. While globally clouds lead to an overall cooling radiative effect at the surface, over the Arctic, where annual cloud fractions are high, the surface cloud radiative effect generally results in a warming. The additional energy input from absorption and re-emission of longwave radiation by the clouds to the surface can have a profound effect on the sea ice state. Anomalous atmospheric transport of heat and moisture into the Arctic, promoting cloud formation and enhancing surface longwave radiation anomalies, has been identified as an important mechanism in preconditioning Arctic sea ice for melt. Longwave radiation is emitted equally in all directions, and changes in the atmospheric infrared emission temperature and emissivity associated with advection of heat and moisture over the Arctic should correspondingly lead to an anomalous signal in longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). To examine the role of atmospheric heat and moisture transport into the Arctic on TOA longwave radiation, infrared satellite sounder observations from AIRS during 2003-2014 are analyzed for summer (JJAS). Thermodynamic metrics are developed to identify months characterized by a high frequency of warm and moist advection into the Arctic, and segregate the 2003-14 time period into climatological and anomalously warm, moist summer months. We find that anomalously warm, moist months result in a significant TOA longwave radiative cooling, which is opposite the forcing signal that the surface experiences during these months. At the timescale of the advective events, 3-10 days, the TOA cooling can be as large as the net surface energy budget during summer. When averaged on the monthly time scale, and over the full Arctic basin (poleward of 75°N), summer months experiencing frequent warm, moist advection events are

  3. Ecological processes in the cycling of radionuclides within arctic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.


    Worldwide fallout radionuclides in arctic ecosystems was investigated ecologically by circumpolar nations during 1959-80. Several of the radionuclides are isotopes of elements which currently contribute to arctic haze; they thus serve as effective tracers of biogeochemical processes. Investigations demonstrated the effective concentration of several radionuclides, particularly strontium-90 (an alkaline earth metal) and cesium-137 (a light alkali metal) which are chemical analogs of calcium and potassium, two very important stable elements in biotic systems. Transfer of 137 Cs through the lichen-cariboureindeer-man food chain characteristic of circumpolar nations, resulted in body burdens in Inuit that were 20 to 200 times greater than those in human populations of temperature latitudes. Radiation exposures from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other natural and worldwide fallout radionuclides, were two to three times greater than for most other world populations. These results demonstrate the concentration capabilities of arctic ecosystems for several groups of chemical elements that have counterparts in arctic haze. These elements, therefore, provide the basis for considering the ecological implications of current situations

  4. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom


    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  5. The virtues of localism and arctic wilderness politics (United States)

    James N. Gladden


    An analysis of co-managing structures and land use issues in three case studies of arctic wilderness politics shows that more formal and informal power sharing by government officials with local people results in less conflict. Greater input and control by nearby communities may also help to protect wilderness ecosystems and traditional values of northern cultures....

  6. Tracking and unpacking rapid Arctic change: Indicators of community health and sustainability in northern Alaska and links to cryospheric change (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Sam, J. M.; Mueller-stoffels, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Fresco, N. L.


    Tracking and responding to rapid Arctic change benefits from time series of indicator variables that describe the state of the system and can inform anticipatory action. A key challenge is to identify and monitor sets of indicators that capture relevant variability, trends, and transitions in social-environmental systems. We present findings from participatory scenarios focused on community health and sustainability in northern Alaska. In a series of workshops in 2015 and 2016 (Kotzebue workshop photo shown below), over 50 experts, mostly local, identified determinants of community health and sustainability by 2040 in the Northwest Arctic and North Slope Boroughs, Alaska. Drawing on further research, an initial set of factors and uncertainties was refined and prioritized into a total of 20 key drivers, ranging from governance issues to socio-economic and environmental factors. The research team then developed sets of future projections that describe plausible outcomes by mid-century for each of these drivers. A plausibility and consistency analysis of all pairwise combinations of these projections (following Mueller-Stoffels and Eicken, In: North by 2020 - Perspectives on Alaska's Changing Social-Ecological Systems, University of Alaska Press, 2011) resulted in the identification of robust scenarios. The latter were further reviewed by workshop participants, and a set of indicator variables, including indicators of relevant cryospheric change, was identified to help track trajectories towards plausible future states. Publically accessible recorded data only exist for a subset of the more than 70 indicators, reaching back a few years to several decades. For several indicators, the sampling rate or time series length are insufficient for tracking of and response to change. A core set of variables has been identified that meets indicator requirements and can serve as a tool for Alaska Arctic communities in adapting to or mitigating rapid change affecting community

  7. The relation between Arctic Ocean circulation and the Arctic Oscillation as revealed by satellite altimetry and gravimetry (United States)

    Morison, J.; Kwok, R.; Peralta Ferriz, C.; Dickinson, S.; Morison, D.; Andersen, R.; Dewey, S.


    Arctic Ocean circulation is commonly characterized by the persistent anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the Canada Basin and the Transpolar Drift. While these are clearly important features, their role in changing Arctic Ocean circulation is at times distorted by sampling biases inherent in drifting buoy and standard shipboard measurements of western nations. Hydrographic measurements from SCICEX submarine cruises for science in the early 1990s revealed an increasingly cyclonic circulation along the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean related to the low sea level pressure pattern in the same region associated with a high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. More recently satellite altimetry (ICESat and CryoSat2) and gravimetry (GRACE) have provided the basin-wide observational coverage needed to see shifts to increased cyclonic circulation in 2004 to 2008 and decreased cyclonic circulation in 2008 to 2015. These shifts are related to changes in the AO and are important for their effect on the trajectories of sea ice and freshwater through the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.


    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  9. Diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus in high Arctic Greenland and Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Ditlevsen, Susanne


    Investigations of diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the high Arctic Greenland and Canada are important for understanding behavioral adaptations and area utilization of this Arctic benthic feeder. Furthermore, such information along with estimations of annual......% CI: 1.0–2.6). Based on dive rates, time at depth, haul-out and percentage of feeding dives Alexandra Fjord and Princess Mary Bay in NE Canada and Carey Island in NW Greenland were identified as the most important areas for walrus feeding during summer. Walrus predation on the standing bivalve biomass...

  10. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer


    Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp., are ecosystem...... engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  11. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. K. Armitage


    Full Text Available Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003–2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice–ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s – e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere–ice–ocean coupling in models before we can fully

  12. Debating the Arctic during the Ukraine Crisis – Comparing Arctic State Identities and Media Discourses in Canada and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon


    identities and foreign policy by showing that these identifications affected domestic media discourses about the Arctic in Canada and Norway during the first years (2014-16) of the Crisis. Canada’s territorial identification made it difficult for the newly elected Trudeau government to push for a less...... identities shape media debates, but that the identifications themselves can change. In general, the article advocates for a comparative approach towards the analysis of Arctic state identities.......Previous studies have argued that domestic factors, including each state’s Arctic state identities, may explain why some Western states (e.g. Canada) have been more critical of Russia in the Arctic than others (e.g. Norway). The present study analyses part of the link between Arctic state...

  13. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise


    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  14. Arctic pollution: How much is too much

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An overview is presented of the problems of pollution in the Arctic. Pollution from lower latitudes is carried into the Arctic by atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. Contamination of snow, waters and organisms with imported pollutants has appeared in the past few decades and appears to be increasing. Arctic ecosystems show indications of being much more susceptible to biological damage at low levels of pollutants than higher-energy ecosystems in temperate latitudes, and many Arctic organisms become accumulators and concentrators of organic pollutants and toxic metals. Arctic haze is 20 to 40 times as high in winter as in summer and has been found to consist of particles of largely industrial origin, mostly soot, hydrocarbons and sulphates. Dramatic declines in stratospheric ozone have been apparent over Antarctica, and a similar but less intense depletion is appearing over the Arctic. Toxic compounds, particularly organochlorines and some heavy metals, have been found in worrying amounts in snow, water and organisms in Arctic North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Radioactive contamination was widespread during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1960s and 1970s, and the comparatively small amount of radiation released by the Chernobyl accident had greatest effect in northern Scandinavia. 4 figs.

  15. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston


    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  16. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia


    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland (" target="_blank">

  17. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem. (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors


    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  18. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  19. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)


    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Estimation of Melt Ponds over Arctic Sea Ice using MODIS Surface Reflectance Data (United States)

    Ding, Y.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.


    Melt ponds over Arctic sea ice is one of the main factors affecting variability of surface albedo, increasing absorption of solar radiation and further melting of snow and ice. In recent years, a large number of melt ponds have been observed during the melt season in Arctic. Moreover, some studies have suggested that late spring to mid summer melt ponds information promises to improve the prediction skill of seasonal Arctic sea ice minimum. In the study, we extract the melt pond fraction over Arctic sea ice since 2000 using three bands MODIS weekly surface reflectance data by considering the difference of spectral reflectance in ponds, ice and open water. The preliminary comparison shows our derived Arctic-wide melt ponds are in good agreement with that derived by the University of Hamburg, especially at the pond distribution. We analyze seasonal evolution, interannual variability and trend of the melt ponds, as well as the changes of onset and re-freezing. The melt pond fraction shows an asymmetrical growth and decay pattern. The observed melt ponds fraction is almost within 25% in early May and increases rapidly in June and July with a high fraction of more than 40% in the east of Greenland and Beaufort Sea. A significant increasing trend in the melt pond fraction is observed for the period of 2000-2017. The relationship between melt pond fraction and sea ice extent will be also discussed. Key Words: melt ponds, sea ice, Arctic

  1. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.


    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region.......This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  2. Sediments in Arctic sea ice: Implications for entrainment, transport and release (United States)

    Nurnberg, D.; Wollenburg, I.; Dethleff, D.; Eicken, H.; Kassens, H.; Letzig, T.; Reimnitz, E.; Thiede, Jorn


    Despite the Arctic sea ice cover's recognized sensitivity to environmental change, the role of sediment inclusions in lowering ice albedo and affecting ice ablation is poorly understood. Sea ice sediment inclusions were studied in the central Arctic Ocean during the Arctic 91 expedition and in the Laptev Sea (East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition 1992). Results from these investigations are here combined with previous studies performed in major areas of ice ablation and the southern central Arctic Ocean. This study documents the regional distribution and composition of particle-laden ice, investigates and evaluates processes by which sediment is incorporated into the ice cover, and identifies transport paths and probable depositional centers for the released sediment. In April 1992, sea ice in the Laptev Sea was relatively clean. The sediment occasionally observed was distributed diffusely over the entire ice column, forming turbid ice. Observations indicate that frazil and anchor ice formation occurring in a large coastal polynya provide a main mechanism for sediment entrainment. In the central Arctic Ocean sediments are concentrated in layers within or at the surface of ice floes due to melting and refreezing processes. The surface sediment accumulation in central Arctic multi-year sea ice exceeds by far the amounts observed in first-year ice from the Laptev Sea in April 1992. Sea ice sediments are generally fine grained, although coarse sediments and stones up to 5 cm in diameter are observed. Component analysis indicates that quartz and clay minerals are the main terrigenous sediment particles. The biogenous components, namely shells of pelecypods and benthic foraminiferal tests, point to a shallow, benthic, marine source area. Apparently, sediment inclusions were resuspended from shelf areas before and incorporated into the sea ice by suspension freezing. Clay mineralogy of ice-rafted sediments provides information on potential source areas. A smectite

  3. Russian Arctic Petroleum Resources; Ressources petrolieres de l'Arctique russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, A.; Gavrilov, V. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, GSP-1, Leninsky prospekt, 65, 119991, Moscow - (Russian Federation)


    The Arctic continental shelf is believed to be the area with the highest unexplored potential for oil and gas as well as for unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas hydrates. Despite a common view that the Arctic has plentiful of hydrocarbon resources, there are ongoing debates regarding the potential of this region as a future energy supply base. Driving forces for such discussions are geopolitics, environmental concern, assessment and delineation of Arctic resources, technology available for their successful development and the market demand for energy supply. The Russian part is recognized to be the largest among oil and gas resources owned by Arctic nations. However, scarce information and available geological data create uncertainty regarding a future role of the Russian Arctic as main base of energy supply in the second part of the 21. century. A further uncertainty is the pace at which production from northern areas including the Arctic will be brought on stream - either because of national policy, infrastructure development or investment by the state and the oil companies. These areas embrace those where development has already been started (Offshore Sakhalin, northern Timan Pechora) and those awaiting future involvement, like Barents and Pechora seas, East Siberia, Yamal, Kara Sea and Kamchatka. Offshore production levels are likely to be very important to Russia in mid and long terms, especially as most (if not all) production will go for export and, in the process, open doors to new markets. In this way, offshore production will introduce a new and very significant component to Russia's export strategy. However, active involvement of the Russian Arctic resources in the global energy supply process needs a detailed analysis and clear understanding of the market potential for Russian gas and oil (required volumes, time frame, transportations routes) and requires close attention of the government to the most important issues that should be in

  4. Abundant Pre-Industrial Carbon Emitted by Arctic Inland Waters (United States)

    Dean, J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Billett, M. F.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Garnett, M.; Meisel, O.; Dolman, A. J.


    Mobilization of carbon (C) derived from soil/sediment organic matter into inland freshwaters constitutes a substantial, but poorly-constrained, component of the global C cycle. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has proven a valuable tool in tracing the sources and fate of mobilized C, but aquatic 14C studies in permafrost regions rarely detect 'old' C (assimilated from the atmosphere into plants and soil prior to AD1950). This is partly due to a focus on dissolved organic C (DOC) in many Arctic inland water 14C studies to date, now known to be an insensitive method for detecting old C. Crucially, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) derived from old permafrost C by aquatic systems contributes to a positive climate feedback loop: the 'Permafrost Climate Feedback' (PCF). Here, we measure directly the 14C content and quantify fluxes of aquatic CO2 and CH4, alongside DOC and particulate-OC, in freshwater systems of the Canadian and Siberian Arctic tundra - the first such concurrent 14C measurements from freshwater systems. Aquatic C increased in age significantly over the snow-free season as the active layer deepened (Figure 1). However, 'modern' C (assimilated since AD1950) still dominated aquatic CO2 and CH4 emissions, except where deep ancient (6,000 to 50,000 yBP) C was exposed. Age distribution modeling of these bulk 14C samples indicated that 'pre-industrial' C (assimilated prior to AD1750) comprised 15-30% of aquatic GHGs (Figure 1). Further, we estimate that 15-20% of total CO2 and CH4 emissions were derived from old C previously locked up in permafrost soils and thus contributed to the PCF. These results demonstrate the previously unknown presence of aged C within Arctic headwater GHG emissions that could be equivalent to 7.5-28.2 Tg C yr-1 across the pan-Arctic.

  5. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures......, an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  6. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous


    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  7. Pan-arctic trends in terrestrial dissolved organic matter from optical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul James Mann


    Full Text Available Climate change is causing extensive warming across arctic regions resulting in permafrost degradation, alterations to regional hydrology, and shifting amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM transported by streams and rivers. Here, we characterize the DOM composition and optical properties of the six largest arctic rivers draining into the Arctic Ocean to examine the ability of optical measurements to provide meaningful insights into terrigenous carbon export patterns and biogeochemical cycling. The chemical composition of aquatic DOM varied with season, spring months were typified by highest lignin phenol and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations with greater hydrophobic acid content, and lower proportions of hydrophilic compounds, relative to summer and winter months. Chromophoric DOM (CDOM spectral slope (S275-295 tracked seasonal shifts in DOM composition across river basins. Fluorescence and parallel factor analysis identified seven components across the six Arctic rivers. The ratios of ‘terrestrial humic-like’ versus ‘marine humic-like’ fluorescent components co-varied with lignin monomer ratios over summer and winter months, suggesting fluorescence may provide information on the age and degradation state of riverine DOM. CDOM absorbance (a350 proved a sensitive proxy for lignin phenol concentrations across all six river basins and over the hydrograph, enabling for the first time the development of a single pan-arctic relationship between a350 and terrigenous DOC (R2 = 0.93. Combining this lignin proxy with high-resolution monitoring of a350, pan-arctic estimates of annual lignin flux were calculated to range from 156 to 185 Gg, resulting in shorter and more constrained estimates of terrigenous DOM residence times in the Arctic Ocean (spanning 7 months to 2½ years. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models incorporating both absorbance and fluorescence variables proved capable of explaining much of the

  8. Pan-arctic trends in terrestrial dissolved organic matter from optical measurements (United States)

    Mann, Paul; Spencer, Robert; Hernes, Peter; Six, Johan; Aiken, George; Tank, Suzanne; McClelland, James; Butler, Kenna; Dyda, Rachael; Holmes, Robert


    Climate change is causing extensive warming across arctic regions resulting in permafrost degradation, alterations to regional hydrology, and shifting amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transported by streams and rivers. Here, we characterize the DOM composition and optical properties of the six largest arctic rivers draining into the Arctic Ocean to examine the ability of optical measurements to provide meaningful insights into terrigenous carbon export patterns and biogeochemical cycling. The chemical composition of aquatic DOM varied with season, spring months were typified by highest lignin phenol and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations with greater hydrophobic acid content, and lower proportions of hydrophilic compounds, relative to summer and winter months. Chromophoric DOM (CDOM) spectral slope (S275-295) tracked seasonal shifts in DOM composition across river basins. Fluorescence and parallel factor analysis identified seven components across the six Arctic rivers. The ratios of 'terrestrial humic-like' versus 'marine humic-like' fluorescent components co-varied with lignin monomer ratios over summer and winter months, suggesting fluorescence may provide information on the age and degradation state of riverine DOM. CDOM absorbance (a350) proved a sensitive proxy for lignin phenol concentrations across all six river basins and over the hydrograph, enabling for the first time the development of a single pan-arctic relationship between a350 and terrigenous DOC (R2 = 0.93). Combining this lignin proxy with high-resolution monitoring of a350, pan-arctic estimates of annual lignin flux were calculated to range from 156 to 185 Gg, resulting in shorter and more constrained estimates of terrigenous DOM residence times in the Arctic Ocean (spanning 7 months to 2½ years). Furthermore, multiple linear regression models incorporating both absorbance and fluorescence variables proved capable of explaining much of the variability in

  9. The Contribution to Arctic Climate Change from Countries in the Arctic Council (United States)

    Schultz, T.; MacCracken, M. C.


    The conventional accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions used today, established under the Kyoto Protocol 25 years ago, exclude short lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), and do not include regional effects on the climate. However, advances in climate science now suggest that mitigation of SLCPs can reduce up to 50% of global warming by 2050. It has also become apparent that regions such as the Arctic have experienced a much greater degree of anthropogenic warming than the globe as a whole, and that efforts to slow this warming could benefit the larger effort to slow climate change around the globe. A draft standard for life cycle assessment (LCA), LEO-SCS-002, being developed under the American National Standards Institute process, has integrated the most recent climate science into a unified framework to account for emissions of all radiatively significant GHGs and SLCPs. This framework recognizes four distinct impacts to the oceans and climate caused by GHGs and SLCPs: Global Climate Change; Arctic Climate Change; Ocean Acidification; and Ocean Warming. The accounting for Arctic Climate Change, the subject of this poster, is based upon the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential, which considers the incremental change to the Arctic surface temperature resulting from an emission of a GHG or SLCP. Results are evaluated using units of mass of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), which can be used by a broad array of stakeholders, including scientists, consumers, policy makers, and NGOs. This poster considers the contribution to Arctic Climate Change from emissions of GHGs and SLCPs from the eight member countries of the Arctic Council; the United States, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Of this group of countries, the United States was the largest contributor to Arctic Climate Change in 2011, emitting 9600 MMT CO2e. This includes a gross warming of 11200 MMT CO2e (caused by GHGs, black and brown carbon, and warming effects

  10. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program's Visual Arctic Observing Buoys; The IceGoat (United States)

    Woods, J. E.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Rigor, I.; Valentic, T. A.


    The U.S. Naval Academy Oceanography Department currently has a curriculum based Polar Science Program (USNA PSP). Within the PSP there is an Arctic Buoy Program (ABP) student research component that will include the design, build, testing and deployment of Arctic Buoys. Establishing an active, field-research program in Polar Science will greatly enhance Midshipman education and research, as well as introduce future Naval Officers to the Arctic environment. The Oceanography Department has engaged the USNA Ocean Engineering, Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, and Computer Science Departments and developed a USNA Visual Arctic Observing Buoy, IceGoat1, which was designed, built, and deployed by midshipmen. The experience gained through Polar field studies and data derived from these buoys will be used to enhance course materials and laboratories and will also be used directly in Midshipman independent research projects. The USNA PSP successfully deployed IceGoat1 during the BROMEX 2012 field campaign out of Barrow, AK in March 2012. This buoy reports near real-time observation of Air Temperature, Sea Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Position and Images from 2 mounted webcams. The importance of this unique type of buoy being inserted into the U.S. Interagency Arctic Buoy Program and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (USIABP/IABP) array is cross validating satellite observations of sea ice cover in the Arctic with the buoys webcams. We also propose to develop multiple sensor packages for the IceGoat to include a more robust weather suite, and a passive acoustic hydrophone. Remote cameras on buoys have provided crucial qualitative information that complements the quantitative measurements of geophysical parameters. For example, the mechanical anemometers on the IABP Polar Arctic Weather Station at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) have at times reported zero winds speeds, and inspection of the images from the NPEO cameras have showed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Selin


    Full Text Available A research purpose is the analysis of the European natural gas market environment and the modernization opportunities of the delivery system from Russia in connection with the current geo-economic changes. The main methods are the factorial approaches and the content analysis, which allows allocate and structure this sector’s driving forces.Export of the Russian natural gas on the European market still remains the dominating activity, in terms of the total amounts of deliveries, though over the last ten years its specific weight has been considerably reduced. The situation has sharply become aggravated both in connection with the "Ukrainian" crisis, and that of the European Union policy, which is taking the active measures for the gas supply system diversification. As a result of the conducted research it is proved that the Russian gas transportation system in the Arctic regions requires the strategic upgrade which shall go in two main directions.The first direction is the forming of the new pipeline schemes replacing the unreliable transit routes. The second direction is a rather innovative development of exploration and transportation of the liquefied natural gas which amount exceeds thirty percent in world export and in Russian has not yet reached ten percent.Scientific novelty of the received results consists in system approval of the opportunities of adaptation of Russian export deliveries to the market demand changes. The proposals of increase of the liquefied natural gas exploration in the Arctic regions and formation of the basic centers (special zones have also a practical importance.

  12. Arctic research vessel design would expand science prospects (United States)

    Elsner, Robert; Kristensen, Dirk

    The U.S. polar marine science community has long declared the need for an arctic research vessel dedicated to advancing the study of northern ice-dominated seas. Planning for such a vessel began 2 decades ago, but competition for funding has prevented construction. A new design program is underway, and it shows promise of opening up exciting possibilities for new research initiatives in arctic marine science.With its latest design, the Arctic Research Vessel (ARV) has grown to a size and capability that will make it the first U.S. academic research vessel able to provide access to the Arctic Ocean. This ship would open a vast arena for new studies in the least known of the world's seas. These studies promise to rank high in national priority because of the importance of the Arctic Ocean as a source of data relating to global climate change. Other issues that demand attention in the Arctic include its contributions to the world's heat budget, the climate history buried in its sediments, pollution monitoring, and the influence of arctic conditions on marine renewable resources.

  13. Arctic adaptation and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, T.A.; Headley, A.


    The amplification of climatic warming in the Arctic and the sensitivity of physical, biological, and human systems to changes in climate make the Arctic particularly vulnerable to climate changes. Large areas of the Arctic permafrost and sea ice are expected to disappear under climate warming and these changes will have considerable impacts on the natural and built environment of the north. A review is presented of some recent studies on what these impacts could be for the permafrost and sea ice environment and to identify linkages with socioeconomic activities. Terrestrial adaptation to climate change will include increases in ground temperature; melting of permafrost with consequences such as frost heave, mudslides, and substantial settlement; rotting of peat contained in permafrost areas, with subsequent emission of CO 2 ; increased risk of forest fire; and flooding of low-lying areas. With regard to the manmade environment, structures that will be affected include buildings, pipelines, highways, airports, mines, and railways. In marine areas, climate change will increase the ice-free period for marine transport operations and thus provide some benefit to the offshore petroleum industry. This benefit will be offset by increased wave height and period, and increased coastal erosion. The offshore industry needs to be particularly concerned with these impacts since the expected design life of industry facilities (30-60 y) is of the same order as the time frame for possible climatic changes. 18 refs., 5 figs

  14. Modelling micro- and macrophysical contributors to the dissipation of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Loewe


    Full Text Available The Arctic climate is changing; temperature changes in the Arctic are greater than at midlatitudes, and changing atmospheric conditions influence Arctic mixed-phase clouds, which are important for the Arctic surface energy budget. These low-level clouds are frequently observed across the Arctic. They impact the turbulent and radiative heating of the open water, snow, and sea-ice-covered surfaces and influence the boundary layer structure. Therefore the processes that affect mixed-phase cloud life cycles are extremely important, yet relatively poorly understood. In this study, we present sensitivity studies using semi-idealized large eddy simulations (LESs to identify processes contributing to the dissipation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds. We found that one potential main contributor to the dissipation of an observed Arctic mixed-phase cloud, during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS field campaign, was a low cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC of about 2 cm−3. Introducing a high ice crystal concentration of 10 L−1 also resulted in cloud dissipation, but such high ice crystal concentrations were deemed unlikely for the present case. Sensitivity studies simulating the advection of dry air above the boundary layer inversion, as well as a modest increase in ice crystal concentration of 1 L−1, did not lead to cloud dissipation. As a requirement for small droplet numbers, pristine aerosol conditions in the Arctic environment are therefore considered an important factor determining the lifetime of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.

  15. Trends in Arctic Sea Ice Volume 2010-2013 from CryoSat-2 (United States)

    Tilling, R.; Ridout, A.; Wingham, D.; Shepherd, A.; Haas, C.; Farrell, S. L.; Schweiger, A. J.; Zhang, J.; Giles, K.; Laxon, S.


    Satellite records show a decline in Arctic sea ice extent over the past three decades with a record minimum in September 2012, and results from the Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modelling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) suggest that this has been accompanied by a reduction in volume. We use three years of measurements recorded by the European Space Agency CryoSat-2 (CS-2) mission, validated with in situ data, to generate estimates of seasonal variations and inter-annual trends in Arctic sea ice volume between 2010 and 2013. The CS-2 estimates of sea ice thickness agree with in situ estimates derived from upward looking sonar measurements of ice draught and airborne measurements of ice thickness and freeboard to within 0.1 metres. Prior to the record minimum in summer 2012, autumn and winter Arctic sea ice volume had fallen by ~1300 km3 relative to the previous year. Using the full 3-year period of CS-2 observations, we estimate that winter Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by ~700 km3/yr since 2010, approximately twice the average rate since 1980 as predicted by the PIOMAS.

  16. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate Model Simulations and Observations (United States)


    associated with the ice - albedo feedback and the seasonal melt and growth of sea ice , as well as horizontal climate variations on a global domain. (2...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate...possibility that the climate system supports multiple Arctic sea ice states that are relevant for the evolution of sea ice during the next several

  17. Levels and trends of contaminants in humans of the Arctic. (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Adlard, Bryan; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Odland, Jon Øyvind


    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is one of the six working groups established under the Arctic Council. AMAP is tasked with monitoring the levels of contaminants present in the Arctic environment and people as well as assessing their effects on a continuous basis, and reporting these results regularly. Most of the presented data have been collected over the last 20 years and are from all eight Arctic countries. Levels of contaminants appear to be declining in some of the monitored Arctic populations, but it is not consistent across the Arctic. Most Arctic populations continue to experience elevated levels of these contaminants compared to other populations monitored globally. There are certain contaminants, such as perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which are still increasing in Arctic populations. These contaminants require more investigation to find out the predominant and important sources of exposure, and whether they are being transported to the Arctic through long-range transport in the environment.

  18. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.


    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  19. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna


    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  20. RAMS data collection under Arctic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabadi, Abbas; Tobias Gudmestad, Ove; Barabady, Javad


    Reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability analysis is an important step in the design and operation of production processes and technology. Historical data such as time between failures and time to repairs play an important role in such analysis. The data must reflect the conditions that equipment has experienced during its operating time. To have a precise understanding of the conditions experienced, all influence factors on the failure and repair processes of a production facility in Arctic environment need to be identified and collected in the database. However, there is a lack of attention to collect the effect of influence factors in the reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability database. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the available methods of data collection and suggest a methodology for data collection considering the effect of environmental conditions. Application of the methodology will make the historical RAMS data of a system more applicable and useful for the design and operation of the system in different types of operational environments. - Highlights: • The challenges related to use of the available RAMS data is discussed. • It is important to collect information about operational condition in RAMS data. • A methodology for RAMS data collection considering environment condition is suggested. • Information about influence factors will make the result of RAMS analysis more applicable

  1. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff


    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  2. Arctic Sea Ice in a 1.5°C Warmer World (United States)

    Niederdrenk, Anne Laura; Notz, Dirk


    We examine the seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice in scenarios with limited future global warming. To do so, we analyze two sets of observational records that cover the observational uncertainty of Arctic sea ice loss per degree of global warming. The observations are combined with 100 simulations of historical and future climate evolution from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model Grand Ensemble. Based on the high-sensitivity observations, we find that Arctic September sea ice is lost with low probability (P≈ 10%) for global warming of +1.5°C above preindustrial levels and with very high probability (P> 99%) for global warming of +2°C above preindustrial levels. For the low-sensitivity observations, September sea ice is extremely unlikely to disappear for +1.5°C warming (P≪ 1%) and has low likelihood (P≈ 10%) to disappear even for +2°C global warming. For March, both observational records suggest a loss of 15% to 20% of Arctic sea ice area for 1.5°C to 2°C global warming.

  3. The Arctic : the great breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.


    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs

  4. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongsuk Lee


    Full Text Available The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily and monthly sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole even during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA.

  5. New Tools to Document and Manage Data/Metadata: Example NGEE Arctic and UrbIS (United States)

    Crow, M. C.; Devarakonda, R.; Hook, L.; Killeffer, T.; Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; King, A. W.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    Tools used for documenting, archiving, cataloging, and searching data are critical pieces of informatics. This discussion describes tools being used in two different projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but at different stages of the data lifecycle. The Metadata Entry and Data Search Tool is being used for the documentation, archival, and data discovery stages for the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project while the Urban Information Systems (UrbIS) Data Catalog is being used to support indexing, cataloging, and searching. The NGEE Arctic Online Metadata Entry Tool [1] provides a method by which researchers can upload their data and provide original metadata with each upload. The tool is built upon a Java SPRING framework to parse user input into, and from, XML output. Many aspects of the tool require use of a relational database including encrypted user-login, auto-fill functionality for predefined sites and plots, and file reference storage and sorting. The UrbIS Data Catalog is a data discovery tool supported by the Mercury cataloging framework [2] which aims to compile urban environmental data from around the world into one location, and be searchable via a user-friendly interface. Each data record conveniently displays its title, source, and date range, and features: (1) a button for a quick view of the metadata, (2) a direct link to the data and, for some data sets, (3) a button for visualizing the data. The search box incorporates autocomplete capabilities for search terms and sorted keyword filters are available on the side of the page, including a map for searching by area. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "Use of a metadata documentation and search tool for large data volumes: The NGEE arctic example." Big Data (Big Data), 2015 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2015. [2] Devarakonda, R., Palanisamy, G., Wilson, B. E., & Green, J. M. (2010). Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery

  6. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman


    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  7. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in the arctic Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wiig


    of protection afforded to walrus habitat in many areas depends entirely on the rigor with which the Environmental Impact Assessments are conducted. Basic information on walrus such as numbers and stock discreteness is often lacking and sufficient lead-time is required to collect baseline data. Moreover, although most environmental protection legislation considers ‘cumulative impacts’, practical application remains problematic. The effectiveness of environmental protection regulations depends on industry compliance and the management authorities’ ability to enforce compliance. Because walrus are found in remote locations, enforcement remains a challenge. Increased human activity allowed by the current change in distribution and quality of arctic sea ice poses new threats to walrus if not well regulated. International agreements have varying importance for management within and among member states. Regulations governing international trade serve to identify illegally obtained products and to encourage range states to have a sustainable quota system. International cooperation in information sharing has had clear benefits for management of walruses in the past. The maintenance and expansion of these international efforts will improve the management of Atlantic walruses in the future.

  8. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier


    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how...... they vary in time, and how they are changing with current environmental change: firstly, the high arctic interaction webs are much more complex than previously envisaged, and with a structure mainly dictated by its arthropod component. Secondly, the dynamics of species within these webs reflect changes...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  9. Ecological tourism in protected natural areas of the Russian Arctic: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Golubeva


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems and prospects of the ecological tourism in the natural protected areas (NPA in the Russian Arctic. It is proposed to create a unified terminological basis for the concept of “ecotourism”. We analyzed the systemic problems that hinder the development of ecotourism in the NPA of the Arctic region. The article shows arising recreational conflicts, caused by environmental and traditional land use issues and the existence of NPA in the Arctic. We also discuss promising aspects of the ecological tourism, preservation of the heritage of indigenous peoples of the North and opportunities for involving local people in economic activities and environmental education.

  10. The Climate Science Special Report: Arctic Changes and their Effect on Alaska and the Rest of the United States (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.


    Rapid and visible climate change is happening across the Arctic, outpacing global change. Annual average near-surface air temperatures across the Arctic are increasing at more than twice the rate of global average surface temperature. In addition to surface temperature, all components of the Arctic climate system are responding in kind, including sea ice, mountain glaciers and the Greenland Ice sheet, snow cover, and permafrost. Many of these changes with a discernable anthropogenic imprint. While Arctic climate change may seem physically remote to those living in other regions of the planet, Arctic climate change can affect the global climate influencing sea level, the carbon cycle, and potentially atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. As an Arctic nation, United States' adaptation, mitigation, and policy decisions depend on projections of future Alaskan and Arctic climate. This chapter of the Climate Science Special Report documents significant scientific progress and knowledge about how the Alaskan and Arctic climate has changed and will continue to change.

  11. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL


    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  12. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig


    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  13. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.


    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  14. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental developments there. This essay examines Japan’s interests in the Arctic, its new role as an observer...

  15. Towards Arctic Resource Governance of Marine Invasive Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda


    Scientific and policy-oriented publications highlighting the magnitude of uncertainty in the changing Arctic and the possibilities for effective regional governance are proliferating, yet it remains a challenging task to examine Arctic marine biodiversity. Limited scientific data are currently...... available. Through analysis of marine invasions in the Arctic, we work to identify and assess patterns in the knowledge gaps regarding invasive species in the Arctic that affect the ability to generate improved governance outcomes. These patterns are expected to depend on multiple aspects of scientific...... research into invasive species threats in the Arctic, including the ways in which known marine invasions are related to different stakeholder groups and existing disparate national and international experiences with invasive species. Stakeholdergroups include dominant industries (fishing, shipping, tourism...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  17. Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic. An overview of spatial and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, C de [Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Alaee, M; Muir, D [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, MA (United States)


    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which entered into force on May 17, 2004, includes wording that chemicals with the characteristics of POPs are those found in locations ''distant from sources'' and those for which ''monitoring data showing that long-range environmental transport of the chemical may have occurred''. Thus, the Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessment of persistence and bioaccumulation. The Arctic environment is well suited as a region in which to evaluate POPs. Some regions of thee Arctic, particularly the Barents Sea area north of Norway and western Russia are relatively close to source regions of POPs. Cold conditions favor persistence of POPs relative to temperate or tropical environments. The presence of fourth level carnivores (e.g. polar bears and seabirds), and storage of lipid as an energy source, make Arctic food webs vulnerable to bioaccumulative chemicals. Indigenous people in the Arctic utilizing a traditional diet, which is high in nutritionally beneficial fat, results in their elevated exposure to some POPs. The first indication that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were reaching the Arctic was the detection by Jansson et al. of lower molecular weight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Svalbard Brunnichfs guillemots (130 ng/g lipid weight) and ringed seals (40 ng/g lw) collected in 1981. Whitefish collected from Lake Storvindeln in 1986, a pristine mountain lake in the Swedish mountains near Ammarnas, had {sigma}PBDE levels of 26 ng/g lw. Despite these early findings, only recently have the spatial and temporal trends of BFRs been studied in detail in the Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to review the new data on BFRs in the Arctic and assess whether this information supports the view that PBDEs and other BFRs of similar molecular weight are POPs and potential global pollutants. This review is based on a recent assessment of POPs in the Arctic combined with newer data

  18. Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic. An overview of spatial and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, C. de [Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Alaee, M.; Muir, D. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, MA (United States)


    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which entered into force on May 17, 2004, includes wording that chemicals with the characteristics of POPs are those found in locations ''distant from sources'' and those for which ''monitoring data showing that long-range environmental transport of the chemical may have occurred''. Thus, the Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessment of persistence and bioaccumulation. The Arctic environment is well suited as a region in which to evaluate POPs. Some regions of thee Arctic, particularly the Barents Sea area north of Norway and western Russia are relatively close to source regions of POPs. Cold conditions favor persistence of POPs relative to temperate or tropical environments. The presence of fourth level carnivores (e.g. polar bears and seabirds), and storage of lipid as an energy source, make Arctic food webs vulnerable to bioaccumulative chemicals. Indigenous people in the Arctic utilizing a traditional diet, which is high in nutritionally beneficial fat, results in their elevated exposure to some POPs. The first indication that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were reaching the Arctic was the detection by Jansson et al. of lower molecular weight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Svalbard Brunnichfs guillemots (130 ng/g lipid weight) and ringed seals (40 ng/g lw) collected in 1981. Whitefish collected from Lake Storvindeln in 1986, a pristine mountain lake in the Swedish mountains near Ammarnas, had {sigma}PBDE levels of 26 ng/g lw. Despite these early findings, only recently have the spatial and temporal trends of BFRs been studied in detail in the Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to review the new data on BFRs in the Arctic and assess whether this information supports the view that PBDEs and other BFRs of similar molecular weight are POPs and potential global pollutants. This review is based on a recent assessment of POPs

  19. High mountain origin, phylogenetics, evolution, and niche conservatism of arctic lineages in the hemiparasitic genus Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae). (United States)

    Tkach, Natalia; Ree, Richard H; Kuss, Patrick; Röser, Martin; Hoffmann, Matthias H


    The origin of the arctic flora covering the northernmost treeless areas is still poorly understood. Arctic plants may have evolved in situ or immigrated from the adjacent ecosystems. Frequently arctic species have disjunctive distributions between the Arctic and high mountain systems of the temperate zone. This pattern may result from long distance dispersal or from glacial plant migrations and extinctions of intermediate populations. The hemiparasitic genus Pedicularis is represented in the Arctic by c. 28 taxa and ranks among the six most species-rich vascular plant genera of this region. In this study, we test the hypothesis that these lineages evolved from predecessors occurring in northern temperate mountain ranges, many of which are current centers of diversity for the genus. We generated a nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA phylogeny including almost all of the arctic taxa and nearly half of the genus as a whole. The arctic taxa of Pedicularis evolved 12-14 times independently and are mostly nested in lineages that otherwise occur in the high mountains of Eurasia and North America. It appears that only three arctic lineages arose from the present-day center of diversity of the genus, in the Hengduan Mountains and Himalayas. Two lineages are probably of lowland origin. Arctic taxa of Pedicularis show considerable niche conservatism with respect to soil moisture and grow predominantly in moist to wet soils. The studied characteristics of ecology, morphology, and chromosome numbers of arctic Pedicularis show a heterogeneous pattern of evolution. The directions of morphological changes among the arctic lineages show opposing trends. Arctic taxa are chiefly diploid, the few tetraploid chromosome numbers of the genus were recorded only for arctic taxa. Five arctic Pedicularis are annuals or biennials, life forms otherwise rare in the Arctic. Other genera of the Orobanchaceae consist also of an elevated number of short-lived species, thus hemiparasitism may

  20. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; hide


    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  1. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.


    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  2. Specificities of Spatial System Transformation and Strategies of the Russian Arctic Redevelopment under the Conditions of Climate Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Leksin


    Full Text Available A bunch of papers has been published by foreign and Russian researchers on climate change impact on the environment and regional socioeconomic development. The bulk of them is focused on analyzing drivers and impact assessments for the Arctic region characterized by the most intensive climate change worldwide. The paper puts to the fore a nontrivial issue of considering the climate change impact factor within the methodology and practice of the strategic process of the Russian Arctic redevelopment. The issue above is complicated by the imperative of ranking of the salience of the climate change socioeconomic implications as priorities of the governance and public administration of the comprehensive development of the macro-region under consideration. The lack of the effective tools for consolidation of the needed resources further exacerbates it. The summary of the findings of the national and international researchers in the area of climate change impact on environment, settlements and economic activity in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF is introduced to substantiate the policy decisions made. We have specified the methodological issues related to peculiarities and role of the climate change factor plays in policy decisions within the context of contemporary knowledge on patterns of spatial systems transformation, their capabilities of selforganization and adaptation to externalities. The authors have revealed the general regularities and specificity of the AZRF transformation as a spatial system and the impact of climate change produced on this process. We have particularly emphasized the issues of adaptation to climate change of the AZRF indigenous population whose health and economic activities experience increased risks associated with high intensiveness of the climatic fluctuations. Recommendations for using scenario (variation approach to redesigning strategies and programs of AZRF development are substantiated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bryzgalov


    Full Text Available Institutional and management structure of any sea port is a system of interaction between commercial enterprises engaged in cargo operations in port, a subsidiary of Rosmorport FSUE, Sea Port Authority and a number of services (immigration, customs and sanitary-veterinary. Institutional and management structure of some Russian Arctic sea ports is significantly different from the typical one resulting in management problems for these socially significant objects of the Russian Arctic. A plan is proposed to improve the organizational and administrative structure of these ports based on the use of domestic and international experience in port infrastructure management including effective cooperation between the state and the private business.

  4. Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Planetary Waves (United States)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Haekkinen, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)


    Analysis of a fifty-year record (1946-1995) of monthly-averaged sea level pressure data provides a link between the phases of planetary-scale sea level pressure waves and Arctic Ocean and ice variability. Results of this analysis show: (1) a breakdown of the dominant wave 1 pattern in the late 1960's, (2) shifts in the mean phase of waves 1 and 2 since this breakdown, (3) an eastward shift in the phases of both waves 1 and 2 during the years of simulated cyclonic Arctic Ocean circulation relative to their phases during the years of anticyclonic circulation, (4) a strong decadal variability of wave phase associated with simulated Arctic Ocean circulation changes. Finally, the Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns that emerge when waves 1 and 2 are in their extreme eastern and western positions suggest an alternative approach for determining significant forcing patterns of sea ice and high-latitude variability.

  5. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover (United States)

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon


    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  6. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  7. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.


    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  8. Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun; Hayasaka, Tadahiro


    Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001–2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood. (letter)

  9. The case history of the first pipeline installed in the Arctic and subsequent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.


    Large reserves of gas and oil have been discovered in Arctic areas which have led various companies to initiate research and development in ways to produce and transport these resources to market. The primary mode of transportation is by pipelines. The main problem is that these areas are remote and transportation systems are long and expensive, especially when considering conventional methods of pipeline construction. The reserves in Canada's Arctic areas are large but, at this time, gas cannot be delivered to market at prices competitive with other gas supplies being completed. This, however, is changing as gas and oil reserves in the lower Arctic have increased, and the combining of a transportation system for both, improves the economics for their development. This paper discusses some of the initial works which have been completed to the stage of an actual pipeline installation, and the planned techniques envisioned for future field developments and for long distance transmission systems

  10. China in the Arctic: interests, actions and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njord Wegge


    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of China’s interest in and approach to the Arctic region. The following questions are raised: 1.Why is China getting involved in the Arctic, 2. How is China’s engagement in the Arctic playing out? 3, What are the most important issues that need to be solved in order for China to increase its relevance and importance as a political actor and partner in the Arctic. In applying a rationalist approach when answering the research questions, I identify how China in the last few years increasingly has been accepted as a legitimate stakeholder in the Arctic, with important stakes and activities in areas such as shipping, resource utilization and environmental science.  The article concludes with pointing out some issues that remain to be solved including Chinas role in issues of global politics, the role of observers in the Arctic Council as well as pointing out how China itself needs to decide important aspects of their future role in the region.

  11. Regional variations in provenance and abundance of ice-rafted clasts in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for the configuration of late Quaternary oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the Arctic (United States)

    Phillips, R.L.; Grantz, A.


    The composition and distribution of ice-rafted glacial erratics in late Quaternary sediments define the major current systems of the Arctic Ocean and identify two distinct continental sources for the erratics. In the southern Amerasia basin up to 70% of the erratics are dolostones and limestones (the Amerasia suite) that originated in the carbonate-rich Paleozoic terranes of the Canadian Arctic Islands. These clasts reached the Arctic Ocean in glaciers and were ice-rafted to the core sites in the clockwise Beaufort Gyre. The concentration of erratics decreases northward by 98% along the trend of the gyre from southeastern Canada basin to Makarov basin. The concentration of erratics then triples across the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge and siltstone, sandstone and siliceous clasts become dominant in cores from the ridge and the Eurasia basin (the Eurasia suite). The bedrock source for the siltstone and sandstone clasts is uncertain, but bedrock distribution and the distribution of glaciation in northern Eurasia suggest the Taymyr Peninsula-Kara Sea regions. The pattern of clast distribution in the Arctic Ocean sediments and the sharp northward decrease in concentration of clasts of Canadian Arctic Island provenance in the Amerasia basin support the conclusion that the modem circulation pattern of the Arctic Ocean, with the Beaufort Gyre dominant in the Amerasia basin and the Transpolar drift dominant in the Eurasia basin, has controlled both sea-ice and glacial iceberg drift in the Arctic Ocean during interglacial intervals since at least the late Pleistocene. The abruptness of the change in both clast composition and concentration on the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge also suggests that the boundary between the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift has been relatively stable during interglacials since that time. Because the Beaufort Gyre is wind-driven our data, in conjunction with the westerly directed orientation of sand dunes that formed during

  12. Examining the role of shrub expansion and fire in Arctic plant silica cycling (United States)

    Carey, J.; Fetcher, N.; Parker, T.; Rocha, A. V.; Tang, J.


    All terrestrial plants accumulate silica (SiO2) to some degree, although the amount varies by species type, functional group, and environmental conditions. Silica improves overall plant fitness, providing protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors. Plant silica uptake serves to retain silica in terrestrial landscapes, influencing silica export rates from terrestrial to marine systems. These export rates are important because silica is often the limiting nutrient for primary production by phytoplankton in coastal waters. Understanding how terrestrial plant processes influence silica export rates to oceanic systems is of interest on the global scale, but nowhere is this issue more important than in the Arctic, where marine diatoms rely on silica for production in large numbers and terrestrial runoff largely influences marine biogeochemistry. Moreover, the rapid rate of change occurring in the Arctic makes understanding plant silica dynamics timely, although knowledge of plant silica cycling in the region is in its infancy. This work specifically examines how shrub expansion, permafrost thaw, and fire regimes influence plant silica behavior in the Alaskan Arctic. We quantified silica accumulation in above and belowground portions of three main tundra types found in the Arctic (wet sedge, moist acidic, moist non-acidic tundra) and scaled these values to estimate how shrub expansion alters plant silica accumulation rates. Results indicate that shrub expansion via warming will increase silica storage in Arctic land plants due to the higher biomass associated with shrub tundra, whereas conversion of tussock to wet sedge tundra via permafrost thaw would produce the opposite effect in the terrestrial plant BSi pool. We also examined silica behavior in plants exposed to fire, finding that post-fire growth results in elevated plant silica uptake. Such changes in the size of the terrestrial vegetation silica reservoir could have direct consequences for the rates

  13. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr


    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively su...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  14. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Myers-Smith, Isla; Walker, Donald A


    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  15. Climate change, future Arctic Sea ice, and the competitiveness of European Arctic offshore oil and gas production on world markets. (United States)

    Petrick, Sebastian; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Hoog, Sven; Growitsch, Christian; Schwind, Hannah; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Rehdanz, Katrin


    A significant share of the world's undiscovered oil and natural gas resources are assumed to lie under the seabed of the Arctic Ocean. Up until now, the exploitation of the resources especially under the European Arctic has largely been prevented by the challenges posed by sea ice coverage, harsh weather conditions, darkness, remoteness of the fields, and lack of infrastructure. Gradual warming has, however, improved the accessibility of the Arctic Ocean. We show for the most resource-abundant European Arctic Seas whether and how a climate induced reduction in sea ice might impact future accessibility of offshore natural gas and crude oil resources. Based on this analysis we show for a number of illustrative but representative locations which technology options exist based on a cost-minimization assessment. We find that under current hydrocarbon prices, oil and gas from the European offshore Arctic is not competitive on world markets.

  16. Indian moored observatory in the Arctic for long-term in situ data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Venkatesan


    Full Text Available This article describes the first Indian arctic multi-sensor mooring (IndARC observatory in Kongsfjorden of Arctic waters. The Ministry of Earth Sciences evolved a unique moored observatory ‘IndARC’ with suite of sensors for physico-chemical and oceanographic in situ long-term data collection. The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in governing the earth’s climate and also faithfully records its past climatic history and represents a significant gap in ocean observations. This indigenously designed and installed observatory IndARC, for the first time, collected various parameters from July 2014 to July 2015. The uniqueness of this system, the challenges faced and results from data collected are presented in this article.

  17. Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative: can local knowledge inform caribou management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don E. Russell


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE While quantitative analyses have traditionally been used to measure overall caribou herd health, qualitative observational data can also provide timely information that reflects what people on the land are observing. The Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op (ABEKC monitors ecological change in the range of the Porcupine Caribou Herd (PCH. The community-based monitoring component of the Co-op’s mandate involves the gathering of local knowledge through interviews with local experts in a number of communities.We analyzed the responses to interviews collected during 2000–2007 related to caribou availability, harvest success, meeting needs and caribou health during fall and spring. Interviews revealed 1 caribou greater availability during the survey period, 2 an increasing trend in the proportion of harvesters that met their needs 3 no trend in animals harvested or proportion of successful hunters and 4 improving overall caribou health throughout the period.There was no population estimate for the herd between 2001 and 2010. In 2001, 123,000 caribou were estimated in the herd. Based on an estimated 178,000 in 1989, a declining trend of ~ 3% annually occurred at least until 2001. In the interim agencies and boards feared the herd continued to decline and worked towards and finalized a Harvest Management Plan for the herd. In contrast, from the Co-op interviews all indications suggested improving herd conditions throughout most of the decade. A successful survey in 2010 determined the herd had grown to 169,000 animals. We conclude that the community-based interviews provided a valid, unique information source to better understand caribou ecology and express community perceptions of overall herd status and could provide a valuable contribution to management decision making.  We recommend that ABEKC results become standard input into Porcupine Caribou harvest management decisions and serve as a

  18. Drivers of 2016 record Arctic warmth assessed using climate simulations subjected to Factual and Counterfactual forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantao Sun


    Full Text Available A suite of historical atmospheric model simulations is described that uses a hierarchy of global boundary forcings designed to inform research on the detection and attribution of weather and climate-related extremes. In addition to experiments forced by actual variations in sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, and atmospheric chemical composition (so-called Factual experiments; additional (Counterfactual experiments are conducted in which the boundary forcings are adjusted by removing estimates of long-term climate change. A third suite of experiments are identical to the Factual runs except that sea ice concentrations are set to climatological conditions (Clim-Polar experiments. These were used to investigate the cause for extremely warm Arctic surface temperature during 2016.Much of the magnitude of surface temperature anomalies averaged poleward of 65°N in 2016 (3.2 ± 0.6 °C above a 1980–89 reference is shown to have been forced by observed global boundary conditions. The Factual experiments reveal that at least three quarters of the magnitude of 2016 annual mean Arctic warmth was forced, with considerable sensitivity to assumptions of sea ice thickness change. Results also indicate that 30–40% of the overall forced Arctic warming signal in 2016 originated from drivers outside of the Arctic. Despite such remote effects, the experiments reveal that the extreme magnitude of the 2016 Arctic warmth could not have occurred without consideration of the Arctic sea ice loss. We find a near-zero probability for Arctic surface temperature to be as warm as occurred in 2016 under late-19th century boundary conditions, and also under 2016 boundary conditions that do not include the depleted Arctic sea ice. Results from the atmospheric model experiments are reconciled with coupled climate model simulations which lead to a conclusion that about 60% of the 2016 Arctic warmth was likely attributable to human-induced climate change

  19. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)


    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  20. Fine-scale population genetic structure of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the High Arctic. (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Quiles, Adrien; Lambourdière, Josie; Berteaux, Dominique; Lalis, Aude


    The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci. No pattern of isolation-by-distance was detected, but a spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) revealed the presence of genetic subdivisions. Overall, the sPCA revealed two spatially distinct genetic clusters corresponding to the northern and southern parts of the study area, plus another subdivision within each of these two clusters. The north-south genetic differentiation partly matched the distribution of a snow goose colony, which could reflect a preference for settling into familiar ecological environments. Secondary clusters may result from higher-order social structures (neighbourhoods) that use landscape features to delimit their borders. The cryptic genetic subdivisions found in our population may highlight ecological processes deserving further investigations in arctic foxes at larger, regional spatial scales.

  1. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research (United States)

    Garland, A.


    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, The AON goals continue with CRIOS ( and coastal erosion research ( led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin


    Full Text Available In this article and summarized the regularities of formation of foreign experience and trends of development of Arctic territories. Set out the important points predetermine orientation and specificity of manifestations of national interests – potential participants of the subsoil in the Arctic zone. On the basis of the illuminated materials were obtained the following conclusions: Signifi cant interest in the Arctic show today, not only the fi ve countries (Russia, USA, Canada, Norway, Denmark, who own Arctic territories, but also polar state (Iceland, Sweden, Finland, the European Union and Asia. As a consequence of that, it is expected that in the XXI century the Arctic region will be the focus of attention as an official Arctic 45, and a number of states whose territory is quite removed from it; For Russia, given the current, acute political conditions (sanctions, confrontation with the West, Ukrainian crisis and war in the Middle East development of Arctic territories, some moved away, moved on tomorrow and the day after tomorrow on the agenda. This approach is fundamentally fl awed and fraught with a number of threats, because other countries do not decrease, but only increase their interest in this issue; Territorial opposition to all those involved in the topic of causing instability in the Arctic region, but does not represent a real threat for the emergence of large-scale conflict. Therefore, making the choice between the hard pressure of national interests and the interests of harmonization of the Arctic states, Russia must be based on international cooperationand mutual consideration of interests in the development of its Arctic strategy; Considering the cooperation of the countries of the Arctic Council and their cooperation in the framework of a global economic forum G8, there are prerequisites for the decision of the Arctic confl ict through negotiation and compromise. In this context it is very important to develop

  3. Estimation of Volume and Freshwater Flux from the Arctic Ocean using SMAP and NCEP CFSv2 (United States)

    Bulusu, S.


    Spatial and temporal monitoring of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role globally and especially over the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic ice melt has led to an influx of freshwater into the Arctic environment, a process that can be observed in SSS. The recently launched NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is primarily designed for the global monitoring of soil moisture using L- band (1.4GHz) frequency. SMAP also has the capability of measuring SSS and can thus extend the NASA's Aquarius salinity mission (ended June 7, 2015), salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. In this research an attempt is made to investigate the retrievability of SSS over the Arctic from SMAP satellite. The objectives of this study are to verify the use of SMAP sea surface salinity (and freshwater) variability in the Arctic Ocean and the extent to estimate freshwater, salt and volume flux from the Arctic Ocean. Along with SMAP data we will use NASA's Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellites (ICESat and ICESat-2), and ESA's CryoSat-2, and NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites data to estimate ice melt in the Arctic. The preliminary results from SMAP compared well with the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) salinity data in this region capturing patterns fairly well over the Arctic.

  4. Global Warming and the Arctic in 3D: A Virtual Globe for Outreach (United States)

    Manley, W. F.


    Virtual Globes provide a new way to capture and inform the public's interest in environmental change. As an example, a recent Google Earth presentation conveyed 'key findings' from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA, 2004) to middle school students during the 2006 INSTAAR/NSIDC Open House at the University of Colorado. The 20-minute demonstration to 180 eighth graders began with an introduction and a view of the Arctic from space, zooming into the North American Arctic, then to a placemark for the first key finding, 'Arctic climate is now warming rapidly and much larger changes are projected'. An embedded link then opened a custom web page, with brief explanatory text, along with an ACIA graphic illustrating the rise in Arctic temperature, global CO2 concentrations, and carbon emissions for the last millennium. The demo continued with an interactive tour of other key findings (Reduced Sea Ice, Changes for Animals, Melting Glaciers, Coastal Erosion, Changes in Vegetation, Melting Permafrost, and others). Each placemark was located somewhat arbitrarily (which may be a concern for some audiences), but the points represented the messages in a geographic sense and enabled a smooth visual tour of the northern latitudes. Each placemark was linked to custom web pages with photos and concise take-home messages. The demo ended with navigation to Colorado, then Boulder, then the middle school that the students attended, all the while speaking to implications as they live their lives locally. The demo piqued the students' curiosity, and in this way better conveyed important messages about the Arctic and climate change. The use of geospatial visualizations for outreach and education appears to be in its infancy, with much potential.

  5. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.


    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  6. Arctic climatechange and its impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. (United States)

    Greene, Charles H; Pershing, Andrew J; Cronin, Thomas M; Ceci, Nicole


    Arctic climate change from the Paleocene epoch to the present is reconstructed with the objective of assessing its recent and future impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. A recurring theme in Earth's paleoclimate record is the importance of the Arctic atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere in regulating global climate on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A second recurring theme in this record is the importance of freshwater export from the Arctic in regulating global- to basin-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Since the 1970s, historically unprecedented changes have been observed in the Arctic as climate warming has increased precipitation, river discharge, and glacial as well as sea-ice melting. In addition, modal shifts in the atmosphere have altered Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and the export of freshwater into the North Atlantic. The combination of these processes has resulted in variable patterns of freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean and the emergence of salinity anomalies that have periodically freshened waters in the North Atlantic. Since the early 1990s, changes in Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and freshwater export have been associated with two types of ecological responses in the North Atlantic. The first of these responses has been an ongoing series of biogeographic range expansions by boreal plankton, including renewal of the trans-Arctic exchanges of Pacific species with the Atlantic. The second response was a dramatic regime shift in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Atlantic that occurred during the early 1990s. This regime shift resulted from freshening and stratification of the shelf waters, which in turn could be linked to changes in the abundances and seasonal cycles of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and higher trophic-level consumer populations. It is predicted that the recently observed ecological responses to Arctic climate change in the North Atlantic will continue into the near future if current trends

  7. Recent Arctic sea level variations from satellites


    Ole Baltazar Andersen; Gaia ePiccioni


    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher...

  8. Consequences of future increased Arctic runoff on Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice cover


    Nummelin, Aleksi; Ilicak, Mehmet; Li, Camille; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik


    The Arctic Ocean has important freshwater sources including river runoff, low evaporation, and exchange with the Pacific Ocean. In the future, we expect even larger freshwater input as the global hydrological cycle accelerates, increasing high-latitude precipitation, and river runoff. Previous modeling studies show some robust responses to high-latitude freshwater perturbations, including a strengthening of Arctic stratification and a weakening of the large-scale ocean circulation...

  9. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.


    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m 3 increase in the 137 Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed

  10. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.


    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  11. Romantic notions about the arctic must include indigenous rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine


    The Arctic plays a big role in Canada's national identity. But as Canada's relationship with the region evolves, the interests of Indigenous peoples must be better represented. This article summarizes the research in my book 'International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic: Arctic...

  12. Arctic air pollution: New insights from POLARCAT-IPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Katharine S.; Ancellet, Gerard; Pelon, Jacques; Thomas, Jennie L.; Stohl, Andreas; Quinn, Patricia K.; Brock, Charles A.; Burkhart, John F.


    Given the rapid nature of climate change occurring in the Arctic and the difficulty climate models have in quantitatively reproducing observed changes such as sea ice loss, it is important to improve understanding of the processes leading to climate change in this region, including the role of short-lived climate pollutants such as aerosols and ozone. It has long been known that pollution produced from emissions at mid latitudes can be transported to the Arctic, resulting in a winter/spring aerosol maximum known as Arctic haze. However, many uncertainties remain about the composition and origin of Arctic pollution throughout the troposphere; for example, many climate-chemistry models fail to reproduce the strong seasonality of aerosol abundance observed at Arctic surface sites, the origin and deposition mechanisms of black carbon (soot) particles that darken the snow and ice surface in the Arctic is poorly understood, and chemical processes controlling the abundance of tropospheric ozone are not well quantified. The International Polar Year (IPY) Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport (POLARCAT) core project had the goal to improve understanding about the origins of pollutants transported to the Arctic; to detail the chemical composition, optical properties, and climate forcing potential of Arctic aerosols; to evaluate the processes governing tropospheric ozone; and to quantify the role of boreal forest fires. This article provides a review of the many results now available based on analysis of data collected during the POLARCAT aircraft-, ship-, and ground-based field campaigns in spring and summer 2008. Major findings are highlighted and areas requiring further investigation are discussed. (authors)

  13. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization? (United States)


    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...resources extraction . In hydrocarbons alone, the United States Geological Survey estimates that there are approximately 90 billion barrels of oil...1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas , and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids currently undiscovered in the Arctic, with 84 percent lying in

  14. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier


    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  15. A 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4 (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wekerle, Claudia; Danilov, Sergey; Wang, Xuezhu; Jung, Thomas


    In the framework of developing a global modeling system which can facilitate modeling studies on Arctic Ocean and high- to midlatitude linkage, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by the multi-resolution Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM). To explore the value of using high horizontal resolution for Arctic Ocean modeling, we use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 km vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer, in terms of both Atlantic Water (AW) mean state and variability. The deepening and thickening bias of the AW layer, a common issue found in coarse-resolution simulations, is significantly alleviated by using higher resolution. The topographic steering of the AW is stronger and the seasonal and interannual temperature variability along the ocean bottom topography is enhanced in the high-resolution simulation. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the narrow straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The representation of CAA throughflow not only influences the release of water masses through the other gateways but also the circulation pathways inside the Arctic Ocean. However, the mean state and variability of Arctic freshwater content and the variability of freshwater transport through the Arctic gateways appear not to be very sensitive to the increase in resolution employed here. By highlighting the issues that are independent of model resolution, we address that other efforts including the improvement of parameterizations are still required.

  16. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  17. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.


    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  18. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Todd


    efficiency and carbon footprint reduction for our nation's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure. The specific objectives of the ARCTIC project focused in the following three areas: i) advanced research innovations that dramatically enhance the ability to deal with ever-increasing device heat densities and footprint reduction by bringing the liquid cooling much closer to the actual heat sources; ii) manufacturing optimization of key components; and iii) ensuring rapid market acceptance by reducing cost, thoroughly understanding system-level performance, and developing viable commercialization strategies. The project involved participants with expertise in all aspects of commercialization, including research & development, manufacturing, sales & marketing and end users. The team was lead by Alcatel-Lucent, and included subcontractors Modine and USHose.

  19. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....

  20. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)


    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  1. The Sticking Point of the Arctic Dispute and China's Strategic Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Li


    Full Text Available Global climate warming results in Arctic sea ice melting which increases the value of the Arctic. In recent years, the competition among Arctic coastal nations and nations outside the Arctic has become increasingly fierce for sovereignty over the Arctic Ocean, sea borders, resource extraction, channel control, and other marine interests. The crux of the Arctic dispute focuses on energy, control of the waterways, and geopolitics. To face up to the United States, Russia and Canada’s Arctic strategies, China should focus on energy security strategy. China should actively carry out multilateral cooperation with the Nordic countries, mainly on economic cooperation, and expand the scope of the demilitarized zone, thus becoming able to maximize the interests of the Chinese state.

  2. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike


    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  3. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.


    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  4. Determination of lead isotopes in Arctic and Antarctic snow and ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.


    The development of high sensitivity mass spectrometry to measure Pb isotopes in Arctic and Antarctic snow and ice has provided a powerful tool for identifying sources of global Pb pollution. The combination of isotope abundance information with concentration measurements adds another dimension to analytical chemistry. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.


    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  6. Future Arctic climate changes: Adaptation and mitigation time scales (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Walsh, John E.; Stroeve, Julienne C.


    The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than in midlatitudes. This is shown by increased temperatures, loss of summer sea ice, earlier snow melt, impacts on ecosystems, and increased economic access. Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by 75% since the 1980s. Long-lasting global anthropogenic forcing from carbon dioxide has increased over the previous decades and is anticipated to increase over the next decades. Temperature increases in response to greenhouse gases are amplified in the Arctic through feedback processes associated with shifts in albedo, ocean and land heat storage, and near-surface longwave radiation fluxes. Thus, for the next few decades out to 2040, continuing environmental changes in the Arctic are very likely, and the appropriate response is to plan for adaptation to these changes. For example, it is very likely that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally nearly sea ice free before 2050 and possibly within a decade or two, which in turn will further increase Arctic temperatures, economic access, and ecological shifts. Mitigation becomes an important option to reduce potential Arctic impacts in the second half of the 21st century. Using the most recent set of climate model projections (CMIP5), multimodel mean temperature projections show an Arctic-wide end of century increase of +13°C in late fall and +5°C in late spring for a business-as-usual emission scenario (RCP8.5) in contrast to +7°C in late fall and +3°C in late spring if civilization follows a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5). Such temperature increases demonstrate the heightened sensitivity of the Arctic to greenhouse gas forcing.

  7. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica


    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  8. Climate of the Arctic marine environment. (United States)

    Walsh, John E


    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  9. Selection of priority investment projects for the development of the Russian Arctic (United States)

    Novoselov, A.; Potravny, I.; Novoselova, I.; Gassiy, V.


    In the Russian Arctic, there is currently an active process of preparation and implementation of investment projects aiming to extract natural resources, with the aim of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region. These projects are associated with the development of key zones in the Arctic and involve the exploration for and production of minerals (diamonds, gold, rare-earth metals, oil, and gas) and the development of energy and infrastructure (e.g., the Northern Sea Route). Such projects, which are often carried out in territories of traditional nature management belonging to the indigenous peoples of the North, must consider their environmental and social responsibility and the preservation of the ethnic identity and culture of indigenous peoples. The extraction of mineral deposits in the Arctic and the Far North places new demands on subsoil users, related to the preservation and development of the socio-cultural environment of the indigenous peoples of the North and to the ecological rehabilitation of the area. This article presents economic and mathematical models for selecting the optimal development project options based on the pairwise comparison of investment projects and the evaluation of indigenous peoples' preferences. We investigated the investment projects' impact on traditional territories in the Arctic, including the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), in terms of socioeconomic and ethnological development, and environmental change. The suggested system of models can be used to assess the priority of projects supporting and developing the region in the mining corporation's area of responsibility. The proposed models are based on fuzzy set theory, which provides an effective assessment of the population's preferences for projects. Data are processed using the hierarchy analysis method and multivariate optimization calculations to determine the project sets at different funding levels. The creation of information-linked processing models is

  10. Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer (United States)

    Krueger, Steven K.


    The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.

  11. Climate and man in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The ever-changing climate shapes the Arctic landscape, influences life conditions for plants and animals and alters the availability of the living resources that play such and important part in the economy of Arctic peoples. It is essential that we try to understand the nature of climatic change and its effects on man and his environment. Only this way can we hope to be able to predict future changes that may have great consequences for the well-being of northern residents. In recent years many research projects have been addressing the subject and important advances have been made. At the same time it has become increasingly evident that the complexity of the whole issue calls for an integration of scientific approaches and for interdisciplinary collaboration. The seminar 'Climate and Man in the Arctic' provided an opportunity both to highlight important areas of climate related research and to discuss more general aspects of arctic research. Eight papers presented at the seminar are published in this volume. (au) 22 refs

  12. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.


    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing major changes in many of its fundamental physical constituents, from a shift from multi- to first-year ice, shorter ice-covered periods, increasing freshwater runoff and surface stratification, to warming and alteration in the distribution of water masses....... These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses...

  13. Arctic Technology Evaluation 2014 Oil-in-Ice Demonstration Report (United States)


    Security Class (This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 52 22. Price Arctic Technology...specifically manned for the surveillance system. Smaller aerostats and sUAS could be deployed on skimming vessels; however, under many conditions their

  14. CEEPRA - Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Leppaenen, A.P. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Kasatkina, N. [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland); Reinikainen, K.; Nissi, M. [Poeyry Finland Oy (Finland); Vaaramaa, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)


    CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) is an EU-funded project acting under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The CEEPRA project's main aim is to develop a collaboration network between key radiation research institutions in the EuroArctic region, which will lead to improved emergency preparedness capabilities in the event of any nuclear accidents. The project is studying the current state of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from Lapland in Finland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula in Russia and in the Barents Sea. The results provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and the fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention is given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by general public in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments are carried out through modelling and studying of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region's indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries. The project partners are Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) from Finland, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) from Russia, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Finnish Meteorological Institute and Poeyry Finland Oy. The Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS) and Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) are taking part in the project as well. The main results of the project are presented in this study. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Late-Middle Quaternary lithostratigraphy and sedimentation patterns on the Alpha Ridge, central Arctic Ocean: Implications for Arctic climate variability on orbital time scales (United States)

    Wang, Rujian; Polyak, Leonid; Xiao, Wenshen; Wu, Li; Zhang, Taoliang; Sun, Yechen; Xu, Xiaomei


    We use sediment cores collected by the Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions from the Alpha Ridge to advance Quaternary stratigraphy and paleoceanographic reconstructions for the Arctic Ocean. Our cores show a good litho/biostratigraphic correlation to sedimentary records developed earlier for the central Arctic Ocean, suggesting a recovered stratigraphic range of ca. 0.6 Ma, suitable for paleoclimatic studies on orbital time scales. This stratigraphy was tested by correlating the stacked Alpha Ridge record of bulk XRF manganese, calcium and zirconium (Mn, Ca, Zr), to global stable-isotope (LR04-δ18O) and sea-level stacks and tuning to orbital parameters. Correlation results corroborate the applicability of presumed climate/sea-level controlled Mn variations in the Arctic Ocean for orbital tuning. This approach enables better understanding of the global and orbital controls on the Arctic climate. Orbital tuning experiments for our records indicate strong eccentricity (100-kyr) and precession (∼20-kyr) controls on the Arctic Ocean, probably implemented via glaciations and sea ice. Provenance proxies like Ca and Zr are shown to be unsuitable as orbital tuning tools, but useful as indicators of glacial/deglacial processes and circulation patterns in the Arctic Ocean. Their variations suggest an overall long-term persistence of the Beaufort Gyre circulation in the Alpha Ridge region. Some glacial intervals, e.g., MIS 6 and 4/3, are predominated by material presumably transported by the Transpolar Drift. These circulation shifts likely indicate major changes in the Arctic climatic regime, which yet need to be investigated. Overall, our results demonstrate applicability of XRF data to paleoclimatic studies of the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)


    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble ga