Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.;
is RLNC (Random Linear Network Coding) and the goal is to reduce the amount of coding operations both at the coding and decoding node, and at the same time remove the need for dedicated signaling messages. In a traditional RLNC system, coding operation takes up significant computational resources and adds......This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...
Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.
This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...... to the overall energy consumption, which is particular problematic for mobile battery-driven devices. In RLNC coding is performed over a FF (Finite Field). We propose to divide this field into sub fields, and let each sub field signify some information or state. In order to embed the information correctly...... the coding operations must be performed in a particular way, which we introduce. Finally we evaluate the suggested system and find that the amount of coding can be significantly reduced both at nodes that recode and decode....
Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela
2015-01-01
Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…
Abstracts of digital computer code packages assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, B.J.; Maskewitz, B.F.
1985-04-01
This publication, ORNL/RSIC-13, Volumes I to III Revised, has resulted from an internal audit of the first 168 packages of computing technology in the Computer Codes Collection (CCC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). It replaces the earlier three documents published as single volumes between 1966 to 1972. A significant number of the early code packages were considered to be obsolete and were removed from the collection in the audit process and the CCC numbers were not reassigned. Others not currently being used by the nuclear R and D community were retained in the collection to preserve technology not replaced by newer methods, or were considered of potential value for reference purposes. Much of the early technology, however, has improved through developer/RSIC/user interaction and continues at the forefront of the advancing state-of-the-art.
Coded aperture x-ray diffraction imaging with transmission computed tomography side-information
Odinaka, Ikenna; Greenberg, Joel A.; Kaganovsky, Yan; Holmgren, Andrew; Hassan, Mehadi; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Carin, Lawrence; Brady, David J.
2016-03-01
Coded aperture X-ray diffraction (coherent scatter spectral) imaging provides fast and dose-efficient measurements of the molecular structure of an object. The information provided is spatially-dependent and material-specific, and can be utilized in medical applications requiring material discrimination, such as tumor imaging. However, current coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system assume a uniformly or weakly attenuating object, and are plagued by image degradation due to non-uniform self-attenuation. We propose accounting for such non-uniformities in the self-attenuation by utilizing an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image (reconstructed attenuation map). In particular, we present an iterative algorithm for coherent scatter spectral image reconstruction, which incorporates the attenuation map, at different stages, resulting in more accurate coherent scatter spectral images in comparison to their uncorrected counterpart. The algorithm is based on a spectrally grouped edge-preserving regularizer, where the neighborhood edge weights are determined by spatial distances and attenuation values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dragulescu, E.; Duma, M.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Mihu, R.
1981-01-01
This paper presents a package of computer programs, to be used as a tool for the obtaining of spectroscopic information, such as theoretical yields, reduced transition probabilities and multipole mixing ratios from experimental Coulomb excitation data. 12 references.
Introduction to coding and information theory
Roman, Steven
1997-01-01
This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1995-03-01
MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.
Network coding for computing: Linear codes
Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth
2011-01-01
In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...
Characterizing Video Coding Computing in Conference Systems
Tuquerres, G.
2000-01-01
In this paper, a number of coding operations is provided for computing continuous data streams, in particular, video streams. A coding capability of the operations is expressed by a pyramidal structure in which coding processes and requirements of a distributed information system are represented. Th
Autocatalysis, information and coding.
Wills, P R
2001-01-01
Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.
Shapiro, Wilbur
1996-01-01
This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.
Physics codes on parallel computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltgroth, P.G.
1985-12-04
An effort is under way to develop physics codes which realize the potential of parallel machines. A new explicit algorithm for the computation of hydrodynamics has been developed which avoids global synchronization entirely. The approach, called the Independent Time Step Method (ITSM), allows each zone to advance at its own pace, determined by local information. The method, coded in FORTRAN, has demonstrated parallelism of greater than 20 on the Denelcor HEP machine. ITSM can also be used to replace current implicit treatments of problems involving diffusion and heat conduction. Four different approaches toward work distribution have been investigated and implemented for the one-dimensional code on the Denelcor HEP. They are ''self-scheduled'', an ASKFOR monitor, a ''queue of queues'' monitor, and a distributed ASKFOR monitor. The self-scheduled approach shows the lowest overhead but the poorest speedup. The distributed ASKFOR monitor shows the best speedup and the lowest execution times on the tested problems. 2 refs., 3 figs.
Bergstra, Jan A
2010-01-01
General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.
QR code for medical information uses.
Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G
2008-11-06
We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas eJahans-Price
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce a computational model describing rat behaviour and the interactions of neural populations processing spatial and mnemonic information during a maze-based, decision-making task. The model integrates sensory input and implements a working memory to inform decisions at a choice point, reproducing rat behavioural data and predicting the occurrence of turn- and memory-dependent activity in neuronal networks supporting task performance. We tested these model predictions using a new software toolbox (Maze Query Language, MQL to analyse activity of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC and dorsal hippocampal (dCA1 neurons recorded from 6 adult rats during task performance. The firing rates of dCA1 neurons discriminated context (i.e. the direction of the previous turn, whilst a subset of mPFC neurons was selective for current turn direction or context, with some conjunctively encoding both. mPFC turn-selective neurons displayed a ramping of activity on approach to the decision turn and turn-selectivity in mPFC was significantly reduced during error trials. These analyses complement data from neurophysiological recordings in non-human primates indicating that firing rates of cortical neurons correlate with integration of sensory evidence used to inform decision-making.
Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging
Skinner, Gerald
2009-01-01
This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.
SALE: Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carroll, D.J.; Bush, W.J.; Dolan, C.A.
1976-09-01
The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program implements an industry-wide quality control and evaluation system aimed at identifying and reducing analytical chemical measurement errors. Samples of well-characterized materials are distributed to laboratory participants at periodic intervals for determination of uranium or plutonium concentration and isotopic distributions. The results of these determinations are statistically-evaluated, and each participant is informed of the accuracy and precision of his results in a timely manner. The SALE computer code which produces the report is designed to facilitate rapid transmission of this information in order that meaningful quality control will be provided. Various statistical techniques comprise the output of the SALE computer code. Assuming an unbalanced nested design, an analysis of variance is performed in subroutine NEST resulting in a test of significance for time and analyst effects. A trend test is performed in subroutine TREND. Microfilm plots are obtained from subroutine CUMPLT. Within-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in the main program or subroutine VAREST, and between-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in SBLV. Other statistical tests are also performed. Up to 1,500 pieces of data for each nuclear material sampled by 75 (or fewer) laboratories may be analyzed with this code. The input deck necessary to run the program is shown, and input parameters are discussed in detail. Printed output and microfilm plot output are described. Output from a typical SALE run is included as a sample problem.
Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing
2010-03-01
Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292...5, June 2008, pp. 525-34. 32 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008...combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences represented in DNA. ComDMem is a
Improved side information generation for distributed video coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
2008-01-01
information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm......As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...
Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation
Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav
2009-01-01
Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.
Cloud Computing for Complex Performance Codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klein, Brandon Thorin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miner, John Gifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-01
This report describes the use of cloud computing services for running complex public domain performance assessment problems. The work consisted of two phases: Phase 1 was to demonstrate complex codes, on several differently configured servers, could run and compute trivial small scale problems in a commercial cloud infrastructure. Phase 2 focused on proving non-trivial large scale problems could be computed in the commercial cloud environment. The cloud computing effort was successfully applied using codes of interest to the geohydrology and nuclear waste disposal modeling community.
Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code
Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki
2017-02-01
Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of
A surface code quantum computer in silicon.
Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2015-10-01
The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.
Gender codes why women are leaving computing
Misa, Thomas J
2010-01-01
The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.
Energy information data base: report number codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1979-09-01
Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)
Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 6, The SFC computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.
1987-11-01
Each hour the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, records and archives weather observations. Hourly surface weather observations consist of weather phenomena such as cloud type and coverage; dry bulb, wet bulb, and dew point temperatures; relative humidity; atmospheric pressure; and wind speed and direction. The SFC computer code is used to archive those weather observations and apply quality assurance checks to the data. This code accesses an input file, which contains the previous archive's date and hour and an output file, which contains surface observations for the current day. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 24 fields must be filled in. The information on the form is appended to the daily file, which provides an archive for the hourly surface observations.
Distributed video coding with multiple side information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.
2009-01-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...
Computer and information science
2016-01-01
This edited book presents scientific results of the 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2016) which was held on June 26– 29 in Okayama, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. This publication captures 12 of the conference’s most promising...
Computer Security: is your code sane?
Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team
2015-01-01
How many of us write code? Software? Programs? Scripts? How many of us are properly trained in this and how well do we do it? Do we write functional, clean and correct code, without flaws, bugs and vulnerabilities*? In other words: are our codes sane? Figuring out weaknesses is not that easy (see our quiz in an earlier Bulletin article). Therefore, in order to improve the sanity of your code, prevent common pit-falls, and avoid the bugs and vulnerabilities that can crash your code, or – worse – that can be misused and exploited by attackers, the CERN Computer Security team has reviewed its recommendations for checking the security compliance of your code. “Static Code Analysers” are stand-alone programs that can be run on top of your software stack, regardless of whether it uses Java, C/C++, Perl, PHP, Python, etc. These analysers identify weaknesses and inconsistencies including: employing undeclared variables; expressions resu...
Experimental methodology for computational fluid dynamics code validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aeschliman, D.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1997-09-01
Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. Typically, CFD code validation is accomplished through comparison of computed results to previously published experimental data that were obtained for some other purpose, unrelated to code validation. As a result, it is a near certainty that not all of the information required by the code, particularly the boundary conditions, will be available. The common approach is therefore unsatisfactory, and a different method is required. This paper describes a methodology developed specifically for experimental validation of CFD codes. The methodology requires teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the validation process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. The methodology employs a novel uncertainty analysis technique which helps to define the experimental plan for code validation wind tunnel experiments, and to distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of surface pressure measurements over a model of varying geometrical complexity in laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow.
Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton
2013-01-01
Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…
Incompressible face seals: Computer code IFACE
Artiles, Antonio
1994-01-01
Capabilities of the computer code IFACE are given in viewgraph format. These include: two dimensional, incompressible, isoviscous flow; rotation of both rotor and housing; roughness in both rotor and housing; arbitrary film thickness distribution, including steps, pockets, and tapers; three degrees of freedom; dynamic coefficients; prescribed force and moments; pocket pressures or orifice size; turbulence, Couette and Poiseuille flow; cavitation; and inertia pressure drops at inlets to film.
Tuning complex computer code to data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, D.; Park, J.S.; Sacks, J.; Singer, C.
1992-01-01
The problem of estimating parameters in a complex computer simulator of a nuclear fusion reactor from an experimental database is treated. Practical limitations do not permit a standard statistical analysis using nonlinear regression methodology. The assumption that the function giving the true theoretical predictions is a realization of a Gaussian stochastic process provides a statistical method for combining information from relatively few computer runs with information from the experimental database and making inferences on the parameters.
Optical encryption of personal identification information using orthogonal code
Islam, Mohammed N.; Alam, Mohammad S.
2006-05-01
Optical information processing techniques have been developed for information security and fraud deterrent applications. Several encryption methods have been proposed in the literature, which includes optical double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. All these reports employed a pseudo-random number for the code. But as such numbers are not uncorrelated, the security is not guaranteed because a wrong code may also extract some of the features of the coded information. The objective of the paper is to develop an optical security system employing orthogonal code for protection of personal identification information. As the orthogonal codes have zero or minimum cross-correlation depending on the offset between the codes, a wrong code can not decrypt any information. Here a simple encryption technique is proposed in spatial domain, where the input images are first spread in one dimension using an optical lens and then multiplied by the respective code. Finally, the individual encrypted images are superimposed on a common spatial domain. The individual images can then be decrypted by correlating the received signal with the respective address code. Computer simulation results show that any information containing binary characters can be encrypted and then decrypted successfully. The encrypted images are found to be secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code. The technique also offers an efficient use of the storage or transmission capacity. Therefore, the proposed optical encryption technique can be applied to securing personal identification or similar information.
New developments in the Saphire computer codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russell, K.D.; Wood, S.T.; Kvarfordt, K.J. [Idaho Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others
1996-03-01
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a suite of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant. Many recent enhancements to this suite of codes have been made. This presentation will provide an overview of these features and capabilities. The presentation will include a discussion of the new GEM module. This module greatly reduces and simplifies the work necessary to use the SAPHIRE code in event assessment applications. An overview of the features provided in the new Windows version will also be provided. This version is a full Windows 32-bit implementation and offers many new and exciting features. [A separate computer demonstration was held to allow interested participants to get a preview of these features.] The new capabilities that have been added since version 5.0 will be covered. Some of these major new features include the ability to store an unlimited number of basic events, gates, systems, sequences, etc.; the addition of improved reporting capabilities to allow the user to generate and {open_quotes}scroll{close_quotes} through custom reports; the addition of multi-variable importance measures; and the simplification of the user interface. Although originally designed as a PRA Level 1 suite of codes, capabilities have recently been added to SAPHIRE to allow the user to apply the code in Level 2 analyses. These features will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The modifications and capabilities added to this version of SAPHIRE significantly extend the code in many important areas. Together, these extensions represent a major step forward in PC-based risk analysis tools. This presentation provides a current up-to-date status of these important PRA analysis tools.
Optimization of KINETICS Chemical Computation Code
Donastorg, Cristina
2012-01-01
NASA JPL has been creating a code in FORTRAN called KINETICS to model the chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Recently there has been an effort to introduce Message Passing Interface (MPI) into the code so as to cut down the run time of the program. There has been some implementation of MPI into KINETICS; however, the code could still be more efficient than it currently is. One way to increase efficiency is to send only certain variables to all the processes when an MPI subroutine is called and to gather only certain variables when the subroutine is finished. Therefore, all the variables that are used in three of the main subroutines needed to be investigated. Because of the sheer amount of code that there is to comb through this task was given as a ten-week project. I have been able to create flowcharts outlining the subroutines, common blocks, and functions used within the three main subroutines. From these flowcharts I created tables outlining the variables used in each block and important information about each. All this information will be used to determine how to run MPI in KINETICS in the most efficient way possible.
Neutron spectrum unfolding using computer code SAIPS
Karim, S
1999-01-01
The main objective of this project was to study the neutron energy spectrum at rabbit station-1 in Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-I). To do so, multiple foils activation method was used to get the saturated activities. The computer code SAIPS was used to unfold the neutron spectra from the measured reaction rates. Of the three built in codes in SAIPS, only SANDI and WINDOWS were used. Contribution of thermal part of the spectra was observed to be higher than the fast one. It was found that the WINDOWS gave smooth spectra while SANDII spectra have violet oscillations in the resonance region. The uncertainties in the WINDOWS results are higher than those of SANDII. The results show reasonable agreement with the published results.
Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-06-01
This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.
From Coding to Computational Thinking and Back
DePryck, K.
2016-01-01
Presentation of Dr. Koen DePryck in the Computational Thinking Session in TEEM 2016 Conference, held in the University of Salamanca (Spain), Nov 2-4, 2016. Introducing coding in the curriculum at an early age is considered a long-term investment in bridging the skills gap between the technology demands of the labour market and the availability of people to fill them. The keys to success include moving from mere literacy to active control – not only at the level of learners but also ...
Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers
Kunkel, Susanne; Schmidt, Maximilian; Eppler, Jochen M.; Plesser, Hans E.; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz
2014-01-01
Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today. PMID:25346682
Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susanne eKunkel
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today.
Soft computing in computer and information science
Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy
2015-01-01
This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.
Understanding computer and information technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Yun Cheol; Han, Tack Don; Im, Sun Beom
2009-01-15
This book consists of four parts. The first part describes IT technology and information community understanding of computer system, constitution of software system and information system and application of software. The second part is about computer network, information and communication, application and internet service. The third part contains application and multi media, application of mobile computer, ubiquitous computing and ubiquitous environment and computer and digital life. The last part explains information security and ethics of information-oriented society, information industry and IT venture, digital contents technology and industry and the future and development of information-oriented society.
ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials
Murthy, Pappu L. N.
1997-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.
Quantitative information measurement and application for machine component classification codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ling-Feng; TAN Jian-rong; LIU Bo
2005-01-01
Information embodied in machine component classification codes has internal relation with the probability distribution of the code symbol. This paper presents a model considering codes as information source based on Shannon's information theory. Using information entropy, it preserves the mathematical form and quantitatively measures the information amount of a symbol and a bit in the machine component classification coding system. It also gets the maximum value of information amount and the corresponding coding scheme when the category of symbols is fixed. Samples are given to show how to evaluate the information amount of component codes and how to optimize a coding system.
Classical information capacity of superdense coding
Bowen, G H
2001-01-01
Classical communication through quantum channels may be enhanced by sharing entanglement. Superdense coding allows the encoding, and transmission, of up to two classical bits of information in a single qubit. In this paper, the maximum classical channel capacity for states that are not maximally entangled is derived. Particular schemes are then shown to attain this capacity, firstly for pairs of qubits, and secondly for pairs of qutrits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.
2004-09-14
This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.
40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... obtain stable solutions; (iv) Computer models accurately implement the numerical models; i.e.,...
Information causality and noisy computations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Li-Yi [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yu, I-Ching; Lin, Feng-Li [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)
2011-10-15
We reformulate the information causality in a more general framework by adopting the results of signal propagation and computation in a noisy circuit. In our framework, the information causality leads to a broad class of Tsirelson inequalities. This fact allows us to subject information causality to experimental scrutiny. A no-go theorem for reliable nonlocal computation is also derived. Information causality prevents any physical circuit from performing reliable computations.
COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT PRIVATE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL PROTOCOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Afanasyeva
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new computationally efficient private information retrieval protocol for one q-ary symbol retrieving. The main advantage of the proposed solution lies in a low computational complexity of information extraction procedure, as well as the constructive simplicity and flexibility in choosing the system parameters. Such results are based on cosets properties. The proposed protocol has communication complexity slightly worse than the best schemes at the moment, which is based on locally decodable codes, but it can be easily built for any parameters of the system, as opposed to codes. In comparison with similar solutions based on polynomials, the proposed method gains in computational complexity, which is important especially for servers which must service multiple requests from multiple users.
Hiding Quantum Information in the Perfect Code
Shaw, Bilal A
2010-01-01
We present and analyze a protocol for quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) encodes her steganographic information into the error syndromes of the perfect (five-qubit) quantum error-correcting code, and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a depolarizing channel. Alice and Bob share a classical secret key, and hide quantum information in such a way that to an eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the secret key, the quantum message looks like an innocent codeword with a typical sequence of quantum errors. We calculate the average rate of key consumption, and show how the protocol improves in performance as information is spread over multiple codeword blocks. Alice and Bob utilize different encodings to optimize the average number of steganographic bits that they can send to each other while matching the error statistics of the depolarizing channel.
EAI-oriented information classification code system in manufacturing enterprises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Junbiao WANG; Hu DENG; Jianjun JIANG; Binghong YANG; Bailing WANG
2008-01-01
Although the traditional information classifi-cation coding system in manufacturing enterprises (MEs) emphasizes the construction of code standards, it lacks the management of the code creation, code data transmission and so on. According to the demands of enterprise application integration (EAI) in manufacturing enter-prises, an enterprise application integration oriented information classification code system (EAIO-ICCS) is proposed. EAIO-ICCS expands the connotation of the information classification code system and assures the identity of the codes in manufacturing enterprises with unified management of codes at the view of its lifecycle.
Side-information Scalable Source Coding
Tian, Chao
2007-01-01
The problem of side-information scalable (SI-scalable) source coding is considered in this work, where the encoder constructs a progressive description, such that the receiver with high quality side information will be able to truncate the bitstream and reconstruct in the rate distortion sense, while the receiver with low quality side information will have to receive further data in order to decode. We provide inner and outer bounds for general discrete memoryless sources. The achievable region is shown to be tight for the case that either of the decoders requires a lossless reconstruction, as well as the case with degraded deterministic distortion measures. Furthermore we show that the gap between the achievable region and the outer bounds can be bounded by a constant when square error distortion measure is used. The notion of perfectly scalable coding is introduced as both the stages operate on the Wyner-Ziv bound, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for sources satisfying a mild support condi...
INFORMATION SECURITY IN COMPUTER NETWORKS
Мехед, Д. Б.
2016-01-01
The article deals with computer networks, types of construction, the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of different types of networks. The basic types of information transmission, highlighted their advantages and disadvantages, losing information and methods of protection.
Private Computing and Mobile Code Systems
Cartrysse, K.
2005-01-01
This thesis' objective is to provide privacy to mobile code. A practical example of mobile code is a mobile software agent that performs a task on behalf of its user. The agent travels over the network and is executed at different locations of which beforehand it is not known whether or not these ca
Computationally efficient sub-band coding of ECG signals.
Husøy, J H; Gjerde, T
1996-03-01
A data compression technique is presented for the compression of discrete time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The compression system is based on sub-band coding, a technique traditionally used for compressing speech and images. The sub-band coder employs quadrature mirror filter banks (QMF) with up to 32 critically sampled sub-bands. Both finite impulse response (FIR) and the more computationally efficient infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks are considered as candidates in a complete ECG coding system. The sub-bands are threshold, quantized using uniform quantizers and run-length coded. The output of the run-length coder is further compressed by a Huffman coder. Extensive simulations indicate that 16 sub-bands are a suitable choice for this application. Furthermore, IIR filter banks are preferable due to their superiority in terms of computational efficiency. We conclude that the present scheme, which is suitable for real time implementation on a PC, can provide compression ratios between 5 and 15 without loss of clinical information.
Subquantum information and computation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Antony Valentini
2002-08-01
It is argued that immense physical resources – for nonlocal communication, espionage, and exponentially-fast computation – are hidden from us by quantum noise, and that this noise is not fundamental but merely a property of an equilibrium state in which the universe happens to be at the present time. It is suggested that ‘non-quantum’ or nonequilibrium matter might exist today in the form of relic particles from the early universe. We describe how such matter could be detected and put to practical use. Nonequilibrium matter could be used to send instantaneous signals, to violate the uncertainty principle, to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states without disturbing them, to eavesdrop on quantum key distribution, and to outpace quantum computation (solving NP-complete problems in polynomial time).
Information processing, computation, and cognition.
Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea
2011-01-01
Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.
Computer codes for birds of North America
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Purpose of paper was to provide a more useful way to provide codes for all North American species, thus making the list useful for virtually all projects concerning...
Information theory and coding solved problems
Ivaniš, Predrag
2017-01-01
This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...
APPLICATION OF CODES WITH NATURAL REDUNDANCY FOR INFORMATION PROTECTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jablonovsky Y. A.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the article we provide a survey of cryptographic systems on the basis of unjammable coding; we offer the aspect of codes with natural redundancy for the solution of a problem of simultaneous protection of the information and detection and correction of errors; the demonstration is resulted that codes with natural redundancy are group codes
PORPST: A statistical postprocessor for the PORMC computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eslinger, P.W.; Didier, B.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))
1991-06-01
This report describes the theory underlying the PORPST code and gives details for using the code. The PORPST code is designed to do statistical postprocessing on files written by the PORMC computer code. The data written by PORMC are summarized in terms of means, variances, standard deviations, or statistical distributions. In addition, the PORPST code provides for plotting of the results, either internal to the code or through use of the CONTOUR3 postprocessor. Section 2.0 discusses the mathematical basis of the code, and Section 3.0 discusses the code structure. Section 4.0 describes the free-format point command language. Section 5.0 describes in detail the commands to run the program. Section 6.0 provides an example program run, and Section 7.0 provides the references. 11 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.
Quantum error correcting codes and one-way quantum computing: Towards a quantum memory
Schlingemann, D
2003-01-01
For realizing a quantum memory we suggest to first encode quantum information via a quantum error correcting code and then concatenate combined decoding and re-encoding operations. This requires that the encoding and the decoding operation can be performed faster than the typical decoherence time of the underlying system. The computational model underlying the one-way quantum computer, which has been introduced by Hans Briegel and Robert Raussendorf, provides a suitable concept for a fast implementation of quantum error correcting codes. It is shown explicitly in this article is how encoding and decoding operations for stabilizer codes can be realized on a one-way quantum computer. This is based on the graph code representation for stabilizer codes, on the one hand, and the relation between cluster states and graph codes, on the other hand.
Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liao-fu LUO
2009-01-01
The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code,and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity,and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.
Codes of Ethics for Computing at Russian Institutions and Universities.
Pourciau, Lester J.; Spain, Victoria, Ed.
1997-01-01
To determine the degree to which Russian institutions and universities have formulated and promulgated codes of ethics or policies for acceptable computer use, the author examined Russian institution and university home pages. Lists home pages examined, 10 commandments for computer ethics from the Computer Ethics Institute, and a policy statement…
Geometric plane shapes for computer-generated holographic engraving codes
Augier, Ángel G.; Rabal, Héctor; Sánchez, Raúl B.
2017-04-01
We report a new theoretical and experimental study on hologravures, as holographic computer-generated laser-engravings. A geometric theory of images based on the general principles of light ray behaviour is shown. The models used are also applicable for similar engravings obtained by any non-laser method, and the solutions allow for the analysis of particular situations, not only in the case of light reflection mode, but also in transmission mode geometry. This approach is a novel perspective allowing the three-dimensional (3D) design of engraved images for specific ends. We prove theoretically that plane curves of very general geometric shapes can be used to encode image information onto a two-dimensional (2D) engraving, showing notable influence on the behaviour of reconstructed images that appears as an exciting investigation topic, extending its applications. Several cases of code using particular curvilinear shapes are experimentally studied. The computer-generated objects are coded by using the chosen curve type, and engraved by a laser on a plane surface of suitable material. All images are recovered optically by adequate illumination. The pseudoscopic or orthoscopic character of these images is considered, and an appropriate interpretation is presented.
Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jichen Zhu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.
The information capacity of the genetic code: Is the natural code optimal?
Kuruoglu, Ercan E; Arndt, Peter F
2017-04-21
We envision the molecular evolution process as an information transfer process and provide a quantitative measure for information preservation in terms of the channel capacity according to the channel coding theorem of Shannon. We calculate Information capacities of DNA on the nucleotide (for non-coding DNA) and the amino acid (for coding DNA) level using various substitution models. We extend our results on coding DNA to a discussion about the optimality of the natural codon-amino acid code. We provide the results of an adaptive search algorithm in the code domain and demonstrate the existence of a large number of genetic codes with higher information capacity. Our results support the hypothesis of an ancient extension from a 2-nucleotide codon to the current 3-nucleotide codon code to encode the various amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structural Computer Code Evaluation. Volume I
1976-11-01
Rivlin model for large strains. Other exanmples are given in Reference 5. Hypoelasticity A hypoelastic material is one in which the components of...remains is the application of these codes to specific rocket nozzle problems and the evaluation of their capabilities to model modern nozzle mraterial...behavior. Further work may also require the development of appropriate material property data or new material models to adequately characterize these
Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes
Koenig, Robert; Reichardt, Ben W
2010-01-01
The Turaev-Viro invariant for a closed 3-manifold is defined as the contraction of a certain tensor network. The tensors correspond to tetrahedra in a triangulation of the manifold, with values determined by a fixed spherical category. For a manifold with boundary, the tensor network has free indices that can be associated to qudits, and its contraction gives the coefficients of a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers determined by Levin and Wen. For example, applied to the genus-one handlebody using the Z_2 category, this construction yields the well-known toric code. For other categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the construction realizes a non-abelian anyon model over a discrete lattice. By studying braid group representations acting on equivalence classes of colored ribbon graphs embedded in a punctured sphere, we identify the anyons, and give a simple recipe for mapping fusion basis states of the doubled category to ribbon graphs. We explain how suitable initial states can ...
Lattice Boltzmann method fundamentals and engineering applications with computer codes
Mohamad, A A
2014-01-01
Introducing the Lattice Boltzmann Method in a readable manner, this book provides detailed examples with complete computer codes. It avoids the most complicated mathematics and physics without scarifying the basic fundamentals of the method.
Superimposed Code Theoretic Analysis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Codes and DNA Computing
2010-01-01
DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292 – 2296...2008, pp. 525-34. 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE...component of this innovation is the combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences
Institutional computing (IC) information session
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Kenneth R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lally, Bryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-19
The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.
Computer aided power flow software engineering and code generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacher, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland)
1996-02-01
In this paper a software engineering concept is described which permits the automatic solution of a non-linear set of network equations. The power flow equation set can be seen as a defined subset of a network equation set. The automated solution process is the numerical Newton-Raphson solution process of the power flow equations where the key code parts are the numeric mismatch and the numeric Jacobian term computation. It is shown that both the Jacobian and the mismatch term source code can be automatically generated in a conventional language such as Fortran or C. Thereby one starts from a high level, symbolic language with automatic differentiation and code generation facilities. As a result of this software engineering process an efficient, very high quality newton-Raphson solution code is generated which allows easier implementation of network equation model enhancements and easier code maintenance as compared to hand-coded Fortran or C code.
Computer aided power flow software engineering and code generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacher, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland)
1995-12-31
In this paper a software engineering concept is described which permits the automatic solution of a non-linear set of network equations. The power flow equation set can be seen as a defined subset of a network equation set. The automated solution process is the numerical Newton-Raphson solution process of the power flow equations where the key code parts are the numeric mismatch and the numeric Jacobian term computation. It is shown that both the Jacobian and the mismatch term source code can be automatically generated in a conventional language such as Fortran or C. Thereby one starts from a high level, symbolic language with automatic differentiation and code generation facilities. As a result of this software engineering process an efficient, very high quality Newton-Raphson solution code is generated which allows easier implementation of network equation model enhancements and easier code maintenance as compared to hand-coded Fortran or C code.
Quantum computation with topological codes from qubit to topological fault-tolerance
Fujii, Keisuke
2015-01-01
This book presents a self-consistent review of quantum computation with topological quantum codes. The book covers everything required to understand topological fault-tolerant quantum computation, ranging from the definition of the surface code to topological quantum error correction and topological fault-tolerant operations. The underlying basic concepts and powerful tools, such as universal quantum computation, quantum algorithms, stabilizer formalism, and measurement-based quantum computation, are also introduced in a self-consistent way. The interdisciplinary fields between quantum information and other fields of physics such as condensed matter physics and statistical physics are also explored in terms of the topological quantum codes. This book thus provides the first comprehensive description of the whole picture of topological quantum codes and quantum computation with them.
APC: A New Code for Atmospheric Polarization Computations
Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.
2014-01-01
A new polarized radiative transfer code Atmospheric Polarization Computations (APC) is described. The code is based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth (regular) parts. The anisotropic part is computed analytically. The smooth regular part is computed numerically using the discrete ordinates method. Vertical stratification of the atmosphere, common types of bidirectional surface reflection and scattering by spherical particles or spheroids are included. A particular consideration is given to computation of the bidirectional polarization distribution function (BPDF) of the waved ocean surface.
Neutron noise computation using panda deterministic code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humbert, Ph. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel (France)
2003-07-01
PANDA is a general purpose discrete ordinates neutron transport code with deterministic and non deterministic applications. In this paper we consider the adaptation of PANDA to stochastic neutron counting problems. More specifically we consider the first two moments of the count number probability distribution. In a first part we will recall the equations for the single neutron and source induced count number moments with the corresponding expression for the excess of relative variance or Feynman function. In a second part we discuss the numerical solution of these inhomogeneous adjoint time dependent transport coupled equations with discrete ordinate methods. Finally, numerical applications are presented in the third part. (author)
Compute-and-Forward: Harnessing Interference through Structured Codes
Nazer, Bobak
2009-01-01
Interference is usually viewed as an obstacle to communication in wireless networks. This paper proposes a new strategy, compute-and-forward, that exploits interference to obtain significantly higher rates between users in a network. The key idea is that relays should decode linear functions of transmitted messages according to their observed channel coefficients rather than ignoring the interference as noise. After decoding these linear equations, the relays simply send them towards the destinations, which given enough equations, can recover their desired messages. The underlying codes are based on nested lattices whose algebraic structure ensures that integer combinations of codewords can be decoded reliably. Encoders map messages from a finite field to a lattice and decoders recover equations of lattice points which are then mapped back to equations over the finite field. This scheme is applicable even if the transmitters lack channel state information. Its potential is demonstrated through examples drawn ...
Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1981-01-01
A computer program has been developed and is described herein for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.
The duality of coding assessment information
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Erna Kinsey
suggested with specific reference to mathematics as learning area. Introduction ... broad and general that any open-ended response may suffice. Purpose of the study .... How will teachers approach a coding system given these guide- lines?
Computer vision cracks the leaf code.
Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas
2016-03-22
Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies.
Predictive coding and the slowness principle: an information-theoretic approach.
Creutzig, Felix; Sprekeler, Henning
2008-04-01
Understanding the guiding principles of sensory coding strategies is a main goal in computational neuroscience. Among others, the principles of predictive coding and slowness appear to capture aspects of sensory processing. Predictive coding postulates that sensory systems are adapted to the structure of their input signals such that information about future inputs is encoded. Slow feature analysis (SFA) is a method for extracting slowly varying components from quickly varying input signals, thereby learning temporally invariant features. Here, we use the information bottleneck method to state an information-theoretic objective function for temporally local predictive coding. We then show that the linear case of SFA can be interpreted as a variant of predictive coding that maximizes the mutual information between the current output of the system and the input signal in the next time step. This demonstrates that the slowness principle and predictive coding are intimately related.
Computers in Information Sciences: On-Line Systems.
COMPUTERS, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *ONLINE SYSTEMS, * INFORMATION SCIENCES , DATA PROCESSING, DATA MANAGEMENT, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, ANALOG COMPUTERS.
Information technology and computational physics
Kóczy, László; Mesiar, Radko; Kacprzyk, Janusz
2017-01-01
A broad spectrum of modern Information Technology (IT) tools, techniques, main developments and still open challenges is presented. Emphasis is on new research directions in various fields of science and technology that are related to data analysis, data mining, knowledge discovery, information retrieval, clustering and classification, decision making and decision support, control, computational mathematics and physics, to name a few. Applications in many relevant fields are presented, notably in telecommunication, social networks, recommender systems, fault detection, robotics, image analysis and recognition, electronics, etc. The methods used by the authors range from high level formal mathematical tools and techniques, through algorithmic and computational tools, to modern metaheuristics.
Application of the RESRAD computer code to VAMP scenario S
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gnanapragasam, E.K.; Yu, C.
1997-03-01
The RESRAD computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was among 11 models from 11 countries participating in the international Scenario S validation of radiological assessment models with Chernobyl fallout data from southern Finland. The validation test was conducted by the Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group of the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP) program coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. RESRAD was enhanced to provide an output of contaminant concentrations in environmental media and in food products to compare with measured data from southern Finland. Probability distributions for inputs that were judged to be most uncertain were obtained from the literature and from information provided in the scenario description prepared by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The deterministic version of RESRAD was run repeatedly to generate probability distributions for the required predictions. These predictions were used later to verify the probabilistic RESRAD code. The RESRAD predictions of radionuclide concentrations are compared with measured concentrations in selected food products. The radiological doses predicted by RESRAD are also compared with those estimated by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety.
HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherpelz, R.I.
1991-02-01
The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.
Computer code applicability assessment for the advanced Candu reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wren, D.J.; Langman, V.J.; Popov, N.; Snell, V.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (Canada)
2004-07-01
AECL Technologies, the 100%-owned US subsidiary of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), is currently the proponents of a pre-licensing review of the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A key focus topic for this pre-application review is the NRC acceptance of the computer codes used in the safety analysis of the ACR. These codes have been developed and their predictions compared against experimental results over extended periods of time in Canada. These codes have also undergone formal validation in the 1990's. In support of this formal validation effort AECL has developed, implemented and currently maintains a Software Quality Assurance program (SQA) to ensure that its analytical, scientific and design computer codes meet the required standards for software used in safety analyses. This paper discusses the SQA program used to develop, qualify and maintain the computer codes used in ACR safety analysis, including the current program underway to confirm the applicability of these computer codes for use in ACR safety analyses. (authors)
A new approach to information coding and protection based on the theory of matroids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Borshevich
1994-06-01
Full Text Available A new approach to coding and protection of information in the computer and telecommunication systems is proposed and discussed. It is based on the mathematical apparatus of the theory of matroids, which in combination with the randomization method gives the possibility to protect large volumes of information against spoils, having considerably high speed of coding/decoding of information even on the PC platform. The proposed approach open the way for building of a new class of codes usable for recovering of large amount of information with high degree of accuracy.
Computer Security: better code, fewer problems
Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team
2016-01-01
The origin of many security incidents is negligence or unintentional mistakes made by web developers or programmers. In the rush to complete the work, due to skewed priorities, or just to ignorance, basic security principles can be omitted or forgotten. The resulting vulnerabilities lie dormant until the evil side spots them and decides to hit hard. Computer security incidents in the past have put CERN’s reputation at risk due to websites being defaced with negative messages about the Organization, hash files of passwords being extracted, restricted data exposed… And it all started with a little bit of negligence! If you check out the Top 10 web development blunders, you will see that the most prevalent mistakes are: Not filtering input, e.g. accepting “<“ or “>” in input fields even if only a number is expected. Not validating that input: you expect a birth date? So why accept letters? &...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jungsik Choi; Inhan Kim
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to suggest a way of optimized managing and sharing information be-tween standard architectural drawings and construction documents in Korea architectural industry for auto-mated code checking system by linked STEP and XML. To archive this purpose, the authors have analyzed current research and technical development for STEP and XML link and developed a prototype system for sharing information between model based drawings and XML based construction documents. Finally, the authors have suggested practical use scenario of sharing information through linked STEP and XML using test case of automatic code checking. In the paper, the possibility of constructing integrated architectural computing environment through exchange and sharing of drawing information and external data for the whole building life-cycle, from the conceptual design stage to the construction and maintenance stage has been examined. Automated code checking through linked STEP and XML could be enhanced through col-laboration business, more completed code, improved building performance, and reduced construction costs.
A three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code for insertion devices.
Chubar, O; Elleaume, P; Chavanne, J
1998-05-01
RADIA is a three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code optimized for the design of undulators and wigglers. It solves boundary magnetostatics problems with magnetized and current-carrying volumes using the boundary integral approach. The magnetized volumes can be arbitrary polyhedrons with non-linear (iron) or linear anisotropic (permanent magnet) characteristics. The current-carrying elements can be straight or curved blocks with rectangular cross sections. Boundary conditions are simulated by the technique of mirroring. Analytical formulae used for the computation of the field produced by a magnetized volume of a polyhedron shape are detailed. The RADIA code is written in object-oriented C++ and interfaced to Mathematica [Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc.]. The code outperforms currently available finite-element packages with respect to the CPU time of the solver and accuracy of the field integral estimations. An application of the code to the case of a wedge-pole undulator is presented.
Low Computational Complexity Network Coding For Mobile Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus
2012-01-01
Network Coding (NC) is a technique that can provide benefits in many types of networks, some examples from wireless networks are: In relay networks, either the physical or the data link layer, to reduce the number of transmissions. In reliable multicast, to reduce the amount of signaling and enable...... cooperation among receivers. In meshed networks, to simplify routing schemes and to increase robustness toward node failures. This thesis deals with implementation issues of one NC technique namely Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) which can be described as a highly decentralized non-deterministic intra......-flow coding technique. One of the key challenges of this technique is its inherent computational complexity which can lead to high computational load and energy consumption in particular on the mobile platforms that are the target platform in this work. To increase the coding throughput several...
Recent applications of the transonic wing analysis computer code, TWING
Subramanian, N. R.; Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.
1982-01-01
An evaluation of the transonic-wing-analysis computer code TWING is given. TWING utilizes a fully implicit approximate factorization iteration scheme to solve the full potential equation in conservative form. A numerical elliptic-solver grid-generation scheme is used to generate the required finite-difference mesh. Several wing configurations were analyzed, and the limits of applicability of this code was evaluated. Comparisons of computed results were made with available experimental data. Results indicate that the code is robust, accurate (when significant viscous effects are not present), and efficient. TWING generally produces solutions an order of magnitude faster than other conservative full potential codes using successive-line overrelaxation. The present method is applicable to a wide range of isolated wing configurations including high-aspect-ratio transport wings and low-aspect-ratio, high-sweep, fighter configurations.
FLASH: A finite element computer code for variably saturated flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.
1992-05-01
A numerical model was developed for use in performance assessment studies at the INEL. The numerical model, referred to as the FLASH computer code, is designed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow in fractured-porous media. The code is specifically designed to model variably saturated flow in an arid site vadose zone and saturated flow in an unconfined aquifer. In addition, the code also has the capability to simulate heat conduction in the vadose zone. This report presents the following: description of the conceptual frame-work and mathematical theory; derivations of the finite element techniques and algorithms; computational examples that illustrate the capability of the code; and input instructions for the general use of the code. The FLASH computer code is aimed at providing environmental scientists at the INEL with a predictive tool for the subsurface water pathway. This numerical model is expected to be widely used in performance assessments for: (1) the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and (2) compliance studies required by the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The eukaryotic genome contains varying numbers of non-coding RNA(ncRNA) genes."Computational RNomics" takes a multidisciplinary approach,like information science,to resolve the structure and function of ncRNAs.Here,we review the main issues in "Computational RNomics" of data storage and management,ncRNA gene identification and characterization,ncRNA target identification and functional prediction,and we summarize the main methods and current content of "computational RNomics".
MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eileen P. Poeter and Mary C. Hill
2007-08-20
This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations.
Computer and information security handbook
Vacca, John R
2012-01-01
The second edition of this comprehensive handbook of computer and information security provides the most complete view of computer security and privacy available. It offers in-depth coverage of security theory, technology, and practice as they relate to established technologies as well as recent advances. It explores practical solutions to many security issues. Individual chapters are authored by leading experts in the field and address the immediate and long-term challenges in the authors' respective areas of expertise. The book is organized into 10 parts comprised of 70 contributed
Information preserved guided scan pixel difference coding for medical images
Takaya, K; Yuan, L; Takaya, Kunio; Yuan, Li
2001-01-01
This paper analyzes the information content of medical images, with 3-D MRI images as an example, in terms of information entropy. The results of the analysis justify the use of Pixel Difference Coding for preserving all information contained in the original pictures, lossless coding in other words. The experimental results also indicate that the compression ratio CR=2:1 can be achieved under the lossless constraints. A pratical implementation of Pixel Difference Coding which allows interactive retrieval of local ROI (Region of Interest), while maintaining the near low bound information entropy, is discussed.
Highly Optimized Code Generation for Stencil Codes with Computation Reuse for GPUs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen-Jing Ma; Kan Gao; Guo-Ping Long
2016-01-01
Computation reuse is known as an effective optimization technique. However, due to the complexity of modern GPU architectures, there is yet not enough understanding regarding the intriguing implications of the interplay of compu-tation reuse and hardware specifics on application performance. In this paper, we propose an automatic code generator for a class of stencil codes with inherent computation reuse on GPUs. For such applications, the proper reuse of intermediate results, combined with careful register and on-chip local memory usage, has profound implications on performance. Current state of the art does not address this problem in depth, partially due to the lack of a good program representation that can expose all potential computation reuse. In this paper, we leverage the computation overlap graph (COG), a simple representation of data dependence and data reuse with “element view”, to expose potential reuse opportunities. Using COG, we propose a portable code generation and tuning framework for GPUs. Compared with current state-of-the-art code generators, our experimental results show up to 56.7%performance improvement on modern GPUs such as NVIDIA C2050.
Parallelization of Finite Element Analysis Codes Using Heterogeneous Distributed Computing
Ozguner, Fusun
1996-01-01
Performance gains in computer design are quickly consumed as users seek to analyze larger problems to a higher degree of accuracy. Innovative computational methods, such as parallel and distributed computing, seek to multiply the power of existing hardware technology to satisfy the computational demands of large applications. In the early stages of this project, experiments were performed using two large, coarse-grained applications, CSTEM and METCAN. These applications were parallelized on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. It was found that the overall speedup was very low, due to large, inherently sequential code segments present in the applications. The overall execution time T(sub par), of the application is dependent on these sequential segments. If these segments make up a significant fraction of the overall code, the application will have a poor speedup measure.
Prodeto, a computer code for probabilistic fatigue design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braam, H. [ECN-Solar and Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Christensen, C.J.; Thoegersen, M.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Ronold, K.O. [Det Norske Veritas, Hoevik (Norway)
1999-03-01
A computer code for structural relibility analyses of wind turbine rotor blades subjected to fatigue loading is presented. With pre-processors that can transform measured and theoretically predicted load series to load range distributions by rain-flow counting and with a family of generic distribution models for parametric representation of these distribution this computer program is available for carying through probabilistic fatigue analyses of rotor blades. (au)
Methods and computer codes for nuclear systems calculations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B P Kochurov; A P Knyazev; A Yu Kwaretzkheli
2007-02-01
Some numerical methods for reactor cell, sub-critical systems and 3D models of nuclear reactors are presented. The methods are developed for steady states and space–time calculations. Computer code TRIFON solves space-energy problem in (, ) systems of finite height and calculates heterogeneous few-group matrix parameters of reactor cells. These parameters are used as input data in the computer code SHERHAN solving the 3D heterogeneous reactor equation for steady states and 3D space–time neutron processes simulation. Modification of TRIFON was developed for the simulation of space–time processes in sub-critical systems with external sources. An option of SHERHAN code for the system with external sources is under development.
Computer code for double beta decay QRPA based calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbero, C. A.; Mariano, A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina and Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Krmpotić, F. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, La Plata, Argentina and Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil); Samana, A. R.; Ferreira, V. dos Santos [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA (Brazil); Bertulani, C. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX (United States)
2014-11-11
The computer code developed by our group some years ago for the evaluation of nuclear matrix elements, within the QRPA and PQRPA nuclear structure models, involved in neutrino-nucleus reactions, muon capture and β{sup ±} processes, is extended to include also the nuclear double beta decay.
Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education
Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu
2015-01-01
Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…
Connecting Neural Coding to Number Cognition: A Computational Account
Prather, Richard W.
2012-01-01
The current study presents a series of computational simulations that demonstrate how the neural coding of numerical magnitude may influence number cognition and development. This includes behavioral phenomena cataloged in cognitive literature such as the development of numerical estimation and operational momentum. Though neural research has…
General review of the MOSTAS computer code for wind turbines
Dungundji, J.; Wendell, J. H.
1981-01-01
The MOSTAS computer code for wind turbine analysis is reviewed, and techniques and methods used in its analyses are described. Impressions of its strengths and weakness, and recommendations for its application, modification, and further development are made. Basic techniques used in wind turbine stability and response analyses for systems with constant and periodic coefficients are reviewed.
Coding with Side Information for Radiation-Tolerant Memory Devices
Hwang, E.; Jeon, S.; Negi, R.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Cheng, M. K.
2011-11-01
Memory devices aboard spacecraft experience radiation-induced errors either in the form of temporary upsets (soft errors) or permanent defects (hard or stuck-at errors). Error-correcting codes (ECCs) are used to recover memory content from errors where defective cells are either regarded as erasures by the decoder or entire blocks containing defective cells are marked as unusable. In this article, alternative coding schemes are investigated for memory devices in space, where the encoder is provided with the locations of the defective cells, denoted by side information. This coding approach has the potential to improve the overall storage capacity of memory devices, since the information theoretic capacity of a channel where side information is only available at the encoder is the same as the capacity where side information is available at both the encoder and decoder. Spacecraft memory controllers typically scrub memory devices periodically for errors. Partial side information can be obtained during this scrubbing process by comparing the ECC decoder output with its input and thereby avoid the need for additional cell tests or storage overhead. In between scrubbings, the encoder can use this partial side information to account for permanent defects to improve reliability or to increase the storage capacity of onboard memory devices. In order to achieve performance gains for practical memory systems, several coding schemes that adaptively incorporate the codeword with the known side information are proposed in this article. The proposed coding schemes are evaluated by numerical simulations on a memory channel model characterized by soft and hard errors. Simulation results show that while coding with complete side information at the encoder offers the most performance gain compared to when coding without side information is used, coding with partial side information can close the gap between the optimal and current approach without incurring much additional overhead
Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correa, S.C.A. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT)/UEZO, Av. Manuel Caldeira de Alvarenga, 1203, Campo Grande, 23070-200, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, E.M. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Poli CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cassiano, D.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-09-15
Simulating X-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how X-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data.
Information sets from defining sets in abelian codes
Bernal, José Joaquín
2011-01-01
We describe a technique to construct a set of check positions (and hence an information set) for every abelian code solely in terms of its defining set. This generalizes that given by Imai in \\cite{Imai} in the case of binary TDC codes.
Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porter, G.D. (ed.)
1989-03-10
This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.
Fault-tolerant quantum computing with color codes
Landahl, Andrew J; Rice, Patrick R
2011-01-01
We present and analyze protocols for fault-tolerant quantum computing using color codes. We present circuit-level schemes for extracting the error syndrome of these codes fault-tolerantly. We further present an integer-program-based decoding algorithm for identifying the most likely error given the syndrome. We simulated our syndrome extraction and decoding algorithms against three physically-motivated noise models using Monte Carlo methods, and used the simulations to estimate the corresponding accuracy thresholds for fault-tolerant quantum error correction. We also used a self-avoiding walk analysis to lower-bound the accuracy threshold for two of these noise models. We present and analyze two architectures for fault-tolerantly computing with these codes: one with 2D arrays of qubits are stacked atop each other and one in a single 2D substrate. Our analysis demonstrates that color codes perform slightly better than Kitaev's surface codes when circuit details are ignored. When these details are considered, w...
New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostin, M.A.; /Michigan State U., NSCL; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Niita, K.; /JAERI, Tokai
2010-09-01
A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was integrated with the MARS15 code, and an effort is under way to deploy it in PHITS. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. Several checkpoint files can be merged into one thus combining results of several calculations. The framework also corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.
New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes
Kostin, M A; Niita, K
2012-01-01
A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The frame work was integrated with the MARS15 code, and an effort is under way to deploy it in PHITS. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. Several checkpoint files can be merged into one thus combining results of several calculations. The framework also corrects some of the known problems with the sch eduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be...
Utility launches computer information service
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaty, W. [ed.; Ordonez, B.
1994-12-01
Three employees at Lee County Electric Cooperative in North Fort Meyers, Fla., have developed InterLine, an on-line computer service designed specifically for the electric utility industry. Since introducing InterLine to the public, the development team has been looking at what areas of information would be most useful to subscribers. In the initial phase, system features include forums on electrical engineering, safety and health and transmission and distribution, a library of files and the Internet gateway. If InterLIne is embraced by the electric utility industry, long range plans are to take it internationls.
Private Information Retrieval and Connections to Coding Theory
Horlemann, Anna-Lena
2017-01-01
We give an introduction to the problem of private information retrieval and show simple first ideas how to achieve this. Then we will generalize these ideas and show how known techniques from coding theory are helpful in this regard.
LMFBR models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croff, A.G.; McAdoo, J.W.; Bjerke, M.A.
1983-06-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of nine liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. Four of the models are based on the U-Pu fuel cycle, two are based on the Th-U-Pu fuel cycle, and three are based on the Th-/sup 233/U fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST are given.
LMFBR models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croff, A.G.; McAdoo, J.W.; Bjerke, M.A.
1981-10-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of nine liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. Four of the models are based on the U-Pu fuel cycle, two are based on the Th-U-Pu fuel cycle, and three are based on the Th-/sup 238/U fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST are given.
User's manual for HDR3 computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arundale, C.J.
1982-10-01
A description of the HDR3 computer code and instructions for its use are provided. HDR3 calculates space heating costs for a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal space heating system. The code also compares these costs to those of a specific oil heating system in use at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Flight Center at Wallops Island, Virginia. HDR3 allows many HDR system parameters to be varied so that the user may examine various reservoir management schemes and may optimize reservoir design to suit a particular set of geophysical and economic parameters.
Statistical Computing in Information Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domański Czesław
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the presence of massive data coming with high heterogeneity we need to change our statistical thinking and statistical education in order to adapt both - classical statistics and software developments that address new challenges. Significant developments include open data, big data, data visualisation, and they are changing the nature of the evidence that is available, the ways in which it is presented and the skills needed for its interpretation. The amount of information is not the most important issue – the real challenge is the combination of the amount and the complexity of data. Moreover, a need arises to know how uncertain situations should be dealt with and what decisions should be taken when information is insufficient (which can also be observed for large datasets. In the paper we discuss the idea of computational statistics as a new approach to statistical teaching and we try to answer a question: how we can best prepare the next generation of statisticians.
Multiple Access Network Information-flow And Correction codes
Yao, Hongyi; Jaggi, Sidharth; Ho, Tracey
2010-01-01
The network communication scenario where one or more receivers request all the information transmitted by different sources is considered. We introduce distributed polynomial-time network codes in the presence of malicious nodes. Our codes can achieve any point inside the rate region of multiple-source multicast transmission scenarios both in the cases of coherent and non-coherent network coding. For both cases the encoding and decoding algorithm runs in poly(|E|)exp(s) time, where poly(|E|) is a polynomial function of the number of edges |E| in the network and exp(s) is an exponential function of the number of sources s. Our codes are fully distributed and different sources require no knowledge of the data transmitted by their peers. Our codes are "end-to-end", that is, all nodes apart from the sources and the receivers are oblivious to the adversaries present in the network and simply implement random linear network coding.
Information sets as permutation cycles for quadratic residue codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard A. Jenson
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The two cases p=7 and p=23 are the only known cases where the automorphism group of the [p+1, (p+1/2] extended binary quadratic residue code, O(p, properly contains PSL(2,p. These codes have some of their information sets represented as permutation cycles from Aut(Q(p. Analysis proves that all information sets of Q(7 are so represented but those of Q(23 are not.
War of ontology worlds: mathematics, computer code, or Esperanto?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Rzhetsky
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The use of structured knowledge representations-ontologies and terminologies-has become standard in biomedicine. Definitions of ontologies vary widely, as do the values and philosophies that underlie them. In seeking to make these views explicit, we conducted and summarized interviews with a dozen leading ontologists. Their views clustered into three broad perspectives that we summarize as mathematics, computer code, and Esperanto. Ontology as mathematics puts the ultimate premium on rigor and logic, symmetry and consistency of representation across scientific subfields, and the inclusion of only established, non-contradictory knowledge. Ontology as computer code focuses on utility and cultivates diversity, fitting ontologies to their purpose. Like computer languages C++, Prolog, and HTML, the code perspective holds that diverse applications warrant custom designed ontologies. Ontology as Esperanto focuses on facilitating cross-disciplinary communication, knowledge cross-referencing, and computation across datasets from diverse communities. We show how these views align with classical divides in science and suggest how a synthesis of their concerns could strengthen the next generation of biomedical ontologies.
War of Ontology Worlds: Mathematics, Computer Code, or Esperanto?
Rzhetsky, Andrey; Evans, James A.
2011-01-01
The use of structured knowledge representations—ontologies and terminologies—has become standard in biomedicine. Definitions of ontologies vary widely, as do the values and philosophies that underlie them. In seeking to make these views explicit, we conducted and summarized interviews with a dozen leading ontologists. Their views clustered into three broad perspectives that we summarize as mathematics, computer code, and Esperanto. Ontology as mathematics puts the ultimate premium on rigor and logic, symmetry and consistency of representation across scientific subfields, and the inclusion of only established, non-contradictory knowledge. Ontology as computer code focuses on utility and cultivates diversity, fitting ontologies to their purpose. Like computer languages C++, Prolog, and HTML, the code perspective holds that diverse applications warrant custom designed ontologies. Ontology as Esperanto focuses on facilitating cross-disciplinary communication, knowledge cross-referencing, and computation across datasets from diverse communities. We show how these views align with classical divides in science and suggest how a synthesis of their concerns could strengthen the next generation of biomedical ontologies. PMID:21980276
Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan
2015-10-01
In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.
MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis
Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.
2007-01-01
This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations. Many applications of MMA will
Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritchie, L.T.; Johnson, J.D.; Blond, R.M.
1983-02-01
The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems.
"Source Coding With a Side Information ""Vending Machine"""
Weissman, Tsachy; Permuter, Haim H.
2011-01-01
We study source coding in the presence of side information, when the system can take actions that affect the availability, quality, or nature of the side information. We begin by extending the Wyner-Ziv problem of source coding with decoder side information to the case where the decoder is allowed to choose actions affecting the side information. We then consider the setting where actions are taken by the encoder, based on its observation of the source. Actions may have costs that are commens...
Benchmarking of computer codes and approaches for modeling exposure scenarios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seitz, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rittmann, P.D.; Wood, M.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cook, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)
1994-08-01
The US Department of Energy Headquarters established a performance assessment task team (PATT) to integrate the activities of DOE sites that are preparing performance assessments for the disposal of newly generated low-level waste. The PATT chartered a subteam with the task of comparing computer codes and exposure scenarios used for dose calculations in performance assessments. This report documents the efforts of the subteam. Computer codes considered in the comparison include GENII, PATHRAE-EPA, MICROSHIELD, and ISOSHLD. Calculations were also conducted using spreadsheets to provide a comparison at the most fundamental level. Calculations and modeling approaches are compared for unit radionuclide concentrations in water and soil for the ingestion, inhalation, and external dose pathways. Over 30 tables comparing inputs and results are provided.
Computational Complexity of Decoding Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes
Ayanoglu, Ender; Karipidis, Eleftherios
2009-01-01
The computational complexity of optimum decoding for an orthogonal space-time block code G satisfying the orthogonality property that the Hermitian transpose of G multiplied by G is equal to a constant c times the sum of the squared symbols of the code times an identity matrix, where c is a positive integer is quantified. Four equivalent techniques of optimum decoding which have the same computational complexity are specified. Modifications to the basic formulation in special cases are calculated and illustrated by means of examples. This paper corrects and extends [1],[2], and unifies them with the results from the literature. In addition, a number of results from the literature are extended to the case c > 1.
Error Correction for Index Coding with Side Information
Dau, Son Hoang; Chee, Yeow Meng
2011-01-01
A problem of index coding with side information was first considered by Y. Birk and T. Kol (IEEE INFOCOM, 1998). In the present work, a generalization of index coding scheme, where transmitted symbols are subject to errors, is studied. Error-correcting methods for such a scheme, and their parameters, are investigated. In particular, the following question is discussed: given the side information hypergraph of index coding scheme and the maximal number of erroneous symbols $\\delta$, what is the shortest length of a linear index code, such that every receiver is able to recover the required information? This question turns out to be a generalization of the problem of finding a shortest-length error-correcting code with a prescribed error-correcting capability in the classical coding theory. The Singleton bound and two other bounds, referred to as the $\\alpha$-bound and the $\\kappa$-bound, for the optimal length of a linear error-correcting index code (ECIC) are established. For large alphabets, a construction b...
Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R. [Missouri Univ. Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Stoica, A.D. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, Bucharest (Romania)
1997-09-01
Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.
General review of the MOSTAS computer code for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dugundji, J.; Wendell, J.H.
1981-06-01
The MOSTAS computer code for wind turbine analysis is reviewed, and the techniques and methods used in its analyses are described in some detail. Some impressions of its strengths and weaknesses, and some recommendations for its application, modification, and further development are made. Additionally, some basic techniques used in wind turbine stability and response analyses for systems with constant and periodic coefficients are reviewed in the Appendices.
Refactoring Android Java Code for On-Demand Computation Offloading
Zhang, Ying; Huang, Gang; Liu, Xuanzhe; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Mei, Hong; Yang, Shunxiang
2012-01-01
International audience; Computation offloading is a promising way to improve the performance as well as reduce the battery energy consumption of a smartphone application by executing some part of the application on a remote server. Supporting such capability is not easy to smartphone app developers for 1) correctness: some codes, e.g. those for GPS, gravity and other sensors, can only run on the smartphone so that the developers have to identify which part of the application cannot be offload...
Methodology for computational fluid dynamics code verification/validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.; Aeschliman, D.P.
1995-07-01
The issues of verification, calibration, and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes has been receiving increasing levels of attention in the research literature and in engineering technology. Both CFD researchers and users of CFD codes are asking more critical and detailed questions concerning the accuracy, range of applicability, reliability and robustness of CFD codes and their predictions. This is a welcomed trend because it demonstrates that CFD is maturing from a research tool to the world of impacting engineering hardware and system design. In this environment, the broad issue of code quality assurance becomes paramount. However, the philosophy and methodology of building confidence in CFD code predictions has proven to be more difficult than many expected. A wide variety of physical modeling errors and discretization errors are discussed. Here, discretization errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential equations to algebraic equations, and their solution. Boundary conditions for both the partial differential equations and the discretized equations will be discussed. Contrasts are drawn between the assumptions and actual use of numerical method consistency and stability. Comments are also made concerning the existence and uniqueness of solutions for both the partial differential equations and the discrete equations. Various techniques are suggested for the detection and estimation of errors caused by physical modeling and discretization of the partial differential equations.
Dynamics of Information as Natural Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gordana Dodig Crnkovic
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Processes considered rendering information dynamics have been studied, among others in: questions and answers, observations, communication, learning, belief revision, logical inference, game-theoretic interactions and computation. This article will put the computational approaches into a broader context of natural computation, where information dynamics is not only found in human communication and computational machinery but also in the entire nature. Information is understood as representing the world (reality as an informational web for a cognizing agent, while information dynamics (information processing, computation realizes physical laws through which all the changes of informational structures unfold. Computation as it appears in the natural world is more general than the human process of calculation modeled by the Turing machine. Natural computing is epitomized through the interactions of concurrent, in general asynchronous computational processes which are adequately represented by what Abramsky names “the second generation models of computation” [1] which we argue to be the most general representation of information dynamics.
Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)
1997-12-01
The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.
Sound and computer information presentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bly, S
1982-03-01
This thesis examines the use of sound to present data. Computer graphics currently offers a vast array of techniques for communicating data to analysts. Graphics is limited, however, by the number of dimensions that can be perceived at one time, by the types of data that lend themselves to visual representation, and by the necessary eye focus on the output. Sound offers an enhancement and an alternative to graphic tools. Multivariate, logarithmic, and time-varying data provide examples for aural representation. For each of these three types of data, the thesis suggests a method of encoding the information into sound and presents various applications. Data values were mapped to sound characteristics such as pitch and volume so that information was presented as sets or sequences of notes. In all cases, the resulting sounds conveyed information in a manner consistent with prior knowledge of the data. Experiments showed that sound does convey information accurately and that sound can enhance graphic presentations. Subjects were tested on their ability to distinguish between two sources of test items. In the first phase of the experiments, subjects discriminated between two 6-dimensional data sets represented in sound. In the second phase of the experiment, 75 subjects were selected and assigned to one of three groups. The first group of 25 heard test items, the second group saw test items, and the third group both heard and saw the test items. The average percentage correct was 64.5% for the sound-only group, 62% for the graphics-only group, and 69% for the sound and graphics group. In the third phase, additional experiments focused on the mapping between data values and sound characteristics and on the training methods.
User manual for PACTOLUS: a code for computing power costs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, H.D.; Bloomster, C.H.
1979-02-01
PACTOLUS is a computer code for calculating the cost of generating electricity. Through appropriate definition of the input data, PACTOLUS can calculate the cost of generating electricity from a wide variety of power plants, including nuclear, fossil, geothermal, solar, and other types of advanced energy systems. The purpose of PACTOLUS is to develop cash flows and calculate the unit busbar power cost (mills/kWh) over the entire life of a power plant. The cash flow information is calculated by two principal models: the Fuel Model and the Discounted Cash Flow Model. The Fuel Model is an engineering cost model which calculates the cash flow for the fuel cycle costs over the project lifetime based on input data defining the fuel material requirements, the unit costs of fuel materials and processes, the process lead and lag times, and the schedule of the capacity factor for the plant. For nuclear plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the entire nuclear fuel cycle. For fossil plants, the Fuel Model calculates the cash flow for the fossil fuel purchases. The Discounted Cash Flow Model combines the fuel costs generated by the Fuel Model with input data on the capital costs, capital structure, licensing time, construction time, rates of return on capital, tax rates, operating costs, and depreciation method of the plant to calculate the cash flow for the entire lifetime of the project. The financial and tax structure for both investor-owned utilities and municipal utilities can be simulated through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. The Discounted Cash Flow Model uses the principal that the present worth of the revenues will be equal to the present worth of the expenses including the return on investment over the economic life of the project. This manual explains how to prepare the input data, execute cases, and interpret the output results. (RWR)
Locally decodable codes and private information retrieval schemes
Yekhanin, Sergey
2010-01-01
Locally decodable codes (LDCs) are codes that simultaneously provide efficient random access retrieval and high noise resilience by allowing reliable reconstruction of an arbitrary bit of a message by looking at only a small number of randomly chosen codeword bits. Local decodability comes with a certain loss in terms of efficiency - specifically, locally decodable codes require longer codeword lengths than their classical counterparts. Private information retrieval (PIR) schemes are cryptographic protocols designed to safeguard the privacy of database users. They allow clients to retrieve rec
Information Theoretic Authentication and Secrecy Codes in the Splitting Model
Huber, Michael
2011-01-01
In the splitting model, information theoretic authentication codes allow non-deterministic encoding, that is, several messages can be used to communicate a particular plaintext. Certain applications require that the aspect of secrecy should hold simultaneously. Ogata-Kurosawa-Stinson-Saido (2004) have constructed optimal splitting authentication codes achieving perfect secrecy for the special case when the number of keys equals the number of messages. In this paper, we establish a construction method for optimal splitting authentication codes with perfect secrecy in the more general case when the number of keys may differ from the number of messages. To the best knowledge, this is the first result of this type.
Computing handbook information systems and information technology
Topi, Heikki
2014-01-01
Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber
Improvement of level-1 PSA computer code package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Tae Woon; Park, C. K.; Kim, K. Y.; Han, S. H.; Jung, W. D.; Chang, S. C.; Yang, J. E.; Sung, T. Y.; Kang, D. I.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Choi, S. Y.
1997-07-01
This year the fifth (final) year of the phase-I of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA Computer Codes` is divided into two main activities : (1) improvement of level-1 PSA methodology, (2) development of applications methodology of PSA techniques to operations and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-Windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutset generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. Using about 30 foreign generic data sources, generic component reliability database (GDB) are developed considering dependency among source data. A computer program which handles dependency among data sources are also developed based on three stage bayesian updating technique. Common cause failure (CCF) analysis methods are reviewed and CCF database are established. Impact vectors can be estimated from this CCF database. A computer code, called MPRIDP, which handles CCF database are also developed. A CCF analysis reflecting plant-specific defensive strategy against CCF event is also performed. A risk monitor computer program, called Risk Monster, are being developed for the application to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. The PSA application technique is applied to review the feasibility study of on-line maintenance and to the prioritization of in-service test (IST) of motor-operated valves (MOV). Finally, the root cause analysis (RCA) and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technologies are adopted and applied to the improvement of reliability of emergency diesel generators (EDG) of nuclear power plant. To help RCA and RCM analyses, two software programs are developed, which are EPIS and RAM Pro. (author). 129 refs., 20 tabs., 60 figs.
Stereo side information generation in low-delay distributed stereo video coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren
2012-01-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a technique that allows shifting the computational complexity from the encoder to the decoder. One of the core elements of the decoder is the creation of the Side Information (SI), which is a hypothesis of what the to-be-decoded frame looks like. Much work on DVC...
Codes for Computationally Simple Channels: Explicit Constructions with Optimal Rate
Guruswami, Venkatesan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider coding schemes for computationally bounded channels, which can introduce an arbitrary set of errors as long as (a) the fraction of errors is bounded with high probability by a parameter p and (b) the process which adds the errors can be described by a sufficiently "simple" circuit. For three classes of channels, we provide explicit, efficiently encodable/decodable codes of optimal rate where only inefficiently decodable codes were previously known. In each case, we provide one encoder/decoder that works for every channel in the class. (1) Unique decoding for additive errors: We give the first construction of poly-time encodable/decodable codes for additive (a.k.a. oblivious) channels that achieve the Shannon capacity 1-H(p). Such channels capture binary symmetric errors and burst errors as special cases. (2) List-decoding for log-space channels: A space-S(n) channel reads and modifies the transmitted codeword as a stream, using at most S(n) bits of workspace on transmissions of n bi...
Compressing industrial computed tomography images by means of contour coding
Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li
2013-10-01
An improved method for compressing industrial computed tomography (CT) images is presented. To have higher resolution and precision, the amount of industrial CT data has become larger and larger. Considering that industrial CT images are approximately piece-wise constant, we develop a compression method based on contour coding. The traditional contour-based method for compressing gray images usually needs two steps. The first is contour extraction and then compression, which is negative for compression efficiency. So we merge the Freeman encoding idea into an improved method for two-dimensional contours extraction (2-D-IMCE) to improve the compression efficiency. By exploiting the continuity and logical linking, preliminary contour codes are directly obtained simultaneously with the contour extraction. By that, the two steps of the traditional contour-based compression method are simplified into only one. Finally, Huffman coding is employed to further losslessly compress preliminary contour codes. Experimental results show that this method can obtain a good compression ratio as well as keeping satisfactory quality of compressed images.
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Machta, J.
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclude the transmissio...
NADAC and MERGE: computer codes for processing neutron activation analysis data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heft, R.E.; Martin, W.E.
1977-05-19
Absolute disintegration rates of specific radioactive products induced by neutron irradition of a sample are determined by spectrometric analysis of gamma-ray emissions. Nuclide identification and quantification is carried out by a complex computer code GAMANAL (described elsewhere). The output of GAMANAL is processed by NADAC, a computer code that converts the data on observed distintegration rates to data on the elemental composition of the original sample. Computations by NADAC are on an absolute basis in that stored nuclear parameters are used rather than the difference between the observed disintegration rate and the rate obtained by concurrent irradiation of elemental standards. The NADAC code provides for the computation of complex cases including those involving interrupted irradiations, parent and daughter decay situations where the daughter may also be produced independently, nuclides with very short half-lives compared to counting interval, and those involving interference by competing neutron-induced reactions. The NADAC output consists of a printed report, which summarizes analytical results, and a card-image file, which can be used as input to another computer code MERGE. The purpose of MERGE is to combine the results of multiple analyses and produce a single final answer, based on all available information, for each element found.
PLUTO code for computational Astrophysics: News and Developments
Tzeferacos, P.; Mignone, A.
2012-01-01
We present an overview on recent developments and functionalities available with the PLUTO code for astrophysical fluid dynamics. The recent extension of the code to a conservative finite difference formulation and high order spatial discretization of the compressible equations of magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), complementary to its finite volume approach, allows for a highly accurate treatment of smooth flows, while avoiding loss of accuracy near smooth extrema and providing sharp non-oscillatory transitions at discontinuities. Among the novel features, we present alternative, fully explicit treatments to include non-ideal dissipative processes (namely viscosity, resistivity and anisotropic thermal conduction), that do not suffer from the usual timestep limitation of explicit time stepping. These methods, offsprings of the multistep Runge-Kutta family that use a Chebyshev polynomial recursion, are competitive substitutes of computationally expensive implicit schemes that involve sparse matrix inversion. Several multi-dimensional benchmarks and appli-cations assess the potential of PLUTO to efficiently handle many astrophysical problems.
Multicode comparison of selected source-term computer codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Renier, J.P.; Roddy, J.W.; Ashline, R.C.; Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.
1989-04-01
This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the predictive capabilities of three radionuclide inventory/depletion computer codes, ORIGEN2, ORIGEN-S, and CINDER-2. The task was accomplished through a series of comparisons of their output for several light-water reactor (LWR) models (i.e., verification). Of the five cases chosen, two modeled typical boiling-water reactors (BWR) at burnups of 27.5 and 40 GWd/MTU and two represented typical pressurized-water reactors (PWR) at burnups of 33 and 50 GWd/MTU. In the fifth case, identical input data were used for each of the codes to examine the results of decay only and to show differences in nuclear decay constants and decay heat rates. Comparisons were made for several different characteristics (mass, radioactivity, and decay heat rate) for 52 radionuclides and for nine decay periods ranging from 30 d to 10,000 years. Only fission products and actinides were considered. The results are presented in comparative-ratio tables for each of the characteristics, decay periods, and cases. A brief summary description of each of the codes has been included. Of the more than 21,000 individual comparisons made for the three codes (taken two at a time), nearly half (45%) agreed to within 1%, and an additional 17% fell within the range of 1 to 5%. Approximately 8% of the comparison results disagreed by more than 30%. However, relatively good agreement was obtained for most of the radionuclides that are expected to contribute the greatest impact to waste disposal. Even though some defects have been noted, each of the codes in the comparison appears to produce respectable results. 12 figs., 12 tabs.
Code Verification of the HIGRAD Computational Fluid Dynamics Solver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Buren, Kendra L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Jesse M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sauer, Jeremy A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-05-04
The purpose of this report is to outline code and solution verification activities applied to HIGRAD, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and used to simulate various phenomena such as the propagation of wildfires and atmospheric hydrodynamics. Code verification efforts, as described in this report, are an important first step to establish the credibility of numerical simulations. They provide evidence that the mathematical formulation is properly implemented without significant mistakes that would adversely impact the application of interest. Highly accurate analytical solutions are derived for four code verification test problems that exercise different aspects of the code. These test problems are referred to as: (i) the quiet start, (ii) the passive advection, (iii) the passive diffusion, and (iv) the piston-like problem. These problems are simulated using HIGRAD with different levels of mesh discretization and the numerical solutions are compared to their analytical counterparts. In addition, the rates of convergence are estimated to verify the numerical performance of the solver. The first three test problems produce numerical approximations as expected. The fourth test problem (piston-like) indicates the extent to which the code is able to simulate a 'mild' discontinuity, which is a condition that would typically be better handled by a Lagrangian formulation. The current investigation concludes that the numerical implementation of the solver performs as expected. The quality of solutions is sufficient to provide credible simulations of fluid flows around wind turbines. The main caveat associated to these findings is the low coverage provided by these four problems, and somewhat limited verification activities. A more comprehensive evaluation of HIGRAD may be beneficial for future studies.
Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin
2006-01-01
This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…
pyro: A teaching code for computational astrophysical hydrodynamics
Zingale, Michael
2013-01-01
We describe pyro: a simple, freely-available code to aid students in learning the computational hydrodynamics methods widely used in astrophysics. pyro is written with simplicity and learning in mind and intended to allow students to experiment with various methods popular in the field, including those for advection, compressible and incompressible hydrodynamics, multigrid, and diffusion in a finite-volume framework. We show some of the test problems from pyro, describe its design philosophy, and suggest extensions for students to build their understanding of these methods.
pyro: A teaching code for computational astrophysical hydrodynamics
Zingale, M.
2014-10-01
We describe pyro: a simple, freely-available code to aid students in learning the computational hydrodynamics methods widely used in astrophysics. pyro is written with simplicity and learning in mind and intended to allow students to experiment with various methods popular in the field, including those for advection, compressible and incompressible hydrodynamics, multigrid, and diffusion in a finite-volume framework. We show some of the test problems from pyro, describe its design philosophy, and suggest extensions for students to build their understanding of these methods.
Traffic information computing platform for big data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)
2014-10-06
Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.
An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)
2016-11-01
For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.
On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"
Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi
2012-01-01
The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediate and at the end node, and the cost in acquiring the side information are derived under given conditions.
Philosophy, computing and information science
Hagengruber, Ruth
2014-01-01
Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.
Computer virus information update CIAC-2301
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orvis, W.J.
1994-01-15
While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.
Evaluation of detonation energy from EXPLO5 computer code results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suceska, M. [Brodarski Institute, Zagreb (Croatia). Marine Research and Special Technologies
1999-10-01
The detonation energies of several high explosives are evaluated from the results of chemical-equilibrium computer code named EXPLO5. Two methods of the evaluation of detonation energy are applied: (a) Direct evaluation from the internal energy of detonation products at the CJ point and the energy of shock compression of the detonation products, i.e. by equating the detonation energy and the heat of detonation, and (b) evaluation from the expansion isentrope of detonation products, applying the JWL model. These energies are compared to the energies computed from cylinder test derived JWL coefficients. It is found out that the detonation energies obtained directly from the energy of detonation products at the CJ point are uniformly to high (0.9445{+-}0.577 kJ/cm{sup 3}) while the detonation energies evaluated from the expansion isentrope, are in a considerable agreement (0.2072{+-}0.396 kJ/cm{sup 3}) with the energies calculated from cylinder test derived JWL coefficients. (orig.) [German] Die Detonationsenergien verschiedener Hochleistungssprengstoffe werden bewertet aus den Ergebnissen des Computer Codes fuer chemische Gleichgewichte genannt EXPLO5. Zwei Methoden wurden angewendet: (a) Direkte Bewertung aus der inneren Energie der Detonationsprodukte am CJ-Punkt und aus der Energie der Stosskompression der Detonationsprodukte, d.h. durch Gleichsetzung von Detonationsenergie und Detonationswaerme, (b) Auswertung durch die Expansions-Isentrope der Detonationsprodukte unter Anwendung des JWL-Modells. Diese Energien werden verglichen mit den berechneten Energien mit aus dem Zylindertest abgeleiteten JWL-Koeffizienten. Es wird gefunden, dass die Detonationsenergien, die direkt aus der Energie der Detonationsprodukte beim CJ-Punkt erhalten wurden, einheitlich zu hoch sind (0,9445{+-}0,577 kJ/cm{sup 3}), waehrend die aus der Expansions-Isentrope erhaltenen in guter Uebereinstimmung sind (0,2072{+-}0,396 kJ/cm{sup 3}) mit den berechneten Energien mit aus dem Zylindertest
Good, Jonathon; Keenan, Sarah; Mishra, Punya
2016-01-01
The popular press is rife with examples of how students in the United States and around the globe are learning to program, make, and tinker. The Hour of Code, maker-education, and similar efforts are advocating that more students be exposed to principles found within computer science. We propose an expansion beyond simply teaching computational…
Federal High End Computing (HEC) Information Portal
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This portal provides information about opportunities to engage in U.S. Federal government high performance computing activities, including supercomputer use,...
A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duvauchelle, Philippe E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel
2000-09-01
A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, F.M.
1998-01-26
The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, and disposal of waste currently being held in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In order to successfully carry out its mission, TWRS must perform environmental analyses describing the consequences of tank contents leaking from tanks and associated facilities during the storage, retrieval, or closure periods and immobilized low-activity tank waste contaminants leaving disposal facilities. Because of the large size of the facilities and the great depth of the dry zone (known as the vadose zone) underneath the facilities, sophisticated computer codes are needed to model the transport of the tank contents or contaminants. This document presents the code selection criteria for those vadose zone analyses (a subset of the above analyses) where the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone are constant in time the geochemical behavior of the contaminant-soil interaction can be described by simple models, and the geologic or engineered structures are complicated enough to require a two-or three dimensional model. Thus, simple analyses would not need to use the fairly sophisticated codes which would meet the selection criteria in this document. Similarly, those analyses which involve complex chemical modeling (such as those analyses involving large tank leaks or those analyses involving the modeling of contaminant release from glass waste forms) are excluded. The analyses covered here are those where the movement of contaminants can be relatively simply calculated from the moisture flow. These code selection criteria are based on the information from the low-level waste programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as well as experience gained in the DOE Complex in applying these criteria. Appendix table A-1 provides a comparison between the criteria in these documents and those used here. This document does not define the models (that
Reasoning with Computer Code: a new Mathematical Logic
Pissanetzky, Sergio
2013-01-01
A logic is a mathematical model of knowledge used to study how we reason, how we describe the world, and how we infer the conclusions that determine our behavior. The logic presented here is natural. It has been experimentally observed, not designed. It represents knowledge as a causal set, includes a new type of inference based on the minimization of an action functional, and generates its own semantics, making it unnecessary to prescribe one. This logic is suitable for high-level reasoning with computer code, including tasks such as self-programming, objectoriented analysis, refactoring, systems integration, code reuse, and automated programming from sensor-acquired data. A strong theoretical foundation exists for the new logic. The inference derives laws of conservation from the permutation symmetry of the causal set, and calculates the corresponding conserved quantities. The association between symmetries and conservation laws is a fundamental and well-known law of nature and a general principle in modern theoretical Physics. The conserved quantities take the form of a nested hierarchy of invariant partitions of the given set. The logic associates elements of the set and binds them together to form the levels of the hierarchy. It is conjectured that the hierarchy corresponds to the invariant representations that the brain is known to generate. The hierarchies also represent fully object-oriented, self-generated code, that can be directly compiled and executed (when a compiler becomes available), or translated to a suitable programming language. The approach is constructivist because all entities are constructed bottom-up, with the fundamental principles of nature being at the bottom, and their existence is proved by construction. The new logic is mathematically introduced and later discussed in the context of transformations of algorithms and computer programs. We discuss what a full self-programming capability would really mean. We argue that self
Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.
Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu
2014-01-01
We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.
Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natsuhiro Ichinose
Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.
COMPUTERS IN INFORMATION SCIENCES, VOLUME 2
The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences . The volume contains 239 annotated references grouped under three major headings: Artificial and Programming Languages, Computer Processing of Analog Data, and Computer Processing of Digital Data. The references
Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis
Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi
2014-09-01
Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.
A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)
New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing
Parakh, Abhishek
2011-01-01
Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…
Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation
Scott, James R.
2004-01-01
NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community.
Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.
1988-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Computer Tensor Codes to Design the War Drive
Maccone, C.
To address problems in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) and design the Warp Drive one needs sheer computing capabilities. This is because General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) are so mathematically sophisticated that the amount of analytical calculations is prohibitive and one can hardly do all of them by hand. In this paper we make a comparative review of the main tensor calculus capabilities of the three most advanced and commercially available “symbolic manipulator” codes. We also point out that currently one faces such a variety of different conventions in tensor calculus that it is difficult or impossible to compare results obtained by different scholars in GR and QFT. Mathematical physicists, experimental physicists and engineers have each their own way of customizing tensors, especially by using different metric signatures, different metric determinant signs, different definitions of the basic Riemann and Ricci tensors, and by adopting different systems of physical units. This chaos greatly hampers progress toward the design of the Warp Drive. It is thus suggested that NASA would be a suitable organization to establish standards in symbolic tensor calculus and anyone working in BPP should adopt these standards. Alternatively other institutions, like CERN in Europe, might consider the challenge of starting the preliminary implementation of a Universal Tensor Code to design the Warp Drive.
Five Computational Actions in Information Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Vladutescu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study is circumscribed to the Information Science. The zetetic aim of research is double: a to define the concept of action of information computational processing and b to design a taxonomy of actions of information computational processing. Our thesis is that any information processing is a computational processing. First, the investigation trays to demonstrate that the computati onal actions of information processing or the informational actions are computationalinvestigative configurations for structuring information: clusters of highlyaggregated operations which are carried out in a unitary manner operate convergent and behave like a unique computational device. From a methodological point of view, they are comprised within the category of analytical instruments for the informational processing of raw material, of data, of vague, confused, unstructured informational elements. As internal articulation, the actions are patterns for the integrated carrying out of operations of informational investigation. Secondly, we propose an inventory and a description of five basic informational computational actions: exploring, grouping, anticipation, schematization, inferential structuring. R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull (2014 speak about "four information processing". We would like to continue with further and future investigation of the relationship between operations, actions, strategies and mechanisms of informational processing.
Computer code for the atomistic simulation of lattice defects and dynamics. [COMENT code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schiffgens, J.O.; Graves, N.J.; Oster, C.A.
1980-04-01
This document has been prepared to satisfy the need for a detailed, up-to-date description of a computer code that can be used to simulate phenomena on an atomistic level. COMENT was written in FORTRAN IV and COMPASS (CDC assembly language) to solve the classical equations of motion for a large number of atoms interacting according to a given force law, and to perform the desired ancillary analysis of the resulting data. COMENT is a dual-purpose intended to describe static defect configurations as well as the detailed motion of atoms in a crystal lattice. It can be used to simulate the effect of temperature, impurities, and pre-existing defects on radiation-induced defect production mechanisms, defect migration, and defect stability.
Shannon information entropy in the canonical genetic code.
Nemzer, Louis R
2017-02-21
The Shannon entropy measures the expected information value of messages. As with thermodynamic entropy, the Shannon entropy is only defined within a system that identifies at the outset the collections of possible messages, analogous to microstates, that will be considered indistinguishable macrostates. This fundamental insight is applied here for the first time to amino acid alphabets, which group the twenty common amino acids into families based on chemical and physical similarities. To evaluate these schemas objectively, a novel quantitative method is introduced based the inherent redundancy in the canonical genetic code. Each alphabet is taken as a separate system that partitions the 64 possible RNA codons, the microstates, into families, the macrostates. By calculating the normalized mutual information, which measures the reduction in Shannon entropy, conveyed by single nucleotide messages, groupings that best leverage this aspect of fault tolerance in the code are identified. The relative importance of properties related to protein folding - like hydropathy and size - and function, including side-chain acidity, can also be estimated. This approach allows the quantification of the average information value of nucleotide positions, which can shed light on the coevolution of the canonical genetic code with the tRNA-protein translation mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximising information recovery from rank-order codes
Sen, B.; Furber, S.
2007-04-01
The central nervous system encodes information in sequences of asynchronously generated voltage spikes, but the precise details of this encoding are not well understood. Thorpe proposed rank-order codes as an explanation of the observed speed of information processing in the human visual system. The work described in this paper is inspired by the performance of SpikeNET, a biologically inspired neural architecture using rank-order codes for information processing, and is based on the retinal model developed by VanRullen and Thorpe. This model mimics retinal information processing by passing an input image through a bank of Difference of Gaussian (DoG) filters and then encoding the resulting coefficients in rank-order. To test the effectiveness of this encoding in capturing the information content of an image, the rank-order representation is decoded to reconstruct an image that can be compared with the original. The reconstruction uses a look-up table to infer the filter coefficients from their rank in the encoded image. Since the DoG filters are approximately orthogonal functions, they are treated as their own inverses in the reconstruction process. We obtained a quantitative measure of the perceptually important information retained in the reconstructed image relative to the original using a slightly modified version of an objective metric proposed by Petrovic. It is observed that around 75% of the perceptually important information is retained in the reconstruction. In the present work we reconstruct the input using a pseudo-inverse of the DoG filter-bank with the aim of improving the reconstruction and thereby extracting more information from the rank-order encoded stimulus. We observe that there is an increase of 10 - 15% in the information retrieved from a reconstructed stimulus as a result of inverting the filter-bank.
Introduction to error correcting codes in quantum computers
Salas, P J
2006-01-01
The goal of this paper is to review the theoretical basis for achieving a faithful quantum information transmission and processing in the presence of noise. Initially encoding and decoding, implementing gates and quantum error correction will be considered error free. Finally we will relax this non realistic assumption, introducing the quantum fault-tolerant concept. The existence of an error threshold permits to conclude that there is no physical law preventing a quantum computer from being built. An error model based on the depolarizing channel will be able to provide a simple estimation of the storage or memory computation error threshold: < 5.2 10-5. The encoding is made by means of the [[7,1,3
Multilevel Coding Schemes for Compute-and-Forward with Flexible Decoding
Hern, Brett
2011-01-01
We consider the design of coding schemes for the wireless two-way relaying channel when there is no channel state information at the transmitter. In the spirit of the compute and forward paradigm, we present a multilevel coding scheme that permits computation (or, decoding) of a class of functions at the relay. The function to be computed (or, decoded) is then chosen depending on the channel realization. We define such a class of functions which can be decoded at the relay using the proposed coding scheme and derive rates that are universally achievable over a set of channel gains when this class of functions is used at the relay. We develop our framework with general modulation formats in mind, but numerical results are presented for the case where each node transmits using the QPSK constellation. Numerical results with QPSK show that the flexibility afforded by our proposed scheme results in substantially higher rates than those achievable by always using a fixed function or by adapting the function at the ...
Nanophotonic information physics nanointelligence and nanophotonic computing
2014-01-01
This book provides a new direction in the field of nano-optics and nanophotonics from information and computing-related sciences and technology. Entitled by "Information Physics and Computing in NanosScale Photonics and Materials”, IPCN in short, the book aims to bring together recent progresses in the intersection of nano-scale photonics, information, and enabling technologies. The topic will include (1) an overview of information physics in nanophotonics, (2) DNA self-assembled nanophotonic systems, (3) Functional molecular sensing, (4) Smart fold computing, an architecture for nanophotonics, (5) semiconductor nanowire and its photonic applications, (6) single photoelectron manipulation in imaging sensors, (6) hierarchical nanophotonic systems, (8) photonic neuromorphic computing, and (9) SAT solver and decision making based on nanophotonics.
Computational Intelligence in Information Systems Conference
Au, Thien-Wan; Omar, Saiful
2017-01-01
This book constitutes the Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence in Information Systems conference (CIIS 2016), held in Brunei, November 18–20, 2016. The CIIS conference provides a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and to present new research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications. The 26 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully selected from 62 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.
Philosophy of computing and information technology
Brey, Philip; Soraker, Johnny Hartz
2009-01-01
Philosophy has been described as having taken a “computational turn,” referring to the ways in which computers and information technology throw new light upon traditional philosophical issues, provide new tools and concepts for philosophical reasoning, and pose theoretical and practical questions th
Assessment of uncertainties of the models used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes
Gricay, A. S.; Migrov, Yu. A.
2015-09-01
The article deals with matters concerned with the problem of determining the statistical characteristics of variable parameters (the variation range and distribution law) in analyzing the uncertainty and sensitivity of calculation results to uncertainty in input data. A comparative analysis of modern approaches to uncertainty in input data is presented. The need to develop an alternative method for estimating the uncertainty of model parameters used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes, in particular, in the closing correlations of the loop thermal hydraulics block, is shown. Such a method shall feature the minimal degree of subjectivism and must be based on objective quantitative assessment criteria. The method includes three sequential stages: selecting experimental data satisfying the specified criteria, identifying the key closing correlation using a sensitivity analysis, and carrying out case calculations followed by statistical processing of the results. By using the method, one can estimate the uncertainty range of a variable parameter and establish its distribution law in the above-mentioned range provided that the experimental information is sufficiently representative. Practical application of the method is demonstrated taking as an example the problem of estimating the uncertainty of a parameter appearing in the model describing transition to post-burnout heat transfer that is used in the thermal-hydraulic computer code KORSAR. The performed study revealed the need to narrow the previously established uncertainty range of this parameter and to replace the uniform distribution law in the above-mentioned range by the Gaussian distribution law. The proposed method can be applied to different thermal-hydraulic computer codes. In some cases, application of the method can make it possible to achieve a smaller degree of conservatism in the expert estimates of uncertainties pertinent to the model parameters used in computer codes.
Implementation of a 3D mixing layer code on parallel computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roe, K.; Thakur, R.; Dang, T.; Bogucz, E. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)
1995-09-01
This paper summarizes our progress and experience in the development of a Computational-Fluid-Dynamics code on parallel computers to simulate three-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers. In this initial study, the three-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations are solved using a finite-volume explicit time-marching algorithm. The code was first programmed in Fortran 77 for sequential computers. The code was then converted for use on parallel computers using the conventional message-passing technique, while we have not been able to compile the code with the present version of HPF compilers.
Software package as an information center product. [Activities of Argonne Code Center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, M. K.
1977-01-01
The Argonne Code Center serves as a software exchange and information center for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Center's program is to provide a means for sharing of software among agency offices and contractors, and for transferring computing applications and technology, developed within the agencies, to the information-processing community. A major activity of the Code Center is the acquisition, review, testing, and maintenance of a collection of software--computer systems, applications programs, subroutines, modules, and data compilations--prepared by agency offices and contractors to meet programmatic needs. A brief review of the history of computer program libraries and software sharing is presented to place the Code Center activity in perspective. The state-of-the-art discussion starts off with an appropriate definition of the term software package, together with descriptions of recommended package contents and the Carter's package evaluation activity. An effort is made to identify the various users of the product, to enumerate their individual needs, to document the Center's efforts to meet these needs and the ongoing interaction with the user community. Desirable staff qualifications are considered, and packaging problems, reviewed. The paper closes with a brief look at recent developments and a forecast of things to come. 2 tables. (RWR)
Computer Simulation in Information and Communication Engineering
Anton Topurov
2005-01-01
CSICE'05 Sofia, Bulgaria 20th - 22nd October, 2005 On behalf of the International Scientific Committee, we would like to invite you all to Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria, to the International Conference in Computer Simulation in Information and Communication Engineering CSICE'05. The Conference is aimed at facilitating the exchange of experience in the field of computer simulation gained not only in traditional fields (Communications, Electronics, Physics...) but also in the areas of biomedical engineering, environment, industrial design, etc. The objective of the Conference is to bring together lectures, researchers and practitioners from different countries, working in the fields of computer simulation in information engineering, in order to exchange information and bring new contribution to this important field of engineering design and education. The Conference will bring you the latest ideas and development of the tools for computer simulation directly from their inventors. Contribution describ...
Information transmission using UEP turbo codes in wireless sensor networks
Zhou, Zude; Xu, Chao
2005-11-01
Wireless sensing is prevalent quickly in these years, and it has many advantages, such as fewer catastrophic failures, conservation of natural resources, improved emergency response, etc. Wireless sensors can be deployed in extremely hostile environment. Since the wireless sensors are energy constrained, many researches have been in progress to solve these problems. In this paper, we proposed a joint source-channel coding scheme to solve energy efficiency of wireless sensors. Firstly, we decomposition information in wavelet domain, then compress it by using multi-scale embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm, and generate a bit stream that can be decompressed in a scalable bit rate. Then, we transmit the bit stream after encoding them with unequal error protection turbo codes to achieve error robust transmission. We transmit multiple bit streams according to some energy strategy, and redundancies to base stations are reduced by only transmitting coarse scale information. Due to the scalability of multi-scale EZW, we can adopt diversified bit rate strategy to save energy of battery powered sensors.
Assessment of the computer code COBRA/CFTL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baxi, C. B.; Burhop, C. J.
1981-07-01
The COBRA/CFTL code has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for thermal-hydraulic analysis of simulated gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core assemblies to be tested in the core flow test loop (CFTL). The COBRA/CFTL code was obtained by modifying the General Atomic code COBRA*GCFR. This report discusses these modifications, compares the two code results for three cases which represent conditions from fully rough turbulent flow to laminar flow. Case 1 represented fully rough turbulent flow in the bundle. Cases 2 and 3 represented laminar and transition flow regimes. The required input for the COBRA/CFTL code, a sample problem input/output and the code listing are included in the Appendices.
Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)
2011-07-08
A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.
Information Leakage Prevention In Cloud Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raziqa Masood
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The cloud computing is still in it infancy.this is an emerging technology which will bring about innovations in terms of businessmodels and applications.the widespread penetration of smartphones will be a major factor in driving the adoption of cloude computing.however, cloud computing faces challenges related to privacy and security. Due to varied degree of security features and management schemes within the cloud entities security in the cloud is challenging. Security issues ranging from system misconfiguration, lack of proper updates, or unwise user behaviour from remote data storage that can expose user ̳s private data and information to unwanted access can plague a Cloud Computing. The intent of this paper is to investigate the security related issues and challenges in Cloud computing environment . We also proposed a security scheme for protecting services keeping in view the issues and challenges faced by cloud computing.
Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Website
Hardman, John; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program (CICT) was established in 2001 to ensure NASA's Continuing leadership in emerging technologies. It is a coordinated, Agency-wide effort to develop and deploy key enabling technologies for a broad range of mission-critical tasks. The NASA CICT program is designed to address Agency-specific computing, information, and communications technology requirements beyond the projected capabilities of commercially available solutions. The areas of technical focus have been chosen for their impact on NASA's missions, their national importance, and the technical challenge they provide to the Program. In order to meet its objectives, the CICT Program is organized into the following four technology focused projects: 1) Computing, Networking and Information Systems (CNIS); 2) Intelligent Systems (IS); 3) Space Communications (SC); 4) Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR).
The Uncertainty Test for the MAAP Computer Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, S. H.; Song, Y. M.; Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-10-15
After the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Chernobyl accidents, safety issues for a severe accident are treated in various aspects. Major issues in our research part include a level 2 PSA. The difficulty in expanding the level 2 PSA as a risk information activity is the uncertainty. In former days, it attached a weight to improve the quality in a internal accident PSA, but the effort is insufficient for decrease the phenomenon uncertainty in the level 2 PSA. In our country, the uncertainty degree is high in the case of a level 2 PSA model, and it is necessary to secure a model to decrease the uncertainty. We have not yet experienced the uncertainty assessment technology, the assessment system itself depends on advanced nations. In advanced nations, the severe accident simulator is implemented in the hardware level. But in our case, basic function in a software level can be implemented. In these circumstance at home and abroad, similar instances are surveyed such as UQM and MELCOR. Referred to these instances, SAUNA (Severe Accident UNcertainty Analysis) system is being developed in our project to assess and decrease the uncertainty in a level 2 PSA. It selects the MAAP code to analyze the uncertainty in a severe accident.
Development and Implementation of CFD-Informed Models for the Advanced Subchannel Code CTF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2017-04-01
The research described in this PhD thesis contributes to the development of efficient methods for utilization of high-fidelity models and codes to inform low-fidelity models and codes in the area of nuclear reactor core thermal-hydraulics. The objective is to increase the accuracy of predictions of quantities of interests using high-fidelity CFD models while preserving the efficiency of low-fidelity subchannel core calculations. An original methodology named Physics- based Approach for High-to-Low Model Information has been further developed and tested. The overall physical phenomena and corresponding localized effects, which are introduced by the presence of spacer grids in light water reactor (LWR) cores, are dissected in corresponding four building basic processes, and corresponding models are informed using high-fidelity CFD codes. These models are a spacer grid-directed cross-flow model, a grid-enhanced turbulent mixing model, a heat transfer enhancement model, and a spacer grid pressure loss model. The localized CFD-models are developed and tested using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, and the corresponding global model development and testing in sub-channel formulation is performed in the thermal- hydraulic subchannel code CTF. The improved CTF simulations utilize data-files derived from CFD STAR-CCM+ simulation results covering the spacer grid design desired for inclusion in the CTF calculation. The current implementation of these models is examined and possibilities for improvement and further development are suggested. The validation experimental database is extended by including the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark data. The outcome is an enhanced accuracy of CTF predictions while preserving the computational efficiency of a low-fidelity subchannel code.
SEACC: the systems engineering and analysis computer code for small wind systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tu, P.K.C.; Kertesz, V.
1983-03-01
The systems engineering and analysis (SEA) computer program (code) evaluates complete horizontal-axis SWECS performance. Rotor power output as a function of wind speed and energy production at various wind regions are predicted by the code. Efficiencies of components such as gearbox, electric generators, rectifiers, electronic inverters, and batteries can be included in the evaluation process to reflect the complete system performance. Parametric studies can be carried out for blade design characteristics such as airfoil series, taper rate, twist degrees and pitch setting; and for geometry such as rotor radius, hub radius, number of blades, coning angle, rotor rpm, etc. Design tradeoffs can also be performed to optimize system configurations for constant rpm, constant tip speed ratio and rpm-specific rotors. SWECS energy supply as compared to the load demand for each hour of the day and during each session of the year can be assessed by the code if the diurnal wind and load distributions are known. Also available during each run of the code is blade aerodynamic loading information.
3-D field computation: The near-triumph of commerical codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, L.R.
1995-07-01
In recent years, more and more of those who design and analyze magnets and other devices are using commercial codes rather than developing their own. This paper considers the commercial codes and the features available with them. Other recent trends with 3-D field computation include parallel computation and visualization methods such as virtual reality systems.
2014-09-13
specialists in mathematics , logic, and computer science with diverse backgrounds rang- ing from homotopical algebra and category theory to theoretical and...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0227 New Mathematics of Information Homotopical Steven Awodey CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Final Report 09/24/2014 DISTRIBUTION A...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 13-09-2014 FINAL 15 JUNE 2011 - 30 APR 2014 FINAL REPORT FOR AWARD: "NEW MATHEMATICS OF
Informing mechanistic toxicology with computational molecular models.
Goldsmith, Michael R; Peterson, Shane D; Chang, Daniel T; Transue, Thomas R; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Tan, Yu-Mei; Dary, Curtis C
2012-01-01
Computational molecular models of chemicals interacting with biomolecular targets provides toxicologists a valuable, affordable, and sustainable source of in silico molecular level information that augments, enriches, and complements in vitro and in vivo efforts. From a molecular biophysical ansatz, we describe how 3D molecular modeling methods used to numerically evaluate the classical pair-wise potential at the chemical/biological interface can inform mechanism of action and the dose-response paradigm of modern toxicology. With an emphasis on molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore/toxicophore approaches, we demonstrate how these methods can be integrated with chemoinformatic and toxicogenomic efforts into a tiered computational toxicology workflow. We describe generalized protocols in which 3D computational molecular modeling is used to enhance our ability to predict and model the most relevant toxicokinetic, metabolic, and molecular toxicological endpoints, thereby accelerating the computational toxicology-driven basis of modern risk assessment while providing a starting point for rational sustainable molecular design.
ORNL ALICE: a statistical model computer code including fission competition. [In FORTRAN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plasil, F.
1977-11-01
A listing of the computer code ORNL ALICE is given. This code is a modified version of computer codes ALICE and OVERLAID ALICE. It allows for higher excitation energies and for a greater number of evaporated particles than the earlier versions. The angular momentum removal option was made more general and more internally consistent. Certain roundoff errors are avoided by keeping a strict accounting of partial probabilities. Several output options were added.
Comparison of computer codes for estimates of the symmetric coupled bunch instabilities growth times
Angal-Kalinin, Deepa
2002-01-01
The standard computer codes used for estimating the growth times of the symmetric coupled bunch instabilities are ZAP and BBI.The code Vlasov was earlier used for the LHC for the estimates of the coupled bunch instabilities growth time[1]. The results obtained by these three codes have been compared and the options under which their results can be compared are discussed. The differences in the input and the output for these three codes are given for a typical case.
New Approaches to Coding Information using Inverse Scattering Transform
Frumin, L. L.; Gelash, A. A.; Turitsyn, S. K.
2017-06-01
Remarkable mathematical properties of the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) can offer advanced solutions for the mitigation of nonlinear signal distortions in optical fiber links. Fundamental optical soliton, continuous, and discrete eigenvalues of the nonlinear spectrum have already been considered for the transmission of information in fiber-optic channels. Here, we propose to apply signal modulation to the kernel of the Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equations that offers the advantage of a relatively simple decoder design. First, we describe an approach based on exploiting the general N -soliton solution of the NLSE for simultaneous coding of N symbols involving 4 ×N coding parameters. As a specific elegant subclass of the general schemes, we introduce a soliton orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SOFDM) method. This method is based on the choice of identical imaginary parts of the N -soliton solution eigenvalues, corresponding to equidistant soliton frequencies, making it similar to the conventional OFDM scheme, thus, allowing for the use of the efficient fast Fourier transform algorithm to recover the data. Then, we demonstrate how to use this new approach to control signal parameters in the case of the continuous spectrum.
Multiple-access Network Information-flow and Correction Codes
Dikaliotis, Theodoros K; Jaggi, Sidharth; Vyetrenko, Svitlana; Yao, Hongyi; Effros, Michelle; Kliewer, Joerg; Erez, Elona
2010-01-01
This work considers the multiple-access multicast error-correction scenario over a packetized network with $z$ malicious edge adversaries. The network has min-cut $m$ and packets of length $\\ell$, and each sink demands all information from the set of sources $\\sources$. The capacity region is characterized for both a "side-channel" model (where sources and sinks share some random bits that are secret from the adversary) and an "omniscient" adversarial model (where no limitations on the adversary's knowledge are assumed). In the "side-channel" adversarial model, the use of a secret channel allows higher rates to be achieved compared to the "omniscient" adversarial model, and a polynomial-complexity capacity-achieving code is provided. For the "omniscient" adversarial model, two capacity-achieving constructions are given: the first is based on random subspace code design and has complexity exponential in $\\ell m$, while the second uses a novel multiple-field-extension technique and has $O(\\ell m^{|\\sources|})$ ...
(CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview
VanDalsem, William R.
2003-01-01
The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.
Different types of secondary information in the genetic code.
Maraia, Richard J; Iben, James R
2014-07-01
Whole-genome and functional analyses suggest a wealth of secondary or auxiliary genetic information (AGI) within the redundancy component of the genetic code. Although there are multiple aspects of biased codon use, we focus on two types of auxiliary information: codon-specific translational pauses that can be used by particular proteins toward their unique folding and biased codon patterns shared by groups of functionally related mRNAs with coordinate regulation. AGI is important to genetics in general and to human disease; here, we consider influences of its three major components, biased codon use itself, variations in the tRNAome, and anticodon modifications that distinguish synonymous decoding. AGI is plastic and can be used by different species to different extents, with tissue-specificity and in stress responses. Because AGI is species-specific, it is important to consider codon-sensitive experiments when using heterologous systems; for this we focus on the tRNA anticodon loop modification enzyme, CDKAL1, and its link to type 2 diabetes. Newly uncovered tRNAome variability among humans suggests roles in penetrance and as a genetic modifier and disease modifier. Development of experimental and bioinformatics methods are needed to uncover additional means of auxiliary genetic information.
Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code.
Vollmann, J; Winau, R
1996-12-07
The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg code of 1947 is generally regarded as the first document to set out ethical regulations in human experimentation based on informed consent. New research, however, indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century. These guidelines shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged. This issue assumes renewed importance in the context of current attempts to assess liability and responsibility for the abuse of people in various experiments conducted since the second world war in the United States, Canada, Russia, and other nations.
A new class of codes for Boolean masking of cryptographic computations
Carlet, Claude; Kim, Jon-Lark; Solé, Patrick
2011-01-01
We introduce a new class of rate one half binary codes: complementary information set codes. A binary linear code of length 2n and dimension n is called a complementary information set code (CIS code for short) if it has two disjoint information sets. This class of codes contains self-dual codes as a subclass. It is connected to graph correlation immune Boolean functions of use in the security of hardware implementations of cryptographic primitives. Such codes permit to improve the cost of masking cryptographic algorithms against side channel attacks. In this paper we investigate this new class of codes: we give optimal or best known CIS codes of length < 132. We derive general constructions based on cyclic codes and on double circulant codes. We derive a Varshamov-Gilbert bound for long CIS codes, and show that they can all be classified in small lengths \\leq 12 by the building up construction. Some nonlinear S-boxes are constructed by using Z4-codes, based on the notion of dual distance of an unrestricte...
Digital Poetry: A Narrow Relation between Poetics and the Codes of the Computational Logic
Laurentiz, Silvia
The project "Percorrendo Escrituras" (Walking Through Writings Project) has been developed at ECA-USP Fine Arts Department. Summarizing, it intends to study different structures of digital information that share the same universe and are generators of a new aesthetics condition. The aim is to search which are the expressive possibilities of the computer among the algorithm functions and other of its specific properties. It is a practical, theoretical and interdisciplinary project where the study of programming evolutionary language, logic and mathematics take us to poetic experimentations. The focus of this research is the digital poetry, and it comes from poetics of permutation combinations and culminates with dynamic and complex systems, autonomous, multi-user and interactive, through agents generation derivations, filtration and emergent standards. This lecture will present artworks that use some mechanisms introduced by cybernetics and the notion of system in digital poetry that demonstrate the narrow relationship between poetics and the codes of computational logic.
Application of computational fluid dynamics methods to improve thermal hydraulic code analysis
Sentell, Dennis Shannon, Jr.
A computational fluid dynamics code is used to model the primary natural circulation loop of a proposed small modular reactor for comparison to experimental data and best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code results. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics code modeling capabilities make them attractive alternatives to the current conservative approach of coupled best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes and uncertainty evaluations. The results from a computational fluid dynamics analysis are benchmarked against the experimental test results of a 1:3 length, 1:254 volume, full pressure and full temperature scale small modular reactor during steady-state power operations and during a depressurization transient. A comparative evaluation of the experimental data, the thermal hydraulic code results and the computational fluid dynamics code results provides an opportunity to validate the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code's treatment of a natural circulation loop and provide insights into expanded use of the computational fluid dynamics code in future designs and operations. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine those physical phenomena most impactful on operations of the proposed reactor's natural circulation loop. The combination of the comparative evaluation and sensitivity analysis provides the resources for increased confidence in model developments for natural circulation loops and provides for reliability improvements of the thermal hydraulic code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VOOGD, J.A.
1999-04-19
An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis.
Tlusty, Tsvi
2010-09-01
The genetic code maps the sixty-four nucleotide triplets (codons) to twenty amino-acids. While the biochemical details of this code were unraveled long ago, its origin is still obscure. We review information-theoretic approaches to the problem of the code's origin and discuss the results of a recent work that treats the code in terms of an evolving, error-prone information channel. Our model - which utilizes the rate-distortion theory of noisy communication channels - suggests that the genetic code originated as a result of the interplay of the three conflicting evolutionary forces: the needs for diverse amino-acids, for error-tolerance and for minimal cost of resources. The description of the code as an information channel allows us to mathematically identify the fitness of the code and locate its emergence at a second-order phase transition when the mapping of codons to amino-acids becomes nonrandom. The noise in the channel brings about an error-graph, in which edges connect codons that are likely to be confused. The emergence of the code is governed by the topology of the error-graph, which determines the lowest modes of the graph-Laplacian and is related to the map coloring problem. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parallel Computing Characteristics of CUPID code under MPI and Hybrid environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Han Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this paper, a characteristic of parallel algorithm is presented for solving an elliptic type equation of CUPID via domain decomposition method using the MPI and the parallel performance is estimated in terms of a scalability which shows the speedup ratio. In addition, the time-consuming pattern of major subroutines is studied. Two different grid systems are taken into account: 40,000 meshes for coarse system and 320,000 meshes for fine system. Since the matrix of the CUPID code differs according to whether the flow is single-phase or two-phase, the effect of matrix shape is evaluated. Finally, the effect of the preconditioner for matrix solver is also investigated. Finally, the hybrid (OpenMP+MPI) parallel algorithm is introduced and discussed in detail for solving pressure solver. Component-scale thermal-hydraulics code, CUPID has been developed for two-phase flow analysis, which adopts a three-dimensional, transient, three-field model, and parallelized to fulfill a recent demand for long-transient and highly resolved multi-phase flow behavior. In this study, the parallel performance of the CUPID code was investigated in terms of scalability. The CUPID code was parallelized with domain decomposition method. The MPI library was adopted to communicate the information at the neighboring domain. For managing the sparse matrix effectively, the CSR storage format is used. To take into account the characteristics of the pressure matrix which turns to be asymmetric for two-phase flow, both single-phase and two-phase calculations were run. In addition, the effect of the matrix size and preconditioning was also investigated. The fine mesh calculation shows better scalability than the coarse mesh because the number of coarse mesh does not need to decompose the computational domain excessively. The fine mesh can be present good scalability when dividing geometry with considering the ratio between computation and communication time. For a given mesh, single-phase flow
Bibliometric mapping of computer and information ethics
Heersmink, R.; Van den Hoven, J.; Van Eck, N.J.; Van den Berg, J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the first bibliometric mapping analysis of the field of computer and information ethics (C&IE). It provides a map of the relations between 400 key terms in the field. This term map can be used to get an overview of concepts and topics in the field and to identify relations betwee
Soft Computing in Construction Information Technology
Ciftcioglu, O.; Durmisevic, S.; Sariyildiz, S.
2001-01-01
The last decade, civil engineering has exercised a rapidly growing interest in the application of neurally inspired computing techniques. The motive for this interest was the promises of certain information processing characteristics, which are similar to some extend, to those of human brain. The im
Soft Computing in Construction Information Technology
Ciftcioglu, O.; Durmisevic, S.; Sariyildiz, S.
2001-01-01
The last decade, civil engineering has exercised a rapidly growing interest in the application of neurally inspired computing techniques. The motive for this interest was the promises of certain information processing characteristics, which are similar to some extend, to those of human brain. The im
Spontaneous emergence of autocatalytic information-coding polymers
Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Maslov, Sergei
2015-07-01
Self-replicating systems based on information-coding polymers are of crucial importance in biology. They also recently emerged as a paradigm in material design on nano- and micro-scales. We present a general theoretical and numerical analysis of the problem of spontaneous emergence of autocatalysis for heteropolymers capable of template-assisted ligation driven by cyclic changes in the environment. Our central result is the existence of the first order transition between the regime dominated by free monomers and that with a self-sustaining population of sufficiently long chains. We provide a simple, mathematically tractable model supported by numerical simulations, which predicts the distribution of chain lengths and the onset of autocatalysis in terms of the overall monomer concentration and two fundamental rate constants. Another key result of our study is the emergence of the kinetically limited optimal overlap length between a template and each of its two substrates. The template-assisted ligation allows for heritable transmission of the information encoded in chain sequences thus opening up the possibility of long-term memory and evolvability in such systems.
Shortest Path Computation with No Information Leakage
Mouratidis, Kyriakos
2012-01-01
Shortest path computation is one of the most common queries in location-based services (LBSs). Although particularly useful, such queries raise serious privacy concerns. Exposing to a (potentially untrusted) LBS the client's position and her destination may reveal personal information, such as social habits, health condition, shopping preferences, lifestyle choices, etc. The only existing method for privacy-preserving shortest path computation follows the obfuscation paradigm; it prevents the LBS from inferring the source and destination of the query with a probability higher than a threshold. This implies, however, that the LBS still deduces some information (albeit not exact) about the client's location and her destination. In this paper we aim at strong privacy, where the adversary learns nothing about the shortest path query. We achieve this via established private information retrieval techniques, which we treat as black-box building blocks. Experiments on real, large-scale road networks assess the pract...
Object Oriented Information Computing over WWW
Suri, Dr Pushpa R
2011-01-01
Traditional search engines on World Wide Web (WWW) focus essentially on relevance ranking at the page level. But this lead to missing innumerable structured information about real-world objects embedded in static Web pages and online Web databases. Page-level information retrieval (IR) can unfortunately lead to highly inaccurate relevance ranking in answering object-oriented queries. On the other hand, Object Oriented Information Computing (OOIC) is promising and greatly reduces the complexity of the system while improving reusability and manageability. The most distinguishing requirement of today's complex heterogeneous systems is the need of the computing system to instantly adapt to vigorously changing conditions. OOIC allows reflecting the dynamic characteristics of the applications by instantiating objects dynamically. In this paper, major challenges of OOIC as well as its rudiments are recapped. The review includes the insight to PopRank Model and comparison analysis of conventional page rank based IR w...
Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime
1983-06-01
A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.
Efficient Quantification of Uncertainties in Complex Computer Code Results Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propagation of parameter uncertainties through large computer models can be very resource intensive. Frameworks and tools for uncertainty quantification are...
Second Generation Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Computer Code
Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Ginty, Carol A.; Sanfeliz, Jose G.
1993-01-01
This manual updates the original 1986 NASA TP-2515, Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Users and Programmers Manual. The various enhancements and newly added features are described to enable the user to prepare the appropriate input data to run this updated version of the ICAN code. For reference, the micromechanics equations are provided in an appendix and should be compared to those in the original manual for modifications. A complete output for a sample case is also provided in a separate appendix. The input to the code includes constituent material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, and laminate configuration. The code performs micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analyses, including the hygrothermal response of polymer-matrix-based fiber composites. The output includes the various ply and composite properties, the composite structural response, and the composite stress analysis results with details on failure. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be used efficiently as a self-contained package (or as a module) in complex structural analysis programs. The input-output format has changed considerably from the original version of ICAN and is described extensively through the use of a sample problem.
Computer simulation of Angra-2 PWR nuclear reactor core using MCNPX code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medeiros, Marcos P.C. de; Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: eng.cavaliere@ime.eb.br, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia - Secao de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Claudio L. [Universidade Gama Filho, Departamento de Matematica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vellozo, Sergio O., E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos Gaduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
In this work the MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) code was used to develop a computerized model of the core of Angra 2 PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear reactor. The model was created without any kind of homogenization, but using real geometric information and material composition of that reactor, obtained from the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). The model is still being improved and the version presented in this work is validated by comparing values calculated by MCNPX with results calculated by others means and presented on FSAR. This paper shows the results already obtained to K{sub eff} and K{infinity}, general parameters of the core, considering the reactor operating under stationary conditions of initial testing and operation. Other stationary operation conditions have been simulated and, in all tested cases, there was a close agreement between values calculated computationally through this model and data presented on the FSAR, which were obtained by other codes. This model is expected to become a valuable tool for many future applications. (author)
Code of Ethical Conduct for Computer-Using Educators: An ICCE Policy Statement.
Computing Teacher, 1987
1987-01-01
Prepared by the International Council for Computers in Education's Ethics and Equity Committee, this code of ethics for educators using computers covers nine main areas: curriculum issues, issues relating to computer access, privacy/confidentiality issues, teacher-related issues, student issues, the community, school organizational issues,…
Computational Participation: Understanding Coding as an Extension of Literacy Instruction
Burke, Quinn; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Kafai, Yasmin B.
2016-01-01
Understanding the computational concepts on which countless digital applications run offers learners the opportunity to no longer simply read such media but also become more discerning end users and potentially innovative "writers" of new media themselves. To think computationally--to solve problems, to design systems, and to process and…
Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.
1995-10-01
Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites.
Computer codes used during upgrading activities at MINT TRIGA reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Adnan Bokhari; Mohd. Idris Taib [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang (Malaysia)
1999-10-01
MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor commissioned in 1982. In 1993, a project was initiated to upgrade the thermal power to 2 MW. The IAEA assistance was sought to assist the various activities relevant to an upgrading exercise. For neutronics calculations, the IAEA has provided expert assistance to introduce the WIMS code, TRIGAP, and EXTERMINATOR2. For thermal-hydraulics calculations, PARET and RELAP5 were introduced. Shielding codes include ANISN and MERCURE. However, in the middle of 1997, MINT has decided to change the scope of the project to safety upgrading of the MINT Reactor. This paper describes some of the activities carried out during the upgrading process. (author)
Validation of the NCC Code for Staged Transverse Injection and Computations for a RBCC Combustor
Ajmani, Kumud; Liu, Nan-Suey
2005-01-01
The NCC code was validated for a case involving staged transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind a rearward facing step. Comparisons with experimental data and with solutions from the FPVortex code was then used to perform computations to study fuel-air mixing for the combustor of a candidate rocket based combined cycle engine geometry. Comparisons with a one-dimensional analysis and a three-dimensional code (VULCAN) were performed to assess the qualitative and quantitative performance of the NCC solver.
Cloud Computing Security in Business Information Systems
Ristov, Sasko; Kostoska, Magdalena
2012-01-01
Cloud computing providers' and customers' services are not only exposed to existing security risks, but, due to multi-tenancy, outsourcing the application and data, and virtualization, they are exposed to the emergent, as well. Therefore, both the cloud providers and customers must establish information security system and trustworthiness each other, as well as end users. In this paper we analyze main international and industrial standards targeting information security and their conformity with cloud computing security challenges. We evaluate that almost all main cloud service providers (CSPs) are ISO 27001:2005 certified, at minimum. As a result, we propose an extension to the ISO 27001:2005 standard with new control objective about virtualization, to retain generic, regardless of company's type, size and nature, that is, to be applicable for cloud systems, as well, where virtualization is its baseline. We also define a quantitative metric and evaluate the importance factor of ISO 27001:2005 control objecti...
Challenges of Computational Processing of Code-Switching
Çetinoğlu, Özlem; Schulz, Sarah; Vu, Ngoc Thang
2016-01-01
This paper addresses challenges of Natural Language Processing (NLP) on non-canonical multilingual data in which two or more languages are mixed. It refers to code-switching which has become more popular in our daily life and therefore obtains an increasing amount of attention from the research community. We report our experience that cov- ers not only core NLP tasks such as normalisation, language identification, language modelling, part-of-speech tagging and dependency parsing but also more...
Holographic computations of the Quantum Information Metric
Trivella, Andrea
2016-01-01
In this note we show how the Quantum Information Metric can be computed holographically using a perturbative approach. In particular when the deformation of the conformal field theory state is induced by a scalar operator the corresponding bulk configuration reduces to a scalar field perturbatively probing the unperturbed background. We study two concrete examples: a CFT ground state deformed by a primary operator and thermofield double state in $d=2$ deformed by a marginal operator. Finally, we generalize the bulk construction to the case of a multi dimensional parameter space and show that the Quantum Information Metric coincides with the metric of the non-linear sigma model for the corresponding scalar fields.
Multimedia, visual computing, and the information superhighway
Kitson, Frederick L.
1996-04-01
The data types of graphics, images, audio and video or collectively multimedia are becoming standard components of most computer interfaces and applications. Medical imaging in particular will be able to exploit these capabilities in concert with the database engines or 'information furnaces' that will exist as part of the information superhighway. The ability to connect experts with patients electronically enables care delivery from remote diagnostics to remote surgery. Traditional visual computing tasks such as MRI, volume rendering, computer vision or image processing may also be available to more clinics and researchers as they become 'electronically local.' Video is the component of multimedia that provides the greatest sense of presence or visual realism yet has been the most difficult to offer digitally due to its high transmission, storage and computation requirements. Advanced 3D graphics have also been a scarce or at least expensive resource. This paper addresses some of the recent innovations in media processing and client/server technology that will facilitate PCs, workstations or even set-top/TV boxes to process both video and graphics in real-time.
POTRE: A computer code for the assessment of dose from ingestion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanusik, V.; Mitro, A.; Niedel, S.; Grosikova, B.; Uvirova, E.; Stranai, I. (Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))
1991-01-01
The paper describes the computer code PORET and the auxiliary database system which allow to assess the radiation exposure from ingestion of foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides released from a nuclear facility during normal operation into the atmosphere. (orig.).
Speeding-up MADYMO 3D on serial and parallel computers using a portable coding environment
Tsiandikos, T.; Rooijackers, H.F.L.; Asperen, F.G.J. van; Lupker, H.A.
1996-01-01
This paper outlines the strategy and methodology used to create a portable coding environment for the commercial package MADYMO. The objective is to design a global data structure that efficiently utilises the memory and cache of computers, so that one source code can be used for serial, vector and
Holbrook, M. Cay; MacCuspie, P. Ann
2010-01-01
Braille-reading mathematicians, scientists, and computer scientists were asked to examine the usability of the Unified English Braille Code (UEB) for technical materials. They had little knowledge of the code prior to the study. The research included two reading tasks, a short tutorial about UEB, and a focus group. The results indicated that the…
Metropol, a computer code for the simulation of transport of contaminants with groundwater
Sauter FJ; Hassanizadeh SM; Leijnse A; Glasbergen P; Slot AFM
1990-01-01
In this report a description is given of the computer code METROPOL. This code simulates the three dimensional flow of groundwater with varying density and the simultaneous transport of contaminants in low concentration and is based on the finite element method. The basic equations for groundwater
Comparison of different computer platforms for running the Versatile Advection Code
Toth, G.; Keppens, R.; Sloot, P.; Bubak, M.; Hertzberger, B.
1998-01-01
The Versatile Advection Code is a general tool for solving hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical problems arising in astrophysics. We compare the performance of the code on different computer platforms, including work stations and vector and parallel supercomputers. Good parallel scaling can be a
Code and papers: computing publication patterns in the LHC era
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
Publications in scholarly journals establish the body of knowledge deriving from scientific research; they also play a fundamental role in the career path of scientists and in the evaluation criteria of funding agencies. This presentation reviews the evolution of computing-oriented publications in HEP following the start of operation of LHC. Quantitative analyses are illustrated, which document the production of scholarly papers on computing-related topics by HEP experiments and core tools projects (including distributed computing R&D), and the citations they receive. Several scientometric indicators are analyzed to characterize the role of computing in HEP literature. Distinctive features of scholarly publication production in the software-oriented and hardware-oriented experimental HEP communities are highlighted. Current patterns and trends are compared to the situation in previous generations' HEP experiments at LEP, Tevatron and B-factories. The results of this scientometric analysis document objec...
Proposed standards for peer-reviewed publication of computer code
Computer simulation models are mathematical abstractions of physical systems. In the area of natural resources and agriculture, these physical systems encompass selected interacting processes in plants, soils, animals, or watersheds. These models are scientific products and have become important i...
Lent, Ricardo; Sakellari, Georgia
2012-01-01
Information technology is the enabling foundation for all of human activity at the beginning of the 21st century, and advances in this area are crucial to all of us. These advances are taking place all over the world and can only be followed and perceived when researchers from all over the world assemble, and exchange their ideas in conferences such as the one presented in this proceedings volume regarding the 26th International Symposium on Computer and Information Systems, held at the Royal Society in London on 26th to 28th September 2011. Computer and Information Sciences II contains novel advances in the state of the art covering applied research in electrical and computer engineering and computer science, across the broad area of information technology. It provides access to the main innovative activities in research across the world, and points to the results obtained recently by some of the most active teams in both Europe and Asia.
Adamek, Jiri
1991-01-01
Although devoted to constructions of good codes for error control, secrecy or data compression, the emphasis is on the first direction. Introduces a number of important classes of error-detecting and error-correcting codes as well as their decoding methods. Background material on modern algebra is presented where required. The role of error-correcting codes in modern cryptography is treated as are data compression and other topics related to information theory. The definition-theorem proof style used in mathematics texts is employed through the book but formalism is avoided wherever possible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag
2006-10-01
A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.
Trifocal tensor based side information generation for multi-view distributed video code
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lin Xin; Liu Haitao; Wei Jianming
2010-01-01
Distributed video coding(DVC)is a new video coding approach based on Wyner-Ziv theorem.The novel uplink-friendly DVC,which offers low-complexity,low-power consuming,and low-cost video encoding,has aroused more and more research interests.In this paper a new method based on multiple view geometry is presented for spatial side information generation of uncalibrated video sensor network.Trifocal tensor encapsulates all the geometric relations among three views that ale independent of scene structure;it can be computed from image correspondences alone without requiring knowledge of the motion or calibration.Simulation results show that trifocal tensor-based spatial side information improves the rate-distortion performance over motion compensation based interpolation side information by a maximum gap of around 2dB.Then fusion merges the different side information(temporal and spatial)in order to improve the quality of the final one.Simulation results show that the rate-distortion gains about 0.4 dB.
Computation of Grobner basis for systematic encoding of generalized quasi-cyclic codes
Van, Vo Tam; Mita, Seiichi
2008-01-01
Generalized quasi-cyclic (GQC) codes form a wide and useful class of linear codes that includes thoroughly quasi-cyclic codes, finite geometry (FG) low density parity check (LDPC) codes, and Hermitian codes. Although it is known that the systematic encoding of GQC codes is equivalent to the division algorithm in the theory of Grobner basis of modules, there has been no algorithm that computes Grobner basis for all types of GQC codes. In this paper, we propose two algorithms to compute Grobner basis for GQC codes from their parity check matrices: echelon canonical form algorithm and transpose algorithm. Both algorithms require sufficiently small number of finite-field operations with the order of the third power of code-length. Each algorithm has its own characteristic; the first algorithm is composed of elementary methods, and the second algorithm is based on a novel formula and is faster than the first one for high-rate codes. Moreover, we show that a serial-in serial-out encoder architecture for FG LDPC cod...
Dual Coding Theory Explains Biphasic Collective Computation in Neural Decision-Making.
Daniels, Bryan C; Flack, Jessica C; Krakauer, David C
2017-01-01
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells. Phase II is a redundant or compressible phase in which numerous single cells contain all the information present at the population level in Phase I, such that the firing behavior of a single cell is enough to predict the subject's decision. Using an empirically grounded dynamical modeling framework, we show that in Phase I large cell populations with low redundancy produce a slow timescale of information aggregation through critical slowing down near a symmetry-breaking transition. Our model indicates that increasing collective amplification in Phase II leads naturally to a faster timescale of information pooling and consensus formation. Based on our results and others in the literature, we propose that a general feature of collective computation is a "coding duality" in which there are accumulation and consensus formation processes distinguished by different timescales.
Windtalking Computers: Frequency Normalization, Binary Coding Systems and Encryption
Zirkind, Givon
2009-01-01
The goal of this paper is to discuss the application of known techniques, knowledge and technology in a novel way, to encrypt computer and non-computer data. To-date most computers use base 2 and most encryption systems use ciphering and/or an encryption algorithm, to convert data into a secret message. The method of having the computer "speak another secret language" as used in human military secret communications has never been imitated. The author presents the theory and several possible implementations of a method for computers for secret communications analogous to human beings using a secret language or; speaking multiple languages. The kind of encryption scheme proposed significantly increases the complexity of and the effort needed for, decryption. As every methodology has its drawbacks, so too, the data of the proposed system has its drawbacks. It is not as compressed as base 2 would be. However, this is manageable and acceptable, if the goal is very strong encryption: At least two methods and their ...
SENDIN and SENTINEL: two computer codes to assess the effects of nuclear data changes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marable, J. H.; Drischler, J. D.; Weisbin, C. R.
1977-07-01
A description is given of the computer code SENTINEL, which provides a simple means for finding the effects on calculated reactor and shielding performance parameters due to proposed changes in the cross section data base. This code uses predetermined detailed sensitivity coefficients in SENPRO format, which is described in Appendix A. Knowledge of details of the particular reactor and/or shielding assemblies is not required of the user. Also described is the computer code SENDIN, which converts unformatted (binary) sensitivity files to card image form and vice versa. This is useful for transferring sensitivity files from one installation to another.
TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickens, J.K.
1981-03-01
The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.
Mathematical model and computer code for the analysis of advanced fast reactor dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schukin, N.V. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)); Korsun, A.S. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)); Vitruk, S.G. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)); Zimin, V.G. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)); Romanin, S.D. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst. (Russian Federation))
1993-04-01
Efficient algorithms for mathematical modeling of 3-D neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics are described. The model and appropriate computer code make it possible to analyze a variety of transient events ranging from normal operational states to catastrophic accident excursions. To verify the code, a number of calculations of different kind of transients was carried out. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used for conceptual design of advanced liquid metal reactors. The detailed description of calculations of TOP WS accident is presented. (orig./DG)
Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Soon Hong; Cheon, Moon Heon; Cho, Nam jin; No, Hui Cheon; Chang, Hyeon Seop; Moon, Sang Kee; Park, Seok Jeong; Chung, Jee Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1991-12-15
The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Houf, William G. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA; Fluer, Larry (Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA); Middleton, Bobby
2009-03-01
The development of a set of safety codes and standards for hydrogen facilities is necessary to ensure they are designed and operated safely. To help ensure that a hydrogen facility meets an acceptable level of risk, code and standard development organizations are tilizing risk-informed concepts in developing hydrogen codes and standards.
Transform domain Wyner-Ziv video coding with refinement of noise residue and side information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
2010-01-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of side information at the decoder. This paper considers feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) DVC. The coding efficiency of TDWZ video...
Proceedings of the conference on computer codes and the linear accelerator community
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, R.K. (comp.)
1990-07-01
The conference whose proceedings you are reading was envisioned as the second in a series, the first having been held in San Diego in January 1988. The intended participants were those people who are actively involved in writing and applying computer codes for the solution of problems related to the design and construction of linear accelerators. The first conference reviewed many of the codes both extant and under development. This second conference provided an opportunity to update the status of those codes, and to provide a forum in which emerging new 3D codes could be described and discussed. The afternoon poster session on the second day of the conference provided an opportunity for extended discussion. All in all, this conference was felt to be quite a useful interchange of ideas and developments in the field of 3D calculations, parallel computation, higher-order optics calculations, and code documentation and maintenance for the linear accelerator community. A third conference is planned.
Exact Gap Computation for Code Coverage Metrics in ISO-C
Richter, Dirk; 10.4204/EPTCS.80.4
2012-01-01
Test generation and test data selection are difficult tasks for model based testing. Tests for a program can be meld to a test suite. A lot of research is done to quantify the quality and improve a test suite. Code coverage metrics estimate the quality of a test suite. This quality is fine, if the code coverage value is high or 100%. Unfortunately it might be impossible to achieve 100% code coverage because of dead code for example. There is a gap between the feasible and theoretical maximal possible code coverage value. Our review of the research indicates, none of current research is concerned with exact gap computation. This paper presents a framework to compute such gaps exactly in an ISO-C compatible semantic and similar languages. We describe an efficient approximation of the gap in all the other cases. Thus, a tester can decide if more tests might be able or necessary to achieve better coverage.
Visualization of elastic wavefields computed with a finite difference code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Harris, D.
1994-11-15
The authors have developed a finite difference elastic propagation model to simulate seismic wave propagation through geophysically complex regions. To facilitate debugging and to assist seismologists in interpreting the seismograms generated by the code, they have developed an X Windows interface that permits viewing of successive temporal snapshots of the (2D) wavefield as they are calculated. The authors present a brief video displaying the generation of seismic waves by an explosive source on a continent, which propagate to the edge of the continent then convert to two types of acoustic waves. This sample calculation was part of an effort to study the potential of offshore hydroacoustic systems to monitor seismic events occurring onshore.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Virtanen, E.
1995-12-31
In the study three loss-of-feedwater type experiments which were preformed with the PACTEL facility has been calculated with two computer codes. The purpose of the experiments was to gain information about the behaviour of horizontal steam generator in a situation where the water level on the secondary side of the steam generator is decreasing. At the same time data that can be used in the assessment of thermal-hydraulic computer codes was assembled. The purpose of the work was to study the capabilities of two computer codes, APROS version 2.11 and RELAP5/MOD3.1, to calculate the phenomena in horizontal steam generator. In order to make the comparison of the calculation results easier the same kind of model of the steam generator was made for both codes. Only the steam generator was modelled, the rest of the facility was given for the codes as a boundary condition. (23 refs.).
High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics
Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.
Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1977-10-01
The objective of the compendium is to provide the reader with a guide which briefly describes many of the computer codes used for liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety analyses, since it is for this system that most of the codes have been developed. The compendium is designed to address the following frequently asked questions from individuals in licensing and research and development activities: (1) What does the code do. (2) To what safety problems has it been applied. (3) What are the code's limitations. (4) What is being done to remove these limitations. (5) How does the code compare with experimental observations and other code predictions. (6) What reference documents are available.
The Genetic Codes: Mathematical Formulae and an Inverse Symmetry-Information Relationship
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tidjani Négadi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available First, mathematical formulae faithfully describing the distributions of amino acids and codons and reproducing the degeneracies in the various known genetic codes, including the standard genetic code, are constructed, by hand. Second, we summarize another mathematical approach relying on the use of q-deformations to describe these same genetic codes, and add a new application not considered before. Third, by considering these same genetic codes, we find, qualitatively, that an inverse symmetry-information relationship exists.
Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir
Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.
2013-04-01
There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.
Performance evaluation of moment-method codes on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube computer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimkowski, K.; Ling, H. (Texas Univ., Austin (United States))
1993-09-01
An analytical evaluation is conducted of the performance of a moment-method code on a parallel computer, treating algorithmic complexity costs within the framework of matrix size and the 'subblock-size' matrix-partitioning parameter. A scaled-efficiencies analysis is conducted for the measured computation times of the matrix-fill operation and LU decomposition. 6 refs.
Computing the Feng-Rao distances for codes from order domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruano Benito, Diego
2007-01-01
We compute the Feng–Rao distance of a code coming from an order domain with a simplicial value semigroup. The main tool is the Apéry set of a semigroup that can be computed using a Gröbner basis....
Development of MCNPX-ESUT computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution
Abolfazl Hosseini, Seyed; Vosoughi, Naser; Zangian, Mehdi
2015-05-01
In this paper, the development of the MCNPX-ESUT (MCNPX-Energy Engineering of Sharif University of Technology) computer code for simulation of neutron/gamma pulse height distribution is reported. Since liquid organic scintillators like NE-213 are well suited and routinely used for spectrometry in mixed neutron/gamma fields, this type of detectors is selected for simulation in the present study. The proposed algorithm for simulation includes four main steps. The first step is the modeling of the neutron/gamma particle transport and their interactions with the materials in the environment and detector volume. In the second step, the number of scintillation photons due to charged particles such as electrons, alphas, protons and carbon nuclei in the scintillator material is calculated. In the third step, the transport of scintillation photons in the scintillator and lightguide is simulated. Finally, the resolution corresponding to the experiment is considered in the last step of the simulation. Unlike the similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and PHRESP, the developed computer code is applicable to both neutron and gamma sources. Hence, the discrimination of neutron and gamma in the mixed fields may be performed using the MCNPX-ESUT computer code. The main feature of MCNPX-ESUT computer code is that the neutron/gamma pulse height simulation may be performed without needing any sort of post processing. In the present study, the pulse height distributions due to a monoenergetic neutron/gamma source in NE-213 detector using MCNPX-ESUT computer code is simulated. The simulated neutron pulse height distributions are validated through comparing with experimental data (Gohil et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 664 (2012) 304-309.) and the results obtained from similar computer codes like SCINFUL, NRESP7 and Geant4. The simulated gamma pulse height distribution for a 137Cs
Lent, Ricardo
2013-01-01
Information technology is the enabling foundation science and technology for all of human activity at the beginning of the 21st century, and advances in this area are crucial to all of us. These advances are taking place all over the world and can only be followed and perceived when researchers from all over the world assemble, and exchange their ideas in conferences such as the one presented in this proceedings volume regarding the 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Systems, held at the Institut Henri Poincare' in Paris on October 3 and 4, 2012. Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences contains novel advances in the state of the art covering applied research in electrical and computer engineering and computer science, across the broad area of information technology. It provides access to the main innovative activities in research across the world, and points to the results obtained recently by some of the most active teams ...
Ethical Considerations of Computer Network Attack in Information Warfare
2001-01-16
attack/destruction, and special information operations (SIO). CNA and the other methods of offensive IO represent the incorporation of information...psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could include computer network...to computer networks to record information sent over them. 41 special information operations. Information operations that by their sensitive nature
Robust Coding for Lossy Computing with Observation Costs
Ahmadi, Behzad
2011-01-01
An encoder wishes to minimize the bit rate necessary to guarantee that a decoder is able to calculate a symbol-wise function of a sequence available only at the encoder and a sequence that can be measured only at the decoder. This classical problem, first studied by Yamamoto, is addressed here by including two new aspects: (i) The decoder obtains noisy measurements of its sequence, where the quality of such measurements can be controlled via a cost-constrained "action" sequence, which is taken at the decoder or at the encoder; (ii) Measurement at the decoder may fail in a way that is unpredictable to the encoder, thus requiring robust encoding. The considered scenario generalizes known settings such as the Heegard-Berger-Kaspi and the "source coding with a vending machine" problems. The rate-distortion-cost function is derived in relevant special cases, along with general upper and lower bounds. Numerical examples are also worked out to obtain further insight into the optimal system design.
Automatic Parallelization Tool: Classification of Program Code for Parallel Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Basthikodi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Performance growth of single-core processors has come to a halt in the past decade, but was re-enabled by the introduction of parallelism in processors. Multicore frameworks along with Graphical Processing Units empowered to enhance parallelism broadly. Couples of compilers are updated to developing challenges forsynchronization and threading issues. Appropriate program and algorithm classifications will have advantage to a great extent to the group of software engineers to get opportunities for effective parallelization. In present work we investigated current species for classification of algorithms, in that related work on classification is discussed along with the comparison of issues that challenges the classification. The set of algorithms are chosen which matches the structure with different issues and perform given task. We have tested these algorithms utilizing existing automatic species extraction toolsalong with Bones compiler. We have added functionalities to existing tool, providing a more detailed characterization. The contributions of our work include support for pointer arithmetic, conditional and incremental statements, user defined types, constants and mathematical functions. With this, we can retain significant data which is not captured by original speciesof algorithms. We executed new theories into the device, empowering automatic characterization of program code.
Skála, J.; Baruffa, F.; Büchner, J.; Rampp, M.
2015-08-01
Context. The numerical simulation of turbulence and flows in almost ideal astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers motivates the implementation of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) computer codes with low resistivity. They need to be computationally efficient and scale well with large numbers of CPU cores, allow obtaining a high grid resolution over large simulation domains, and be easily and modularly extensible, for instance, to new initial and boundary conditions. Aims: Our aims are the implementation, optimization, and verification of a computationally efficient, highly scalable, and easily extensible low-dissipative MHD simulation code for the numerical investigation of the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers in three dimensions (3D). Methods: The new GOEMHD3 code discretizes the ideal part of the MHD equations using a fast and efficient leap-frog scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time and whose initial and boundary conditions can easily be modified. For the investigation of diffusive and dissipative processes the corresponding terms are discretized by a DuFort-Frankel scheme. To always fulfill the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, the time step of the code is adapted dynamically. Numerically induced local oscillations are suppressed by explicit, externally controlled diffusion terms. Non-equidistant grids are implemented, which enhance the spatial resolution, where needed. GOEMHD3 is parallelized based on the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programing paradigm, adopting a standard two-dimensional domain-decomposition approach. Results: The ideal part of the equation solver is verified by performing numerical tests of the evolution of the well-understood Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and of Orszag-Tang vortices. The accuracy of solving the (resistive) induction equation is tested by simulating the decay of a cylindrical current column. Furthermore, we show that the computational performance of the code scales very
Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes
Gould, R. K.; Srivastava, R.
1979-01-01
Two computer codes were developed for describing flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. It can be used to described flow reactors in which reactants, mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, deposition of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail.
Validation of physics and thermalhydraulic computer codes for advanced Candu reactor applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wren, D.J.; Popov, N.; Snell, V.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, (Canada)
2004-07-01
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is developing an Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) that is an evolutionary advancement of the currently operating Candu 6 reactors. The ACR is being designed to produce electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The ACR retains the modular Candu concept of horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator. However, ACR uses slightly enriched uranium fuel compared to the natural uranium used in Candu 6. This achieves the twin goals of improved economics (via large reductions in the heavy water moderator volume and replacement of the heavy water coolant with light water coolant) and improved safety. AECL has developed and implemented a software quality assurance program to ensure that its analytical, scientific and design computer codes meet the required standards for software used in safety analyses. Since the basic design of the ACR is equivalent to that of the Candu 6, most of the key phenomena associated with the safety analyses of ACR are common, and the Candu industry standard tool-set of safety analysis codes can be applied to the analysis of the ACR. A systematic assessment of computer code applicability addressing the unique features of the ACR design was performed covering the important aspects of the computer code structure, models, constitutive correlations, and validation database. Arising from this assessment, limited additional requirements for code modifications and extensions to the validation databases have been identified. This paper provides an outline of the AECL software quality assurance program process for the validation of computer codes used to perform physics and thermal-hydraulics safety analyses of the ACR. It describes the additional validation work that has been identified for these codes and the planned, and ongoing, experimental programs to extend the code validation as required to address specific ACR design
Issues in computational fluid dynamics code verification and validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.
1997-09-01
A broad range of mathematical modeling errors of fluid flow physics and numerical approximation errors are addressed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is strongly believed that if CFD is to have a major impact on the design of engineering hardware and flight systems, the level of confidence in complex simulations must substantially improve. To better understand the present limitations of CFD simulations, a wide variety of physical modeling, discretization, and solution errors are identified and discussed. Here, discretization and solution errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential, or integral, conservation equations representing the physical process, to algebraic equations and their solution on a computer. The impact of boundary conditions on the solution of the partial differential equations and their discrete representation will also be discussed. Throughout the article, clear distinctions are made between the analytical mathematical models of fluid dynamics and the numerical models. Lax`s Equivalence Theorem and its frailties in practical CFD solutions are pointed out. Distinctions are also made between the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the partial differential equations as opposed to the discrete equations. Two techniques are briefly discussed for the detection and quantification of certain types of discretization and grid resolution errors.
Computer code simulations of explosions in flow networks and comparison with experiments
Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; Moore, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Steinke, R. G.; Idzorek, R. D.
1987-10-01
A program of experimental testing and computer code development for predicting the effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems is being carried out for the Department of Energy. This work is a combined effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Los Alamos has the lead responsibility in the project and develops the computer codes; NMSU performs the experimental testing. The emphasis in the program is on obtaining experimental data to verify the analytical work. The primary benefit of this work will be the development of a verified computer code that safety analysts can use to analyze the effects of hypothetical explosions in nuclear plant air cleaning systems. The experimental data show the combined effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems that contain all of the important air-cleaning elements (blowers, dampers, filters, ductwork, and cells). A small experimental set-up consisting of multiple rooms, ductwork, a damper, a filter, and a blower was constructed. Explosions were simulated with a shock tube, hydrogen/air-filled gas balloons, and blasting caps. Analytical predictions were made using the EVENT84 and NF85 computer codes. The EVENT84 code predictions were in good agreement with the effects of the hydrogen/air explosions, but they did not model the blasting cap explosions adequately. NF85 predicted shock entrance to and within the experimental set-up very well. The NF85 code was not used to model the hydrogen/air or blasting cap explosions.
Algorithms and computer codes for atomic and molecular quantum scattering theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, L. (ed.)
1979-01-01
This workshop has succeeded in bringing up 11 different coupled equation codes on the NRCC computer, testing them against a set of 24 different test problems and making them available to the user community. These codes span a wide variety of methodologies, and factors of up to 300 were observed in the spread of computer times on specific problems. A very effective method was devised for examining the performance of the individual codes in the different regions of the integration range. Many of the strengths and weaknesses of the codes have been identified. Based on these observations, a hybrid code has been developed which is significantly superior to any single code tested. Thus, not only have the original goals been fully met, the workshop has resulted directly in an advancement of the field. All of the computer programs except VIVS are available upon request from the NRCC. Since an improved version of VIVS is contained in the hybrid program, VIVAS, it was not made available for distribution. The individual program LOGD is, however, available. In addition, programs which compute the potential energy matrices of the test problems are also available. The software library names for Tests 1, 2 and 4 are HEH2, LICO, and EN2, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)
2011-06-01
This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the
[Vascular assessment in stroke codes: role of computed tomography angiography].
Mendigaña Ramos, M; Cabada Giadas, T
2015-01-01
Advances in imaging studies for acute ischemic stroke are largely due to the development of new efficacious treatments carried out in the acute phase. Together with computed tomography (CT) perfusion studies, CT angiography facilitates the selection of patients who are likely to benefit from appropriate early treatment. CT angiography plays an important role in the workup for acute ischemic stroke because it makes it possible to confirm vascular occlusion, assess the collateral circulation, and obtain an arterial map that is very useful for planning endovascular treatment. In this review about CT angiography, we discuss the main technical characteristics, emphasizing the usefulness of the technique in making the right diagnosis and improving treatment strategies. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Symbolic coding for noninvertible systems: uniform approximation and numerical computation
Beyn, Wolf-Jürgen; Hüls, Thorsten; Schenke, Andre
2016-11-01
It is well known that the homoclinic theorem, which conjugates a map near a transversal homoclinic orbit to a Bernoulli subshift, extends from invertible to specific noninvertible dynamical systems. In this paper, we provide a unifying approach that combines such a result with a fully discrete analog of the conjugacy for finite but sufficiently long orbit segments. The underlying idea is to solve appropriate discrete boundary value problems in both cases, and to use the theory of exponential dichotomies to control the errors. This leads to a numerical approach that allows us to compute the conjugacy to any prescribed accuracy. The method is demonstrated for several examples where invertibility of the map fails in different ways.
Benchmark Problems Used to Assess Computational Aeroacoustics Codes
Dahl, Milo D.; Envia, Edmane
2005-01-01
The field of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) encompasses numerical techniques for calculating all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from fundamental governing equations. Aeroacoustic problems typically involve flow-generated noise, with and without the presence of a solid surface, and the propagation of the sound to a receiver far away from the noise source. It is a challenge to obtain accurate numerical solutions to these problems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been at the forefront in developing and promoting the development of CAA techniques and methodologies for computing the noise generated by aircraft propulsion systems. To assess the technological advancement of CAA, Glenn, in cooperation with the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the AeroAcoustics Research Consortium, organized and hosted the Fourth CAA Workshop on Benchmark Problems. Participants from industry and academia from both the United States and abroad joined to present and discuss solutions to benchmark problems. These demonstrated technical progress ranging from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The results are documented in the proceedings of the workshop. Problems were solved in five categories. In three of the five categories, exact solutions were available for comparison with CAA results. A fourth category of problems representing sound generation from either a single airfoil or a blade row interacting with a gust (i.e., problems relevant to fan noise) had approximate analytical or completely numerical solutions. The fifth category of problems involved sound generation in a viscous flow. In this case, the CAA results were compared with experimental data.
Scherer, W.; Brockmann, H.; Haas, K. A.; Rütten, H. J.
2005-01-01
V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M
2006-07-01
The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffman, F. O.; Miller, C. W.; Shaeffer, D. L.; Garten, Jr., C. T.; Shor, R. W.; Ensminger, J. T.
1977-04-01
The objective of this paper is to present a compilation of computer codes for the assessment of accidental or routine releases of radioactivity to the environment from nuclear power facilities. The capabilities of 83 computer codes in the areas of environmental transport and radiation dosimetry are summarized in tabular form. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates that the initial efforts in assessment methodology development have concentrated on atmospheric dispersion, external dosimetry, and internal dosimetry via inhalation. The incorporation of terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways has been a more recent development and reflects the current requirements of environmental legislation and the needs of regulatory agencies. The characteristics of the conceptual models employed by these codes are reviewed. The appendixes include abstracts of the codes and indexes by author, key words, publication description, and title.
Imaging flow cytometer using computation and spatially coded filter
Han, Yuanyuan; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2016-03-01
Flow cytometry analyzes multiple physical characteristics of a large population of single cells as cells flow in a fluid stream through an excitation light beam. Flow cytometers measure fluorescence and light scattering from which information about the biological and physical properties of individual cells are obtained. Although flow cytometers have massive statistical power due to their single cell resolution and high throughput, they produce no information about cell morphology or spatial resolution offered by microscopy, which is a much wanted feature missing in almost all flow cytometers. In this paper, we invent a method of spatial-temporal transformation to provide flow cytometers with cell imaging capabilities. The method uses mathematical algorithms and a specially designed spatial filter as the only hardware needed to give flow cytometers imaging capabilities. Instead of CCDs or any megapixel cameras found in any imaging systems, we obtain high quality image of fast moving cells in a flow cytometer using photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors, thus obtaining high throughput in manners fully compatible with existing cytometers. In fact our approach can be applied to retrofit traditional flow cytometers to become imaging flow cytometers at a minimum cost. To prove the concept, we demonstrate cell imaging for cells travelling at a velocity of 0.2 m/s in a microfluidic channel, corresponding to a throughput of approximately 1,000 cells per second.
Computer Based Information Systems and the Middle Manager.
Why do some computer based information systems succeed while others fail. It concludes with eleven recommended areas that middle management must...understand in order to effectively use computer based information systems . (Modified author abstract)
POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hardie, R.W.
1982-02-01
POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation with asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes
Brooks, Peter; Preskill, John
2013-03-01
We develop a scheme for fault-tolerant quantum computation based on asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes, which works effectively against highly biased noise dominated by dephasing. We find the optimal Bacon-Shor block size as a function of the noise strength and the noise bias, and estimate the logical error rate and overhead cost achieved by this optimal code. Our fault-tolerant gadgets, based on gate teleportation, are well suited for hardware platforms with geometrically local gates in two dimensions.
HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, J.R.
1980-07-01
A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps.
SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leal, L.C.
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
SAMDIST A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Leal, L C
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
The development of an intelligent interface to a computational fluid dynamics flow-solver code
Williams, Anthony D.
1988-01-01
Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the Proteus code.
ANL/HTP: a computer code for the simulation of heat pipe operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McLennan, G.A.
1983-11-01
ANL/HTP is a computer code for the simulation of heat pipe operation, to predict heat pipe performance and temperature distributions during steady state operation. Source and sink temperatures and heat transfer coefficients can be set as input boundary conditions, and varied for parametric studies. Five code options are included to calculate performance for fixed operating conditions, or to vary any one of the four boundary conditions to determine the heat pipe limited performance. The performance limits included are viscous, sonic, entrainment capillary, and boiling, using the best available theories to model these effects. The code has built-in models for a number of wick configurations - open grooves, screen-covered grooves, screen-wrap, and arteries, with provision for expansion. The current version of the code includes the thermophysical properties of sodium as the working fluid in an expandable subroutine. The code-calculated performance agrees quite well with measured experiment data.
LEADS-DC: A computer code for intense dc beam nonlinear transport simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
An intense dc beam nonlinear transport code has been developed. The code is written in Visual FORTRAN 6.6 and has ~13000 lines. The particle distribution in the transverse cross section is uniform or Gaussian. The space charge forces are calculated by the PIC (particle in cell) scheme, and the effects of the applied fields on the particle motion are calculated with the Lie algebraic method through the third order approximation. Obviously,the solutions to the equations of particle motion are self-consistent. The results obtained from the theoretical analysis have been put in the computer code. Many optical beam elements are contained in the code. So, the code can simulate the intense dc particle motions in the beam transport lines, high voltage dc accelerators and ion implanters.
SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable
ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.
1980-05-01
A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.
Population coding and decoding in a neural field: a computational study.
Wu, Si; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki
2002-05-01
This study uses a neural field model to investigate computational aspects of population coding and decoding when the stimulus is a single variable. A general prototype model for the encoding process is proposed, in which neural responses are correlated, with strength specified by a gaussian function of their difference in preferred stimuli. Based on the model, we study the effect of correlation on the Fisher information, compare the performances of three decoding methods that differ in the amount of encoding information being used, and investigate the implementation of the three methods by using a recurrent network. This study not only rediscovers main results in existing literatures in a unified way, but also reveals important new features, especially when the neural correlation is strong. As the neural correlation of firing becomes larger, the Fisher information decreases drastically. We confirm that as the width of correlation increases, the Fisher information saturates and no longer increases in proportion to the number of neurons. However, we prove that as the width increases further--wider than (sqrt)2 times the effective width of the turning function--the Fisher information increases again, and it increases without limit in proportion to the number of neurons. Furthermore, we clarify the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood inference (MLI) type of decoding methods for correlated neural signals. It shows that when the correlation covers a nonlocal range of population (excepting the uniform correlation and when the noise is extremely small), the MLI type of method, whose decoding error satisfies the Cauchy-type distribution, is not asymptotically efficient. This implies that the variance is no longer adequate to measure decoding accuracy.
Texture side information generation for distributed coding of video-plus-depth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmistraro, Matteo; Raket, Lars Lau; Zamarin, Marco
2013-01-01
We consider distributed video coding in a monoview video-plus-depth scenario, aiming at coding textures jointly with their corresponding depth stream. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm in which the complexity is shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The Side Information...... components) is strongly correlated, so the additional depth information may be used to generate more accurate SI for the texture stream, increasing the efficiency of the system. In this paper we propose various methods for accurate texture SI generation, comparing them with other state-of-the-art solutions....... The proposed system achieves gains on the reference decoder up to 1.49 dB....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, Christopher John; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Potter, Donald L.; Blottner, Frederick G.; Black, Amalia Rebecca
2005-03-01
The formulation, implementation and usage of a numerical solution verification code is described. This code uses the Richardson extrapolation procedure to estimate the order of accuracy and error of a computational program solution. It evaluates multiple solutions performed in numerical grid convergence studies to verify a numerical algorithm implementation. Analyses are performed on both structured and unstructured grid codes. Finite volume and finite element discretization programs are examined. Two and three-dimensional solutions are evaluated. Steady state and transient solution analysis capabilities are present in the verification code. Multiple input data bases are accepted. Benchmark options are included to allow for minimal solution validation capability as well as verification.
Stochasticity in Ca2+ increase in spines enables robust and sensitive information coding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takuya Koumura
Full Text Available A dendritic spine is a very small structure (∼0.1 µm3 of a neuron that processes input timing information. Why are spines so small? Here, we provide functional reasons; the size of spines is optimal for information coding. Spines code input timing information by the probability of Ca2+ increases, which makes robust and sensitive information coding possible. We created a stochastic simulation model of input timing-dependent Ca2+ increases in a cerebellar Purkinje cell's spine. Spines used probability coding of Ca2+ increases rather than amplitude coding for input timing detection via stochastic facilitation by utilizing the small number of molecules in a spine volume, where information per volume appeared optimal. Probability coding of Ca2+ increases in a spine volume was more robust against input fluctuation and more sensitive to input numbers than amplitude coding of Ca2+ increases in a cell volume. Thus, stochasticity is a strategy by which neurons robustly and sensitively code information.
Order information coding in working memory: Review of behavioural studies and cognitive mechanisms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Dolenc
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Executive processes, such as coding for sequential order, are of extreme importance for higher-order cognitive tasks. One of the significant questions is, how order information is coded in working memory and what cognitive mechanisms and processes mediate it. The aim of this review paper is to summarize results of studies that explore whether order and item memory are two separable processes. Furthermore, we reviewed evidence for each of the proposed cognitive mechanism that might mediate order processing. Previous behavioural and neuroimaging data suggest different representation and processing of item and order information in working memory. Both information are maintained and recalled separately and this separation seems to hold for recognition as well as for recall. To explain the result of studies of order coding, numerous cognitive mechanisms were proposed. We focused on four different mechanisms by which order information might be coded and retrieved, namely inter-item associations, direct coding, hierarchical coding and magnitude coding. Each of the mechanisms can explain some of the aspect of order information coding, however none of them is able to explain all of the empirical findings. Due to its complex nature it is not surprising that a single mechanism has difficulties accounting for all the behavioral data and order memory may be more accurately characterized as the result of a set of mechanisms rather than a single one. Moreover, the findings beget a question of whether different types of memory for order information might exist.
Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1980-01-01
There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.
Information rates and power spectra of digital codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
1982-01-01
The encoding of independent data symbols as a sequence of discrete amplitude, real variables with given power spectrum is considered. The maximum rate of such an encoding is determined by the achievable entropy of the discrete sequence with the given constraints. An upper bound to this entropy...... have greater entropies than most codes with similar spectra that have been suggested earlier, and that they often come close to the upper bound. When the constraint on the power spectrum is replaced by a constraint On the variance of the sum of the encoded symbols, a stronger upper bound to the rate...
Secure medical information sharing in cloud computing.
Shao, Zhiyi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhenqiang; Miao, Meixia
2015-01-01
Medical information sharing is one of the most attractive applications of cloud computing, where searchable encryption is a fascinating solution for securely and conveniently sharing medical data among different medical organizers. However, almost all previous works are designed in symmetric key encryption environment. The only works in public key encryption do not support keyword trapdoor security, have long ciphertext related to the number of receivers, do not support receiver revocation without re-encrypting, and do not preserve the membership of receivers. In this paper, we propose a searchable encryption supporting multiple receivers for medical information sharing based on bilinear maps in public key encryption environment. In the proposed protocol, data owner stores only one copy of his encrypted file and its corresponding encrypted keywords on cloud for multiple designated receivers. The keyword ciphertext is significantly shorter and its length is constant without relation to the number of designated receivers, i.e., for n receivers the ciphertext length is only twice the element length in the group. Only the owner knows that with whom his data is shared, and the access to his data is still under control after having been put on the cloud. We formally prove the security of keyword ciphertext based on the intractability of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the keyword trapdoor based on Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.
Aeschliman, D. P.; Oberkampf, W. L.; Blottner, F. G.
Verification, calibration, and validation (VCV) of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is an essential element of the code development process. The exact manner in which code VCV activities are planned and conducted, however, is critically important. It is suggested that the way in which code validation, in particular, is often conducted--by comparison to published experimental data obtained for other purposes--is in general difficult and unsatisfactory, and that a different approach is required. This paper describes a proposed methodology for CFD code VCV that meets the technical requirements and is philosophically consistent with code development needs. The proposed methodology stresses teamwork and cooperation between code developers and experimentalists throughout the VCV process, and takes advantage of certain synergisms between CFD and experiment. A novel approach to uncertainty analysis is described which can both distinguish between and quantify various types of experimental error, and whose attributes are used to help define an appropriate experimental design for code VCV experiments. The methodology is demonstrated with an example of laminar, hypersonic, near perfect gas, 3-dimensional flow over a sliced sphere/cone of varying geometrical complexity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.
1984-11-01
TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.
Biasing spatial attention with semantic information: an event coding approach.
Amer, Tarek; Gozli, Davood G; Pratt, Jay
2017-04-21
We investigated the influence of conceptual processing on visual attention from the standpoint of Theory of Event Coding (TEC). The theory makes two predictions: first, an important factor in determining the influence of event 1 on processing event 2 is whether features of event 1 are bound into a unified representation (i.e., selection or retrieval of event 1). Second, whether processing the two events facilitates or interferes with each other should depend on the extent to which their constituent features overlap. In two experiments, participants performed a visual-attention cueing task, in which the visual target (event 2) was preceded by a relevant or irrelevant explicit (e.g., "UP") or implicit (e.g., "HAPPY") spatial-conceptual cue (event 1). Consistent with TEC, we found relevant explicit cues (which featurally overlap to a greater extent with the target) and implicit cues (which featurally overlap to a lesser extent), respectively, facilitated and interfered with target processing at compatible locations. Irrelevant explicit and implicit cues, on the other hand, both facilitated target processing, presumably because they were less likely selected or retrieved as an integrated and unified event file. We argue that such effects, often described as "attentional cueing", are better accounted for within the event coding framework.
COMENTE+: A TOOL FOR IMPROVING SOURCE CODE DOCUMENTATION USING INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio Cezar Zanoni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Document source code is seen as a boring time consuming task by several developers. However, a well-documented source code, allow developers to have a better visibility into what was and is being developed, helping, for example, the reuse of the code. This study presents a semi-automatic method for documentation of source code from the existing artifacts in a software project under development. The method aims to reduce developer’s workload, allowing them to work on other tasks of the project and/or ensure that the project deadlines will be met. The method, implemented in a tool, called Comente+, is capable of creating or updating comments into a source code from gathered information recovered from the project artifacts. To implement Comente+, we used an information retrieval approach. We performed some experiments with real data to validate this approach. For that, we created a special measure that estimates how well documented a source code is.
Origins of biological information and the genetic code
Fox, S. W.
1974-01-01
Information, defined as the capacity of a molecule or system for selective interactions with other molecules or systems, is followed through its evolution from prebiological information to protoribosomes. Emphasis is on proteins and protein-like polymers, and later on ATP. The research will contribute more to the understanding of the essence of the genetic mechanism.
Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.
1982-01-01
A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.
The Coding of Biological Information: From Nucleotide Sequence to Protein Recognition
Štambuk, Nikola
The paper reviews the classic results of Swanson, Dayhoff, Grantham, Blalock and Root-Bernstein, which link genetic code nucleotide patterns to the protein structure, evolution and molecular recognition. Symbolic representation of the binary addresses defining particular nucleotide and amino acid properties is discussed, with consideration of: structure and metric of the code, direct correspondence between amino acid and nucleotide information, and molecular recognition of the interacting protein motifs coded by the complementary DNA and RNA strands.
Sato, Jun-Ichi; Washizawa, Yoshikazu
2015-08-01
We propose two methods to improve code modulation visual evoked potential brain computer interfaces (cVEP BCIs). Most of BCIs average brain signals from several trials in order to improve the classification performance. The number of averaging defines the trade-off between input speed and accuracy, and the optimal averaging number depends on individual, signal acquisition system, and so forth. Firstly, we propose a novel dynamic method to estimate the averaging number for cVEP BCIs. The proposed method is based on the automatic repeat request (ARQ) that is used in communication systems. The existing cVEP BCIs employ rather longer code, such as 63-bit M-sequence. The code length also defines the trade-off between input speed and accuracy. Since the reliability of the proposed BCI can be controlled by the proposed ARQ method, we introduce shorter codes, 32-bit M-sequence and the Kasami-sequence. Thanks to combine the dynamic averaging number estimation method and the shorter codes, the proposed system exhibited higher information transfer rate compared to existing cVEP BCIs.
Rethinking mobile delivery: using Quick Response codes to access information at the point of need.
Lombardo, Nancy T; Morrow, Anne; Le Ber, Jeanne
2012-01-01
This article covers the use of Quick Response (QR) codes to provide instant mobile access to information, digital collections, educational offerings, library website, subject guides, text messages, videos, and library personnel. The array of uses and the value of using QR codes to push customized information to patrons are explained. A case is developed for using QR codes for mobile delivery of customized information to patrons. Applications in use at the Libraries of the University of Utah will be reviewed to provide readers with ideas for use in their library.
Information Fusion Methods in Computer Pan-vision System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Aiming at concrete tasks of information fusion in computer pan-vision (CPV) system, information fusion methods are studied thoroughly. Some research progresses are presented. Recognizing of vision testing object is realized by fusing vision information and non-vision auxiliary information, which contain recognition of material defects, intelligent robot's autonomous recognition for parts and computer to defect image understanding and recognition automatically.
Just-in-Time Compilation-Inspired Methodology for Parallelization of Compute Intensive Java Code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GHULAM MUSTAFA
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Compute intensive programs generally consume significant fraction of execution time in a small amount of repetitive code. Such repetitive code is commonly known as hotspot code. We observed that compute intensive hotspots often possess exploitable loop level parallelism. A JIT (Just-in-Time compiler profiles a running program to identify its hotspots. Hotspots are then translated into native code, for efficient execution. Using similar approach, we propose a methodology to identify hotspots and exploit their parallelization potential on multicore systems. Proposed methodology selects and parallelizes each DOALL loop that is either contained in a hotspot method or calls a hotspot method. The methodology could be integrated in front-end of a JIT compiler to parallelize sequential code, just before native translation. However, compilation to native code is out of scope of this work. As a case study, we analyze eighteen JGF (Java Grande Forum benchmarks to determine parallelization potential of hotspots. Eight benchmarks demonstrate a speedup of up to 7.6x on an 8-core system
Development of a computer code for thermal hydraulics of reactors (THOR). [BWR and PWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wulff, W
1975-01-01
The purpose of the advanced code development work is to construct a computer code for the prediction of thermohydraulic transients in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems. The fundamental formulation of fluid dynamics is to be based on the one-dimensional drift flux model for non-homogeneous, non-equilibrium flows of two-phase mixtures. Particular emphasis is placed on component modeling, automatic prediction of initial steady state conditions, inclusion of one-dimensional transient neutron kinetics, freedom in the selection of computed spatial detail, development of reliable constitutive descriptions, and modular code structure. Numerical solution schemes have been implemented to integrate simultaneously the one-dimensional transient drift flux equations. The lumped-parameter modeling analyses of thermohydraulic transients in the reactor core and in the pressurizer have been completed. The code development for the prediction of the initial steady state has been completed with preliminary representation of individual reactor system components. A program has been developed to predict critical flow expanding from a dead-ended pipe; the computed results have been compared and found in good agreement with idealized flow solutions. Transport properties for liquid water and water vapor have been coded and verified.
Network selection, Information filtering and Scalable computation
Ye, Changqing
This dissertation explores two application scenarios of sparsity pursuit method on large scale data sets. The first scenario is classification and regression in analyzing high dimensional structured data, where predictors corresponds to nodes of a given directed graph. This arises in, for instance, identification of disease genes for the Parkinson's diseases from a network of candidate genes. In such a situation, directed graph describes dependencies among the genes, where direction of edges represent certain causal effects. Key to high-dimensional structured classification and regression is how to utilize dependencies among predictors as specified by directions of the graph. In this dissertation, we develop a novel method that fully takes into account such dependencies formulated through certain nonlinear constraints. We apply the proposed method to two applications, feature selection in large margin binary classification and in linear regression. We implement the proposed method through difference convex programming for the cost function and constraints. Finally, theoretical and numerical analyses suggest that the proposed method achieves the desired objectives. An application to disease gene identification is presented. The second application scenario is personalized information filtering which extracts the information specifically relevant to a user, predicting his/her preference over a large number of items, based on the opinions of users who think alike or its content. This problem is cast into the framework of regression and classification, where we introduce novel partial latent models to integrate additional user-specific and content-specific predictors, for higher predictive accuracy. In particular, we factorize a user-over-item preference matrix into a product of two matrices, each representing a user's preference and an item preference by users. Then we propose a likelihood method to seek a sparsest latent factorization, from a class of over
PIC codes for plasma accelerators on emerging computer architectures (GPUS, Multicore/Manycore CPUS)
Vincenti, Henri
2016-03-01
The advent of exascale computers will enable 3D simulations of a new laser-plasma interaction regimes that were previously out of reach of current Petasale computers. However, the paradigm used to write current PIC codes will have to change in order to fully exploit the potentialities of these new computing architectures. Indeed, achieving Exascale computing facilities in the next decade will be a great challenge in terms of energy consumption and will imply hardware developments directly impacting our way of implementing PIC codes. As data movement (from die to network) is by far the most energy consuming part of an algorithm future computers will tend to increase memory locality at the hardware level and reduce energy consumption related to data movement by using more and more cores on each compute nodes (''fat nodes'') that will have a reduced clock speed to allow for efficient cooling. To compensate for frequency decrease, CPU machine vendors are making use of long SIMD instruction registers that are able to process multiple data with one arithmetic operator in one clock cycle. SIMD register length is expected to double every four years. GPU's also have a reduced clock speed per core and can process Multiple Instructions on Multiple Datas (MIMD). At the software level Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes will thus have to achieve both good memory locality and vectorization (for Multicore/Manycore CPU) to fully take advantage of these upcoming architectures. In this talk, we present the portable solutions we implemented in our high performance skeleton PIC code PICSAR to both achieve good memory locality and cache reuse as well as good vectorization on SIMD architectures. We also present the portable solutions used to parallelize the Pseudo-sepctral quasi-cylindrical code FBPIC on GPUs using the Numba python compiler.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TP Clement
1999-06-24
RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumar Parijat Tripathi
Full Text Available RNA-seq is a new tool to measure RNA transcript counts, using high-throughput sequencing at an extraordinary accuracy. It provides quantitative means to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. However, interpreting this extremely large data into biological knowledge is a problem, and biologist-friendly tools are lacking. In our lab, we developed Transcriptator, a web application based on a computational Python pipeline with a user-friendly Java interface. This pipeline uses the web services available for BLAST (Basis Local Search Alignment Tool, QuickGO and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tools. It offers a report on statistical analysis of functional and Gene Ontology (GO annotation's enrichment. It helps users to identify enriched biological themes, particularly GO terms, pathways, domains, gene/proteins features and protein-protein interactions related informations. It clusters the transcripts based on functional annotations and generates a tabular report for functional and gene ontology annotations for each submitted transcript to the web server. The implementation of QuickGo web-services in our pipeline enable the users to carry out GO-Slim analysis, whereas the integration of PORTRAIT (Prediction of transcriptomic non coding RNA (ncRNA by ab initio methods helps to identify the non coding RNAs and their regulatory role in transcriptome. In summary, Transcriptator is a useful software for both NGS and array data. It helps the users to characterize the de-novo assembled reads, obtained from NGS experiments for non-referenced organisms, while it also performs the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts/genes for both RNA-seq and micro-array experiments. It generates easy to read tables and interactive charts for better understanding of the data. The pipeline is modular in nature, and provides an opportunity to add new plugins in the future. Web application is
Zuccaro, Antonio; Guarracino, Mario Rosario
2015-01-01
RNA-seq is a new tool to measure RNA transcript counts, using high-throughput sequencing at an extraordinary accuracy. It provides quantitative means to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. However, interpreting this extremely large data into biological knowledge is a problem, and biologist-friendly tools are lacking. In our lab, we developed Transcriptator, a web application based on a computational Python pipeline with a user-friendly Java interface. This pipeline uses the web services available for BLAST (Basis Local Search Alignment Tool), QuickGO and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) tools. It offers a report on statistical analysis of functional and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation’s enrichment. It helps users to identify enriched biological themes, particularly GO terms, pathways, domains, gene/proteins features and protein—protein interactions related informations. It clusters the transcripts based on functional annotations and generates a tabular report for functional and gene ontology annotations for each submitted transcript to the web server. The implementation of QuickGo web-services in our pipeline enable the users to carry out GO-Slim analysis, whereas the integration of PORTRAIT (Prediction of transcriptomic non coding RNA (ncRNA) by ab initio methods) helps to identify the non coding RNAs and their regulatory role in transcriptome. In summary, Transcriptator is a useful software for both NGS and array data. It helps the users to characterize the de-novo assembled reads, obtained from NGS experiments for non-referenced organisms, while it also performs the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts/genes for both RNA-seq and micro-array experiments. It generates easy to read tables and interactive charts for better understanding of the data. The pipeline is modular in nature, and provides an opportunity to add new plugins in the future. Web application is freely
Physical implementation of a Majorana fermion surface code for fault-tolerant quantum computation
Vijay, Sagar; Fu, Liang
2016-12-01
We propose a physical realization of a commuting Hamiltonian of interacting Majorana fermions realizing Z 2 topological order, using an array of Josephson-coupled topological superconductor islands. The required multi-body interaction Hamiltonian is naturally generated by a combination of charging energy induced quantum phase-slips on the superconducting islands and electron tunneling between islands. Our setup improves on a recent proposal for implementing a Majorana fermion surface code (Vijay et al 2015 Phys. Rev. X 5 041038), a ‘hybrid’ approach to fault-tolerant quantum computation that combines (1) the engineering of a stabilizer Hamiltonian with a topologically ordered ground state with (2) projective stabilizer measurements to implement error correction and a universal set of logical gates. Our hybrid strategy has advantages over the traditional surface code architecture in error suppression and single-step stabilizer measurements, and is widely applicable to implementing stabilizer codes for quantum computation.
Modeling of BWR core meltdown accidents - for application in the MELRPI. MOD2 computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koh, B R; Kim, S H; Taleyarkhan, R P; Podowski, M Z; Lahey, Jr, R T
1985-04-01
This report summarizes improvements and modifications made in the MELRPI computer code. A major difference between this new, updated version of the code, called MELRPI.MOD2, and the one reported previously, concerns the inclusion of a model for the BWR emergency core cooling systems (ECCS). This model and its computer implementation, the ECCRPI subroutine, account for various emergency injection modes, for both intact and rubblized geometries. Other changes to MELRPI deal with an improved model for canister wall oxidation, rubble bed modeling, and numerical integration of system equations. A complete documentation of the entire MELRPI.MOD2 code is also given, including an input guide, list of subroutines, sample input/output and program listing.
Computational approaches towards understanding human long non-coding RNA biology.
Jalali, Saakshi; Kapoor, Shruti; Sivadas, Ambily; Bhartiya, Deeksha; Scaria, Vinod
2015-07-15
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) form the largest class of non-protein coding genes in the human genome. While a small subset of well-characterized lncRNAs has demonstrated their significant role in diverse biological functions like chromatin modifications, post-transcriptional regulation, imprinting etc., the functional significance of a vast majority of them still remains an enigma. Increasing evidence of the implications of lncRNAs in various diseases including cancer and major developmental processes has further enhanced the need to gain mechanistic insights into the lncRNA functions. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the various computational approaches and tools available for the identification and annotation of long non-coding RNAs. We also discuss a conceptual roadmap to systematically explore the functional properties of the lncRNAs using computational approaches.
Algorithms and computer codes for atomic and molecular quantum scattering theory. Volume I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, L. (ed.)
1979-01-01
The goals of this workshop are to identify which of the existing computer codes for solving the coupled equations of quantum molecular scattering theory perform most efficiently on a variety of test problems, and to make tested versions of those codes available to the chemistry community through the NRCC software library. To this end, many of the most active developers and users of these codes have been invited to discuss the methods and to solve a set of test problems using the LBL computers. The first volume of this workshop report is a collection of the manuscripts of the talks that were presented at the first meeting held at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois June 25-27, 1979. It is hoped that this will serve as an up-to-date reference to the most popular methods with their latest refinements and implementations.
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal;
2011-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:01(n)01n with minimum distance (n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w=(n(lognloglogn)2) . (2) If d=3 then w=(nlglgn). (3...
Application of Multiple Description Coding for Adaptive QoS Mechanism for Mobile Cloud Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilan Sadeh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Multimedia transmission over cloud infrastructure is a hot research topic worldwide. It is very strongly related to video streaming, VoIP, mobile networks, and computer networks. The goal is a reliable integration of telephony, video and audio transmission, computing and broadband transmission based on cloud computing. One right approach to pave the way for mobile multimedia and cloud computing is Multiple Description Coding (MDC, i.e. the solution would be: TCP/IP and similar protocols to be used for transmission of text files, and Multiple Description Coding “Send and Forget” algorithm to be used as transmission method for Multimedia over the cloud. Multiple Description Coding would improve the Quality of Service and would provide new service of rate adaptive streaming. This paper presents a new approach for improving the quality of multimedia and other services in the cloud, by using Multiple Description Coding (MDC. Firsty MDC Send and Forget Algorithm is compared with the existing protocols such as TCP/IP, UDP, RTP, etc. Then the Achievable Rate Region for MDC system is evaluated. Finally, a new subset of Quality of Service that considers the blocking in multi-terminal multimedia network and fidelity losses is considered.
Ivanov, Anisoara; Neacsu, Andrei
2011-01-01
This study describes the possibility and advantages of utilizing simple computer codes to complement the teaching techniques for high school physics. The authors have begun working on a collection of open source programs which allow students to compare the results and graphics from classroom exercises with the correct solutions and further more to…
Methods, algorithms and computer codes for calculation of electron-impact excitation parameters
Bogdanovich, P; Stonys, D
2015-01-01
We describe the computer codes, developed at Vilnius University, for the calculation of electron-impact excitation cross sections, collision strengths, and excitation rates in the plane-wave Born approximation. These codes utilize the multireference atomic wavefunctions which are also adopted to calculate radiative transition parameters of complex many-electron ions. This leads to consistent data sets suitable in plasma modelling codes. Two versions of electron scattering codes are considered in the present work, both of them employing configuration interaction method for inclusion of correlation effects and Breit-Pauli approximation to account for relativistic effects. These versions differ only by one-electron radial orbitals, where the first one employs the non-relativistic numerical radial orbitals, while another version uses the quasirelativistic radial orbitals. The accuracy of produced results is assessed by comparing radiative transition and electron-impact excitation data for neutral hydrogen, helium...
Computer code to interchange CDS and wave-drag geometry formats
Johnson, V. S.; Turnock, D. L.
1986-01-01
A computer program has been developed on the PRIME minicomputer to provide an interface for the passage of aircraft configuration geometry data between the Rockwell Configuration Development System (CDS) and a wireframe geometry format used by aerodynamic design and analysis codes. The interface program allows aircraft geometry which has been developed in CDS to be directly converted to the wireframe geometry format for analysis. Geometry which has been modified in the analysis codes can be transformed back to a CDS geometry file and examined for physical viability. Previously created wireframe geometry files may also be converted into CDS geometry files. The program provides a useful link between a geometry creation and manipulation code and analysis codes by providing rapid and accurate geometry conversion.
Users manual for CAFE-3D : a computational fluid dynamics fire code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Imane; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Alion Science and Technology, Albuquerque, NM)
2005-03-01
The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code has been developed to model all relevant fire physics for predicting the thermal response of massive objects engulfed in large fires. It provides realistic fire thermal boundary conditions for use in design of radioactive material packages and in risk-based transportation studies. The CAFE code can be coupled to commercial finite-element codes such as MSC PATRAN/THERMAL and ANSYS. This coupled system of codes can be used to determine the internal thermal response of finite element models of packages to a range of fire environments. This document is a user manual describing how to use the three-dimensional version of CAFE, as well as a description of CAFE input and output parameters. Since this is a user manual, only a brief theoretical description of the equations and physical models is included.
TEMP: a computer code to calculate fuel pin temperatures during a transient. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bard, F E; Christensen, B Y; Gneiting, B C
1980-04-01
The computer code TEMP calculates fuel pin temperatures during a transient. It was developed to accommodate temperature calculations in any system of axi-symmetric concentric cylinders. When used to calculate fuel pin temperatures, the code will handle a fuel pin as simple as a solid cylinder or as complex as a central void surrounded by fuel that is broken into three regions by two circumferential cracks. Any fuel situation between these two extremes can be analyzed along with additional cladding, heat sink, coolant or capsule regions surrounding the fuel. The one-region version of the code accurately calculates the solution to two problems having closed-form solutions. The code uses an implicit method, an explicit method and a Crank-Nicolson (implicit-explicit) method.
NASCRAC - A computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth
Harris, D. O.; Eason, E. D.; Thomas, J. M.; Bianca, C. J.; Salter, L. D.
1987-01-01
NASCRAC - a computer code for fracture mechanics analysis of crack growth - is described in this paper. The need for such a code is increasing as requirements grow for high reliability and low weight in aerospace components. The code is comprehensive and versatile, as well as user friendly. The major purpose of the code is calculation of fatigue, corrosion fatigue, or stress corrosion crack growth, and a variety of crack growth relations can be selected by the user. Additionally, crack retardation models are included. A very wide variety of stress intensity factor solutions are contained in the code, and extensive use is made of influence functions. This allows complex stress gradients in three-dimensional crack problems to be treated easily and economically. In cases where previous stress intensity factor solutions are not adequate, new influence functions can be calculated by the code. Additional features include incorporation of J-integral solutions from the literature and a capability for estimating elastic-plastic stress redistribution from the results of a corresponding elastic analysis. An example problem is presented which shows typical outputs from the code.
A proposed framework for computational fluid dynamics code calibration/validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W.L.
1993-12-31
The paper reviews the terminology and methodology that have been introduced during the last several years for building confidence n the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CID) codes. Code validation terminology developed for nuclear reactor analyses and aerospace applications is reviewed and evaluated. Currently used terminology such as ``calibrated code,`` ``validated code,`` and a ``validation experiment`` is discussed along with the shortcomings and criticisms of these terms. A new framework is proposed for building confidence in CFD code predictions that overcomes some of the difficulties of past procedures and delineates the causes of uncertainty in CFD predictions. Building on previous work, new definitions of code verification and calibration are proposed. These definitions provide more specific requirements for the knowledge level of the flow physics involved and the solution accuracy of the given partial differential equations. As part of the proposed framework, categories are also proposed for flow physics research, flow modeling research, and the application of numerical predictions. The contributions of physical experiments, analytical solutions, and other numerical solutions are discussed, showing that each should be designed to achieve a distinctively separate purpose in building confidence in accuracy of CFD predictions. A number of examples are given for each approach to suggest methods for obtaining the highest value for CFD code quality assurance.
An Object-Oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation
Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.
2009-01-01
Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA's NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc., that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300-passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case.
Source Coding When the Side Information May Be Delayed
Simeone, Osvaldo
2011-01-01
For memoryless sources, delayed side information at the decoder does not improve the rate-distortion function. However, this is not the case for more general sources with memory, as demonstrated by a number of works focusing on the special case of (delayed) feedforward. In this paper, a setting is studied in which the encoder is potentially uncertain about the delay with which measurements of the side information are acquired at the decoder. Assuming a hidden Markov model for the sources, at first, a single-letter characterization is given for the set-up where the side information delay is arbitrary and known at the encoder, and the reconstruction at the destination is required to be (near) lossless. Then, with delay equal to zero or one source symbol, a single-letter characterization is given of the rate-distortion region for the case where side information may be delayed or not, unbeknownst to the encoder. The characterization is further extended to allow for additional information to be sent when the side ...
Analysis and design of raptor codes for joint decoding using Information Content evolution
Venkiah, Auguste; Declercq, David
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present an analytical analysis of the convergence of raptor codes under joint decoding over the binary input additive white noise channel (BIAWGNC), and derive an optimization method. We use Information Content evolution under Gaussian approximation, and focus on a new decoding scheme that proves to be more efficient: the joint decoding of the two code components of the raptor code. In our general model, the classical tandem decoding scheme appears to be a subcase, and thus, the design of LT codes is also possible.
Gobbo, F.; Benini, M.
2015-01-01
This article analyses the knowledge needed to understand a computer program within the philosophy of information. L. Floridi's method of levels of abstraction is applied to the relation between an ideal programmer and a modern computer seen together as an informational organism. The results obtained
Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D
2015-04-01
Quick response (QR) codes containing anesthesia syllabus data were introduced into an anesthesia information management system. The code was generated automatically at the conclusion of each case and available for resident case logging using a smartphone or tablet. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use and usability/user-friendliness of such system. Resident case logging practices were assessed prior to introducing the QR codes. QR code use and satisfactions amongst residents was reassessed at three and six months. Before QR code introduction only 12/23 (52.2%) residents maintained a case log. Most of the remaining residents (9/23, 39.1%) expected to receive a case list from the anesthesia information management system database at the end of their residency. At three months and six months 17/26 (65.4%) and 15/25 (60.0%) residents, respectively, were using the QR codes. Satisfaction was rated as very good or good. QR codes for residents' case logging with smartphones or tablets were successfully introduced in an anesthesia information management system and used by most residents. QR codes can be successfully implemented into medical practice to support data transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multiple frequencies sequential coding for SSVEP-based brain-computer interface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yangsong Zhang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI has become one of the most promising modalities for a practical noninvasive BCI system. Owing to both the limitation of refresh rate of liquid crystal display (LCD or cathode ray tube (CRT monitor, and the specific physiological response property that only a very small number of stimuli at certain frequencies could evoke strong SSVEPs, the available frequencies for SSVEP stimuli are limited. Therefore, it may not be enough to code multiple targets with the traditional frequencies coding protocols, which poses a big challenge for the design of a practical SSVEP-based BCI. This study aimed to provide an innovative coding method to tackle this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present a novel protocol termed multiple frequencies sequential coding (MFSC for SSVEP-based BCI. In MFSC, multiple frequencies are sequentially used in each cycle to code the targets. To fulfill the sequential coding, each cycle is divided into several coding epochs, and during each epoch, certain frequency is used. Obviously, different frequencies or the same frequency can be presented in the coding epochs, and the different epoch sequence corresponds to the different targets. To show the feasibility of MFSC, we used two frequencies to realize four targets and carried on an offline experiment. The current study shows that: 1 MFSC is feasible and efficient; 2 the performance of SSVEP-based BCI based on MFSC can be comparable to some existed systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed protocol could potentially implement much more targets with the limited available frequencies compared with the traditional frequencies coding protocol. The efficiency of the new protocol was confirmed by real data experiment. We propose that the SSVEP-based BCI under MFSC might be a promising choice in the future.
MOLOCH computer code for molecular-dynamics simulation of processes in condensed matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derbenev I.V.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental investigation into properties of condensed matter is one of the mainstreams in RFNC-VNIITF scientific activity. The method of molecular dynamics (MD is an innovative method of theoretical materials science. Modern supercomputers allow the direct simulation of collective effects in multibillion atom sample, making it possible to model physical processes on the atomistic level, including material response to dynamic load, radiation damage, influence of defects and alloying additions upon material mechanical properties, or aging of actinides. During past ten years, the computer code MOLOCH has been developed at RFNC-VNIITF. It is a parallel code suitable for massive parallel computing. Modern programming techniques were used to make the code almost 100% efficient. Practically all instruments required for modelling were implemented in the code: a potential builder for different materials, simulation of physical processes in arbitrary 3D geometry, and calculated data processing. A set of tests was developed to analyse algorithms efficiency. It can be used to compare codes with different MD implementation between each other.
Distributed multi-hypothesis coding of depth maps using texture motion information and optical flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Rakêt, Lars Lau
2013-01-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm allowing a shift of complexity from the encoder to the decoder. Depth maps are images enabling the calculation of the distance of an object from the camera, which can be used in multiview coding in order to generate virtual views, but also...... information, a block-based and an optical flow-based methods are employed. Finally we fuse the proposed Side Informations using a multi-hypothesis DVC decoder, which allows us to exploit the strengths of all the proposed methods at the same time....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Litinski
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.
Once-through CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croff, A.G.; Bjerke, M.A.
1980-11-01
Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of two CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model CANDUs are based on (1) the existing once-through fuel cycle with feed comprised of natural uranium and (2) a projected slightly enriched (1.2 wt % /sup 235/U) fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models, as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST, are given.
Adaptive Mesh Computations with the PLUTO Code for Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics
Mignone, A.; Zanni, C.
2012-07-01
We present an overview of the current version of the PLUTO code for numerical simulations of astrophysical fluid flows over block-structured adaptive grids. The code preserves its modular framework for the solution of the classical or relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations while exploiting the distributed infrastructure of the Chombo library for multidimensional adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) parallel computations. Equations are evolved in time using an explicit second-order, dimensionally unsplit time stepping scheme based on a cell-centered discretization of the flow variables. Efficiency and robustness are shown through multidimensional benchmarks and applications to problems of astrophysical relevance.
Experimental assessment of computer codes used for safety analysis of integral reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falkov, A.A.; Kuul, V.S.; Samoilov, O.B. [OKB Mechanical Engineering, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
1995-09-01
Peculiarities of integral reactor thermohydraulics in accidents are associated with presence of noncondensable gas in built-in pressurizer, absence of pumped ECCS, use of guard vessel for LOCAs localisation and passive RHRS through in-reactor HX`s. These features defined the main trends in experimental investigations and verification efforts for computer codes applied. The paper reviews briefly the performed experimental investigation of thermohydraulics of AST-500, VPBER600-type integral reactors. The characteristic of UROVEN/MB-3 code for LOCAs analysis in integral reactors and results of its verification are given. The assessment of RELAP5/mod3 applicability for accident analysis in integral reactor is presented.
The MELTSPREAD-1 computer code for the analysis of transient spreading in containments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.
1990-01-01
A one-dimensional, multicell, Eulerian finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to provide an improved prediction of the gravity driven spreading and thermal interactions of molten corium flowing over a concrete or steel surface. In this paper, the modeling incorporated into the code is described and the spreading models are benchmarked against a simple dam break'' problem as well as water simulant spreading data obtained in a scaled apparatus of the Mk I containment. Results are also presented for a scoping calculation of the spreading behavior and shell thermal response in the full scale Mk I system following vessel meltthrough. 24 refs., 15 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.
1981-04-01
The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.
V.S.O.P. (99/05) computer code system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruetten, H.J.; Haas, K.A.; Brockmann, H.; Scherer, W.
2005-11-01
V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The code can simulate the reactor operation from the initial core towards the equilibrium core. V.S.O.P.(99 / 05) represents the further development of V.S.O.P. (99). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved in many details. Major improvements and extensions have been included concerning the neutron spectrum calculation, the 3-d neutron diffusion options, and the thermal hydraulic section with respect to 'multi-pass'-fuelled pebblebed cores. This latest code version was developed and tested under the WINDOWS-XP - operating system. The storage requirement for the executables and the basic libraries associated with the code amounts to about 15 MB. Another 5 MB are required - if desired - for storage of the source code ({approx}65000 Fortran statements). (orig.)
V.S.O.P. (99/05) computer code system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruetten, H.J.; Haas, K.A.; Brockmann, H.; Scherer, W.
2005-11-01
V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The code can simulate the reactor operation from the initial core towards the equilibrium core. V.S.O.P.(99 / 05) represents the further development of V.S.O.P. (99). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved in many details. Major improvements and extensions have been included concerning the neutron spectrum calculation, the 3-d neutron diffusion options, and the thermal hydraulic section with respect to 'multi-pass'-fuelled pebblebed cores. This latest code version was developed and tested under the WINDOWS-XP - operating system. The storage requirement for the executables and the basic libraries associated with the code amounts to about 15 MB. Another 5 MB are required - if desired - for storage of the source code ({approx}65000 Fortran statements). (orig.)
Rutishauser, David
2006-01-01
The motivation for this work comes from an observation that amidst the push for Massively Parallel (MP) solutions to high-end computing problems such as numerical physical simulations, large amounts of legacy code exist that are highly optimized for vector supercomputers. Because re-hosting legacy code often requires a complete re-write of the original code, which can be a very long and expensive effort, this work examines the potential to exploit reconfigurable computing machines in place of a vector supercomputer to implement an essentially unmodified legacy source code. Custom and reconfigurable computing resources could be used to emulate an original application's target platform to the extent required to achieve high performance. To arrive at an architecture that delivers the desired performance subject to limited resources involves solving a multi-variable optimization problem with constraints. Prior research in the area of reconfigurable computing has demonstrated that designing an optimum hardware implementation of a given application under hardware resource constraints is an NP-complete problem. The premise of the approach is that the general issue of applying reconfigurable computing resources to the implementation of an application, maximizing the performance of the computation subject to physical resource constraints, can be made a tractable problem by assuming a computational paradigm, such as vector processing. This research contributes a formulation of the problem and a methodology to design a reconfigurable vector processing implementation of a given application that satisfies a performance metric. A generic, parametric, architectural framework for vector processing implemented in reconfigurable logic is developed as a target for a scheduling/mapping algorithm that maps an input computation to a given instance of the architecture. This algorithm is integrated with an optimization framework to arrive at a specification of the architecture parameters
Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin
2012-01-01
Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes using optical flow to improve side information generation and clustering to improve noise modeling. The optical flow technique is exploited at the decoder side to compensate weaknesses of block based methods, when using motion-compensation to generate......Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers...... side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded (WZ) frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side...
Merhav, Neri
2007-01-01
Shannon's secrecy system is studied in a setting, where both the legitimate decoder and the wiretapper have access to side information sequences correlated to the source, but the wiretapper receives both the coded information and the side information via channels that are more noisy than the respective channels of the legitmate decoder, which in turn, also shares a secret key with the encoder. A single--letter characterization is provided for the achievable region in the space of five figures of merit: the equivocation at the wiretapper, the key rate, the distortion of the source reconstruction at the legitimate receiver, the bandwidth expansion factor of the coded channels, and the average transmission cost (generalized power). Beyond the fact that this is an extension of earlier studies, it also provides a framework for studying fundamental performance limits of systematic codes in the presence of a wiretap channel. The best achievable performance of systematic codes is then compared to that of a general co...
A Theoretical Paradigm of Information Retrieval in Information Science and Computer Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Saleem Basha
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical paradigms of information retrieval in information science and computer science, and constructs the theory framework of information retrieval from three perspectives that are user, information and technology. It evaluates the research priorities of the two disciplines and cross-domain of information retrieval theory. Finally, it points-out the theory status and development trend of information retrieval in information science and computer science, and provides exploration direction in information retrieval theory.
Prediction Method for Image Coding Quality Based on Differential Information Entropy
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Xin Tian
2014-02-01
Full Text Available For the requirement of quality-based image coding, an approach to predict the quality of image coding based on differential information entropy is proposed. First of all, some typical prediction approaches are introduced, and then the differential information entropy is reviewed. Taking JPEG2000 as an example, the relationship between differential information entropy and the objective assessment indicator PSNR at a fixed compression ratio is established via data fitting, and the constraint for fitting is to minimize the average error. Next, the relationship among differential information entropy, compression ratio and PSNR at various compression ratios is constructed and this relationship is used as an indicator to predict the image coding quality. Finally, the proposed approach is compared with some traditional approaches. From the experiments, it can be seen that the differential information entropy has a better linear relationship with image coding quality than that with the image activity. Therefore, the conclusion can be reached that the proposed approach is capable of predicting image coding quality at low compression ratios with small errors, and can be widely applied in a variety of real-time space image coding systems for its simplicity.
Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education.
Hrebniak M.P.; Shchudro S.A.; Yakimova K.O.
2014-01-01
The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and c...
Mechanisms of protection of information in computer networks and systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Petrovich Evseev
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Protocols of information protection in computer networks and systems are investigated. The basic types of threats of infringement of the protection arising from the use of computer networks are classified. The basic mechanisms, services and variants of realization of cryptosystems for maintaining authentication, integrity and confidentiality of transmitted information are examined. Their advantages and drawbacks are described. Perspective directions of development of cryptographic transformations for the maintenance of information protection in computer networks and systems are defined and analyzed.
Proof-Carrying Code Based Tool for Secure Information Flow of Assembly Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulrahman Muthana
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: How a host (the code consumer can determine with certainty that a downloaded program received from untrusted source (the code producer will maintain the confidentiality of the data it manipulates and it is safe to install and execute. Approach: The approach adopted for verifying that a downloaded program will not leak confidential data to unauthorized parties was based on the concept of Proof-Carrying Code (PCC. A mobile program (in its assembly form was analyzed for information flow security based on the concept of proof-carrying code. The security policy was centered on a type system for analyzing information flows within assembly programs based on the notion of noninterference. Results: A verification tool for verifying assembly programs for information flow security was built. The tool certifies SPARC assembly programs for secure information flow by statically analyzing the program based on the idea of Proof-Carrying Code (PCC. The tool operated directly on the machine-code requiring only the inputs and outputs of the code annotated with security levels. The tool provided a windows user interface enabling the users to control the verification process. The proofs that untrusted program did not leak sensitive information were generated and checked on the host machine and if they are valid, then the untrusted program can be installed and executed safely. Conclusion: By basing proof-carrying code infrastructure on information flow analysis type-system, a sufficient assurance of protecting confidential data manipulated by the mobile program can be obtained. This assurance was come due to the fact that type systems provide a sufficient guarantee of protecting confidentiality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yimeng Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reginatto, M.; Goldhagen, P.
1998-06-01
The problem of analyzing data from a multisphere neutron spectrometer to infer the energy spectrum of the incident neutrons is discussed. The main features of the code MAXED, a computer program developed to apply the maximum entropy principle to the deconvolution (unfolding) of multisphere neutron spectrometer data, are described, and the use of the code is illustrated with an example. A user`s guide for the code MAXED is included in an appendix. The code is available from the authors upon request.
The MELTSPREAD-1 computer code for the analysis of transient spreading in containments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.
1990-01-01
Transient spreading of molten core materials is important in the assessment of severe-accident sequences for Mk-I boiling water reactors (BWRs). Of interest is whether core materials are able to spread over the pedestal and drywell floors to contact the containment shell and cause thermally induced shell failure, or whether heat transfer to underlying concrete and overlying water will freeze the melt short of the shell. The development of a computational capability for the assessment of this problem was initiated by Sienicki et al. in the form of MELTSPREAD-O code. Development is continuing in the form of the MELTSPREAD-1 code, which contains new models for phenomena that were ignored in the earlier code. This paper summarizes these new models, provides benchmarking calculations of the relocation model against an analytical solution as well as simulant spreading data, and summarizes the results of a scoping calculation for the full Mk-I system.
Computer code simulations of the formation of Meteor Crater, Arizona - Calculations MC-1 and MC-2
Roddy, D. J.; Schuster, S. H.; Kreyenhagen, K. N.; Orphal, D. L.
1980-01-01
It has been widely accepted that hypervelocity impact processes play a major role in the evolution of the terrestrial planets and satellites. In connection with the development of quantitative methods for the description of impact cratering, it was found that the results provided by two-dimensional finite difference, computer codes is greatly improved when initial impact conditions can be defined and when the numerical results can be tested against field and laboratory data. In order to address this problem, a numerical code study of the formation of Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, has been undertaken. A description is presented of the major results from the first two code calculations, MC-1 and MC-2, that have been completed for Meteor Crater. Both calculations used an iron meteorite with a kinetic energy of 3.8 Megatons. Calculation MC-1 had an impact velocity of 25 km/sec and MC-2 had an impact velocity of 15 km/sec.
WOLF: a computer code package for the calculation of ion beam trajectories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogel, D.L.
1985-10-01
The WOLF code solves POISSON'S equation within a user-defined problem boundary of arbitrary shape. The code is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN and uses a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate geometry represented on a triangular lattice. The vacuum electric fields and equipotential lines are calculated for the input problem. The use may then introduce a series of emitters from which particles of different charge-to-mass ratios and initial energies can originate. These non-relativistic particles will then be traced by WOLF through the user-defined region. Effects of ion and electron space charge are included in the calculation. A subprogram PISA forms part of this code and enables optimization of various aspects of the problem. The WOLF package also allows detailed graphics analysis of the computed results to be performed.
Reduction of Transmitted Information Using Similarities between Range Blocks in Fractal Image Coding
Hu, Xiaotong; Qiu, Shuping; Kuroda, Hideo
2007-01-01
Fractal image coding uses the similarities between the best matching domain blocks and range blocks to reconstruct image. In the transmitted information, the information about the best matching domain blocks occupies a large percentage, so the reduction of information about the best matching domain blocks is the most effective method to reduce the quality of transmitted information. On the other hand, there are similarities between range blocks from each other. So, when range blocks are simil...
HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.
1987-10-01
HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.
HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.
1987-09-01
HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.
Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho
2005-03-15
The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.
Research of multi-path routing based on network coding in space information networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Geng
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A multi-path routing algorithm based on network coding is proposed for combating long propagation delay and high bit error rate of space information networks. On the basis of traditional multi-path routing, the algorithm uses a random linear network coding strategy to code data packets. Code number is determined by the next hop link status and the number of current received packets sent by the upstream node together. The algorithm improves retransmission and cache mechanisms through using redundancy caused by network coding. Meanwhile, the algorithm also adopts the flow distribution strategy based on time delay to balance network load. Simulation results show that the proposed routing algorithm can effectively improve packet delivery rate, reduce packet delay, and enhance network performance.
Zhang, Shuai; Morita, Koji; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuichi
The COMPASS code is designed based on the moving particle semi-implicit method to simulate various complex mesoscale phenomena relevant to core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In this study, a computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was developed for the COMPASS code. The passively moving solid model was used to simulate hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and solids. Mechanical interactions between solids were modeled by the distinct element method. A multi-time-step algorithm was introduced to couple these two calculations. The proposed computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was verified by the comparison between experimental and numerical studies on the water-dam break with multiple solid rods.
Automatic code generation in SPARK: Applications of computer algebra and compiler-compilers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.
1992-09-01
We show how computer algebra and compiler-compilers are used for automatic code generation in the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), an object oriented environment for modeling complex physical systems that can be described by differential-algebraic equations. After a brief overview of SPARK, we describe the use of computer algebra in SPARK`s symbolic interface, which generates solution code for equations that are entered in symbolic form. We also describe how the Lex/Yacc compiler-compiler is used to achieve important extensions to the SPARK simulation language, including parametrized macro objects and steady-state resetting of a dynamic simulation. The application of these methods to solving the partial differential equations for two-dimensional heat flow is illustrated.
Automatic code generation in SPARK: Applications of computer algebra and compiler-compilers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.
1992-09-01
We show how computer algebra and compiler-compilers are used for automatic code generation in the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), an object oriented environment for modeling complex physical systems that can be described by differential-algebraic equations. After a brief overview of SPARK, we describe the use of computer algebra in SPARK's symbolic interface, which generates solution code for equations that are entered in symbolic form. We also describe how the Lex/Yacc compiler-compiler is used to achieve important extensions to the SPARK simulation language, including parametrized macro objects and steady-state resetting of a dynamic simulation. The application of these methods to solving the partial differential equations for two-dimensional heat flow is illustrated.
Computing element evolution towards Exascale and its impact on legacy simulation codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colin de Verdiere, Guillaume J.L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)
2015-12-15
In the light of the current race towards the Exascale, this article highlights the main features of the forthcoming computing elements that will be at the core of next generations of supercomputers. The market analysis, underlying this work, shows that computers are facing a major evolution in terms of architecture. As a consequence, it is important to understand the impacts of those evolutions on legacy codes or programming methods. The problems of dissipated power and memory access are discussed and will lead to a vision of what should be an exascale system. To survive, programming languages had to respond to the hardware evolutions either by evolving or with the creation of new ones. From the previous elements, we elaborate why vectorization, multithreading, data locality awareness and hybrid programming will be the key to reach the exascale, implying that it is time to start rewriting codes. (orig.)
Chen, Y. S.
1986-03-01
In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.
Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo; Han, Sang Hoon; Cho, Yeong Kyun; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Young; Seong, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong; An, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1994-07-01
This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on `The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, S. Y.; Yu, C.; Mo. T.; Trottier, C.
2000-10-17
In 1999, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) tasked Argonne National Laboratory to modify the existing RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes to perform probabilistic, site-specific dose analysis for use with the NRC's Standard Review Plan for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule. The RESRAD codes have been developed by Argonne to support the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) cleanup efforts. Through more than a decade of application, the codes already have established a large user base in the nation and a rigorous QA support. The primary objectives of the NRC task are to: (1) extend the codes' capabilities to include probabilistic analysis, and (2) develop parameter distribution functions and perform probabilistic analysis with the codes. The new codes also contain user-friendly features specially designed with graphic-user interface. In October 2000, the revised RESRAD (version 6.0) and RESRAD-BUILD (version 3.0), together with the user's guide and relevant parameter information, have been developed and are made available to the general public via the Internet for use.
[Series: Medical Applications of the PHITS Code (2): Acceleration by Parallel Computing].
Furuta, Takuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko
2015-01-01
Time-consuming Monte Carlo dose calculation becomes feasible owing to the development of computer technology. However, the recent development is due to emergence of the multi-core high performance computers. Therefore, parallel computing becomes a key to achieve good performance of software programs. A Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS contains two parallel computing functions, the distributed-memory parallelization using protocols of message passing interface (MPI) and the shared-memory parallelization using open multi-processing (OpenMP) directives. Users can choose the two functions according to their needs. This paper gives the explanation of the two functions with their advantages and disadvantages. Some test applications are also provided to show their performance using a typical multi-core high performance workstation.
PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vondy, D.R.
1979-10-01
The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal
2013-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...
Chia-Chang Hu
2005-01-01
A novel space-time adaptive near-far robust code-synchronization array detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA systems is developed in this paper. There are the same basic requirements that are needed by the conventional matched filter of an asynchronous DS-CDMA system. For the real-time applicability, a computationally efficient architecture of the proposed detector is developed that is based on the concept of the multistage Wiener filter (MWF) of Goldstein and Reed. This multistage technique resu...
Method for computing self-consistent solution in a gun code
Nelson, Eric M
2014-09-23
Complex gun code computations can be made to converge more quickly based on a selection of one or more relaxation parameters. An eigenvalue analysis is applied to error residuals to identify two error eigenvalues that are associated with respective error residuals. Relaxation values can be selected based on these eigenvalues so that error residuals associated with each can be alternately reduced in successive iterations. In some examples, relaxation values that would be unstable if used alone can be used.
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal;
2012-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Peter Meincke
1996-01-01
New uniform closed-form expressions for physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents are derived for truncated incremental wedge strips. In contrast to previously reported expressions, the new expressions are well-behaved for all directions of incidence and observation and take a finit...... value for zero strip length. Consequently, the new equivalent edge currents are, to the knowledge of the author, the first that are well-suited for implementation in general computer codes...
Walowit, Jed A.
1994-01-01
A viewgraph presentation is made showing the capabilities of the computer code SPIRALI. Overall capabilities of SPIRALI include: computes rotor dynamic coefficients, flow, and power loss for cylindrical and face seals; treats turbulent, laminar, Couette, and Poiseuille dominated flows; fluid inertia effects are included; rotor dynamic coefficients in three (face) or four (cylindrical) degrees of freedom; includes effects of spiral grooves; user definable transverse film geometry including circular steps and grooves; independent user definable friction factor models for rotor and stator; and user definable loss coefficients for sudden expansions and contractions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rohatgi, U.S.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.; Neymotin, L.Y.
1998-03-01
This document is the User`s Manual for the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) systems transient code RAMONA-4B. The code uses a three-dimensional neutron-kinetics model coupled with a multichannel, nonequilibrium, drift-flux, phase-flow model of the thermal hydraulics of the reactor vessel. The code is designed to analyze a wide spectrum of BWR core and system transients. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the code`s capabilities and limitations; Chapter 2 describes the code`s structure, lists major subroutines, and discusses the computer requirements. Chapter 3 is on code, auxillary codes, and instructions for running RAMONA-4B on Sun SPARC and IBM Workstations. Chapter 4 contains component descriptions and detailed card-by-card input instructions. Chapter 5 provides samples of the tabulated output for the steady-state and transient calculations and discusses the plotting procedures for the steady-state and transient calculations. Three appendices contain important user and programmer information: lists of plot variables (Appendix A) listings of input deck for sample problem (Appendix B), and a description of the plotting program PAD (Appendix C). 24 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.
Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence
Chen, Shyi-Ming
2015-01-01
The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...
Siderits, Richard; Yates, Stacy; Rodriguez, Arelis; Lee, Tina; Rimmer, Cheryl; Roche, Mark
2011-01-01
Quick Response (QR) Codes are standard in supply management and seen with increasing frequency in advertisements. They are now present regularly in healthcare informatics and education. These 2-dimensional square bar codes, originally designed by the Toyota car company, are free of license and have a published international standard. The codes can be generated by free online software and the resulting images incorporated into presentations. The images can be scanned by "smart" phones and tablets using either the iOS or Android platforms, which link the device with the information represented by the QR code (uniform resource locator or URL, online video, text, v-calendar entries, short message service [SMS] and formatted text). Once linked to the device, the information can be viewed at any time after the original presentation, saved in the device or to a Web-based "cloud" repository, printed, or shared with others via email or Bluetooth file transfer. This paper describes how we use QR codes in our tumor board presentations, discusses the benefits, the different QR codes from Web links and how QR codes facilitate the distribution of educational content.
Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval.
Barrera, John Fredy; Mira, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto
2013-03-11
We introduce for the first time the concept of an information "container" before a standard optical encrypting procedure. The "container" selected is a QR code which offers the main advantage of being tolerant to pollutant speckle noise. Besides, the QR code can be read by smartphones, a massively used device. Additionally, QR code includes another secure step to the encrypting benefits the optical methods provide. The QR is generated by means of worldwide free available software. The concept development probes that speckle noise polluting the outcomes of normal optical encrypting procedures can be avoided, then making more attractive the adoption of these techniques. Actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.
A new trend in Sabancı University Information Center: QR code application
Özel, Cem; Ozel, Cem; Akkurt, Mine
2014-01-01
The rapid development of mobile technologies in recent years has facilitated the use of the popular QR code application for various purposes. The new generation’s rapid adaptation to change has allowed this application's widespread usage. QR codes with structural properties can be supported with new ideas. It has developed into a new trend in libraries/information centers, as well as in the other areas. One of the usage areas of the QR code is in the marketing field. In this study, various QR...
Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Chaki, Nabendu
2013-01-01
The international conference on Advances in Computing and Information technology (ACITY 2012) provides an excellent international forum for both academics and professionals for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Computer Science and Information Technology. The Second International Conference on Advances in Computing and Information technology (ACITY 2012), held in Chennai, India, during July 13-15, 2012, covered a number of topics in all major fields of Computer Science and Information Technology including: networking and communications, network security and applications, web and internet computing, ubiquitous computing, algorithms, bioinformatics, digital image processing and pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, soft computing and applications. Upon a strength review process, a number of high-quality, presenting not only innovative ideas but also a founded evaluation and a strong argumentation of the same, were selected and collected in the present proceedings, ...
Analysis on Cloud Computing Information Security Problems and the Countermeasures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
Cloud computing is one of the most popular terms in the present IT industry, as well as one of the most prosperous technology. This paper introduces the concept, principle and characteristics of cloud computing, analyzes information security problems resulted from cloud computing, and puts forward corresponding solutions.
Computer a history of the information machine
Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Ensmenger, Nathan; Yost, Jeffrey R
2013-01-01
This history of the computer explores the roots of the industry's development, tracing not only the development of the machine itself--beginning with Charles Babbage's 1833 mechanical prototype--but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by companies that made the boom possible.
Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science
Harris, Christopher Glenn
2013-01-01
Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…
Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information
Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat
2005-01-01
The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…
Entrepreneurial Health Informatics for Computer Science and Information Systems Students
Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Narula, Stuti
2014-01-01
Corporate entrepreneurship is a critical area of curricula for computer science and information systems students. Few institutions of computer science and information systems have entrepreneurship in the curricula however. This paper presents entrepreneurial health informatics as a course in a concentration of Technology Entrepreneurship at a…
Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) Program Overview
VanDalsem, William R.
2003-01-01
The Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program's goal is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communication technologies
Parallel Computing in Information Retrieval--An Updated Review.
Macfarlane, A.; And Others
1997-01-01
Reviews the progress of parallel computing in information retrieval (IR) and stresses the importance of the motivation in using parallel computing for text retrieval. Analyzes parallel IR systems using a classification defined by Rasmussen; describes retrieval models used in parallel information processing; and suggests areas of needed research.…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Udovsky A.L.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Computational thermodynamics and informational technologies in the field of computer desing of materials as well as appliance of CALPHAD method on resolution of thermodynamic problems are presented in this paper.
Knowledge management: Role of the the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC)
Valentine, Timothy
2017-09-01
The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an information analysis center that collects, archives, evaluates, synthesizes and distributes information, data and codes that are used in various nuclear technology applications. RSICC retains more than 2,000 software packages that have been provided by code developers from various federal and international agencies. RSICC's customers (scientists, engineers, and students from around the world) obtain access to such computing codes (source and/or executable versions) and processed nuclear data files to promote on-going research, to ensure nuclear and radiological safety, and to advance nuclear technology. The role of such information analysis centers is critical for supporting and sustaining nuclear education and training programs both domestically and internationally, as the majority of RSICC's customers are students attending U.S. universities. Additionally, RSICC operates a secure CLOUD computing system to provide access to sensitive export-controlled modeling and simulation (M&S) tools that support both domestic and international activities. This presentation will provide a general review of RSICC's activities, services, and systems that support knowledge management and education and training in the nuclear field.
Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.
1997-11-01
A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air
For Information: 2004 CERN School of Computing
IT Department
2004-01-01
29 August to 11 September 2004, Hotel Oriente, Vico Equense (Naples), Italy. Organised by CERN in collaboration with the Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy New this year: Grants from the European Union available to participants to cover part or all of the cost of the School. Programme highlights: GRID Technologies delivers unique theoretical and hands-on education on some of the most advanced GRID topics Software Technologies addresses the most relevant modern techniques and tools for large scale, distributed software development Physics Computing focuses on the particular challenges the HEP community is facing for the LHC computing Application now open - for details, see www.cern.ch/CSC">http://www.cern.ch/CSC>www.cern.ch/CSC
Agarwal, Sapan; Quach, Tu-Thach; Parekh, Ojas; Hsia, Alexander H.; DeBenedictis, Erik P.; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Aimone, James B.
2016-01-01
The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational properties of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an N × N crossbar, these two kernels can be O(N) more energy efficient than a conventional digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1)). These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N) reduction in energy for the entire algorithm when run with finite precision. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning. PMID:26778946
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sapan eAgarwal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational advantages of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an NxN crossbar, these two kernels are at a minimum O(N more energy efficient than a digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1. These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N reduction in energy for the entire algorithm. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning.
Error threshold in topological quantum-computing models with color codes
Katzgraber, Helmut; Bombin, Hector; Martin-Delgado, Miguel A.
2009-03-01
Dealing with errors in quantum computing systems is possibly one of the hardest tasks when attempting to realize physical devices. By encoding the qubits in topological properties of a system, an inherent protection of the quantum states can be achieved. Traditional topologically-protected approaches are based on the braiding of quasiparticles. Recently, a braid-less implementation using brane-net condensates in 3-colexes has been proposed. In 2D it allows the transversal implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. In this work, we compute the error threshold for this topologically-protected quantum computing system in 2D, by means of mapping its error correction process onto a random 3-body Ising model on a triangular lattice. Errors manifest themselves as random perturbation of the plaquette interaction terms thus introducing frustration. Our results from Monte Carlo simulations suggest that these topological color codes are similarly robust to perturbations as the toric codes. Furthermore, they provide more computational capabilities and the possibility of having more qubits encoded in the quantum memory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Chu, C.C.
1992-01-01
A transient, one dimensional, finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to predict spreading behavior of high temperature melts flowing over concrete and/or steel surfaces submerged in water, or without the effects of water if the surface is initially dry. This paper provides a summary overview of models and correlations currently implemented in the code, code validation activities completed thus far, LWR spreading-related safety issues for which the code has been applied, and the status of documentation for the code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Chu, C.C.
1992-04-01
A transient, one dimensional, finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to predict spreading behavior of high temperature melts flowing over concrete and/or steel surfaces submerged in water, or without the effects of water if the surface is initially dry. This paper provides a summary overview of models and correlations currently implemented in the code, code validation activities completed thus far, LWR spreading-related safety issues for which the code has been applied, and the status of documentation for the code.
V.S.O.P. (99/09) Computer Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation; Version 2009
Rütten, H.-J.; Haas, K. A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Pohl, C.; Scherer, W.
2010-01-01
V.S.O.P.(99/ 09) represents the further development of V.S.O.P.(99/ 05). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved again in many details. The main motivation for this new code version was to update the basic nuclear libraries used by the code system. Thus, all cross section libraries involved in the code have now been based on ENDF/B-VII. V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of...
Automatic Generation of OpenMP Directives and Its Application to Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes
Yan, Jerry; Jin, Haoqiang; Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The shared-memory programming model is a very effective way to achieve parallelism on shared memory parallel computers. As great progress was made in hardware and software technologies, performance of parallel programs with compiler directives has demonstrated large improvement. The introduction of OpenMP directives, the industrial standard for shared-memory programming, has minimized the issue of portability. In this study, we have extended CAPTools, a computer-aided parallelization toolkit, to automatically generate OpenMP-based parallel programs with nominal user assistance. We outline techniques used in the implementation of the tool and discuss the application of this tool on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and several computational fluid dynamics codes. This work demonstrates the great potential of using the tool to quickly port parallel programs and also achieve good performance that exceeds some of the commercial tools.
Quantum information and computation for chemistry
Kais, Sabre; Rice, Stuart A
2014-01-01
Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science
On the Computational Complexity of Sphere Decoder for Lattice Space-Time Coded MIMO Channel
Abediseid, Walid
2011-01-01
The exact complexity analysis of the basic sphere decoder for general space-time codes applied to multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless channel is known to be difficult. In this work, we shed the light on the computational complexity of sphere decoding for the quasi-static, LAttice Space-Time (LAST) coded MIMO channel. Specifically, we derive the asymptotic tail distribution of the decoder's computational complexity in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. For the uncoded $M\\times N$ MIMO channel (e.g., V-BLAST), the analysis in [6] revealed that the tail distribution of such a decoder is of a Pareto-type with tail exponent that is equivalent to $N-M+1$. In our analysis, we show that the tail exponent of the sphere decoder's complexity distribution is equivalent to the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff achieved by LAST coding and lattice decoding schemes. This leads to extend the channel's tradeoff to include the decoding complexity. Moreover, we show analytically how minimum-mean square-error decisio...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Ju Yeul; Kim Do Hyung; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hansung University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1997-07-01
The objective of this study is to develop the appropriate procedure that can evaluate the human error in LP/S(lower power/shutdown) and the computer code that calculate the human error probabilities(HEPs) using this framework. The assessment of applicability of the typical HRA methodologies to LP/S is conducted and a new HRA procedure, SEPLOT (Systematic Evaluation Procedure for LP/S Operation Tasks) which presents the characteristics of LP/S is developed by selection and categorization of human actions by reviewing present studies. This procedure is applied to evaluate the LOOP(Loss of Off-site Power) sequence and the HEPs obtained by using SEPLOT are used to quantitative evaluation of the core uncovery frequency. In this evaluation one of the dynamic reliability computer codes, DYLAM-3 which has the advantages against the ET/FT is used. The SEPLOT developed in this study can give the basis and arrangement as to the human error evaluation technique. And this procedure can make it possible to assess the dynamic aspects of accidents leading to core uncovery applying the HEPs obtained by using the SEPLOT as input data to DYLAM-3 code, Eventually, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to improve safety in LP/S and reduce uncertainties in risk. 57 refs. 17 tabs., 33 figs. (author)
Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1995-07-01
This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author).
Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management
Rückemann, Claus-Peter
2016-06-01
This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.
A fully parallel, high precision, N-body code running on hybrid computing platforms
Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R; Punzo, D
2012-01-01
We present a new implementation of the numerical integration of the classical, gravitational, N-body problem based on a high order Hermite's integration scheme with block time steps, with a direct evaluation of the particle-particle forces. The main innovation of this code (called HiGPUs) is its full parallelization, exploiting both OpenMP and MPI in the use of the multicore Central Processing Units as well as either Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) or OpenCL for the hosted Graphic Processing Units. We tested both performance and accuracy of the code using up to 256 GPUs in the supercomputer IBM iDataPlex DX360M3 Linux Infiniband Cluster provided by the italian supercomputing consortium CINECA, for values of N up to 8 millions. We were able to follow the evolution of a system of 8 million bodies for few crossing times, task previously unreached by direct summation codes. The code is freely available to the scientific community.
Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes
Pinsky, L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R
2001-01-01
This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be usef...
The Proteus Navier-Stokes code. [two and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics
Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.
1992-01-01
An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. Proteus solves the Reynolds-averaged, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. Turbulence is modeled using a Baldwin-Lomax based algebraic eddy viscosity model. In addition, options are available to solve thin layer or Euler equations, and to eliminate the energy equation by assuming constant stagnation enthalpy. An extensive series of validation cases have been run, primarily using the two dimensional planar/axisymmetric version of the code. Several flows were computed that have exact solution such as: fully developed channel and pipe flow; Couette flow with and without pressure gradients; unsteady Couette flow formation; flow near a suddenly accelerated flat plate; flow between concentric rotating cylinders; and flow near a rotating disk. The two dimensional version of the Proteus code has been released, and the three dimensional code is scheduled for release in late 1991.
Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk
2014-01-01
Computer-based simulation has intuitive appeal to both educators and learners with the flexibility of time, place, immediate feedback, and self-paced and consistent curriculum. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of computer-based simulation on nursing students' performance, self-efficacy, post-code stress, and satisfaction between computer-based simulation plus instructor-led cardiopulmonary resuscitation training group and instructor-led resuscitation training-only group. This study was a nonequivalent control group posttest-only design. There were 213 second year nursing students randomly assigned to one of two groups: 109 nursing students with computer-based simulation or 104 with control group. Overall nursing students' performance score was higher in the computer-based simulation group than in the control group but reached no statistical significance (t = 1.086, p = .283). There were no significant differences in resuscitation-specific self-efficacy, post-code stress, and satisfaction between the two groups. Computer-based simulation combined with hands-on practice did not affect in nursing students' performance, self-efficacy, post-code stress, and satisfaction in nursing students. Further study must be conducted to inform instructional design and help integrate computer-based simulation and rigorous scoring rubrics.
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — U.S.research and development R and D in computing, communications, and information technologies has enabled unprecedented scientific and engineering advances,...
Assessment of computer codes for VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szabados, L.; Ezsol, Gy.; Perneczky [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)
1995-09-01
Nuclear power plant of VVER-440/213 designed by the former USSR have a number of special features. As a consequence of these features the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the PWR system behaviour. To study the transient behaviour of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant of VVER-440/213-type both analytical and experimental activities have been performed. The experimental basis of the research in the PMK-2 integral-type test facility , which is a scaled down model of the plant. Experiments performed on this facility have been used to assess thermal-hydraulic system codes. Four tests were selected for {open_quotes}Standard Problem Exercises{close_quotes} of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Results of the 4th Exercise, of high international interest, are presented in the paper, focusing on the essential findings of the assessment of computer codes.
Revised uranium--plutonium cycle PWR and BWR models for the ORIGEN computer code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croff, A. G.; Bjerke, M. A.; Morrison, G. W.; Petrie, L. M.
1978-09-01
Reactor physics calculations and literature searches have been conducted, leading to the creation of revised enriched-uranium and enriched-uranium/mixed-oxide-fueled PWR and BWR reactor models for the ORIGEN computer code. These ORIGEN reactor models are based on cross sections that have been taken directly from the reactor physics codes and eliminate the need to make adjustments in uncorrected cross sections in order to obtain correct depletion results. Revised values of the ORIGEN flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST were calculated along with new parameters related to the activation of fuel-assembly structural materials not located in the active fuel zone. Recommended fuel and structural material masses and compositions are presented. A summary of the new ORIGEN reactor models is given.
A general panel sizing computer code and its application to composite structural panels
Anderson, M. S.; Stroud, W. J.
1978-01-01
A computer code for obtaining the dimensions of optimum (least mass) stiffened composite structural panels is described. The procedure, which is based on nonlinear mathematical programming and a rigorous buckling analysis, is applicable to general cross sections under general loading conditions causing buckling. A simplified method of accounting for bow-type imperfections is also included. Design studies in the form of structural efficiency charts for axial compression loading are made with the code for blade and hat stiffened panels. The effects on panel mass of imperfections, material strength limitations, and panel stiffness requirements are also examined. Comparisons with previously published experimental data show that accounting for imperfections improves correlation between theory and experiment.
Development of system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jang, H. S.; Jeon, M. H.; Cho, N. J. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1992-01-15
The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in nuclear power plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct Individual Plant Examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident-resistance. Severe accident can be mitigated by the proper accident management strategies. Some operator action for mitigation can lead to more disastrous result and thus uncertain severe accident phenomena must be well recognized. There must be further research for development of severe accident management strategies utilizing existing plant resources as well as new design concepts.
Development of a computer code for dynamic analysis of the primary circuit of advanced reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, Jussie Soares da; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Magalhaes, Mardson A. de Sa, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear
2011-07-01
Currently, advanced reactors are being developed, seeking for enhanced safety, better performance and low environmental impacts. Reactor designs must follow several steps and numerous tests before a conceptual project could be certified. In this sense, computational tools become indispensable in the preparation of such projects. Thus, this study aimed at the development of a computational tool for thermal-hydraulic analysis by coupling two computer codes to evaluate the influence of transients caused by pressure variations and flow surges in the region of the primary circuit of IRIS reactor between the core and the pressurizer. For the simulation, it was used a situation of 'insurge', characterized by the entry of water in the pressurizer, due to the expansion of the refrigerant in the primary circuit. This expansion was represented by a pressure disturbance in step form, through the block 'step' of SIMULINK, thus enabling the transient startup. The results showed that the dynamic tool, obtained through the coupling of the codes, generated very satisfactory responses within model limitations, preserving the most important phenomena in the process. (author)
Dubiner, Moshe
2008-01-01
Consider the problem of finding high dimensional approximate nearest neighbors, where the data is generated by some known probabilistic model. We will investigate a large natural class of algorithms which we call bucketing codes. We will define bucketing information, prove that it bounds the performance of all bucketing codes, and that the bucketing information bound can be asymptotically attained by randomly constructed bucketing codes. For example suppose we have n Bernoulli(1/2) very long (length d-->infinity) sequences of bits. Let n-2m sequences be completely independent, while the remaining 2m sequences are composed of m independent pairs. The interdependence within each pair is that their bits agree with probability 1/20. Moreover if one sequence out of each pair belongs to a a known set of n^{(2p-1)^{2}-\\epsilon} sequences, than pairing can be done using order n comparisons!
Optical information encryption based on incoherent superposition with the help of the QR code
Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel optical information encryption approach is proposed with the help of QR code. This method is based on the concept of incoherent superposition which we introduce for the first time. The information to be encrypted is first transformed into the corresponding QR code, and thereafter the QR code is further encrypted into two phase only masks analytically by use of the intensity superposition of two diffraction wave fields. The proposed method has several advantages over the previous interference-based method, such as a higher security level, a better robustness against noise attack, a more relaxed work condition, and so on. Numerical simulation results and actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.
11th International Conference on Computer and Information Science
Computer and Information 2012
2012-01-01
The series "Studies in Computational Intelligence" (SCI) publishes new developments and advances in the various areas of computational intelligence – quickly and with a high quality. The intent is to cover the theory, applications, and design methods of computational intelligence, as embedded in the fields of engineering, computer science, physics and life science, as well as the methodologies behind them. The series contains monographs, lecture notes and edited volumes in computational intelligence spanning the areas of neural networks, connectionist systems, genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, cellular automata, self-organizing systems, soft computing, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems. Critical to both contributors and readers are the short publication time and world-wide distribution - this permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results. The purpose of the 11th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2012...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, C.; Hughes, E. D.; Niederauer, G. F.; Wilkening, H.; Travis, J. R.; Spore, J. W.; Royl, P.; Baumann, W.
1998-10-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume
Li, Meng; Tsien, Joe Z
2017-01-01
A major stumbling block to cracking the real-time neural code is neuronal variability - neurons discharge spikes with enormous variability not only across trials within the same experiments but also in resting states. Such variability is widely regarded as a noise which is often deliberately averaged out during data analyses. In contrast to such a dogma, we put forth the Neural Self-Information Theory that neural coding is operated based on the self-information principle under which variability in the time durations of inter-spike-intervals (ISI), or neuronal silence durations, is self-tagged with discrete information. As the self-information processor, each ISI carries a certain amount of information based on its variability-probability distribution; higher-probability ISIs which reflect the balanced excitation-inhibition ground state convey minimal information, whereas lower-probability ISIs which signify rare-occurrence surprisals in the form of extremely transient or prolonged silence carry most information. These variable silence durations are naturally coupled with intracellular biochemical cascades, energy equilibrium and dynamic regulation of protein and gene expression levels. As such, this silence variability-based self-information code is completely intrinsic to the neurons themselves, with no need for outside observers to set any reference point as typically used in the rate code, population code and temporal code models. Moreover, temporally coordinated ISI surprisals across cell population can inherently give rise to robust real-time cell-assembly codes which can be readily sensed by the downstream neural clique assemblies. One immediate utility of this self-information code is a general decoding strategy to uncover a variety of cell-assembly patterns underlying external and internal categorical or continuous variables in an unbiased manner.
CICT Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Program
Laufenberg, Lawrence; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The CICT Program is part of the NASA Aerospace Technology Enterprise's fundamental technology thrust to develop tools. processes, and technologies that enable new aerospace system capabilities and missions. The CICT Program's four key objectives are: Provide seamless access to NASA resources- including ground-, air-, and space-based distributed information technology resources-so that NASA scientists and engineers can more easily control missions, make new scientific discoveries, and design the next-generation space vehicles, provide high-data delivery from these assets directly to users for missions, develop goal-oriented human-centered systems, and research, develop and evaluate revolutionary technology.
Pirovich, L. Ya
The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohebbi, Ali; Engelsholm, Signe K.D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan
2015-01-01
In this pilot study, a novel and minimalistic Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based wheelchair control application was developed. The system was based on pseudorandom code modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (c-VEPs). The visual stimuli in the scheme were generated based on the Gold code...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2017-01-01
Aerodynamic and structural dynamic performance analysis of modern wind turbines are routinely estimated in the wind energy field using computational tools known as aeroelastic codes. Most aeroelastic codes use the blade element momentum (BEM) technique to model the rotor aerodynamics and a modal...
Prediction of detonation and JWL eos parameters of energetic materials using EXPLO5 computer code
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Peter, Xolani
2016-09-01
Full Text Available (Cowperthwaite and Zwisler, 1976), CHEETAH (Fried, 1996), EXPLO5(Sućeska , 2001), BARUT-X (Cengiz et al., 2007). These computer codes describe the detonation on the basis of the solution of Euler’s hydrodynamic equation based on the description of an equation... of detonation products equation of state from cylinder test: Analytical model and numerical analysis. Thermal Science, 19(1), pp. 35-48. Fried, L.E., 1996. CHEETAH 1.39 user’s manual. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Göbel, M., 2009. Energetic...
On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.
Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L
2007-02-20
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-epsilon model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.
Fletcher, C. D.
The capability to perform thermal-hydraulic analyses of a space reactor using the ATHENA computer code is demonstrated. The fast reactor, liquid-lithium coolant loops, and lithium-filled heat pipes of the preliminary General electric SP-100 design were modeled with ATHENA. Two demonstration transient calculations were performed simulating accident conditions. Calculated results are available for display using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer color graphics analysis tool in addition to traditional plots. ATHENA-calculated results appear reasonable, both for steady state full power conditions, and for the two transients. This analysis represents the first known transient thermal-hydraulic simulation using an integral space reactor system model incorporating heat pipes.
Capabilities of the ATHENA computer code for modeling the SP-100 space reactor concept
Fletcher, C. D.
1985-09-01
The capability to perform thermal-hydraulic analyses of an SP-100 space reactor was demonstrated using the ATHENA computer code. The preliminary General Electric SP-100 design was modeled using Athena. The model simulates the fast reactor, liquid-lithium coolant loops, and lithium-filled heat pipes of this design. Two ATHENA demonstration calculations were performed simulating accident scenarios. A mask for the SP-100 model and an interface with the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) were developed, allowing a graphic display of the calculated results on the NPA.
Discrete logarithm computations over finite fields using Reed-Solomon codes
Augot, Daniel; Morain, François
2012-01-01
Cheng and Wan have related the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes to the computation of discrete logarithms over finite fields, with the aim of proving the hardness of their decoding. In this work, we experiment with solving the discrete logarithm over GF(q^h) using Reed-Solomon decoding. For fixed h and q going to infinity, we introduce an algorithm (RSDL) needing O~(h! q^2) operations over GF(q), operating on a q x q matrix with (h+2) q non-zero coefficients. We give faster variants including a...
Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material, Ⅱ: Method of Solution and Computer Code
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Chensha(李辰砂); Jiao Caishan; Liu Ying; Wang Zhengping; Wang Hongjie; Cao Maosheng
2003-01-01
According to a mathematical model which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composites, the solution method to the model is made and a computer code is developed, which for flat-plate composites cured by a specified cure cycle, provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure reaction process in the resin, the resin flow and fibers stress inside the composite, the void variation and the residual stress distribution.
Fuel burnup analysis for Thai research reactor by using MCNPX computer code
Sangkaew, S.; Angwongtrakool, T.; Srimok, B.
2017-06-01
This paper presents the fuel burnup analysis of the Thai research reactor (TRR-1/M1), TRIGA Mark-III, operated by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) in Bangkok, Thailand. The modelling software used in this analysis is MCNPX (MCNP eXtended) version 2.6.0, a Fortran90 Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code. The analysis results will cover the core excess reactivity, neutron fluxes at the irradiation positions and neutron detector tubes, power distribution, fuel burnup, and fission products based on fuel cycle of first reactor core arrangement.
Reznik, A. L.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Torgov, A. V.
2016-11-01
Original codes and combinatorial-geometrical computational schemes are presented, which are developed and applied for finding exact analytical formulas that describe the probability of errorless readout of random point images recorded by a scanning aperture with a limited number of threshold levels. Combinatorial problems encountered in the course of the study and associated with the new generalization of Catalan numbers are formulated and solved. An attempt is made to find the explicit analytical form of these numbers, which is, on the one hand, a necessary stage of solving the basic research problem and, on the other hand, an independent self-consistent problem.
Apparatus, Method, and Computer Program for a Resolution-Enhanced Pseudo-Noise Code Technique
Li, Steven X. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An apparatus, method, and computer program for a resolution enhanced pseudo-noise coding technique for 3D imaging is provided. In one embodiment, a pattern generator may generate a plurality of unique patterns for a return to zero signal. A plurality of laser diodes may be configured such that each laser diode transmits the return to zero signal to an object. Each of the return to zero signal includes one unique pattern from the plurality of unique patterns to distinguish each of the transmitted return to zero signals from one another.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The fundamental algorithm of light beam propagation in high powerlaser system is investigated and the corresponding computational codes are given. It is shown that the number of modulation ring due to the diffraction is related to the size of the pinhole in spatial filter (in terms of the times of diffraction limitation, i.e. TDL) and the Fresnel number of the laser system; for the complex laser system with multi-spatial filters and free space, the system can be investigated by the reciprocal rule of operators.
Modeling of field lysimeter release data using the computer code dust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, T.M.; Fitzgerald, I.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
1993-01-01
In this study, it was attempted to match the experimentally measured mass release data collected over a period of seven years by investigators from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from the lysimeters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory using the computer code DUST. The influence of the dispersion coefficient and distribution coefficient on mass release was investigated. Both were found to significantly influence mass release over the seven year period. It is recommended that these parameters be measured on a site specific basis to enhance the understanding of the system.
Modeling of field lysimeter release data using the computer code dust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, T.M.; Fitzgerald, I.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
1993-03-01
In this study, it was attempted to match the experimentally measured mass release data collected over a period of seven years by investigators from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from the lysimeters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory using the computer code DUST. The influence of the dispersion coefficient and distribution coefficient on mass release was investigated. Both were found to significantly influence mass release over the seven year period. It is recommended that these parameters be measured on a site specific basis to enhance the understanding of the system.
International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technologies
2017-01-01
The book reports on new theories and applications in the field of intelligent systems and computing. It covers computational and artificial intelligence methods, as well as advances in computer vision, current issue in big data and cloud computing, computation linguistics, cyber-physical systems as well as topics in intelligent information management. Written by active researchers, the different chapters are based on contributions presented at the workshop in intelligent systems and computing (ISC), held during CSIT 2016, September 6-9, and jointly organized by the Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine, the Kharkiv National University of RadioElectronics, Ukraine, and the Technical University of Lodz, Poland, under patronage of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. All in all, the book provides academics and professionals with extensive information and a timely snapshot of the field of intelligent systems, and it is expected to foster new discussions and collaborations among different groups. ...
The non-power model of the genetic code: a paradigm for interpreting genomic information.
Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Giannerini, Simone; Rosa, Rodolfo
2016-03-13
In this article, we present a mathematical framework based on redundant (non-power) representations of integer numbers as a paradigm for the interpretation of genomic information. The core of the approach relies on modelling the degeneracy of the genetic code. The model allows one to explain many features and symmetries of the genetic code and to uncover hidden symmetries. Also, it provides us with new tools for the analysis of genomic sequences. We review briefly three main areas: (i) the Euplotid nuclear code, (ii) the vertebrate mitochondrial code, and (iii) the main coding/decoding strategies used in the three domains of life. In every case, we show how the non-power model is a natural unified framework for describing degeneracy and deriving sound biological hypotheses on protein coding. The approach is rooted on number theory and group theory; nevertheless, we have kept the technical level to a minimum by focusing on key concepts and on the biological implications. © 2016 The Author(s).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nichols, B.D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G.A.; Travis, J.R.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L.; Royl, P.; Redlinger, R.; Wilson, T.L.
1998-10-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior (1) in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and (2) during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included
Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hrebniak M.P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and characteristics of mental ability among schoolchildren and students during training in high school. Common risk factors, while operating CIT, are: intensification and formalization of intellectual activity, adverse ergonomic parameters, unfavorable working posture, excess of hygiene standards by chemical and physical characteristics. The priority preventive directions in applying computer information technology in education are: improvement of optimal visual parameters of activity, rationalization of ergonomic parameters, minimizing of adverse effects of chemical and physical conditions, rationalization of work and rest activity.
Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.
Kerren, Andreas
2013-01-01
Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.
Computation, information, cognition the nexus and the liminal
Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
2007-01-01
This book draws together a number of important strands in contemporary approaches to the philosophical and scientific questions that emerge when dealing with the issues of computing, information, cognition and the conceptual issues that arise at their int
Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing
Sims, J. Eric
2012-01-01
Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…
Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing
Sims, J. Eric
2012-01-01
Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…
Course Syllabus: The Social Impact of Computer Information Technology.
Behar, Joseph
1988-01-01
This syllabus describes the course background, central themes and issues, texts, resources, and recommended readings. Main topics are the sociology of information technology, computers and social change, telecommunications, computers and human interactions, applications in working, and social issues and political implications. (YP)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurii A. Kotsiuk
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The article checks up the existence of functional relation between the level of psychological comfort of the users of computer informational systems and their awareness/skills to use cryptographic means of information protection.
An implementation of a tree code on a SIMD, parallel computer
Olson, Kevin M.; Dorband, John E.
1994-01-01
We describe a fast tree algorithm for gravitational N-body simulation on SIMD parallel computers. The tree construction uses fast, parallel sorts. The sorted lists are recursively divided along their x, y and z coordinates. This data structure is a completely balanced tree (i.e., each particle is paired with exactly one other particle) and maintains good spatial locality. An implementation of this tree-building algorithm on a 16k processor Maspar MP-1 performs well and constitutes only a small fraction (approximately 15%) of the entire cycle of finding the accelerations. Each node in the tree is treated as a monopole. The tree search and the summation of accelerations also perform well. During the tree search, node data that is needed from another processor is simply fetched. Roughly 55% of the tree search time is spent in communications between processors. We apply the code to two problems of astrophysical interest. The first is a simulation of the close passage of two gravitationally, interacting, disk galaxies using 65,636 particles. We also simulate the formation of structure in an expanding, model universe using 1,048,576 particles. Our code attains speeds comparable to one head of a Cray Y-MP, so single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) type computers can be used for these simulations. The cost/performance ratio for SIMD machines like the Maspar MP-1 make them an extremely attractive alternative to either vector processors or large multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) type parallel computers. With further optimizations (e.g., more careful load balancing), speeds in excess of today's vector processing computers should be possible.
Wavelet subband coding of computer simulation output using the A++ array class library
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.; Quinlan, D.J.; Zhang, H.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuri, V. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). School of EECS
1995-07-01
The goal of the project is to produce utility software for off-line compression of existing data and library code that can be called from a simulation program for on-line compression of data dumps as the simulation proceeds. Naturally, we would like the amount of CPU time required by the compression algorithm to be small in comparison to the requirements of typical simulation codes. We also want the algorithm to accomodate a wide variety of smooth, multidimensional data types. For these reasons, the subband vector quantization (VQ) approach employed in has been replaced by a scalar quantization (SQ) strategy using a bank of almost-uniform scalar subband quantizers in a scheme similar to that used in the FBI fingerprint image compression standard. This eliminates the considerable computational burdens of training VQ codebooks for each new type of data and performing nearest-vector searches to encode the data. The comparison of subband VQ and SQ algorithms in indicated that, in practice, there is relatively little additional gain from using vector as opposed to scalar quantization on DWT subbands, even when the source imagery is from a very homogeneous population, and our subjective experience with synthetic computer-generated data supports this stance. It appears that a careful study is needed of the tradeoffs involved in selecting scalar vs. vector subband quantization, but such an analysis is beyond the scope of this paper. Our present work is focused on the problem of generating wavelet transform/scalar quantization (WSQ) implementations that can be ported easily between different hardware environments. This is an extremely important consideration given the great profusion of different high-performance computing architectures available, the high cost associated with learning how to map algorithms effectively onto a new architecture, and the rapid rate of evolution in the world of high-performance computing.
Development of computer code models for analysis of subassembly voiding in the LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinkle, W [ed.
1979-12-01
The research program discussed in this report was started in FY1979 under the combined sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), General Electric (GE) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The objective of the program is to develop multi-dimensional computer codes which can be used for the analysis of subassembly voiding incoherence under postulated accident conditions in the LMFBR. Two codes are being developed in parallel. The first will use a two fluid (6 equation) model which is more difficult to develop but has the potential for providing a code with the utmost in flexibility and physical consistency for use in the long term. The other will use a mixture (< 6 equation) model which is less general but may be more amenable to interpretation and use of experimental data and therefore, easier to develop for use in the near term. To assure that the models developed are not design dependent, geometries and transient conditions typical of both foreign and US designs are being considered.
Sodium combustion computer code ASSCOPS version 2.0 user`s manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Futagami, Satoshi; Ohno, Shuji; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyake, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
1997-12-01
ASSCOPS (Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) has been developed for analyses of thermal consequences of sodium leak and fire accidents in LMFBRs. This report presents a description of the computational models, input, and output as the user`s manual of ASSCOPS version 2.0. ASSCOPS is an integrated code based on the sodium pool fire code SOFIRE II developed by the Atomics International Division of Rockwell International, and the sodium spray fire code SPRAY developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in the U.S. The experimental studies conducted at PNC have been reflected in the ASSCOPS improvement. The users of ASSCOPS need to specify the sodium leak conditions (leak flow rate and temperature, etc.), the cell geometries (volume and structure surface area and thickness, etc.), and the atmospheric initial conditions, such as gas temperature, pressure, and gas composition. ASSCOPS calculates the time histories of atmospheric pressure and temperature changes along with those of the structural temperatures. (author)
Hierarchical surface code for network quantum computing with modules of arbitrary size
Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C.
2016-10-01
The network paradigm for quantum computing involves interconnecting many modules to form a scalable machine. Typically it is assumed that the links between modules are prone to noise while operations within modules have a significantly higher fidelity. To optimize fault tolerance in such architectures we introduce a hierarchical generalization of the surface code: a small "patch" of the code exists within each module and constitutes a single effective qubit of the logic-level surface code. Errors primarily occur in a two-dimensional subspace, i.e., patch perimeters extruded over time, and the resulting noise threshold for intermodule links can exceed ˜10 % even in the absence of purification. Increasing the number of qubits within each module decreases the number of qubits necessary for encoding a logical qubit. But this advantage is relatively modest, and broadly speaking, a "fine-grained" network of small modules containing only about eight qubits is competitive in total qubit count versus a "course" network with modules containing many hundreds of qubits.
Efficient Codes for Writing Equal-bit Information in a WOM Twice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongtao Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on WOM coding for writing equal-bit information twice (WOM2E. We studied the definition and coding solution of WOM2E. We encoded information via a codeword table and found that WOM2E achieved a better WOM-rate. However, the codeword table for large WOM2E cells is difficult to determine. We also introduced the coding sum rate to define the WOM2E efficiency. The sum rate of WOM2E is the sum of the ratios of information bits to the number of cells each time data is written to memory. In order to obtain the maximum coding sum rate, we can utilize more cells. Furthermore, we discover that, as the number of cells in memory increases, the sum rate is perfectly asymptotic to the logarithm. We use Matlab to calculate the upper bound of the sum rate of WOM2E, and find that it has a value of 1.546
Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing
Reina-Estupinan, J H
2002-01-01
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...
Applying informed coding and embedding to design a robust high-capacity watermark.
Miller, Matt L; Doërr, Gwenaël J; Cox, Ingemar J
2004-06-01
We describe a new watermarking system based on the principles of informed coding and informed embedding. This system is capable of embedding 1380 bits of information in images with dimensions 240 x 368 pixels. Experiments on 2000 images indicate the watermarks are robust to significant valumetric distortions, including additive noise, low-pass filtering, changes in contrast, and lossy compression. Our system encodes watermark messages with a modified trellis code in which a given message may be represented by a variety of different signals, with the embedded signal selected according to the cover image. The signal is embedded by an iterative method that seeks to ensure the message will not be confused with other messages, even after addition of noise. Fidelity is improved by the incorporation of perceptual shaping into the embedding process. We show that each of these three components improves performance substantially.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Garbey; C. Picard
2008-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present a versatile framework for solution verification of PDE's.We first generalize the Richardson Extrapolation technique to an optimized extrapolation solution procedure that constructs the best consistent solution from a set of two or three coarse grid solution in the discrete norm of choice. This technique generalizes the Least Square Extrapolation method introduced by one of the author and W. Shyy. We second establish the conditioning number of the problem in a reduced space that approximates the main feature of the numerical solution thanks to a sensitivity analysis. Overall our method produces an a posteriori error estimation in this reduced space of approximation. The key feature of our method is that our construction does not require an internal knowledge of the software neither the source code that produces the solution to be verified. It can be applied in principle as a postprocessing procedure to off the shelf commercial code. We demonstrate the robustness of our method with two steady problems that are separately an incompressible back step flow test case and a heat transfer problem for a battery. Our error estimate might be ultimately verified with a near by manufactured solution. While our procedure is systematic and requires numerous computation of residuals, one can take advantage of distributed computing to get quickly the error estimate.
The 9th international conference on computing and information technology
Unger, Herwig; Boonkrong, Sirapat; IC2IT2013
2013-01-01
This volume contains the papers of the 9th International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (IC2IT 2013) held at King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Bangkok, Thailand, on May 9th-10th, 2013. Traditionally, the conference is organized in conjunction with the National Conference on Computing and Information Technology, one of the leading Thai national events in the area of Computer Science and Engineering. The conference as well as this volume is structured into 3 main tracks on Data Networks/Communication, Data Mining/Machine Learning, and Human Interfaces/Image processing.
Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering
Sobh, Tarek
2013-01-01
Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JUN YEOB LEE
2014-10-01
Full Text Available During the development process of a thermal-hydraulic system code, a non-regression test (NRT must be performed repeatedly in order to prevent software regression. The NRT process, however, is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Thus, automation of this process is an ideal solution. In this study, we have developed a program to support an efficient NRT for the SPACE code and demonstrated its usability. This results in a high degree of efficiency for code development. The program was developed using the Visual Basic for Applications and designed so that it can be easily customized for the NRT of other computer codes.
Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muthurajan, H. [Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pashan, Pune 411021 (India)], E-mail: muthurajan_h@rediffmail.com; Sivabalan, R.; Pon Saravanan, N.; Talawar, M.B. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Sutarwadi, Pune 411 021 (India)
2009-01-30
The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-a-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion ({delta}H{sub e}) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9721 with a linear equation y = 0.9262x + 101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials.
Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials.
Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Pon Saravanan, N; Talawar, M B
2009-01-30
The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-à-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (DeltaH(e)) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9721 with a linear equation y=0.9262x+101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials.
Implementation of discrete transfer radiation method into swift computational fluid dynamics code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baburić Mario
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has developed into a powerful tool widely used in science, technology and industrial design applications, when ever fluid flow, heat transfer, combustion, or other complicated physical processes, are involved. During decades of development of CFD codes scientists were writing their own codes, that had to include not only the model of processes that were of interest, but also a whole spectrum of necessary CFD procedures, numerical techniques, pre-processing and post-processing. That has arrested much of the scientist effort in work that has been copied many times over, and was not actually producing the added value. The arrival of commercial CFD codes brought relief to many engineers that could now use the user-function approach for mod el ling purposes, en trusting the application to do the rest of the work. This pa per shows the implementation of Discrete Transfer Radiation Method into AVL’s commercial CFD code SWIFT with the help of user defined functions. Few standard verification test cases were per formed first, and in order to check the implementation of the radiation method it self, where the comparisons with available analytic solution could be performed. After wards, the validation was done by simulating the combustion in the experimental furnace at IJmuiden (Netherlands, for which the experimental measurements were available. The importance of radiation prediction in such real-size furnaces is proved again to be substantial, where radiation itself takes the major fraction of over all heat transfer. The oil-combustion model used in simulations was the semi-empirical one that has been developed at the Power Engineering Department, and which is suit able for a wide range of typical oil flames.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with three of the functional modules in the code. Those are the Morse-SGC for the SCALE system, Heating 7.2, and KENO V.a. The manual describes the latest released versions of the codes.
Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.
2014-03-01
Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.
NEW ITERATIVE SUPER-TRELLIS DECODING WITH SOURCE A PRIORI INFORMATION FOR VLCS WITH TURBO CODES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Jianjun; Tu Guofang; Wu Weiren
2007-01-01
A novel Joint Source and Channel Decoding (JSCD) scheme for Variable Length Codes (VLCs) concatenated with turbo codes utilizing a new super-trellis decoding algorithm is presented in this letter. The basic idea of our decoding algorithm is that source a priori information with the form of bit transition probabilities corresponding to the VLC tree can be derived directly from sub-state transitions in new composite-state represented super-trellis. A Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm for VLC sequence estimations based on the proposed super-trellis is also described. Simulation results show that the new iterative decoding scheme can obtain obvious encoding gain especially for Reversible Variable Length Codes (RVLCs), when compared with the classical separated turbo decoding and the previous joint decoding not considering source statistical characteristics.
Automated Development of Accurate Algorithms and Efficient Codes for Computational Aeroacoustics
Goodrich, John W.; Dyson, Rodger W.
1999-01-01
The simulation of sound generation and propagation in three space dimensions with realistic aircraft components is a very large time dependent computation with fine details. Simulations in open domains with embedded objects require accurate and robust algorithms for propagation, for artificial inflow and outflow boundaries, and for the definition of geometrically complex objects. The development, implementation, and validation of methods for solving these demanding problems is being done to support the NASA pillar goals for reducing aircraft noise levels. Our goal is to provide algorithms which are sufficiently accurate and efficient to produce usable results rapidly enough to allow design engineers to study the effects on sound levels of design changes in propulsion systems, and in the integration of propulsion systems with airframes. There is a lack of design tools for these purposes at this time. Our technical approach to this problem combines the development of new, algorithms with the use of Mathematica and Unix utilities to automate the algorithm development, code implementation, and validation. We use explicit methods to ensure effective implementation by domain decomposition for SPMD parallel computing. There are several orders of magnitude difference in the computational efficiencies of the algorithms which we have considered. We currently have new artificial inflow and outflow boundary conditions that are stable, accurate, and unobtrusive, with implementations that match the accuracy and efficiency of the propagation methods. The artificial numerical boundary treatments have been proven to have solutions which converge to the full open domain problems, so that the error from the boundary treatments can be driven as low as is required. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present a method for developing highly accurate algorithms for computational aeroacoustics, the use of computer automation in this process, and a brief survey of the algorithms that
4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology
2017-01-01
This edited book presents scientific results of the 4th International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology (ACIT 2016) which was held on December 12–14, 2016 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. The aim of this conference was also to bring out the research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the Program Committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. Th...
30th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences
Gelenbe, Erol; Gorbil, Gokce; Lent, Ricardo
2016-01-01
The 30th Anniversary of the ISCIS (International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences) series of conferences, started by Professor Erol Gelenbe at Bilkent University, Turkey, in 1986, will be held at Imperial College London on September 22-24, 2015. The preceding two ISCIS conferences were held in Krakow, Poland in 2014, and in Paris, France, in 2013. The Proceedings of ISCIS 2015 published by Springer brings together rigorously reviewed contributions from leading international experts. It explores new areas of research and technological development in computer science, computer engineering, and information technology, and presents new applications in fast changing fields such as information science, computer science and bioinformatics. The topics covered include (but are not limited to) advances in networking technologies, software defined networks, distributed systems and the cloud, security in the Internet of Things, sensor systems, and machine learning and large data sets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Bogomazov, D.N.; Poliakov, N. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2007-07-01
The new special module to neutron-physic and thermal-hydraulic computer codes for coolant acoustical characteristics calculation is worked out. The Russian computer code Rainbow has been selected for joint use with a developed module. This code system provides the possibility of EFOCP (Eigen Frequencies of Oscillations of the Coolant Pressure) calculations in any coolant acoustical elements of primary circuits of NPP. EFOCP values have been calculated for transient and for stationary operating. The calculated results for nominal operating were compared with results of measured EFOCP. For example, this comparison was provided for the system: 'pressurizer + surge line' of a WWER-1000 reactor. The calculated result 0.58 Hz practically coincides with the result of measurement (0.6 Hz). The EFOCP variations in transients are also shown. The presented results are intended to be useful for NPP vibration-acoustical certification. There are no serious difficulties for using this module with other computer codes.
Information theory in computer vision and pattern recognition
Escolano, Francisco; Bonev, Boyan
2009-01-01
Researchers are bringing information theory elements to the computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR) arena. Among these elements there are measures (entropy, mutual information), principles (maximum entropy, minimax entropy) and theories (rate distortion theory, method of types). This book explores the latter elements.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sophia R. Sklan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.
Coding and decoding in the Evolution of communication: Information richness and Referentiality
Murtra, Bernat Corominas; Solé, Ricard
2010-01-01
One of the most basic properties of the communicative sign is its dual nature. That is, a sign is a twofold entity composed of a formal component, which we call signal, and a referential component, namely a reference. Based on this conception, we say that a referent is coded in a particular sign, or that a sign is decoded in a particular referent. In selective scenarios it is crucial for the success of any adaptive innovation or communicative exchange that, if a particular referent a is coded in a particular signal s during the coding process, then the referent a is decoded from the sign s during the decoding process. In other words the referentiality of a signal must be preserved after being decoded, due to a selective pressure. Despite the information-theoretic flavour of this requirement, an inquiry into classical concepts of information theory such as entropy or mutual information will lead us to the conclusion that information theory as usually stated does not account for this very important requirement ...
Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey
2017-01-01
A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…
Fine-grained Information Flow for Concurrent Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Ximeng
” and “what” into consideration, emphasizing the importance of the integrity case where the former is more sensitive than the latter. This case captures the effect of Message Authentication Codes (MAC) and the consequence of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. It is also proved that the property degenerates......It is essential to protect IT systems against security threats. An example would be the control of aircraft, which uses an internal network that passengers can access. It is important to ensure that malicious code on passenger equipment cannot endanger flight safety. Information flow control...... is an important approach to the protection of systems against such threats. Notable examples include tainting analyses in languages such as Javascript, and program transformations on cryptographic algorithms to avoid information leakage through running time. A wide variety of techniques, including type systems...
Massey, Steven E
2015-04-24
The standard genetic code (SGC) is central to molecular biology and its origin and evolution is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, the elucidation of which promises to reveal much about the origins of life. In addition, we propose that study of its origin can also reveal some fundamental and generalizable insights into mechanisms of molecular evolution, utilizing concepts from complexity theory. The first is that beneficial traits may arise by non-adaptive processes, via a process of "neutral emergence". The structure of the SGC is optimized for the property of error minimization, which reduces the deleterious impact of point mutations. Via simulation, it can be shown that genetic codes with error minimization superior to the SGC can emerge in a neutral fashion simply by a process of genetic code expansion via tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase duplication, whereby similar amino acids are added to codons related to that of the parent amino acid. This process of neutral emergence has implications beyond that of the genetic code, as it suggests that not all beneficial traits have arisen by the direct action of natural selection; we term these "pseudaptations", and discuss a range of potential examples. Secondly, consideration of genetic code deviations (codon reassignments) reveals that these are mostly associated with a reduction in proteome size. This code malleability implies the existence of a proteomic constraint on the genetic code, proportional to the size of the proteome (P), and that its reduction in size leads to an "unfreezing" of the codon - amino acid mapping that defines the genetic code, consistent with Crick's Frozen Accident theory. The concept of a proteomic constraint may be extended to propose a general informational constraint on genetic fidelity, which may be used to explain variously, differences in mutation rates in genomes with differing proteome sizes, differences in DNA repair capacity and genome GC content between organisms, a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven E. Massey
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The standard genetic code (SGC is central to molecular biology and its origin and evolution is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, the elucidation of which promises to reveal much about the origins of life. In addition, we propose that study of its origin can also reveal some fundamental and generalizable insights into mechanisms of molecular evolution, utilizing concepts from complexity theory. The first is that beneficial traits may arise by non-adaptive processes, via a process of “neutral emergence”. The structure of the SGC is optimized for the property of error minimization, which reduces the deleterious impact of point mutations. Via simulation, it can be shown that genetic codes with error minimization superior to the SGC can emerge in a neutral fashion simply by a process of genetic code expansion via tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase duplication, whereby similar amino acids are added to codons related to that of the parent amino acid. This process of neutral emergence has implications beyond that of the genetic code, as it suggests that not all beneficial traits have arisen by the direct action of natural selection; we term these “pseudaptations”, and discuss a range of potential examples. Secondly, consideration of genetic code deviations (codon reassignments reveals that these are mostly associated with a reduction in proteome size. This code malleability implies the existence of a proteomic constraint on the genetic code, proportional to the size of the proteome (P, and that its reduction in size leads to an “unfreezing” of the codon – amino acid mapping that defines the genetic code, consistent with Crick’s Frozen Accident theory. The concept of a proteomic constraint may be extended to propose a general informational constraint on genetic fidelity, which may be used to explain variously, differences in mutation rates in genomes with differing proteome sizes, differences in DNA repair capacity and genome
Wood, Jerry R.; Schmidt, James F.; Steinke, Ronald J.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Kunik, William G.
1987-01-01
Increased emphasis on sustained supersonic or hypersonic cruise has revived interest in the supersonic throughflow fan as a possible component in advanced propulsion systems. Use of a fan that can operate with a supersonic inlet axial Mach number is attractive from the standpoint of reducing the inlet losses incurred in diffusing the flow from a supersonic flight Mach number to a subsonic one at the fan face. The design of the experiment using advanced computational codes to calculate the components required is described. The rotor was designed using existing turbomachinery design and analysis codes modified to handle fully supersonic axial flow through the rotor. A two-dimensional axisymmetric throughflow design code plus a blade element code were used to generate fan rotor velocity diagrams and blade shapes. A quasi-three-dimensional, thin shear layer Navier-Stokes code was used to assess the performance of the fan rotor blade shapes. The final design was stacked and checked for three-dimensional effects using a three-dimensional Euler code interactively coupled with a two-dimensional boundary layer code. The nozzle design in the expansion region was analyzed with a three-dimensional parabolized viscous code which corroborated the results from the Euler code. A translating supersonic diffuser was designed using these same codes.
Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding on a Multiple Access Channel with Side Information
Rajesh, R
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of transmission of several distributed sources over a multiple access channel (MAC) with side information at the sources and the decoder. Source-channel separation does not hold for this channel. Sufficient conditions are provided for transmission of sources with a given distortion. The source and/or the channel could have continuous alphabets (thus Gaussian sources and Gaussian MACs are special cases). Various previous results are obtained as special cases. We also provide several good joint source-channel coding schemes for a discrete/continuous source and discrete/continuous alphabet channel. Channels with feedback and fading are also considered. Keywords: Multiple access channel, side information, lossy joint source-channel coding, channels with feedback, fading channels.
USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tel'noy Viktor Ivanovich
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Peculiarities of teaching computer graphics as part of the course of engineering graphics aimed at the mastering of AutoCAD graphic editor are considered by the authors. The objective of the course is to develop the competencies of future professionals, inlcuding their structural design skills. The authors recommend incorporation of mini-lectures and computer workshops into the training process. Computer quizzes are to be held at the beginning of each class to consolidate the material, to ensure preparedness for mastering new information and to stimulate the process of learning. Department of descriptive geometry and engineering graphics developed a special methodology to ensure efficient presentation of theoretical material that incorporates special computer techniques and an original structure and succession of computer slides to improve the information intensity of the computer graphics course that enjoys a small number of lecturing hours allocated within training programmes offered by the University. Well-balanced tests to be performed by students in the course of their computer workshops facilitate their mastering computer graphics techniques that help them make high-quality error-free working drawings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo da Silva Boia
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: A computational system was developed for this paper in the C++ programming language, to create a 125I radioactive seed entry file, based on the positioning of a virtual grid (template in voxel geometries, with the purpose of performing prostate cancer treatment simulations using the MCNPX code.Methods: The system is fed with information from the planning system with regard to each seed’s location and its depth, and an entry file is automatically created with all the cards (instructions for each seed regarding their cell blocks and surfaces spread out spatially in the 3D environment. The system provides with precision a reproduction of the clinical scenario for the MCNPX code’s simulation environment, thereby allowing the technique’s in-depth study.Results and Conclusion: The preliminary results from this study showed that the lateral penumbra of uniform scanning proton beams was less sensitive In order to validate the computational system, an entry file was created with 88 125I seeds that were inserted in the phantom’s MAX06 prostate region with initial activity determined for the seeds at the 0.27 mCi value. Isodose curves were obtained in all the prostate slices in 5 mm steps in the 7 to 10 cm interval, totaling 7 slices. Variance reduction techniques were applied in order to optimize computational time and the reduction of uncertainties such as photon and electron energy interruptions in 4 keV and forced collisions regarding cells of interest. Through the acquisition of isodose curves, the results obtained show that hot spots have values above 300 Gy, as anticipated in literature, stressing the importance of the sources’ correct positioning, in which the computational system developed provides, in order not to release excessive doses in adjacent risk organs. The 144 Gy prescription curve showed in the validation process that it covers perfectly a large percentage of the volume, at the same time that it demonstrates a large
Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim
2003-01-01
With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.
1981-01-01
FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.
Distributed and Cascade Lossy Source Coding with a Side Information "Vending Machine"
Ahmadi, Behzad
2011-01-01
Source coding with a side information "vending machine" is a recently proposed framework in which the statistical relationship between the side information and the source, instead of being given and fixed as in the classical Wyner-Ziv problem, can be controlled by the decoder. This control action is selected by the decoder based on the message encoded by the source node. Unlike conventional settings, the message can thus carry not only information about the source to be reproduced at the decoder, but also control information aimed at improving the quality of the side information. In this paper, the single-letter characterization of the trade-offs between rate, distortion and cost associated with the control actions is extended from the previously studied point-to-point set-up to two basic multiterminal models. First, a distributed source coding model is studied, in which an arbitrary number of encoders communicate over rate-limited links to a decoder, whose side information can be controlled. The control acti...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume is part of the manual related to the control modules for the newest updated version of this computational package.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are
Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natsir, Khairina, E-mail: yenny@batan.go.id; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics - National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia); Yazid, Putranto Ilham [Center for Nuclear Technology, Material and Radiometry- National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Tamansari No.71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2014-09-30
Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.
A computational model of cellular mechanisms of temporal coding in the medial geniculate body (MGB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cal F Rabang
Full Text Available Acoustic stimuli are often represented in the early auditory pathway as patterns of neural activity synchronized to time-varying features. This phase-locking predominates until the level of the medial geniculate body (MGB, where previous studies have identified two main, largely segregated response types: Stimulus-synchronized responses faithfully preserve the temporal coding from its afferent inputs, and Non-synchronized responses, which are not phase locked to the inputs, represent changes in temporal modulation by a rate code. The cellular mechanisms underlying this transformation from phase-locked to rate code are not well understood. We use a computational model of a MGB thalamocortical neuron to test the hypothesis that these response classes arise from inferior colliculus (IC excitatory afferents with divergent properties similar to those observed in brain slice studies. Large-conductance inputs exhibiting synaptic depression preserved input synchrony as short as 12.5 ms interclick intervals, while maintaining low firing rates and low-pass filtering responses. By contrast, small-conductance inputs with Mixed plasticity (depression of AMPA-receptor component and facilitation of NMDA-receptor component desynchronized afferent inputs, generated a click-rate dependent increase in firing rate, and high-pass filtered the inputs. Synaptic inputs with facilitation often permitted band-pass synchrony along with band-pass rate tuning. These responses could be tuned by changes in membrane potential, strength of the NMDA component, and characteristics of synaptic plasticity. These results demonstrate how the same synchronized input spike trains from the inferior colliculus can be transformed into different representations of temporal modulation by divergent synaptic properties.
1st International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications
Awasthi, Lalit; Masillamani, M; Sridhar, S
2014-01-01
The book presents high quality research papers presented by experts in the International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications 2012, organized by ICICIC Global organizing committee (on behalf of The CARD Atlanta, Georgia, CREATE Conferences Inc). The objective of this book is to present the latest work done in the field of Internet computing by researchers and industrial professionals across the globe. A step to reduce the research divide between developed and under developed countries.
Managing trust in information systems by using computer simulations
Zupančič, Eva
2009-01-01
Human factor is more and more important in new information systems and it should be also taken into consideration when developing new systems. Trust issues, which are tightly tied to human factor, are becoming an important topic in computer science. In this work we research trust in IT systems and present computer-based trust management solutions. After a review of qualitative and quantitative methods for trust management, a precise description of a simulation tool for trust management ana...
Reduced gravity boiling and condensing experiments simulated with the COBRA/TRAC computer code
Cuta, Judith M.; Krotiuk, William
1988-01-01
A series of reduced-gravity two-phase flow experiments has been conducted with a boiler/condenser apparatus in the NASA KC-135 aircraft in order to obtain basic thermal-hydraulic data applicable to analytical design tools. Several test points from the KC-135 tests were selected for simulation by means of the COBRA/TRAC two-fluid, three-field thermal-hydraulic computer code; the points were chosen for a 25-90 percent void-fraction range. The possible causes for the lack of agreement noted between simulations and experiments are explored, with attention to the physical characteristics of two-phase flow in one-G and near-zero-G conditions.
Discrete logarithm computations over finite fields using Reed-Solomon codes
Augot, Daniel
2012-01-01
Cheng and Wan have related the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes to the computation of discrete logarithms over finite fields, with the aim of proving the hardness of their decoding. In this work, we experiment with solving the discrete logarithm over GF(q^h) using Reed-Solomon decoding. For fixed h and q going to infinity, we introduce an algorithm (RSDL) needing O (h! q^2) operations over GF(q), operating on a q x q matrix with (h+2) q non-zero coefficients. We give faster variants including an incremental version and another one that uses auxiliary finite fields that need not be subfields of GF(q^h); this variant is very practical for moderate values of q and h. We include some numerical results of our first implementations.
ACUTRI a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases
Yokoyama, S; Noguchi, H; Ryufuku, S; Sasaki, T
2002-01-01
Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: i...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chang Kyu; Jae, Moo Sung; Jo, Young Gyun; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Jae Hwan; Ha, Jae Ju; Kang, Dae Il; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Si Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1994-07-01
We have surveyed new technologies and research results for the accident management of nuclear power plants. And, based on the concept of using the existing plant capabilities for accident management, both in-vessel and ex-vessel strategies were identified and analyzed. When assessing accident management strategies, their effectiveness, adverse effects, and their feasibility must be considered. We have developed a framework for assessing the strategies with these factors in mind. We have applied the developed framework to assessing the strategies, including the likelihood that the operator correctly diagnoses the situation and successfully implements the strategies. Finally, the cavity flooding strategy was assessed by applying it to the station blackout sequence, which have been identified as one of the major contributors to risk at the reference plant. The thermohydraulic analyses with sensitivity calculations have been performed using MAAP 4 computer code. (Author).
Bousquet, Nicolas
2010-01-01
This article deals with the estimation of a probability p of an undesirable event. Its occurence is formalized by the exceedance of a threshold reliability value by the unidimensional output of a time-consuming computer code G with multivariate probabilistic input X. When G is assumed monotonous with respect to X, the Monotonous Reliability Method was proposed by de Rocquigny (2009) in an engineering context to provide sequentially narrowing 100%-confidence bounds and a crude estimate of p, via deterministic or stochastic designs of experiments. The present article consists in a formalization and technical deepening of this idea, as a large basis for future theoretical and applied studies. Three kinds of results are especially emphasized. First, the bounds themselves remain too crude and conservative estimators of p for a dimension of X upper than 2. Second, a maximum-likelihood estimator of p can be easily built, presenting a high variance reduction with respect to a standard Monte Carlo case, but suffering ...
Finite Element Simulation Code for Computing Thermal Radiation from a Plasma
Nguyen, C. N.; Rappaport, H. L.
2004-11-01
A finite element code, ``THERMRAD,'' for computing thermal radiation from a plasma is under development. Radiation from plasma test particles is found in cylindrical geometry. Although the plasma equilibrium is assumed axisymmetric individual test particle excitation produces a non-axisymmetric electromagnetic response. Specially designed Whitney class basis functions are to be used to allow the solution to be solved on a two-dimensional grid. The basis functions enforce both a vanishing of the divergence of the electric field within grid elements where the complex index of refraction is assumed constant and continuity of tangential electric field across grid elements while allowing the normal component of the electric field to be discontinuous. An appropriate variational principle which incorporates the Sommerfeld radiation condition on the simulation boundary, as well as its discretization by the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is given. 1. ``Finte Element Method for Electromagnetics Problems,'' Volakis et al., Wiley, 1998.