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Sample records for influenza rapid test

  1. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of the Quidel Sofia Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test During the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 Influenza Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Performance of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza diagnostic test during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons Peter E. Kammerer, Jennifer M... Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay was used to test nasal swab specimens from patients with influenza -like illness at US–Mexico border-area clinics in...the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Compared with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the overall sensitivities and

  3. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. © 2013.

  4. Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Amanda; Garten, Rebecca; Klimov, Alexander; Villanueva, Julie

    2013-07-01

    The performance of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that detect influenza viral nucleoprotein (NP) antigen has been reported to be variable. Recent human infections with variant influenza A viruses that are circulating in pigs prompted the investigation of the analytical reactivity of RIDTs with these variant viruses. To determine analytical reactivity of seven FDA-cleared RIDTs with influenza A variant viruses in comparison with the reactivity with recently circulating seasonal influenza A viruses. Tenfold serial dilutions of cell culture-grown seasonal and variant influenza A viruses were prepared and tested in duplicate with seven RIDTs. All RIDTs evaluated in this study detected the seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus, although detection limits varied among assays. All but one examined RIDT identified the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. However, only four of seven RIDTs detected all influenza A(H3N2)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H1N1)v viruses. Reduced sensitivity of RIDTs to variant influenza viruses may be due to amino acid differences between the NP proteins of seasonal viruses and the NP proteins from viruses circulating in pigs. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of RIDTs to detect influenza A variant viruses. Specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in whom H3N2v is suspected should be sent to public health laboratories for additional diagnostic testing. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods

  6. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Chris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5% and 99% specificity, the WCR and

  7. Evaluation of twenty rapid antigen tests for the detection of human influenza A H5N1, H3N2, H1N1, and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janette; McPhie, Kenneth; Druce, Julian; Birch, Chris; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2009-11-01

    Twenty rapid antigen assays were compared for their ability to detect influenza using dilutions of virus culture supernatants from human isolates of influenza A H5N1 (clade 1 and 2 strains), H3N2 and H1N1 viruses, and influenza B. There was variation amongst the rapid antigen assays in their ability to detect different influenza viruses. Six of the 12 assays labeled as distinguishing between influenza A and B had comparable analytical sensitivities for detecting both influenza A H5N1 strains, although their ability to detect influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 strains varied. The two assays claiming H5 specificity did not detect either influenza A H5N1 strains, and the two avian influenza-specific assays detected influenza A H5N1, but missed some influenza A H3N2 virus supernatants. Clinical trials of rapid antigen tests for influenza A H5N1 are limited. For use in a pandemic where novel influenza strains are circulating (such as the current novel influenza A H1N1 09 virus), rapid antigen tests should ideally have comparable sensitivity and specificity for the new strains as for co-circulating seasonal influenza strains.

  8. Evaluation of the Specificity and Sensitivity of a Potential Rapid Influenza Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    misuse of antibiotic therapy for treatment of influenza infections. Rapid identification of influenza infections would further reduce transmission of...amplification tests in combination with Type I BESt™ Cassette have been developed and used to rapidly detect other pathogenic microorgan- isms including herpes ... simplex virus types 1 and 2 (Kim et al., 2011), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Motre et al., 2011), human immunode- ficiency virus (Tang et al., 2010), and

  9. Evaluation of a new point-of-care test for influenza A and B virus in travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, T; Schnabel, E; Dieckmann, S; Börner, U; Schweiger, B

    2007-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests for influenza facilitate clinical case management, and might also be helpful in the care of travellers who are at special risk for influenza infection. To evaluate influenza POC testing in travellers, a new assay, the ImmunoCard STAT! Flu A and B, was used to investigate travellers presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Influenza virus infection was diagnosed in 27 (13%) of 203 patients by influenza virus-specific PCR and viral culture. The POC test had sensitivity and specificity values of 64% and 99% for influenza A, and 67% and 100% for influenza B, respectively. Combined sensitivity and specificity were 67% and 99%, respectively, yielding positive and negative predictive values of 95%, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 117 and 0.34, respectively. The convenient application, excellent specificity and high positive likelihood ratio of the POC test allowed rapid identification of influenza cases. However, negative test results might require confirmation by other methods because of limitations in sensitivity. Overall, influenza POC testing appeared to be a useful tool for the management of travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

  10. Fluorescent immunochromatography for rapid and sensitive typing of seasonal influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    Full Text Available Lateral flow tests also known as Immunochromatography (IC is an antigen-detection method conducted on a nitrocellulose membrane that can be completed in less than 20 min. IC has been used as an important rapid test for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of influenza viruses, but the IC sensitivity is relatively low (approximately 60% and the limit of detection (LOD is as low as 10³ pfu per reaction. Recently, we reported an improved IC assay using antibodies conjugated with fluorescent beads (fluorescent immunochromatography; FLIC for subtyping H5 influenza viruses (FLIC-H5. Although the FLIC strip must be scanned using a fluorescent reader, the sensitivity (LOD is significantly improved over that of conventional IC methods. In addition, the antibodies which are specific against the subtypes of influenza viruses cannot be available for the detection of other subtypes when the major antigenicity will be changed. In this study, we established the use of FLIC to type seasonal influenza A and B viruses (FLIC-AB. This method has improved sensitivity to 100-fold higher than that of conventional IC methods when we used several strains of influenza viruses. In addition, FLIC-AB demonstrated the ability to detect influenza type A and influenza type B viruses from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity (Type A: sensitivity 98.7% (74/75, specificity 100% (54/54, Type B: sensitivity 100% (90/90, specificity 98.2% (54/55 in nasal swab samples in comparison to the results of qRT-PCR. And furthermore, FLIC-AB performs better in the detection of early stage infection (under 13 h than other conventional IC methods. Our results provide new strategies to prevent the early-stage transmission of influenza viruses in humans during both seasonal outbreaks and pandemics.

  11. Flu (Influenza) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fluinfluenzatest.html Flu (Influenza) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Flu (Influenza) Test? Influenza, known as the flu , is ...

  12. Rapid and quantitative detection of zoonotic influenza A virus infection utilizing coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test (FICT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Huong, Dinh Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Li, Chun-Ying; Choi, Kyunghan; Yu, Kyoungsik; Choi, Du-Young; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Sung, Haan Woo; Park, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Great efforts have been made to develop robust signal-generating fluorescence materials which will help in improving the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in terms of sensitivity and quantification. In this study, we developed coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test (FICT) assay with enhanced sensitivity as a quantitative diagnostic tool in typical RDT environments. The accuracy of the proposed FICT was compared with that of dot blot immunoassay techniques and conventional RDTs. Through conjugation of coumarin-derived dendrimers with latex beads, fluorescent emission covering broad output spectral ranges was obtained which provided a distinct advantage of easy discrimination of the fluorescent emission of the latex beads with a simple insertion of a long-pass optical filter away from the excitation wavelength. The newly developed FICT assay was able to detect 100 ng/10 μL of influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) antigen within 5 minutes, which corresponded to 2.5-fold higher sensitivity than that of the dot blot immunoassay or conventional RDTs. Moreover, the FICT assay was confirmed to detect at least four avian influenza A subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, H7N7, and H9N2). On applying the FICT to the clinical swab samples infected with respiratory viruses, our FICT assay was confirmed to differentiate influenza H1N1 infection from other respiratory viral diseases. These data demonstrate that the proposed FICT assay is able to detect zoonotic influenza A viruses with a high sensitivity, and it enables the quantitation of the infection intensity by providing the numerical diagnostic values; thus demonstrating enhanced detectability of influenza A viruses.

  13. The rapid identification of human influenza neuraminidase N1 and N2 subtypes by ELISA.

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    Barr, I G; McCaig, M; Durrant, C; Shaw, R

    2006-11-10

    An ELISA assay was developed to allow the rapid and accurate identification of human influenza A N1 and N2 neuraminidases. Initial testing using a fetuin pre-coating of wells correctly identified 81.7% of the neuraminidase type from a series of human A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2) viruses. This result could be improved to detect the neuraminidase subtype of almost all human influenza A viruses from a large panel of viruses isolated from 2000 to 2005, if the fetuin pre-coating was removed and the viruses were coated directly onto wells. This method is simple, rapid and can be used to screen large numbers of currently circulating human influenza A viruses for their neurraminidase subtype and is a good alternative to RT-PCR.

  14. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic test and immunofluorescence assay compared to real time RT-PCR in children with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:The influenza burden among children is underestimated. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of the rapid influenza detection test (RIDT BD Directigen™ EZ Flu A B® and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA used among children with influenza-like illness (ILI consulted in the ambulatory care clinic.Material/Methods:A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 59 months, presentation of ILI according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition (fever >37.8°C, cough and/or sore throat in the absence of another known cause of illness, duration of symptoms shorter than 96 hours. Two nasal swabs and one pharyngeal swab were obtained from patients and tested by RIDT, DFA and real time RT-PCR as the reference method.Results:For influenza A (H1N1pdm09 virus sensitivity of RIDT was 62.2�0(95�0CI 46.5–76.2� specificity 97.1�0(95�0CI 91.8–99.4� PPV 90.3�0(95�0CI 74.3–98� NPV 85.7�0(95�0CI 78.1–91.5� for DFA sensitivity was 60�0(95�0CI 51.9–63.2� specificity 96�0(95�0CI 88.7–98.8� PPV 93.1�0(95�0CI 80.5–98� NPV 72.7�0(95�0CI 67.2–74.9� Analysis of logistic regression revealed that the chance of receiving a true positive result of RIDT was twice as high when the test was conducted during the first 48 hours of symptoms (OR 0.40 vs OR 0.22.Conclusions:The accuracy of RIDT is comparable with DFA and both methods are very specific but moderately sensitive in diagnosis of influenza in young children. Both methods may be recommended for screening for influenza among children.

  15. The limitations of point of care testing for pandemic influenza: what clinicians and public health professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchette, Todd F; Bastien, Nathalie; Berry, Jody; Booth, Tim F; Chernesky, Max; Couillard, Michel; Drews, Steven; Ebsworth, Anthony; Fearon, Margaret; Fonseca, Kevin; Fox, Julie; Gagnon, Jean-Nicolas; Guercio, Steven; Horsman, Greg; Jorowski, Cathy; Kuschak, Theodore; Li, Yan; Majury, Anna; Petric, Martin; Ratnam, Sam; Smieja, Marek; Van Caeseele, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the world prepares for the next influenza pandemic, governments have made significant funding commitments to vaccine development and antiviral stockpiling. While these are essential components to pandemic response, rapid and accurate diagnostic testing remains an often neglected cornerstone of pandemic influenza preparedness. Clinicians and Public Health Practitioners need to understand the benefits and drawbacks of different influenza tests in both seasonal and pandemic settings. Culture has been the traditional gold standard for influenza diagnosis but requires from 1-10 days to generate a positive result, compared to nucleic acid detection methods such as real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Although the currently available rapid antigen detection kits can generate results in less than 30 minutes, their sensitivity is suboptimal and they are not recommended for the detection of novel influenza viruses. Until point-of-care (POC) tests are improved, PILPN recommends that the best option for pandemic influenza preparation is the enhancement of nucleic acid-based testing capabilities across Canada.

  16. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of equine influenza by highly sensitive silver amplification immunochromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio; Fu, Tao Qi Huang; Fernandez, Charlene Judith; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2017-06-16

    Equine influenza (EI) is a respiratory disease caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV, H3N8) infection. Rapid diagnosis is essential to limit the disease spread. We previously reported that some rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests are fit for diagnosing EI although their sensitivity is not optimal. Here, we evaluated the performance of the newly developed RAD test using silver amplification immunochromatography (Quick Chaser Auto Flu A, B: QCA) to diagnose EI. The detection limits of QCA for EIVs were five-fold lower than the conventional RAD tests. The duration of virus antigen detection in the infected horses was longer than the conventional RAD tests. We conclude that QCA could be a valuable diagnostic method for EI.

  18. Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Intact Influenza Virus Using a High Affinity Hemagglutinin Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caitlin E; Holstein, Carly A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bennett, Steven; Chevalier, Aaron; Nelson, Jorgen; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Influenza is a ubiquitous and recurring infection that results in approximately 500 000 deaths globally each year. Commercially available rapid diagnostic tests are based upon detection of the influenza nucleoprotein, which are limited in that they are unable to differentiate by species and require an additional viral lysis step. Sample preprocessing can be minimized or eliminated by targeting the intact influenza virus, thereby reducing assay complexity and leveraging the large number of hemagglutinin proteins on the surface of each virus. Here, we report the development of a paper-based influenza assay that targets the hemagglutinin protein; the assay employs a combination of antibodies and novel computationally designed, recombinant affinity proteins as the capture and detection agents. This system leverages the customizability of recombinant protein design to target the conserved receptor-binding pocket of the hemagglutinin protein and to match the trimeric nature of hemagglutinin for improved avidity. Using this assay, we demonstrate the first instance of intact influenza virus detection using a combination of antibody and affinity proteins within a porous network. The recombinant head region binder based assays yield superior analytical sensitivity as compared to the antibody based assay, with lower limits of detection of 3.54 × 10 7 and 1.34 × 10 7 CEID 50 /mL for the mixed and all binder stacks, respectively. Not only does this work describe the development of a novel influenza assay, it also demonstrates the power of recombinant affinity proteins for use in rapid diagnostic assays.

  19. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  20. Proteotyping for the rapid identification of influenza virus and other biopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downard, Kevin M

    2013-11-21

    The influenza virus is one of the most deadly infectious agents known to man and has been responsible for the deaths of some hundred million lives throughout human history. The need to rapidly and reliably survey circulating virus strains down to the molecular level is ever present. This tutorial describes the development and application of a new proteotyping approach that harnesses the power of high resolution of mass spectrometry to characterise the influenza virus, and by extension other bacterial and viral pathogens. The approach is shown to be able to type, subtype, and determine the lineage of human influenza virus strains through the detection of one or more signature peptide ions in the mass spectrum of whole virus digests. Pandemic strains can be similarly distinguished from seasonal ones, and new computer algorithms have been written to allow reassorted strains that pose the greatest pandemic risk to be rapidly identified from such datasets. The broader application of the approach is further demonstrated here for the parainfluenza virus, a virus which can be life threatening to children and presents similar clinical symptoms to influenza.

  1. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kampen, K. R.; Tang, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  2. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mo Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  3. Rapid detection and subtyping of human influenza A viruses and reassortants by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi-Mo; Caldwell, Natalie; Barr, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    Given the continuing co-circulation of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A viruses with seasonal H3N2 viruses, rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza reassortant viruses is important to enhance our influenza surveillance. A novel pyrosequencing assay was developed for the rapid identification and subtyping of potential human influenza A virus reassortants based on all eight gene segments of the virus. Except for HA and NA genes, one universal set of primers was used to amplify and subtype each of the six internal genes. With this method, all eight gene segments of 57 laboratory isolates and 17 original specimens of seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses were correctly matched with their corresponding subtypes. In addition, this method was shown to be capable of detecting reassortant viruses by correctly identifying the source of all 8 gene segments from three vaccine production reassortant viruses and three H1N2 viruses. In summary, this pyrosequencing assay is a sensitive and specific procedure for screening large numbers of viruses for reassortment events amongst the commonly circulating human influenza A viruses, which is more rapid and cheaper than using conventional sequencing approaches.

  4. Estudio comparativo entre una prueba rápida y RT-PCR tiempo real en el diagnóstico de influenza AH1N1 2009 Comparative study of a rapid testing with real time RT-PCR for diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Castro-Cárdenas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B empleando como estándar la RT-PCR tiempo real para influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo-comparativo de 135 muestras de vías respiratorias de individuos sintomáticos para influenza procesadas de mayo 2009 a octubre 2010.Las pruebas citadas se realizaron simultáneamente. Se utilizó el software Confidence Interval Analysis 2000. RESULTADOS: Sensibilidad 62.96; especificidad 94.44; valor predictivo negativo 62.9; valor predictivo positivo 94.44; razón de probabilidad positiva 11.33 y razón de probabilidad negativa 0.39. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza a 95. DISCUSIÓN: Los valores obtenidos concuerdan con otros estudios donde la sensibilidad fluctúa de 50 a 70 y especificidad entre 90 y 95 por ciento. La prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B es rápida, simple y de menor costo que el RT-PCR tiempo real, útil para identificar el tipo de virus en brotes de influenza de una población determinadaOBJECTIVE: Compare QuickVue Influenza A+B test with real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective-comparative study of 135 respiratory specimens from individuals with symptoms of influenza processed from May 2009 to October 2010.The above mentioned tests were performed simultaneously. For statistic analysisthe softwareof Confidence IntervalAnalysis 2000 was used. RESULTS: The parameters obtained were: sensitivity 62.96; specificity 94.44; negative predictive value 62.9; positive predictive value 94.44; positive likelihood ratio 11.33; negative likelihood ratio 0.39. Confidence intervals to 95,were calculated to all of the above data. DISCUSSION: The test QuickVue InfluenzaA+B is a rapid,simple test,with lower cost than real-time RT-PCR useful for identifying the type of virus outbreaks of influenza in a given population.It correlates well with more specific test and similar reports.

  5. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L; Nelson, Jennifer C

    2013-04-19

    The test-negative design has emerged in recent years as the preferred method for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in observational studies. However, the methodologic basis of this design has not been formally developed. In this paper we develop the rationale and underlying assumptions of the test-negative study. Under the test-negative design for influenza VE, study subjects are all persons who seek care for an acute respiratory illness (ARI). All subjects are tested for influenza infection. Influenza VE is estimated from the ratio of the odds of vaccination among subjects testing positive for influenza to the odds of vaccination among subjects testing negative. With the assumptions that (a) the distribution of non-influenza causes of ARI does not vary by influenza vaccination status, and (b) VE does not vary by health care-seeking behavior, the VE estimate from the sample can generalized to the full source population that gave rise to the study sample. Based on our derivation of this design, we show that test-negative studies of influenza VE can produce biased VE estimates if they include persons seeking care for ARI when influenza is not circulating or do not adjust for calendar time. The test-negative design is less susceptible to bias due to misclassification of infection and to confounding by health care-seeking behavior, relative to traditional case-control or cohort studies. The cost of the test-negative design is the additional, difficult-to-test assumptions that incidence of non-influenza respiratory infections is similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups within any stratum of care-seeking behavior, and that influenza VE does not vary across care-seeking strata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E; Beck, Charles R; Dolan, Gayle P; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently. Results were synthesized in a narrative form. Findings The overall risk of bias in the 23 included studies was low to moderate. Internal travel restrictions and international border restrictions delayed the spread of influenza epidemics by one week and two months, respectively. International travel restrictions delayed the spread and peak of epidemics by periods varying between a few days and four months. Travel restrictions reduced the incidence of new cases by less than 3%. Impact was reduced when restrictions were implemented more than six weeks after the notification of epidemics or when the level of transmissibility was high. Travel restrictions would have minimal impact in urban centres with dense populations and travel networks. We found no evidence that travel restrictions would contain influenza within a defined geographical area. Conclusion Extensive travel restrictions may delay the dissemination of influenza but cannot prevent it. The evidence does not support travel restrictions as an isolated intervention for the rapid containment of influenza. Travel restrictions would make an extremely limited contribution to any policy for rapid containment of influenza at source during the first emergence of a pandemic virus. PMID:25552771

  7. A simple and rapid characterization of influenza virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostolansky, F.; Styk, B.; Russ, G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay is described with infectious allantoic fluid directly bound to solid phase, suitable for the detection and further characterization of influenza virus isolates. This simple and rapid method was applied for the description of isolates obtained from different regions of Czechoslovakia during the influenza epidemic in 1983. The results confirmed that all 13 examined isolates represented influenza A viruses possessing H3 subtype haemagglutinin very similar to haemagglutinin of influenza viruses A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2), A/Belgium/2/81 (H3N2) and A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2). (author)

  8. Combining magnetic nanoparticle with biotinylated nanobodies for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Guirong; Ou, Weijun; Mao, Panyong; Xin, Shaojie; Wan, Yakun

    2014-09-01

    Our objective is to develop a rapid and sensitive assay based on magnetic beads to detect the concentration of influenza H3N2. The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (nanobody) as diagnostic tools for influenza H3N2 was investigated. A healthy camel was immunized with inactivated influenza H3N2. A nanobody library of 8 × 108 clones was constructed and phage displayed. After three successive biopanning steps, H3N2-specific nanobodies were successfully isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Sequence analysis of the nanobodies revealed that we possessed four classes of nanobodies against H3N2. Two nanobodies were further used to prepare our rapid diagnostic kit. Biotinylated nanobody was effectively immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. The modified magnetic beads with nanobody capture specifically influenza H3N2 and can still be recognized by nanobodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a relatively high sensitive detection with a limit of 50 ng/mL. In conclusion, by combining magnetic beads with specific nanobodies, this assay provides a promising influenza detection assay to develop a potential rapid, sensitive, and low-cost diagnostic tool to screen for influenza infections.

  9. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Adel; Shaheen, Malak; Kamel, Terez; El Faramay, Amel; El Rahman, Safaa Abd; Nabil, Dalia; Gouda, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-colored immunochromatography using nanobeads for rapid and sensitive typing of seasonal influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Namiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Kida, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2014-12-01

    Immunochromatography (IC) is an antigen-detection assay that plays an important role in the rapid diagnosis of influenza viruses because of its rapid turnaround and ease of use. Despite the usefulness of IC, the limit of detection of common IC kits is as high as 10(3)-10(4) plaque forming units (pfu) per reaction, resulting in their limited sensitivities. Early diagnosis within 24h would provide more appropriate timing of treatment. In this study, a multi-colored NanoAct™ bead IC was established to detect seasonal influenza viruses. This method has approximately 10-fold higher sensitivity than that of colloidal gold or colored latex bead IC assays, and does not require specific instruments. More notably, NanoAct™ bead IC can distinguish influenza A and B viruses from clinical samples with a straightforward readout composed of colored lines. Our results will provide new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and a chance to survey of influenza viruses in developing countries and in the field research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  12. Rapid and highly informative diagnostic assay for H5N1 influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Pourmand

    Full Text Available A highly discriminative and information-rich diagnostic assay for H5N1 avian influenza would meet immediate patient care needs and provide valuable information for public health interventions, e.g., tracking of new and more dangerous variants by geographic area as well as avian-to-human or human-to-human transmission. In the present study, we have designed a rapid assay based on multilocus nucleic acid sequencing that focuses on the biologically significant regions of the H5N1 hemagglutinin gene. This allows the prediction of viral strain, clade, receptor binding properties, low- or high-pathogenicity cleavage site and glycosylation status. H5 HA genes were selected from nine known high-pathogenicity avian influenza subtype H5N1 viruses, based on their diversity in biologically significant regions of hemagglutinin and/or their ability to cause infection in humans. We devised a consensus pre-programmed pyrosequencing strategy, which may be used as a faster, more accurate alternative to de novo sequencing. The available data suggest that the assay described here is a reliable, rapid, information-rich and cost-effective approach for definitive diagnosis of H5N1 avian influenza. Knowledge of the predicted functional sequences of the HA will enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance efforts.

  13. Costo-efectividad en la detección de influenza H1N1: datos clínicos versus pruebas rápidas Cost-effectiveness in the detection of influenza H1N1: clinical data versus rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González-Canudas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el desempeño de los datos clínicos y la prueba rápida (PR en el diagnóstico de influenza H1N1, y analizar el costo-beneficio que representa el uso de esta herramienta diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó la PR a pacientes que acudieron a cuatro hospitales en la ciudad de México con sintomatología similar a influenza (SSI durante el período octubre y noviembre de 2009. Se comparó el desempeño diagnóstico de la SSI más la PR contra el de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en transcripción reversa en tiempo real (rRT-PCR. La rRT-PCR fue procesada en un laboratorio de referencia y cegado al resultado de la PR. Además, se llevó a cabo una evaluación económica a partir de la cual se estimó el impacto presupuestal relacionado con la utilización de la PR RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 78 pacientes, de los cuales 39 fueron positivos para influenza H1N1 y 6 para influenza A estacional, de acuerdo al resultado de la rRT-PCR. La SSI mostró una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de 21%, la PR de 76% y 82% y el conjunto de SSI más PR de 96% y 100%, respectivamente. El Cociente de Verosimilitud positivo de la SSI-cefalea fue de 31,5 y el de SSI-odinofagia fue de 330. El uso de PR mostró un ahorro de US$ 12,6 por cada caso sospechoso. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de la PR como auxiliar en el diagnóstico de influenza H1N1 incrementa la certeza y reduce el costo promedio por paciente sospechoso e infectado.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the performance of clinical data and the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT in diagnosing influenza H1N1, and analyze the cost-benefit of using this diagnostic tool. METHODS: The RIDT was used for patients who came to four hospitals in Mexico City with an influenza-like illness (ILI in October and November 2009. The diagnostic performance of the ILI clinical data and the RIDT was compared to that of the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR test. The rRT-PCR test was

  14. Clinical validation of a point-of-care multiplexed in vitro immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (the MSD influenza test) in four hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, H Rogier; Kinh, Nguyen van; Tuan, Ha Manh; Tuan, Tran Anh; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Bryant, Juliet E; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Uyen, Le thi Tham; Thinh, Le Quoc; Anh, Tran thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Merson, Laura; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; de Jong, Menno D

    2012-05-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for influenza can considerably shorten the time to clinical decision making. An investigational POC test based on a multiplexed immunoassay was developed by Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC (MSD), with the objective to make a more sensitive rapid test that can also subtype influenza A viruses (1977 H1, H3, and H5). Between February and November 2010, we conducted a prospective multicenter study at four hospitals in Vietnam and compared the performance of this test to that of the WHO/CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasal and throat swab specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness. Five hundred sixty-three adults and children with a median age of 25 months were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of the test with combined results from nasal and throat swab samples were 74.0% (131/177) and 99.7% (351/352), respectively, compared to RT-PCR. The POC test was as sensitive for influenza virus B as for influenza virus A (74.4% [64/86] versus 73.6% [67/91]). The positivity rate was associated with lower cycle threshold values (a marker for higher viral loads), sample type (73.6% for nasal swab versus 52.4% for throat swab), and younger age. A total of 210 (18.7%) out of 1,126 MSD tests failed, and for 34 (6%) of patients, both test samples failed (these were excluded from the performance analysis). Subtyping could be assessed only for influenza virus A/H3N2, as 1977 H1N1 was not circulating at the time and no H5N1-infected patients were enrolled, and was successful only in 9/54 patients infected with H3 influenza virus who had a positive POC test result for influenza virus A. This novel POC test provided highly sensitive detection of influenza viruses A and B compared to the reported sensitivities of other rapid tests. However, 18.7% of tests failed for technical reasons and subtyping for H3 was poor. Drawbacks to the technology include the requirement for a dedicated reader instrument and the need for

  15. Point of care strategy for rapid diagnosis of novel A/H1N1 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairede

    Full Text Available Within months of the emergence of the novel A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nA/H1N1v, systematic screening for the surveillance of the pandemic was abandoned in France and in some other countries. At the end of June 2009, we implemented, for the public hospitals of Marseille, a Point Of Care (POC strategy for rapid diagnosis of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, in order to maintain local surveillance and to evaluate locally the kinetics of the pandemic.Two POC laboratories, located in strategic places, were organized to receive and test samples 24 h/24. POC strategy consisted of receiving and processing naso-pharyngeal specimens in preparation for the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and real-time RT-PCR assay (rtRT-PCR. This strategy had the theoretical capacity of processing up to 36 samples per 24 h. When the flow of samples was too high, the rtRT-PCR test was abandoned in the POC laboratories and transferred to the core virology laboratory. Confirmatory diagnosis was performed in the core virology laboratory twice a day using two distinct rtRT-PCR techniques that detect either influenza A virus or nA/N1N1v. Over a period of three months, 1974 samples were received in the POC laboratories, of which 111 were positive for nA/H1N1v. Specificity and sensitivity of RIDT were 100%, and 57.7% respectively. Positive results obtained using RIDT were transmitted to clinical practitioners in less than 2 hours. POC processed rtRT-PCR results were available within 7 hours, and rtRT-PCR confirmation within 24 hours.The POC strategy is of benefit, in all cases (with or without rtRT-PCR assay, because it provides continuous reception/processing of samples and reduction of the time to provide consolidated results to the clinical practitioners. We believe that implementation of the POC strategy for the largest number of suspect cases may improve the quality of patient care and our knowledge of the epidemiology of the pandemic.

  16. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  17. Sequential detection of influenza epidemics by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Closas Pau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a well known and common human respiratory infection, causing significant morbidity and mortality every year. Despite Influenza variability, fast and reliable outbreak detection is required for health resource planning. Clinical health records, as published by the Diagnosticat database in Catalonia, host useful data for probabilistic detection of influenza outbreaks. Methods This paper proposes a statistical method to detect influenza epidemic activity. Non-epidemic incidence rates are modeled against the exponential distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimate for the decaying factor λ is calculated. The sequential detection algorithm updates the parameter as new data becomes available. Binary epidemic detection of weekly incidence rates is assessed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the absolute difference between the empirical and the cumulative density function of the estimated exponential distribution with significance level 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Results The main advantage with respect to other approaches is the adoption of a statistically meaningful test, which provides an indicator of epidemic activity with an associated probability. The detection algorithm was initiated with parameter λ0 = 3.8617 estimated from the training sequence (corresponding to non-epidemic incidence rates of the 2008-2009 influenza season and sequentially updated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test detected the following weeks as epidemic for each influenza season: 50−10 (2008-2009 season, 38−50 (2009-2010 season, weeks 50−9 (2010-2011 season and weeks 3 to 12 for the current 2011-2012 season. Conclusions Real medical data was used to assess the validity of the approach, as well as to construct a realistic statistical model of weekly influenza incidence rates in non-epidemic periods. For the tested data, the results confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect the start and the end of epidemic periods. In general, the proposed test could

  18. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine effective against influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses in children during the 2014/15 season, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Norio; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Kawakami, Chiharu; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yoshida, Makoto; Baba, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kono, Mio; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Kimiya, Takahisa; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Komiyama, Osamu; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Nakata, Yuji; Sato, Akihiro; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Fujita, Hisayo; Toki, Machiko; Myokai, Michiko; Ookawara, Ichiro; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season in Japan was characterised by predominant influenza A(H3N2) activity; 99% of influenza A viruses detected were A(H3N2). Subclade 3C.2a viruses were the major epidemic A(H3N2) viruses, and were genetically distinct from A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) of 2014/15 vaccine strain in Japan, which was classified as clade 3C.1. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged 6 months to 15 years by test-negative case–control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test. Between November 2014 and March 2015, a total of 3,752 children were enrolled: 1,633 tested positive for influenza A and 42 for influenza B, and 2,077 tested negative. Adjusted VE was 38% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 28 to 46) against influenza virus infection overall, 37% (95% CI: 27 to 45) against influenza A, and 47% (95% CI: -2 to 73) against influenza B. However, IIV was not statistically significantly effective against influenza A in infants aged 6 to 11 months or adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. VE in preventing hospitalisation for influenza A infection was 55% (95% CI: 42 to 64). Trivalent IIV that included A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) was effective against drifted influenza A(H3N2) virus, although vaccine mismatch resulted in low VE. PMID:27784529

  19. Clinical Validation of a Point-of-Care Multiplexed In Vitro Immunoassay Using Monoclonal Antibodies (the MSD Influenza Test) in Four Hospitals in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. Rogier; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Tuan, Ha Manh; Tuan, Tran Anh; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Uyen, Le thi Tham; Thinh, Le Quoc; Anh, Tran thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Merson, Laura; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; de Jong, Menno D.

    2012-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for influenza can considerably shorten the time to clinical decision making. An investigational POC test based on a multiplexed immunoassay was developed by Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC (MSD), with the objective to make a more sensitive rapid test that can also

  20. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  1. Emerging point of care tests for influenza: innovation or status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, Adeoluwa; Ellis, Joanna; Linden Phillips, Luan; Simpson, Sue; Ward, Derek J

    2012-07-01

    Point of care tests (POCTs) for influenza potentially offer earlier diagnosis, enabling specific treatment, infection control measures and greater patient convenience and satisfaction. Current POCTs have limited sensitivity, some cannot distinguish influenza types, none differentiate subtypes and are relatively expensive.  To identify and characterise influenza POCTs expected to be available for clinical use in the U.K. by mid-2013, highlighting those with potential benefits over existing tests. Potential developers of influenza POCTs were identified through known manufacturers' websites, Medical Technology trade associations, the EuroScan International Network, an expert advisory group and by searching relevant online sources. Identified companies were asked to provide standard information on relevant technologies. Fifty-six companies were identified, and 29 (52%) responded, identifying 57 potentially relevant technologies. Of these, 40 (70%) were already available or had undetermined status and 5 (9%) were excluded as time to results took over 60 minutes. Of the remaining 12 emerging POCTs, 10 (83%) reportedly enabled differentiation of influenza types and eight differentiation of A subtypes. Nasopharyngeal swabs were the most commonly acceptable sample type; the sample volume ranging from 80 μl to 1.4 ml. Most identified emerging influenza POCTs offered differentiation of influenza type and subtype. Tests claiming this capability include several incorporating reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays; though, these also had the longest time to result. However, whilst some identified POCTs exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, most lack published clinical data for assessment, and the overall costs of these technologies remains largely unknown. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. An influenza A virus agglutination test using antibody-like polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjee, Wannisa; Thitithanyanont, Arunee; Wiboon-Ut, Suwimon; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Paul Gleeson, M; Navakul, Krongkaew; Sangma, Chak

    2017-10-01

    Antibodies are commonly used in diagnostic routines to identify pathogens. The testing protocols are relatively simple, requiring a certain amount of a specific antibody to detect its corresponding pathogen. Antibody functionality can be mimicked by synthesizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), i.e. polymers that can selectively recognize a given template structure. Thus, MIPs are sometimes termed 'plastic antibody (PA)'. In this study, we have synthesized new granular MIPs using influenza A virus templates by precipitation polymerization. The selective binding of influenza A to the MIP particles was assessed and subsequently contrasted with other viruses. The affinities of influenza A virus towards the MIP was estimated based on an agglutination test by measuring the amount of influenza subtypes absorbed onto the MIPs. The MIPs produced using the H1N1 template showed specific reactivity to H1N1 while those produced using H5N1 and H3N2 templates showed cross-reactivity.

  3. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne Dorthe; Krause, Tyra Grove; Nielsen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 wa...

  4. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum; Yang, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10"4 PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit

  5. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum [Dept. of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Chul [School of Architectural Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 4} PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit.

  6. 76 FR 66032 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector AGENCY... authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Avian Influenza... product: Requester: Biomune Company. Product: Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype...

  7. Comparison of Directigen Flu A+B with Real Time PCR in the Diagnosis of Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Janceska, Elizabeta; Mikik, Vladimir; Topuzovska, Irena Kondova; Milenkovik, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with influenza is the reason why physicians need rapid high-sensitivity influenza diagnostic tests that require no complex lab equipment and can be performed and interpreted within 15 min. The Aim of this study was to compare the rapid Directigen Flu A+B test with real time PCR for detection of influenza viruses in the Republic of Macedonia. One-hundred-eight respiratory samples (combined nose and throat swabs) were routinely collected for detection of influenza virus during influenza seasons. Forty-one patients were pediatric cases and 59 were adult. Their mean age was 23 years. The patients were allocated into 6 age groups: 0-4 yrs, 5-9 yrs, 10-14 yrs, 15-19 yrs, 20-64 yrs and > 65 yrs. Each sample was tested with Directigen Flu A+B and CDC real time PCR kit for detection and typisation/subtypisation of influenza according to the lab diagnostic protocol. Directigen Flu A+B identified influenza A virus in 20 (18.5%) samples and influenza B virus in two 2 (1.9%) samples. The high specificity (100%) and PPV of Directigen Flu A+B we found in our study shows that the positive results do not need to be confirmed. The overall sensitivity of Directigen Flu A+B is 35.1% for influenza A virus and 33.0% for influenza B virus. The sensitivity for influenza A is higher among children hospitalized (45.0%) and outpatients (40.0%) versus adults. Directigen Flu A+B has relatively low sensitivity for detection of influenza viruses in combined nose and throat swabs. Negative results must be confirmed.

  8. Use of Lean response to improve pandemic influenza surge in public health laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Chang, Yin; Prystajecky, Natalie; Petric, Martin; Mak, Annie; Abbott, Brendan; Paris, Benjamin; Decker, K C; Pittenger, Lauren; Guercio, Steven; Stott, Jeff; Miller, Joseph D

    2012-01-01

    A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus detected in April 2009 rapidly spread around the world. North American provincial and state laboratories have well-defined roles and responsibilities, including providing accurate, timely test results for patients and information for regional public health and other decision makers. We used the multidisciplinary response and rapid implementation of process changes based on Lean methods at the provincial public health laboratory in British Columbia, Canada, to improve laboratory surge capacity in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Observed and computer simulating evaluation results from rapid processes changes showed that use of Lean tools successfully expanded surge capacity, which enabled response to the 10-fold increase in testing demands.

  9. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  10. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

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    Shcherbik, Svetlana V; Pearce, Nicholas C; Levine, Marnie L; Klimov, Alexander I; Villanueva, Julie M; Bousse, Tatiana L

    2014-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs) can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV) and a seasonal wild-type (wt) virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012) or influenza A (H7N9) (A/Anhui/1/2013) wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2). Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  11. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

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    Svetlana V Shcherbik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV and a seasonal wild-type (wt virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2 (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012 or influenza A (H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013 wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2. Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  12. Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza B in a Healthy Young Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Masaki; Okada, Satoshi; Terashima, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a fever, convulsions, and loss of consciousness at our hospital. The patient had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Influenza B virus infection was diagnosed using the rapid test kit, and an eight-fold increase in the serum levels of anti-influenza B virus antibody was confirmed using the complement fixation test. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal high-signal lesions, and an electroencephalogram showed diffuse slowing of the background activity, indicating acute encephalopathy. After treatment with peramivir and methylprednisolone for 3 days, the patient was discharged without any neurological impairment. This was a case of influenza B infection associated with acute encephalopathy in a healthy young man.

  13. Prospective evaluation of the Alere i Influenza A&B nucleic acid amplification versus Xpert Flu/RSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, J C; Caméléna, F; Dahoun, M; Pilmis, B; Mizrahi, A; Lourtet, J; Behillil, S; Enouf, V; Le Monnier, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and accurate detection of influenza virus in respiratory specimens is required for optimal management of patients with acute respiratory infections. Because of the variability of the symptoms and the numerous other causes of influenza-like illness, the diagnosis of influenza cannot be made on the basis of clinical criteria alone. Thus, rapid influenza diagnostic tests have been developed such as the Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid assay. We prospectively evaluated the performance of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay in comparison with our routine Xpert Flu/RSV assay. Positive samples were subtyped according to the protocol from the National Influenza Center (Paris, France). A total of 96 respiratory nasal swab samples were analyzed: with both methods, 38 were positive and 56 were negative. Samples were prospectively collected from January 20 to April 8, 2015, from patient (86 adult and 10 pediatric patients) presenting with an influenza-like illness through the French influenza season. In comparison with the Xpert Flu/RSV assay, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay were 95% and 100%, respectively. Our results indicate that the Alere i Influenza A&B assay has a good overall analytical performance and a high degree of concordance with the PCR-based Xpert Flu/RSV assay. The Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid amplification test is a powerful tool for influenza detection due to its high sensitivity and specificity as well as its ability to generate results within 15min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of influenza at Hajj: applications for mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Elizabeth; Barasheed, Osamah; Memish, Ziad A; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases that spread via respiratory route, e.g. influenza, are common amongst Hajj congregation in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian authority successfully organized the Hajj 2009 amidst fear of pandemic influenza. While severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was rare, the true burden of pandemic influenza at Hajj that year remains speculative. In this article we review the latest evidence on influenza control and discuss our experience of influenza and its prevention at Hajj and possible application to other mass gatherings. Depending on study design the attack rate of seasonal influenza at Hajj has ranged from 6% in polymerase chain reaction or culture confirmed studies to 38% in serological surveillance. No significant effect of influenza vaccine or the use of personal protective measures against influenza has been established from observational studies, although the uptake of the vaccine and adherence to face masks and hand hygiene has been low. In all, there is a relatively poor evidence base for control of influenza. Until better evidence is obtained, vaccination coupled with rapid antiviral treatment of symptomatic individuals remains the mainstay of prevention at Hajj and other mass gatherings. Hajj pilgrimage provides a unique opportunity to test the effectiveness of various preventive measures that require a large sample size, such as testing the efficacy of plain surgical masks against laboratory-confirmed influenza. After successful completion of a pilot trial conducted among Australian pilgrims at the 2011 Hajj, a large multinational cluster randomized controlled trial is being planned. This will require effective international collaboration.

  15. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  16. Development of a Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Subtype H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus

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    Hongmei Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel influenza A (H7N9 virus has emerged in China. To rapidly detect this virus from clinical samples, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP method for the detection of the H7N9 virus. The minimum detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.01 PFU H7N9 virus, making this method 100-fold more sensitive to the detection of the H7N9 virus than conventional RT-PCR. The H7N9 virus RT-LAMP assays can efficiently detect different sources of H7N9 influenza virus RNA (from chickens, pigeons, the environment, and humans. No cross-reactive amplification with the RNA of other subtype influenza viruses or of other avian respiratory viruses was observed. The assays can effectively detect H7N9 influenza virus RNA in drinking water, soil, cloacal swab, and tracheal swab samples that were collected from live poultry markets, as well as human H7N9 virus, in less than 30 min. These results suggest that the H7N9 virus RT-LAMP assays were efficient, practical, and rapid diagnostic methods for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of influenza A (H7N9 virus from different resource samples.

  17. INFLUENZA AND ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EMERGENCY CREWS OF MOSCOW

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    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  19. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  20. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

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    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  2. H5N1-SeroDetect EIA and rapid test: a novel differential diagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of H5N1 infections and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Sasono, Pretty; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Le, Quynh Mai; Pham, Quang Thai; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Horby, Peter; Golding, Hana

    2011-12-01

    Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.

  3. [Summary of Guangdong provincial seminar on avian influenza and influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-yi; Chen, Qing; Hu, Gui-fang

    2005-12-01

    On 8th November 2005, an academic seminar on avian influenza and influenza in Guangdong Province was held by Guangdong Society of Tropical Medicine and the Epidemiology Committee of the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Society in Southern Medical University, addressing the current problems in epidemics of avian influenza. The specialists attending the conference arrived at the common consideration that at present, the avian influenza virus H5N1 has not the capacity to trigger an pandemic in human population, but scattered cases had been reported to increase the suspicions of H5N1 virus transmission between humans. Due attention should be paid to the tendency of expansion of the host range and epidemic area, and the possibility of disastrous influenza pandemic among human populations persists, for which rational consideration is called for, and the role of specialists should be fully recognized who are endeavoring to examine the possible scale of influenza occurrence and devise strategy to deal with the epidemic in Guangdong province according to the practical situation in China. Increased funds and investment in scientific research on avian influenza is urged for influenza prediction and surveillance, rapid and early diagnostic assays, understanding of virus variation, mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to human hosts, effective medicines and vaccines for prevention and therapy of avian influenza. Laboratory bio-safety control should be enforced to prevent infections originated from laboratories. The specialists appeal that the media report the news objectively and issue the public warnings against avian influenza after consulting specialists, so as to avoid unnecessary social panic.

  4. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development.

  5. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

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    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  6. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households.

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    Benjamin J Cowling

    Full Text Available While influenza A and B viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets, the importance of small droplet nuclei "aerosols" in transmission is controversial.In Hong Kong and Bangkok, in 2008-11, subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics if they had recent onset of acute respiratory illness and none of their household contacts were ill. Following a positive rapid influenza diagnostic test result, subjects were randomly allocated to one of three household-based interventions: hand hygiene, hand hygiene plus face masks, and a control group. Index cases plus their household contacts were followed for 7-10 days to identify secondary infections by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR testing of respiratory specimens. Index cases with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza B were included in the present analyses. We used a mathematical model to make inferences on the modes of transmission, facilitated by apparent differences in clinical presentation of secondary infections resulting from aerosol transmission. We estimated that approximately 37% and 26% of influenza B virus transmission was via the aerosol mode in households in Hong Kong and Bangkok, respectively. In the fitted model, influenza B virus infections were associated with a 56%-72% risk of fever plus cough if infected via aerosol route, and a 23%-31% risk of fever plus cough if infected via the other two modes of transmission.Aerosol transmission may be an important mode of spread of influenza B virus. The point estimates of aerosol transmission were slightly lower for influenza B virus compared to previously published estimates for influenza A virus in both Hong Kong and Bangkok. Caution should be taken in interpreting these findings because of the multiple assumptions inherent in the model, including that there is limited biological evidence to date supporting a difference in the clinical features of influenza B virus infection by different modes.

  7. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongmei; Wang, Xiurong; Zhao, Yuhui; Sun, Xiaodong; Li, Yanbing; Xiong, Yongzhong; Chen, Hualan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of the H7 avian influenza virus (H7 AIV) isotype was developed. The minimum detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.1-0.01 PFU per reaction for H7 AIV RNA, making this assay 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR method. This RT-LAMP assay also has the capacity to detect both high- and low-pathogenic H7 AIV strains. Using a pool of RNAs extracted from influenza viruses corresponding to all 15 HA subtypes (in addition to other avian pathogenic viruses), the RT-LAMP system was confirmed to amplify only H7 AIV RNA. Furthermore, specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were infected artificially with H7 AIV, throat and cloacal swabs were collected, and viral shedding was examined using viral isolation, RT-PCR and RT-LAMP. Shedding was detected following viral isolation and RT-LAMP one day after infection, whereas viral detection using RT-PCR was effective only on day 3 post-infection. These results indicate that the RT-LAMP method could facilitate epidemiological surveillance and the rapid diagnosis of the avian influenza subtype H7. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Streptavidin-biotin-based directional double Nanobody sandwich ELISA for clinical rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Gong, Xue; Hu, Yonghong; Ou, Weijun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-12-20

    Influenza H5N1 is one subtype of the influenza A virus which can infect human bodies and lead to death. Timely diagnosis before its breakout is vital to the human health. The current clinical biochemical diagnosis for influenza virus are still flawed, and the diagnostic kits of H5N1 are mainly based on traditional monoclonal antibodies that hardly meet the requirements for clinical applications. Nanobody is a promising tool for diagnostics and treatment due to its smallest size, high specificity and stability. In this study, a novel Nanobody-based bioassay was developed for rapid, low-cost and sensitive detection of the influenza H5N1 virus. Nanobodies specific to H5N1 virus were selected from a VHH library by phage display technology. In this system, the biotinylated Nanobody was directionally captured by streptavidin coated on ELISA plate, which can specifically capture the H5N1 virus. Another Nanobody conjugated with HRP was used as a detector. A novel directional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for H5N1 using specific Nanobodies was established and compared to the conventional undirected ELISA assay. We have successfully constructed a high quality phage display Nanobody library and isolated two Nanobodies against H5N1 with high affinity and specificity. These two Nanobodies were further used to prepare the biosensor detection system. This streptavidin-biotin-based directional double Nanobodies sandwich ELISA for H5N1 detection showed superiority over the commonly undirectional ELISA protocol. The linear range of detection for standards in this immunoassay was approximately 50-1000 ng/mL and the detection limit was 14.1 ng/mL. The average recoveries of H5N1 virus from human serum samples were in the range from 94.58% to 114.51%, with a coefficient of variation less than 6.5%. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the proposed detection system is an alternative diagnostic tool that enables a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and specific detection of the

  9. Evolution of Therapeutic Antibodies, Influenza Virus Biology, Influenza, and Influenza Immunotherapy

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    Urai Chaisri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment against both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Influenza, a highly contagious disease, precipitates annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, resulting in high health and economic burden worldwide. Currently available drugs are becoming less and less effective against this rapidly mutating virus. Alternative treatment strategies are needed, particularly for individuals at high risk for severe morbidity. In a setting where vaccines are not yet protective or available, human antibodies that are broadly effective against various influenza subtypes could be highly efficacious in lowering morbidity and mortality and controlling unprecedented epidemic/pandemic. Prototypes of human single-chain antibodies to several conserved proteins of influenza virus with no Fc portion (hence, no ADE effect in recipients are available. These antibodies have high potential as a novel, safe, and effective anti-influenza agent.

  10. A rapid method for immunotitration of influenza viruses using flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonsdale, R.; Pau, M. G.; Oerlemans, M.; Ophorst, C.; Vooys, A.; Havenga, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Uytdehaag, F.; Marzio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable assays for accurate titration of influenza virus in infectious samples are pivotal to both influenza research and vaccine development. A titration assay adopted commonly for this purpose is the plaque assay on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, despite it being time and labour

  11. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  12. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  13. Should clinical case definitions of influenza in hospitalized older adults include fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsey, Ann R; Baran, Andrea; Walsh, Edward E

    2015-08-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Fever is included in all standard definitions of influenza-like illness (ILI), yet older patients may have diminished febrile response to infection. Therefore, we examined the utility of various thresholds to define fever for case definitions of influenza in persons ≥ 65 years of age. Data from two prospective surveillance studies for respiratory viral infection in adults hospitalized with acute cardiopulmonary illnesses with or without fever were examined. The highest temperature reported prior to admission or measured during the first 24 h after admission was recorded. The diagnosis of influenza was made by a combination of viral culture, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, antigen testing, and serology. A total of 2410 subjects (66% ≥ 65 years of age) were enrolled; 281 had influenza (261 influenza A, 19 influenza B, and one mixed influenza A and B). The commonly used definition of ILI (fever ≥ 37·8°C and cough) resulted in 57% sensitivity and 71% specificity in older adults. Receiver operating characteristic curves examining the various temperature thresholds combined with cough and/or sore throat showed the optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity to be 37·9°C (AUC 0·71) and 37·3°C (AUC 0·66), in younger and older persons, respectively. Clinical decision rules using the presence of cough and fever may be helpful when screening for influenza or empiric antiviral treatment when rapid influenza testing is not available; however, lower fever thresholds may be considered for elderly subjects. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Drug Discovery of Host CLK1 Inhibitors for Influenza Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of influenza virus makes antiviral drugs less effective, which is considered to be a major bottleneck in antiviral therapy. The key proteins in the host cells, which are related with the replication cycle of influenza virus, are regarded as potential drug targets due to their distinct advantage of lack of evolution and drug resistance. Cdc2-like kinase 1 (CLK1 in the host cells is responsible for alternative splicing of the M2 gene of influenza virus during influenza infection and replication. In this study, we carried out baculovirus-mediated expression and purification of CLK1 and established a reliable screening assay for CLK1 inhibitors. After a virtual screening of CLK1 inhibitors was performed, the activities of the selected compounds were evaluated. Finally, several compounds with strong inhibitory activity against CLK1 were discovered and their in vitro anti-influenza virus activities were validated using a cytopathic effect (CPE reduction assay. The assay results showed that clypearin, corilagin, and pinosylvine were the most potential anti-influenza virus compounds as CLK1 inhibitors among the compounds tested. These findings will provide important information for new drug design and development in influenza treatment, and CLK1 may be a potent drug target for anti-influenza drug screening and discovery.

  15. DNA microarray-based solid-phase RT-PCR for rapid detection and identification of influenza virus type A and subtypes H5 and H7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2011-01-01

    of RNA extract in the liquid phase with sequence-specific nested PCR on the solid phase. A simple ultraviolet cross-linking method was used to immobilize the DNA probes over an unmodified glass surface, which makes solid-phase PCR a convenient possibility for AIV screening. The testing of 33 avian fecal....... In this article, a DNA microarray-based solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach has been developed for rapid detection of influenza virus type A and for simultaneous identification of pathogenic virus subtypes H5 and H7. This solid-phase RT-PCR method combined reverse-transcription amplification...

  16. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 September and 15 November 2017, 48 A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry holdings and 9 H5 HPAI wild bird events were reported within Europe. A second epidemic HPAI A(H5N8) wave started in Italy on the third week of July and is still ongoing on 15November...... to focus in order to achieve the most effective testing of dead birds for detection of H5 HPAI viruses. Monitoring the avian influenza situation in other continents revealed the same risks as in the previous report (October 2016-August 2017): the recent human case of HPAI A(H5N6) in China underlines...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  17. Polymeric LabChip real-time PCR as a point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for rapid detection of influenza A/H1N1 virus in human clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ok Song

    Full Text Available It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1 It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2 It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3 The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4 Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and

  18. School illness absenteeism during 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic--South Dakota, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon; Horan, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Schools are important amplification settings of influenza virus transmission. We demonstrated correlation of school absenteeism (due to any illness) with other influenza A (H1N1) activity surveillance data during the 2009 pandemic. We collected nonspecific illness student absenteeism data from August 17, 2009 through April 3, 2010 from 187 voluntarily participating South Dakota schools using weekly online surveys. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as the ratio of the probability of absenteeism during elevated weeks versus the probability of absenteeism during the baseline weeks (RR = 1.89). We used Pearson correlation to associate absenteeism with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, influenza cases diagnosed by rapid tests, influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths reported in South Dakota during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic period. School-absenteeism data correlated strongly with data from these other influenza surveillance sources.

  19. tion and/or treatment of influenza virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    more frequent in children and more seri- ous in the elderly, ... The main option for the prevention of influenza and ... rapid development of influenza virus resistance ... drugs that affect the CNS, particu- .... include employees of hospitals, clinics ...

  20. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  1. Early estimation of pandemic influenza Antiviral and Vaccine Effectiveness (EAVE): use of a unique community and laboratory national data-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Colin R; Lone, Nazir; McMenamin, Jim; Gunson, Rory; Robertson, Chris; Ritchie, Lewis D; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    After the introduction of any new pandemic influenza, population-level surveillance and rapid assessment of the effectiveness of a new vaccination will be required to ensure that it is targeted to those at increased risk of serious illness or death from influenza. We aimed to build a pandemic influenza reporting platform that will determine, once a new pandemic is under way: the uptake and effectiveness of any new pandemic vaccine or any protective effect conferred by antiviral drugs once available; the clinical attack rate of pandemic influenza; and the existence of protection provided by previous exposure to, and vaccination from, A/H1N1 pandemic or seasonal influenza/identification of susceptible groups. An observational cohort and test-negative study design will be used (post pandemic). A national linkage of patient-level general practice data from 41 Practice Team Information general practices, hospitalisation and death certification, virological swab and serology-linked data. We will study a nationally representative sample of the Scottish population comprising 300,000 patients. Confirmation of influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and, in a subset of the population, serology. Future available pandemic influenza vaccination and antivirals will be evaluated. To build a reporting platform tailored towards the evaluation of pandemic influenza vaccination. This system will rapidly measure vaccine effectiveness (VE), adjusting for confounders, estimated by determining laboratory-confirmed influenza; influenza-related morbidity and mortality, including general practice influenza-like illnesses (ILIs); and hospitalisation and death from influenza and pneumonia. Once a validated haemagglutination inhibition assay has been developed (and prior to the introduction of any vaccination), cross-reactivity with previous exposure to A/H1N1 or A/H1N1 vaccination, other pandemic influenza or other seasonal influenza vaccination or exposure will be

  2. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Within-Host Evolution of Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Katherine S; Moncla, Louise H; Bedford, Trevor; Bloom, Jesse D

    2018-03-10

    The rapid global evolution of influenza virus begins with mutations that arise de novo in individual infections, but little is known about how evolution occurs within hosts. We review recent progress in understanding how and why influenza viruses evolve within human hosts. Advances in deep sequencing make it possible to measure within-host genetic diversity in both acute and chronic influenza infections. Factors like antigenic selection, antiviral treatment, tissue specificity, spatial structure, and multiplicity of infection may affect how influenza viruses evolve within human hosts. Studies of within-host evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape influenza virus's global evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure-based drug discovery for combating influenza virus by targeting the PA-PB1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Otaki, Hiroki; Mizuta, Satoshi; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2017-08-25

    Influenza virus infections are serious public health concerns throughout the world. The development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required due to the emergence of viruses with resistance to the currently-approved anti-influenza viral drugs. We performed in silico screening using a structure-based drug discovery algorithm called Nagasaki University Docking Engine (NUDE), which is optimised for a GPU-based supercomputer (DEstination for Gpu Intensive MAchine; DEGIMA), by targeting influenza viral PA protein. The compounds selected by NUDE were tested for anti-influenza virus activity using a cell-based assay. The most potent compound, designated as PA-49, is a medium-sized quinolinone derivative bearing a tetrazole moiety, and it inhibited the replication of influenza virus A/WSN/33 at a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.47 μM. PA-49 has the ability to bind PA and its anti-influenza activity was promising against various influenza strains, including a clinical isolate of A(H1N1)pdm09 and type B viruses. The docking simulation suggested that PA-49 interrupts the PA-PB1 interface where important amino acids are mostly conserved in the virus strains tested, suggesting the strain independent utility. Because our NUDE/DEGIMA system is rapid and efficient, it may help effective drug discovery against the influenza virus and other emerging viruses.

  5. siRNA for Influenza Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailen Barik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA, has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  6. siRNA for Influenza Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2010-07-01

    Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA), has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  7. The performance of Luminex ARIES® Flu A/B & RSV and Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC for the detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus in prospective patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Phillip; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Beavis, Kathleen G; Tesic, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The demand for rapid, accurate viral testing has increased the number of assays available for the detection of viral pathogens. One of the newest FDA cleared platforms is the Luminex ARIES ® Flu A/B & RSV, which is a fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay used for detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We sought to compare the performance of Luminex ARIES ® Flu A/B & RSV assay to the Cepheid Xpert ® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid Flu and RSV testing. A series of consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens received in the clinical microbiology laboratory during peak influenza season at a major academic center in Chicago, IL, were prospectively tested, using both the ARIES ® Flu A/B & RSV and Xpert ® Flu/RSV XC assays, side by side. Discrepant results were tested on the BioFire FilmArray ® Respiratory Panel for resolution. A total of 143 consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens, obtained from patients ranging from six months to ninety-three years in age were received between January 1st, 2017 and March 21st, 2017. There was 96.6% agreement between the two assays for detection influenza A, 100% agreement for detection influenza B and RSV, and 98.9% agreement for negative results. The Xpert ® Flu/RSV XC performed with an average turn-around time of approximately 60min, compared to the ARIES ® Flu A/B & RSV of approximately 120min. Both assays were equally easy to perform, with a similar amount of hands-on technologist time for each platform. Overall, these results indicate that both tests are comparable in terms of result agreement and technical ease-of-use. The Xpert ® Flu/RSV XC assay did produce results with less turn-around-time, approximately 60min quicker than the ARIES ® Flu A/B & RSV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of the Rappaport rapid test in large-scale testing for syphilis. Evaluation of the rapid plate and rapid card tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinsberg, R; Meir, E; Blumstein, G; Kafeman, R

    1975-11-01

    The Rappaport rapid (RR) plate and card tests were developed as modifications of the RR tube test to permit rapid and inexpensive screening of large numbers of subjects for the diagnosis of syphilis. More than 2,000 sera were examined in parallel by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and the RR plate and card tests. There was complete agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the VDRL slide and RPR card tests in 96.6% of sera. In a selected group of 1,530 sera examined, in addition, by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, there was agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the FTA-ABS test in 74.3% of sera and between the VDRL and RPR tests and the FTA-ABS test in 73.7% of sera. The RR plate test was found to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of syphilis, although the VDRL slide test is perhaps more sensitive in primary and late latent syphilis. Since the antigen used in the RR tests is colored and stable and the sera do not require inactivation before the test, the tests are easier to perform than the VDRL slide test: the RR plate and card tests could therefore replace the VDRL test as a screening test, with hardly any loss of accuracy.

  9. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Suzuki, Chie; Awashima, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yasuhiro; Yewdell, Jonathan; Kuroda, Kazumichi

    2003-01-01

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  10. Detection of antibodies against H5 and H7 strains in birds: evaluation of influenza pseudovirus particle neutralization tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Wallerström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avian influenza viruses circulate in bird populations, and it is important to maintain and uphold our knowledge of the viral strains that are currently of interest in this context. Here, we describe the use of hemagglutinin-pseudotype retroviruses based on highly pathogenic influenza viruses for the screening of avian sera for influenza A antibodies. Our aim was also to determine whether the pseudovirus neutralization tests that we assessed were sensitive and simple to use compared to the traditional methods, including hemagglutination inhibition assays and microneutralization tests. Material and methods: H5 and H7 pseudovirus neutralization tests were evaluated by using serum from infected rabbits. Subsequently, the assays were further investigated using a panel of serum samples from avian species. The panel contained samples that were seropositive for five different hemagglutinin subtypes as well as influenza A seronegative samples. Results and discussion: The results suggest that the pseudovirus neutralization test is an alternative to hemagglutination inhibition assays, as we observed comparable titers to those of both standard microneutralizations assays as well as hemagglutinin inhibition assays. When evaluated by a panel of avian sera, the method also showed its capability to recognize antibodies directed toward low-pathogenic H5 and H7. Hence, we conclude that it is possible to use pseudoviruses based on highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to screen avian sera for antibodies directed against influenza A subtypes H5 and H7.

  11. A randomized trial of maternal influenza immunization decision-making: A test of persuasive messaging models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Kriss, Jennifer L; Chamberlain, Allison T; Malik, Fauzia; Chung, Yunmi; Cortés, Marielysse; Omer, Saad B

    2016-08-02

    We sought to examine the effectiveness of persuasive communication interventions on influenza vaccination uptake among black/African American pregnant women in Atlanta, Georgia. We recruited black/African American pregnant women ages 18 to 50 y from Atlanta, GA to participate in a prospective, randomized controlled trial of influenza immunization messaging conducted from January to April 2013. Eligible participants were randomized to 3 study arms. We conducted follow-up questionnaires on influenza immunization at 30-days post-partum with all groups. Chi-square and t tests evaluated group differences, and outcome intention-to-treat assessment utilized log-binomial regression models. Of the 106 enrolled, 95 women completed the study (90% retention), of which 31 were randomly assigned to affective messaging intervention ("Pregnant Pause" video), 30 to cognitive messaging intervention ("Vaccines for a Healthy Pregnancy" video), and 34 to a comparison condition (receipt of the Influenza Vaccine Information Statement). The three groups were balanced on baseline demographic characteristics and reported health behaviors. At baseline, most women (63%, n = 60) reported no receipt of seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 5 y. They expressed a low likelihood (2.1 ± 2.8 on 0-10 scale) of obtaining influenza immunization during their current pregnancy. At 30-days postpartum follow-up, influenza immunization was low among all participants (7-13%) demonstrating no effect after a single exposure to either affective messaging (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.30-4.01) or cognitive messaging interventions (RR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.11-2.88). Women cited various reasons for not obtaining maternal influenza immunizations. These included concern about vaccine harm (47%, n = 40), low perceived influenza infection risk (31%, n = 26), and a history of immunization nonreceipt (24%, n = 20). The findings reflect the limitations associated with a single exposure to varying maternal influenza

  12. Influenza outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: the utility of laboratory testing and case definitions on mass gathering outbreak containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J van Hal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings.

  13. Lab-in-a-tube: Real-time molecular point-of-care diagnostics for influenza A and B using the cobas(R) Liat(R) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Kuijpers, J; Sickler, J.J.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(R) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(R) Liat(R) System (cobas(R) Liat(R)

  14. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  15. Underdiagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lauren; Zhu, Yuwei; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Talbot, H Keipp

    2018-03-01

    To describe factors associated with provider-ordered influenza testing in hospitalized older adults. Information on participant demographics, symptoms, and provider-ordered influenza testing were collected by questionnaire and chart review. We conducted prospective laboratory-based surveillance using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the criterion standard for diagnosis of influenza, to determine how participant characteristics and provider-ordered testing affected accurate influenza diagnosis. One academic and three community hospitals in Davidson County, Tennessee. Adults aged 18 and older with acute respiratory illness or nonlocalizing fever (N=1,422). We compared characteristics of participants with and without provider-ordered testing for influenza using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors predictive of provider-ordered influenza testing. Twenty-eight percent (399/1,422) of participants had provider-ordered influenza testing. Participants who were tested were younger than those not tested (58 ± 18 vs 66 ± 15, p<.001) and more likely to have influenza-like illness (ILI) (71% vs 49%, p<.001). ILI decreased with increasing age (aged 18-49, 63%; aged 50-64, 60%; aged ≥65, 48%). ILI and younger age were independent predictors of provider-ordered testing. Of the 136 participants with influenza confirmed using RT-PCR, ILI was the only significant predictor of provider-ordered testing (adjusted odds ratio=3.43, 95% confidence interval=1.22-9.70). Adults aged 65 and older hospitalized with fever or respiratory symptoms during influenza season are less likely to undergo a provider-ordered influenza test than younger adults. Some, but not all, of this disparity is due to a lower likelihood of ILI. Further strategies are needed to increase clinician awareness and testing in this vulnerable group. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018

  16. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Eva; Darvishian, Maryam; Dijkstra, Frederika; Donker, Gé A; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Hak, Eelko

    2017-05-15

    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE estimates. We have conducted a TND study using the Dutch Sentinel Practices of NIVEL Primary Care Database which includes data from patients who consulted the General Practitioner (GP) for an episode of acute influenza-like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory infection (ARI) with known influenza vaccination status. Cases were patients tested positive for influenza virus. Controls were grouped into those who tested (1) negative for influenza virus (all influenza negative), (2) negative for influenza virus, but positive for respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus or enterovirus (non-influenza virus positive), and (3) negative for these four viruses (pan-negative). We estimated the IVE over all epidemic seasons from 2003/2004 through 2013/2014, pooled IVE for influenza vaccine partial/full matched and mismatched seasons and the individual seasons using generalized linear mixed-effect and multiple logistic regression models. The overall IVE adjusted for age, GP ILI/ARI diagnosis, chronic disease and respiratory allergy was 35% (95% CI: 15-48), 64% (95% CI: 49-75) and 21% (95% CI: -1 to 39) for all influenza negative, non-influenza virus positive and pan-negative controls, respectively. In both the main and subgroup analyses IVE estimates were the highest using non-influenza virus positive controls, likely due to limiting inclusion of controls without laboratory-confirmation of a virus causing the respiratory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Influenza Viruses A and B during the 2001-2002 Influenza Season in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindiyeh, Musa; Levy, Virginia; Azar, Roberto; Varsano, Noemi; Regev, Liora; Shalev, Yael; Grossman, Zehava; Mendelson, Ella

    2005-01-01

    The ability to rapidly diagnose influenza virus infections is of the utmost importance in the evaluation of patients with upper respiratory tract infections. It is also important for the influenza surveillance activities performed by national influenza centers. In the present study we modified a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay (which uses TaqMan chemistry) and evaluated it for its ability to detect and concomitantly differentiate influenza viruses A and B in 370 patient samples collected during the 2001-2002 influenza season in Israel. The performance of the TaqMan assay was compared to those of a multiplex one-step RT-PCR with gel detection, a shell vial immunofluorescence assay, and virus isolation in tissue culture. The TaqMan assay had an excellent sensitivity for the detection of influenza viruses compared to that of tissue culture. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay compared to the results of culture were 98.4 and 85.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay for the detection of influenza virus A alone were 100 and 91.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of influenza virus B alone were 95.7 and 98.7%, respectively. The rapid turnaround time for the performance of the TaqMan assay (4.5 h) and the relatively low direct cost encourage the routine use of this assay in place of tissue culture. We conclude that the multiplex TaqMan assay is highly suitable for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infections both in well-established molecular biology laboratories and in reference clinical laboratories. PMID:15695650

  18. INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE IN RUSSIA BASED ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND LABORATORY DATA FOR THE PERIOD FROM 2005 TO 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sominina; Burtseva, Elena; Eropkin, Mikhail; Karpova, Ludmila; Zarubaev, Vladimir; Smorodintseva, Elizaveta; Konovalova, Nadezhda; Danilenko, Daria; Prokopetz, Alexandra; Grudinin, Mikhail; Pisareva, Maria; Anfimov, Pavel; Stolyarov, Kirill; Kiselev, Oleg; Shevchenko, Elena; Ivanova, Valeriya; Trushakova, Svetlana; Breslav, Nataliya; Lvov, Dmitriy; Klimov, Alexander; Moen, Ann; Cox, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    registered. Influenza surveillance in Russia was improved as a result of enhancing capacity to international standards and the introduction of new methods in NICs such as rRT-PCR diagnosis, regular testing of influenza viruses for susceptibility to antivirals, phylogenetic analysis as well as organization of sentinel surveillance in a number of Regional Base Laboratories. Improvements promoted rapid recognition of the appearance a new pandemic virus in the country and enhancement of confirmation tests in investigation of influenza related death cases. PMID:26561480

  19. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  20. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season.

  1. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and ... Key words: Avian influenza virus, H5N1, fluorescent antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ..... poultry and is potentially zoonotic.

  2. Genetic diversity among pandemic 2009 influenza viruses isolated from a transmission chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Bragstad, Karoline; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses such as swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) generate genetic diversity due to the high error rate of their RNA polymerase, often resulting in mixed genotype populations (intra-host variants) within a single infection. This variation helps influenza to rapidly res...

  3. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  4. Antiviral treatment among older adults hospitalized with influenza, 2006-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louise Lindegren

    Full Text Available To describe antiviral use among older, hospitalized adults during six influenza seasons (2006-2012 in Davidson County, Tennessee, USA.Among adults ≥50 years old hospitalized with symptoms of respiratory illness or non-localizing fever, we collected information on provider-initiated influenza testing and nasal/throat swabs for influenza by RT-PCR in a research laboratory, and calculated the proportion treated with antivirals.We enrolled 1753 adults hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. Only 26% (457/1753 of enrolled patients had provider-initiated influenza testing. Thirty-eight patients had a positive clinical laboratory test, representing 2.2% of total patients and 8.3% of tested patients. Among the 38 subjects with clinical laboratory-confirmed influenza, 26.3% received antivirals compared to only 4.5% of those with negative clinical influenza tests and 0.7% of those not tested (p<0.001. There were 125 (7.1% patients who tested positive for influenza in the research laboratory. Of those with research laboratory-confirmed influenza, 0.9%, 2.7%, and 2.8% received antivirals (p=.046 during pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic influenza seasons, respectively. Both research laboratory-confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04 95%CI 1.26-7.35 and clinical laboratory-confirmed influenza (AOR 3.05, 95%CI 1.07-8.71 were independently associated with antiviral treatment. Severity of disease, presence of a high-risk condition, and symptom duration were not associated with antiviral use.In urban Tennessee, antiviral use was low in patients recognized to have influenza by the provider as well as those unrecognized to have influenza. The use of antivirals remained low despite recommendations to treat all hospitalized patients with confirmed or suspected influenza.

  5. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu test and comparison with in-house real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of influenza virus from 2008 to 2011 in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, N; Ninove, L; Thirion, L; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

    2012-04-01

    Rapid documentation of respiratory specimens can have an impact on the management of patients and their relatives in terms of preventive and curative measures. We compared the results of the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid) with three real-time RT-PCR assays using 127 nasopharyngeal samples, of which 75 were positive for influenza A (with 52 identified as A/H1N1-2009) and 52 were positive for influenza B. The Xpert(®) Flu assay presented a quasi-absence of non-interpretable tests, and showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% for Flu A, 98.4% and 100% for A/H1N1-2009, and 80.7% and 100% for Flu B. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Design Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Setting Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. Participants A total of 83 613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. Main outcome measure A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Results Of the 16 models including ‘number of newspaper articles’ with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (pnewspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=−0.301, pnewspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6–10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. PMID:26719323

  7. Performance of the inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) diary in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Elizabeth D.; Leidy, Nancy K.; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Stringer, Sonja; Memoli, Matthew J.; Han, Alison; Fairchok, Mary P.; Coles, Christian; Owens, Jackie; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Danaher, Patrick J.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ridore, Michelande; Hernández, Andrés; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Pett, Sarah; Fischer, William; Gillor, Daniel; Moreno Macias, Laura; DuVal, Anna; Rothman, Richard; Dugas, Andrea; Guerrero, M. Lourdes

    2018-01-01

    Background The inFLUenza Patient Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) measure is a daily diary assessing signs/symptoms of influenza across six body systems: Nose, Throat, Eyes, Chest/Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Body/Systemic, developed and tested in adults with influenza. Objectives This study tested the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of FLU-PRO scores in adults with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods Data from the prospective, observational study used to develop and test the FLU-PRO in influenza virus positive patients were analyzed. Adults (≥18 years) presenting with influenza symptoms in outpatient settings in the US, UK, Mexico, and South America were enrolled, tested for influenza virus, and asked to complete the 37-item draft FLU-PRO daily for up to 14-days. Analyses were performed on data from patients testing negative. Reliability of the final, 32-item FLU-PRO was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha (α; Day 1) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; 2-day reproducibility). Convergent and known-groups validity were assessed using patient global assessments of influenza severity (PGA). Patient report of return to usual health was used to assess responsiveness (Day 1–7). Results The analytical sample included 220 ILI patients (mean age = 39.3, 64.1% female, 88.6% white). Sixty-one (28%) were hospitalized at some point in their illness. Internal consistency reliability (α) of FLU-PRO Total score was 0.90 and ranged from 0.72–0.86 for domain scores. Reproducibility (Day 1–2) was 0.64 for Total, ranging from 0.46–0.78 for domain scores. Day 1 FLU-PRO scores correlated (≥0.30) with the PGA (except Gastrointestinal) and were significantly different across PGA severity groups (Total: F = 81.7, pFLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive in adults with influenza-like illness. PMID:29566007

  8. Strategies for subtyping influenza viruses circulating in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays......Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...... were specific when applied on Danish influenza positive samples, whereas the N2 assay consistently showed several unspecific PCR products. A subset of positive influenza samples detected by the real time RT-PCR screening assay could not be subtyped using these assays. Therefore, new influenza subtyping...

  9. Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N; Pierse, N; Bissielo, A; Huang, Qs; Radke, S; Baker, Mg; Widdowson, Ma; Kelly, H

    2014-08-28

    This study reports the first vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates for the prevention of general practice visits and hospitalisations for laboratory-confirmed influenza from an urban population in Auckland, New Zealand, in the same influenza season (2013). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity-adjusted VE in both hospital and community settings. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or influenza-like illness (ILI) were defined as requiring hospitalisation (SARI) or attending a general practice (ILI) with a history of fever or measured temperature ≥38 °C, cough and onset within the past 10 days. Those who tested positive for influenza virus were cases while those who tested negative were controls. Results were analysed to 7 days post symptom onset and adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing during the influenza season. Influenza vaccination provided 52% (95% CI: 32 to 66) protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisation and 56% (95% CI: 34 to 70) against presenting to general practice with influenza. VE estimates were similar for all types and subtypes. This study found moderate effectiveness of influenza vaccine against medically attended and hospitalised influenza in New Zealand, a temperate, southern hemisphere country during the 2013 winter season.

  10. Influenza vaccine effectiveness for hospital and community patients using control groups with and without non-influenza respiratory viruses detected, Auckland, New Zealand 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierse, Nevil; Kelly, Heath; Thompson, Mark G; Bissielo, Ange; Radke, Sarah; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-20

    We aimed to estimate the protection afforded by inactivated influenza vaccine, in both community and hospital settings, in a well characterised urban population in Auckland during 2014. We used two different comparison groups, all patients who tested negative for influenza and only those patients who tested negative for influenza and had a non-influenza respiratory virus detected, to calculate the vaccine effectiveness in a test negative study design. Estimates were made separately for general practice outpatient consultations and hospitalised patients, stratified by age group and by influenza type and subtype. Vaccine status was confirmed by electronic record for general practice patients and all respiratory viruses were detected by real time polymerase chain reaction. 1039 hospitalised and 1154 general practice outpatient consultations met all the study inclusion criteria and had a respiratory sample tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. Compared to general practice patients, hospitalised patients were more likely to be very young or very old, to be Māori or Pacific Islander, to have a low income and to suffer from chronic disease. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) adjusted for age and other participant characteristics using all influenza negative controls was 42% (95% CI: 16 to 60%) for hospitalised and 56% (95% CI: 35 to 70%) for general practice patients. The vaccine appeared to be most effective against the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain with an adjusted VE of 62% (95% CI:38 to 77%) for hospitalised and 59% (95% CI:36 to 74%) for general practice patients, using influenza virus negative controls. Similar results found when patients testing positive for a non-influenza respiratory virus were used as the control group. This study contributes to validation of the test negative design and confirms that inactivated influenza vaccines continue to provide modest but significant protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cowling

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are sparse data on whether non-pharmaceutical interventions can reduce the spread of influenza. We implemented a study of the feasibility and efficacy of face masks and hand hygiene to reduce influenza transmission among Hong Kong household members.We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of households (composed of at least 3 members where an index subject presented with influenza-like-illness of <48 hours duration. After influenza was confirmed in an index case by the QuickVue Influenza A+B rapid test, the household of the index subject was randomized to 1 control or 2 surgical face masks or 3 hand hygiene. Households were visited within 36 hours, and 3, 6 and 9 days later. Nose and throat swabs were collected from index subjects and all household contacts at each home visit and tested by viral culture. The primary outcome measure was laboratory culture confirmed influenza in a household contact; the secondary outcome was clinically diagnosed influenza (by self-reported symptoms. We randomized 198 households and completed follow up home visits in 128; the index cases in 122 of those households had laboratory-confirmed influenza. There were 21 household contacts with laboratory confirmed influenza corresponding to a secondary attack ratio of 6%. Clinical secondary attack ratios varied from 5% to 18% depending on case definitions. The laboratory-based or clinical secondary attack ratios did not significantly differ across the intervention arms. Adherence to interventions was variable.The secondary attack ratios were lower than anticipated, and lower than reported in other countries, perhaps due to differing patterns of susceptibility, lack of significant antigenic drift in circulating influenza virus strains recently, and/or issues related to the symptomatic recruitment design. Lessons learnt from this pilot have informed changes for the main study in 2008.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00425893 HKClinicalTrials.com HKCTR-365.

  12. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  13. Influenza vaccination accelerates recovery of ferrets from lymphopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedzad Music

    Full Text Available Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL, B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis.

  14. Influenza vaccination accelerates recovery of ferrets from lymphopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J; Lipatov, Aleksandr S; Kamal, Ram P; Blanchfield, Kristy; Wilson, Jason R; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis.

  15. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  16. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y.; Lafond, Kathryn E.; Storms, Aaron D.; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Storey, J. Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 vir...

  17. Influenza virus sequence feature variant type analysis: evidence of a role for NS1 in influenza virus host range restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Jyothi M; Liu, Mengya; Squires, R Burke; Pickett, Brett E; Hale, Benjamin G; Air, Gillian M; Galloway, Summer E; Takimoto, Toru; Schmolke, Mirco; Hunt, Victoria; Klem, Edward; García-Sastre, Adolfo; McGee, Monnie; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2012-05-01

    Genetic drift of influenza virus genomic sequences occurs through the combined effects of sequence alterations introduced by a low-fidelity polymerase and the varying selective pressures experienced as the virus migrates through different host environments. While traditional phylogenetic analysis is useful in tracking the evolutionary heritage of these viruses, the specific genetic determinants that dictate important phenotypic characteristics are often difficult to discern within the complex genetic background arising through evolution. Here we describe a novel influenza virus sequence feature variant type (Flu-SFVT) approach, made available through the public Influenza Research Database resource (www.fludb.org), in which variant types (VTs) identified in defined influenza virus protein sequence features (SFs) are used for genotype-phenotype association studies. Since SFs have been defined for all influenza virus proteins based on known structural, functional, and immune epitope recognition properties, the Flu-SFVT approach allows the rapid identification of the molecular genetic determinants of important influenza virus characteristics and their connection to underlying biological functions. We demonstrate the use of the SFVT approach to obtain statistical evidence for effects of NS1 protein sequence variations in dictating influenza virus host range restriction.

  18. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.

  19. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Laboratory diagnosis of pandemic influenza at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Regional Authority of Public Health based in Banská Bystrica in the season 2009-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissová, R; Mad'arová, L; Klement, C

    2011-02-01

    The Department of Medical Microbiology of the Regional Authority of Public Health (RAPH) in Banská Bystrica serves as a catchment laboratory of virology for the Central Slovakia Region, and in the influenza season 2009/10, it also served as such for the East Slovakia Region. Specimens (nasopharyngeal swabs and post-mortem specimens) from patients with suspected influenza were obtained from both sentinel and non-sentinel physicians. The specimens were analyzed by a rapid test, followed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for influenza A or B diagnosis. RT-PCR subtyping for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 was performed. From May 2009 to June 2010, 2497 specimens were analyzed for the presence of influenza A and B viruses and in particular for the presence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. As many as 537 of 589 influenza A-positive specimens, i.e. 21.5% of all specimens analyzed and 91.2% of influenza A-positive specimens, were subtyped as pandemic influenza A/H1N1. In the influenza season 2009/10, the new pandemic influenza A/H1N1 clearly predominated in Central and Eastern Slovakia. PCR tests have played a key role in diagnosing patients with suspected pandemic influenza in the laboratory participating in the surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in the Slovak Republic.

  2. Development of a sensitive real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A and B viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Amicizia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A new real-time PCR assay, using melting curve analysis, was developed for the rapid and reliable detection and sub-typing of influenza A and B.

    In order to evaluate it’s specificity, cell culture surnatants positive for Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Parainfluenza Viruses 1, 2 and 3, Measles Virus, Influenza A (to evaluate Influenza B primer and B (to evaluate Influenza A primer were tested and all of the results were negative.

    A series of Influenza A and B cell culture-grown viruses were diluted in virus transport medium, titrated and tested to determine the analytical sensibility which equated to 0.64, 0.026, 0.64, 0.62 PFU for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, Victoria-like and Yamagata-like B viruses, respectively. Twenty-five specimens, collected during the 2001/02 and 2002/03 seasons, which were positive for A/H1N1 (n = 7, A/H3N2 (n = 10, B Victoria-lineage (n = 5 and B Yamagata-lineage (n = 3, were tested in order to evaluate the assay’s clinical sensitivity, all of the results were positive.

    The new real-time PCR appears to be a suitable tool for virological surveillance and the diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of "test" versus "treat" patients hospitalized with suspected influenza in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce H S You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses may cause severe diseases and result in excess hospitalization and mortality in the older and younger adults, respectively. Early antiviral treatment may improve clinical outcomes. We examined potential outcomes and costs of test-guided versus empirical treatment in patients hospitalized for suspected influenza in Hong Kong. METHODS: We designed a decision tree to simulate potential outcomes of four management strategies in adults hospitalized for severe respiratory infection suspected of influenza: "immunofluorescence-assay" (IFA or "polymerase-chain-reaction" (PCR-guided oseltamivir treatment, "empirical treatment plus PCR" and "empirical treatment alone". Model inputs were derived from literature. The average prevalence (11% of influenza in 2010-2011 (58% being 2009 H1N1 among cases of respiratory infections was used in the base-case analysis. Primary outcome simulated was cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY expected (ICER from the Hong Kong healthcare providers' perspective. RESULTS: In base-case analysis, "empirical treatment alone" was shown to be the most cost-effective strategy and dominated the other three options. Sensitivity analyses showed that "PCR-guided treatment" would dominate "empirical treatment alone" when the daily cost of oseltamivir exceeded USD18, or when influenza prevalence was <2.5% and the predominant circulating viruses were not 2009 H1N1. Using USD50,000 as the threshold of willingness-to-pay, "empirical treatment alone" and "PCR-guided treatment" were cost-effective 97% and 3% of time, respectively, in 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations. CONCLUSIONS: During influenza epidemics, empirical antiviral treatment appears to be a cost-effective strategy in managing patients hospitalized with severe respiratory infection suspected of influenza, from the perspective of healthcare providers in Hong Kong.

  4. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  5. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  6. Conventional influenza vaccines influence the performance of a universal influenza vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Janelle; Lo, Chia-Yun; Price, Graeme E; Misplon, Julia A; Epstein, Suzanne L; Garcia, Mayra

    2018-02-08

    Universal influenza vaccines are designed to protect against diverse strains of influenza virus. Preclinical testing of new vaccine candidates is usually done in naïve animals, despite intended use in the human population with its varied immune history including responses to previous vaccinations. As an approach more relevant to human use, we tested a candidate universal influenza vaccine in mice with a history of conventional vaccination. Female BALB/c mice were given two intramuscular doses of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine (DT), one month apart. Another group was given two intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). One month after the second dose, mice were given the universal influenza vaccine: recombinant adenoviruses expressing influenza A nucleoprotein (A/NP) and matrix 2 (M2) (A/NP + M2-rAd). Immune responses to universal vaccine antigens A/NP and M2 were assessed by ELISA and interferon-γ ELISPOT. Protection was tested by challenge with mouse-adapted A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) and monitoring for weight loss and survival. Universal vaccine performance was enhanced, inhibited or unaffected by particular prior vaccinations. Mice given Afluria IIV and LAIV had greater antibody and T-cell response to A/NP than mice without prior vaccination, providing examples of enhanced A/NP + M2-rAd performance. Though Fluvirin IIV partially inhibited, the universal vaccine still provided considerable protection unlike conventional vaccination. Fluzone IIV and DT had no effect on A/NP + M2-rAd performance. Thus our results demonstrate that universal vaccine candidate A/NP + M2-rAd was at least partially effective in mice with diverse prior histories. However, the degree of protection and nature of the immune responses may be affected by a history of conventional vaccination and suggests that performance in humans would be influenced by immune history. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  8. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  9. Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weigong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.

  10. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2014-06-17

    Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalisation with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in South and Central Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season. The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 39% (95% CI 16;56). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was lower than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 59% (95% CI 26;77) in patients aged 45-64 years but only 8% (-78;53) in those aged 65 years and above. Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ. This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against influenza positive hospitalisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A case test-negative study was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalization with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in Central, South and East Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season Results The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 37% (95% CI 18;51). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was higher than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 51% (95% CI 28;67) in patients aged 18-64 years but only 6% (95% CI -51;42) in those aged 65 years and above. Conclusion Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ . This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against hospitalisation for laboratory-confirmed influenza. PMID:24768730

  12. Mapping of the US Domestic Influenza Virologic Surveillance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Barbara; Schwerzmann, Joy; Mustaquim, Desiree; Aden, Tricia; Brammer, Lynnette; Humes, Rosemary; Shult, Pete; Shahangian, Shahram; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Miller, Joseph; Jernigan, Daniel

    2018-07-17

    Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.

  13. Characteristics of diagnostic tests used in the 2002 low-pathogenicity avian influenza H7N2 outbreak in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvinger, François; Akey, Bruce L; Senne, Dennis A; Pierson, F William; Porter-Spalding, Barbara A; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2007-07-01

    An outbreak of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H7N2 occurred in 2002 in the Shenandoah Valley, a high-density poultry production region in Virginia. Infected flocks were identified through a combination of observation of clinical signs and laboratory diagnostic tests designed to detect avian influenza (AI) antibodies, virus, or H7-specific RNA. In this report, fitness for purpose of 3 virus/RNA detection assays used during the outbreak was examined: 1) antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (AC-EIA), 2) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and 3) virus isolation (VI). Results from testing 762 turkey and 2,216 chicken tracheal swab pooled specimens were analyzed to determine diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these tests under field conditions using Bayesian techniques for validation of diagnostic tests in the absence of a "gold standard." Diagnostic sensitivities (with 95% probability intervals) in turkeys of AC-EIA and RRT-PCR, in reference to VI, were 65.9 (50.6; 81.3)% and 85.1 (71.9; 95.7)% and of VI 92.9 (78.0; 98.8)% in reference to AC-EIA or 88.7 (76.0; 97.2)% in reference to RRT-PCR; in chickens, diagnostic sensitivities were 75.1 (45.6; 94.2)%, 86.3 (65.9; 97.1)%, and 86.2 (65.8; 97.1)% or 86.3 (66.4; 97.2)%, respectively. Specificities were 99.1 (97.9; 99.8)%, 98.9 (98.0; 99.5)%, and 98.6 (97.4; 99.4)% or 98.8 (97.8; 99.5)% in turkeys and between 99.25% and 99.27% with probability intervals of approximately +/-0.4% for all tests in chickens. Simultaneous use of AC-EIA and RRT-PCR contributed significantly to the rapid control of the outbreak, but the AI RRT-PCR assay with >85% sensitivity and approximately 99% specificity, combined with relatively low cost and fast turnaround, could be used as the sole diagnostic test in outbreaks of LPAI.

  14. Global surveillance of emerging Influenza virus genotypes by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Sampath

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS technology.Analysis of base compositions of RT-PCR amplicons from influenza core gene segments (PB1, PB2, PA, M, NS, NP are used to provide sub-species identification and infer influenza virus H and N subtypes. Using this approach, we detected and correctly identified 92 mammalian and avian influenza isolates, representing 30 different H and N types, including 29 avian H5N1 isolates. Further, direct analysis of 656 human clinical respiratory specimens collected over a seven-year period (1999-2006 showed correct identification of the viral species and subtypes with >97% sensitivity and specificity. Base composition derived clusters inferred from this analysis showed 100% concordance to previously established clades. Ongoing surveillance of samples from the recent influenza virus seasons (2005-2006 showed evidence for emergence and establishment of new genotypes of circulating H3N2 strains worldwide. Mixed viral quasispecies were found in approximately 1% of these recent samples providing a view into viral evolution.Thus, rapid RT-PCR/ESI-MS analysis can be used to simultaneously identify all species of influenza viruses with clade-level resolution, identify mixed viral populations and monitor global spread and emergence of novel viral genotypes. This high-throughput method promises to become an integral component of influenza surveillance.

  15. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-12-30

    We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. A total of 83,613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Of the 16 models including 'number of newspaper articles' with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of 'number of newspaper articles' at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of 'number of newspaper articles' that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (p<0.05) were the weekly number of newspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=-0.301, p<0.01; time shift of 9 weeks, β=-0.200, p<0.01; time shift of 8 weeks, β=-0.156, p<0.01; time shift of 7 weeks, β=-0.122, p<0.05; time shift of 6 weeks, β=-0.113, p<0.05). We found that the number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6-10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  17. Incidence of medically attended influenza infection and cases averted by vaccination, 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Kieke, Burney; McClure, David; Gaglani, Manjusha; Murthy, Kempapura; Malosh, Ryan; Monto, Arnold; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Flannery, Brendan; Thompson, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Background We estimated the burden of outpatient influenza and cases prevented by vaccination during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons using data from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (US Flu VE) Network. Methods We defined source populations of persons who could seek care for acute respiratory illness (ARI) at each of the five US Flu VE Network sites. We identified all members of the source population who were tested for influenza during US Flu VE influenza surveillance. Each influenza-positive subject received a sampling weight based on the proportion of source population members who were tested for influenza, stratified by site, age, and other factors. We used the sampling weights to estimate the cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza in the source populations. We estimated cases averted by vaccination using estimates of cumulative incidence, vaccine coverage, and vaccine effectiveness. Results Cumulative incidence of medically attended influenza ranged from 0.8% to 2.8% across sites during 2011/12 and from 2.6% to 6.5% during the 2012/13 season. Stratified by age, incidence ranged from 1.2% among adults 50 years of age and older in 2011/12 to 10.9% among children 6 months to 8 years of age in 2012/13. Cases averted by vaccination ranged from 4 to 41 per 1,000 vaccinees, depending on the study site and year. Conclusions The incidence of medically attended influenza varies greatly by year and even by geographic region within the same year. The number of cases averted by vaccination varies greatly based on overall incidence and on vaccine coverage. PMID:26271827

  18. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  19. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  20. Optic neuritis and acute anterior uveitis associated with influenza A infection: a case report

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    Nakagawa H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hayate Nakagawa, Hidetaka Noma, Osamu Kotake, Ryosuke Motohashi, Kanako Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Background: A few reports have described ocular complications of influenza A infection, such as impaired ocular movement, parasympathetic ocular nerve, keratitis, macular lesion, and frosted branch angiitis. We encountered a rare case of acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis associated with influenza A infection. Case presentation: A 70-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid diagnostic test showed a positive result for influenza A. At the same time, he developed ocular symptoms including blurred vision with optic disk edema and hemorrhage in the left eye, and bilateral red eyes. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed on aqueous humor sample detected no viral infection. Visual field testing with a Goldmann perimeter showed central and paracentral scotomas in the left eye. In addition to antiviral agent (oseltamivir phosphate 75 mg, the patient was prescribed topical prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension eye drops every 5 hours and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone 1,000 mg daily for 3 days. Two months later, his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/50 with regression of visual field defects in his left eye. Conclusion: We report a case of bilateral acute anterior uveitis and unilateral optic neuritis concomitant with influenza A infection. Topical and systemic corticosteroids were effective to resolve acute anterior uveitis and neuritis. Analysis of aqueous humor sample suggested that acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis in this case were not caused by influenza A virus infection per se but by autoimmune mechanism. Keywords: optic neuritis, anterior uveitis, influenza virus, multiplex polymerase chain reaction

  1. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  2. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  3. Single-dose mucosal immunization with a candidate universal influenza vaccine provides rapid protection from virulent H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E Price

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The sudden emergence of novel influenza viruses is a global public health concern. Conventional influenza vaccines targeting the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase must antigenically match the emerging strain to be effective. In contrast, "universal" vaccines targeting conserved viral components could be used regardless of viral strain or subtype. Previous approaches to universal vaccination have required protracted multi-dose immunizations. Here we evaluate a single dose universal vaccine strategy using recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing the conserved influenza virus antigens matrix 2 and nucleoprotein.In BALB/c mice, administration of rAd via the intranasal route was superior to intramuscular immunization for induction of mucosal responses and for protection against highly virulent H1N1, H3N2, or H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Mucosally vaccinated mice not only survived, but had little morbidity and reduced lung virus titers. Protection was observed as early as 2 weeks post-immunization, and lasted at least 10 months, as did antibodies and lung T cells with activated phenotypes. Virus-specific IgA correlated with but was not essential for protection, as demonstrated in studies with IgA-deficient animals.Mucosal administration of NP and M2-expressing rAd vectors provided rapid and lasting protection from influenza viruses in a subtype-independent manner. Such vaccines could be used in the interval between emergence of a new virus strain and availability of strain-matched vaccines against it. This strikingly effective single-dose vaccination thus represents a candidate off-the-shelf vaccine for emergency use during an influenza pandemic.

  4. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and... Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks...: Send your comment to Docket No. APHIS-2011-0114, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS...

  5. Influenza Illness in Pregnant Indian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A. Koul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. In order to assess the contribution of influenza to acute respiratory illness (ARI in pregnancy, 266 north Indian pregnant females with febrile ARI were studied from December 2014 to May 2015. Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Fifty (18.8% patients tested positive for influenza (A/H1N1pdm09 in 41, A/H3N2 in 8, and influenza B Yamagata in 1. Rigors, headache, and a family history of ARI were significantly more frequent in influenza positive patients. Oseltamivir and supportive therapy were administered to all confirmed cases. Nine influenza positive cases needed hospitalization for their respiratory illness, and 5 developed respiratory failure. Of these, 4 (3 in third trimester succumbed to their illness. We conclude that influenza viruses are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among pregnant females with ARI in north India. As such, appropriate preventive strategies of influenza vaccination and early initiation of antiviral therapy during illness are stressed.

  6. Use of a Digital Health Application for Influenza Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hswen, Yulin; Brownstein, John S; Liu, Jeremiah; Hawkins, Jared B

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether a commercial digital health application could support influenza surveillance in China. We retrieved data from the Thermia online and mobile educational tool, which allows parents to monitor their children's fever and infectious febrile illnesses including influenza. We modeled monthly aggregated influenza-like illness case counts from Thermia users over time and compared them against influenza monthly case counts obtained from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China by using time series regression analysis. We retrieved 44 999 observations from January 2014 through July 2016 from Thermia China. Thermia appeared to predict influenza outbreaks 1 month earlier than the National Health and Family Planning Commission influenza surveillance system (P = .046). Being younger, not having up-to-date immunizations, and having an underlying health condition were associated with participant-reported influenza-like illness. Digital health applications could supplement traditional influenza surveillance systems in China by providing access to consumers' symptom reporting. Growing popularity and use of commercial digital health applications in China potentially affords opportunities to support disease detection and monitoring and rapid treatment mobilization.

  7. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic.

  8. A Rapid Blood Test To Determine the Active Status and Duration of Acute Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun

    2017-11-10

    The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.

  9. Towards Future T Cell-Mediated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi H. O. Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAVs infections impact significantly on global health, being particularly problematic in children, the elderly, pregnant women, indigenous populations and people with co-morbidities. Antibody-based vaccines require annual administration to combat rapidly acquired mutations modifying the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA glycoproteins. Conversely, influenza-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed at peptides derived from the more conserved internal virus proteins are known to be protective, suggesting that T cell-based vaccines may provide long-lasting cross-protection. This review outlines the importance of CD8+ T cell immunity to seasonal influenza and pandemic IAVs and summarises current vaccination strategies for inducing durable CD8+ T cell memory. Aspects of future IAV vaccine design and the use of live virus challenge in humans to establish proof of principle are also discussed.

  10. A Novel Duplex Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR Assay for the Detection of Influenza A and the Novel Influenza A(H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo P. Sloots

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based responses are dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strain. In this study we developed a duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR (dFLU-TM assay for the simultaneous detection of a broad range of influenza A subtypes and specific detection of the novel H1N1 2009 pandemic strain. The assay was compared to the combined results of two previously described monoplex RT-PCR assays using 183 clinical samples and 10 seasonal influenza A isolates. Overall, the results showed that the dFLU-TM RT-PCR method is suitable for detection of influenza A, including the novel H1N1 pandemic strain, in clinical samples.

  11. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  12. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  13. DNA priming for seasonal influenza vaccine: a phase 1b double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Ledgerwood

    Full Text Available The efficacy of current influenza vaccines is limited in vulnerable populations. DNA vaccines can be produced rapidly, and may offer a potential strategy to improve vaccine immunogenicity, indicated by studies with H5 influenza DNA vaccine prime followed by inactivated vaccine boost.Four sites enrolled healthy adults, randomized to receive 2011/12 seasonal influenza DNA vaccine prime (n=65 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS (n=66 administered intramuscularly with Biojector. All subjects received the 2012/13 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (IIV3 36 weeks after the priming injection. Vaccine safety and tolerability was the primary objective and measurement of antibody response by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI was the secondary objective.The DNA vaccine prime-IIV3 boost regimen was safe and well tolerated. Significant differences in HAI responses between the DNA vaccine prime and the PBS prime groups were not detected in this study.While DNA priming significantly improved the response to a conventional monovalent H5 vaccine in a previous study, it was not effective in adults using seasonal influenza strains, possibly due to pre-existing immunity to the prime, unmatched prime and boost antigens, or the lengthy 36 week boost interval. Careful optimization of the DNA prime-IIV3 boost regimen as related to antigen matching, interval between vaccinations, and pre-existing immune responses to influenza is likely to be needed in further evaluations of this vaccine strategy. In particular, testing this concept in younger age groups with less prior exposure to seasonal influenza strains may be informative.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01498718.

  14. Human influenza viruses and CD8(+) T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Emma J; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Clemens, E Bridie; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-02-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite new strain-specific vaccines being available annually. As IAV-specific CD8(+) T cells promote viral control in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, and can mediate cross-reactive immunity toward distinct IAVs to drive rapid recovery from both mild and severe influenza disease, there is great interest in developing a universal T cell vaccine. However, despite detailed studies in mouse models of influenza virus infection, there is still a paucity of data on human epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to IAVs. This review focuses on our current understanding of human CD8(+) T cell immunity against distinct IAVs and discusses the possibility of achieving a CD8(+) T cell mediated-vaccine that protects against multiple, distinct IAV strains across diverse human populations. We also review the importance of CD8(+) T cell immunity in individuals highly susceptible to severe influenza infection, including those hospitalised with influenza, the elderly and Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Russell, Kevin L; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W; Harpin, Vanessa; Blyn, Lawrence B; Melton, Rachael; Ivy, Cristin; Pennella, Thuy; Li, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating...

  16. Investigation of influenza in migrating birds, the primordial reservoir and transmitters of influenza in Brazil Investigação de influenza em aves migratórias, principal reservatório e transporte de influenza no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are the most important reservoirs of the influenza virus. Its maintenance in its natural hosts, including man, allows the influenza virus to reassorts its strains. The recent report of an avian influenza A (H5N1 virus in humans, was in a child with fatal respiratory illness in China, 1997. The current study was conducted to elucidate the transportation of the influenza by birds that migrate, annually, through the both Northern and Southern hemispheres, with special attention paid to the Vireo olivaceus [Juruviara(BR or Red-eyed vireo(USA] species, which travels from the USA to Brazil, and vice versa, and the Elaenia mesoleuca [Tuque(BR or (USA] species that flies over the entire Southern Hemisphere. There are two species of birds, which breed and migrate in São Paulo State, Brazil, and which were demonstrated to carry Influenza virus, were selected. The viral particles isolated were observed by electron microscopy. The influenza virus was detected by the House Duplex/PCR and Gloria molecular biology tests. The results demonstrated that the Elaenia mesoleuca and Vireo olivaceus bird species are carrying the Influenza virus whilst crossing both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. To understand the role that these migrating birds may play in epidemic influenza, in Brazil, characterization of avian influenza subtypes will be done.Os mais importantes reservatórios do vírus influenza são os pássaros. A manutenção do vírus influenza em hospedeiros naturais, inclusive o homem, permite que esse vírus realize rearranjos entre as suas cepas. O recente relato de uma cepa influenza aviária A(H5N1, em humanos, se deu em uma criança com doença respiratória fatal, na China em 1977. O presente estudo foi conduzido para elucidar o transporte da influenza por pássaros que migram, anualmente, através de ambos hemisférios o do Norte e do Sul, com especial atenção voltada à espécies Vireo olivaceo [Juruviara(BR e Red-eyed vireo(USA] que

  17. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs, using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  18. Incidence and Epidemiology of Hospitalized Influenza Cases in Rural Thailand during the Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Henry C.; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Prapasiri, Prabda; Naorat, Sathapana; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Olsen, Sonja J.; Simmerman, James M.; Srisaengchai, Prasong; Chantra, Somrak; Peruski, Leonard F.; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Maloney, Susan A.; Akarasewi, Pasakorn

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Asia are limited. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was first reported in Thailand in May 2009. We assessed incidence and epidemiology of influenza-associated hospitalizations during 2009–2010. Methods We conducted active, population-based surveillance for hospitalized cases of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in all 20 hospitals in two rural provinces. ALRI patients were sampled 1∶2 for participation in an etiology study in which nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for influenza virus testing by PCR. Results Of 7,207 patients tested, 902 (12.5%) were influenza-positive, including 190 (7.8%) of 2,436 children aged incidence of hospitalized influenza cases was 136 per 100,000, highest in ages 75 years (407 per 100,000). The incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 62 per 100,000 (214 per 100,000 in children <5 years). Eleven influenza-infected patients required mechanical ventilation, and four patients died, all adults with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (1) or H3N2 (3). Conclusions Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in Thailand during 2009–10 were substantial and exceeded rates described in western countries. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominated, but H3N2 also caused notable morbidity. Expanded influenza vaccination coverage could have considerable public health impact, especially in young children. PMID:23139802

  19. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  20. Automated, simple, and efficient influenza RNA extraction from clinical respiratory swabs using TruTip and epMotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesemer, Sara B; Holmberg, Rebecca; Cooney, Christopher G; Thakore, Nitu; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Chandler, Darrell P; St George, Kirsten

    2013-09-01

    Rapid, simple and efficient influenza RNA purification from clinical samples is essential for sensitive molecular detection of influenza infection. Automation of the TruTip extraction method can increase sample throughput while maintaining performance. To automate TruTip influenza RNA extraction using an Eppendorf epMotion robotic liquid handler, and to compare its performance to the bioMerieux easyMAG and Qiagen QIAcube instruments. Extraction efficacy and reproducibility of the automated TruTip/epMotion protocol was assessed from influenza-negative respiratory samples spiked with influenza A and B viruses. Clinical extraction performance from 170 influenza A and B-positive respiratory swabs was also evaluated and compared using influenza A and B real-time RT-PCR assays. TruTip/epMotion extraction efficacy was 100% in influenza virus-spiked samples with at least 745 influenza A and 370 influenza B input gene copies per extraction, and exhibited high reproducibility over four log10 concentrations of virus (extraction were also positive following TruTip extraction. Overall Ct value differences obtained between TruTip/epMotion and easyMAG/QIAcube clinical extracts ranged from 1.24 to 1.91. Pairwise comparisons of Ct values showed a high correlation of the TruTip/epMotion protocol to the other methods (R2>0.90). The automated TruTip/epMotion protocol is a simple and rapid extraction method that reproducibly purifies influenza RNA from respiratory swabs, with comparable efficacy and efficiency to both the easyMAG and QIAcube instruments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunocapture isotope dilution mass spectrometry in response to a pandemic influenza threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Carrie L; Williams, Tracie L; Santana, Wanda I; Levine, Marnie; Chen, Li-Mei; Cooper, Hans C; Solano, Maria I; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Marasco, Wayne A; Fang, He; Donis, Ruben O; Barr, John R

    2017-09-05

    As a result of recent advances in mass spectrometry-based protein quantitation methods, these techniques are now poised to play a critical role in rapid formulation of pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytical techniques that have been developed and validated on seasonal influenza strains can be used to increase the quality and decrease the time required to deliver protective pandemic vaccines to the global population. The emergence of a potentially pandemic avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in March of 2013, prompted the US public health authorities and the vaccine industry to initiate production of a pre-pandemic vaccine for preparedness purposes. To this end, we evaluated the feasibility of using immunocapture isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IC-IDMS) to evaluate the suitability of the underlying monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies (mAbs and pAbs) for their capacity to isolate the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) in this new vaccine for quantification by IDMS. A broad range of H7 capture efficiencies was observed among mAbs tested by IC-IDMS with FR-545, 46/6, and G3 A533 exhibiting the highest cross-reactivity capabilities to H7 of A/Shanghai/2/2013. MAb FR-545 was selected for continued assessment, evaluated by IC-IDMS for mAb reactivity against H7 in the H7N9 candidate vaccine virus and compared with/to reactivity to the reference polyclonal antiserum in allantoic fluid, purified whole virus, lyophilized whole virus and final detergent-split monovalent vaccine preparations for vaccine development. IC-IDMS assessment of FR-545 alongside IC-IDMS using the reference polyclonal antiserum to A/Shanghai/2/2013 and with the regulatory SRID method showed strong correlation and mAb IC-IDMS could have played an important role in the event a potential surrogate potency test was required to be rapidly implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Megan E.; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeri...

  3. [A prospective study to assess the burden of influenza-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits among children in Bilbao, Spain (2010-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Lana, Naiara; Garrote, Elisa; Arístegui, Javier; Rementeria, Joseba; García-Martínez, Juan-Antonio; McCoig, Cynthia; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Tafalla, Mónica

    2017-12-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the burden of morbidity associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza in children below 15 years of age. Children presenting with acute respiratory infection and/or isolated fever at the Basurto University Hospital, Bilbao, Spain between November 2010 and May 2011 were included in this study (NCT01592799). Two nasopharyngeal secretion samples were taken from each; one for a rapid influenza diagnostic test in the emergency department, and the second for laboratory analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction and viral culture. A total of 501 children were recruited, of whom 91 were hospitalized. Influenza diagnosis was confirmed in 131 children (26.1%); 120 of 410 (29.3%) treated as outpatients and 11 of 91 (12.1%) hospitalized children. A total of 370 of 501 children (73.9%) had no laboratory test positive for influenza. The proportion of subjects with other respiratory viruses was 145/501 (28.9%) cases and co-infection with the influenza virus plus another respiratory virus was detected in 7/501 (1.4%) cases. Influenza virus types were: A (H1N1 and H3N2) 53.2% (67/126); B (Victoria and Yamagata) 46.0% (58/126); A+B 0.8% (1/126). The median direct medical costs associated with each case of laboratory-confirmed influenza was €177.00 (N=131). No significant differences were observed between the medical costs associated with influenza A and B. Almost half of the cases were influenza virus B type. The administration of a vaccine containing influenza A and B types to children below 15 years of age might reduce the overall burden of the illness. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  5. The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D L; Spackman, E; Senne, D A; Bulaga, L; Welsch, A C; Froberg, K

    2003-01-01

    An avian influenza (AI) real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) test was previously shown to be a rapid and sensitive method to identify AI virus-infected birds in live-bird markets (LBMs). The test can also be used to identify avian influenza virus (AIV) from environmental samples. Consequently, the use of RRT-PCR was being considered as a component of the influenza eradication program in the LBMs to assure that each market was properly cleaned and disinfected before allowing the markets to be restocked. However, the RRT-PCR test cannot differentiate between live and inactivated virus, particularly in environmental samples where the RRT-PCR test potentially could amplify virus that had been inactivated by commonly used disinfectants, resulting in a false positive test result. To determine whether this is a valid concern, a study was conducted in three New Jersey LBMs that were previously shown to be positive for the H7N2 AIV. Environmental samples were collected from all three markets following thorough cleaning and disinfection with a phenolic disinfectant. Influenza virus RNA was detected in at least one environmental sample from two of the three markets when tested by RRT-PCR; however, all samples were negative by virus isolation using the standard egg inoculation procedure. As a result of these findings, laboratory experiments were designed to evaluate several commonly used disinfectants for their ability to inactivate influenza as well as disrupt the RNA so that it could not be detected by the RRT-PCR test. Five disinfectants were tested: phenolic disinfectants (Tek-trol and one-stroke environ), a quaternary ammonia compound (Lysol no-rinse sanitizer), a peroxygen compound (Virkon-S), and sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). All five disinfectants were effective at inactivating AIV at the recommended concentrations, but AIV RNA in samples inactivated with phenolic and quaternary ammonia compounds could still be detected by RRT

  6. A commercial ELISA detects high levels of human H5 antibody but cross-reacts with influenza A antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Wong, Bruce; Robertson, Peter; Lynch, Garry W; Laurie, Karen; Shaw, Robert; Barr, Ian; Selleck, Paul W; Baleriola, Cristina; Escott, Ros; Katsoulotos, Gregory; Rawlinson, William D

    2008-10-01

    Commercial serological assays to determine influenza A H5N1 infection are available, although the accuracy and reproducibility of these are not reported in detail. This study aimed to assess the validity of a commercial ELISA H5 hemagglutinin (HA) antibody kit. A commercial ELISA for detection of antibodies towards influenza A H5 HA was evaluated using human sera from vaccinated individuals. The ELISA was used to screen 304 sera with elevated influenza A complement fixation titres collected between the period 1995-2007. The ELISA was found to be accurate for sera with high levels of anti-H5 antibodies, and would be useful in clinical settings where a rapid result is required. Thirteen of the stored sera were positive using the ELISA, but were confirmed as negative for H5N1 exposure using further serological tests. Absorption studies suggested that antibodies towards seasonal H3N2 and H1N1 influenza may cross-react with H5 antigen, giving false positive results with the ELISA.

  7. Evaluation of an influenza-like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile illness in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Sovann, Ly; Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D

    2010-11-07

    Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two years and older seeking treatment. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38°C lasting more than 24 hours and less than 10 days. Influenza virus infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction. From July 2008 to December 2008, 2,639 patients were enrolled. From 884 (33%) patients positive for influenza, 652 presented with ILI and 232 acute fever patients presented without ILI. Analysis by age group identified no significant differences between influenza positive patients from the two groups. Positive predictive values (PPVs) varied during the course of the influenza season and among age groups. The ILI case definition can be used to identify a significant percentage of patients with influenza infection during the influenza season in Cambodia, assisting healthcare providers in its diagnosis and treatment. However, testing samples based on the criteria of fever alone increased our case detection by 34%.

  8. Comparative epidemiology of influenza A and B viral infection in a subtropical region: a 7-year surveillance in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Iha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and their association with climate conditions are not well understood. Influenza surveillance in Okinawa is important for clarifying transmission patterns in both temperate and tropical regions. Using surveillance data, collected over 7 years in the subtropical region of Japan, this study aims to characterize the epidemic patterns of influenza B infection and its association with ambient temperature and relative humidity, in a parallel comparison with influenza A. Methods From January 2007 until March 2014, two individual influenza surveillance datasets were collected from external sources. The first dataset, included weekly rapid antigen test (RAT results from four representative general hospitals, located in the capital city of Okinawa. A nation-wide surveillance of influenza, diagnosed by RAT results and/or influenza-like illness symptoms, included the age distribution of affected patients and was used as the second dataset. To analyze the association between infection and local climate conditions, ambient temperature and relative humidity during the study period were retrieved from the Japanese Meteorological Agency website. Results Although influenza A maintained high number of infections from December through March, epidemics of influenza B infection were observed annually from March through July. The only observed exception was 2010, when the pandemic strain of 2009 dominated. During influenza B outbreaks, influenza patients aged 5 to 9 years old and 10 to 14 years old more frequently visited sentinel sites. Although both ambient temperature and relative humidity are inversely associated with influenza A infection, influenza B infection was found to be directly associated with high relative humidity. Conclusion Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex epidemiology of influenza B and its relationship with influenza A. In the subtropical setting of Okinawa

  9. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leibbrandt

    Full Text Available The 2009 flu pandemic and the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza strains highlight the need for treatment alternatives. One such option is the creation of a protective physical barrier in the nasal cavity. In vitro tests demonstrated that iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, most importantly also of pandemic H1N1/2009 in vitro. Consequently, we tested a commercially available nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in an influenza A mouse infection model. Treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 virus with iota-carrageenan starting up to 48 hours post infection resulted in a strong protection of mice similar to mice treated with oseltamivir. Since alternative treatment options for influenza are rare, we conclude that the nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan is an alternative to neuraminidase inhibitors and should be tested for prevention and treatment of influenza A in clinical trials in humans.

  11. Riems influenza a typing array (RITA): An RT-qPCR-based low density array for subtyping avian and mammalian influenza a viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Hoffmann, Donata; Henritzi, Dinah; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C

    2016-06-03

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic approaches are of the utmost importance for the detection of humans and animals infected by specific influenza virus subtype(s). Cascade-like diagnostics starting with the use of pan-influenza assays and subsequent subtyping devices are normally used. Here, we demonstrated a novel low density array combining 32 TaqMan(®) real-time RT-PCR systems in parallel for the specific detection of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of avian and porcine hosts. The sensitivity of the newly developed system was compared with that of the pan-influenza assay, and the specificity of all RT-qPCRs was examined using a broad panel of 404 different influenza A virus isolates representing 45 different subtypes. Furthermore, we analysed the performance of the RT-qPCR assays with diagnostic samples obtained from wild birds and swine. Due to the open format of the array, adaptations to detect newly emerging influenza A virus strains can easily be integrated. The RITA array represents a competitive, fast and sensitive subtyping tool that requires neither new machinery nor additional training of staff in a lab where RT-qPCR is already established.

  12. Elementary School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Evaluating Impact on Respiratory Illness Absenteeism and Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Sonia A.; Irving, Stephanie A.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness in schools have assessed all-cause absenteeism rather than laboratory-confirmed influenza. We conducted an observational pilot study to identify absences due to respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in schools with and without school-based vaccination. Methods A local public health agency initiated school-based influenza vaccination in two Wisconsin elementary schools during October 2010 (exposed schools); two nearby schools served as a comparison group (non-exposed schools). Absences due to fever or cough illness were monitored for 12 weeks. During the 4 weeks of peak influenza activity, parents of absent children with fever/cough illness were contacted and offered influenza testing. Results Parental consent for sharing absenteeism data was obtained for 937 (57%) of 1,640 students. Fifty-two percent and 28%, respectively, of all students in exposed and non-exposed schools were vaccinated. Absences due to fever or cough illness were significantly lower in the exposed schools during seven of 12 surveillance weeks. Twenty-seven percent of students at exposed schools and 39% at unexposed schools had one or more days of absence due to fever/cough illness (pabsenteeism due to fever or cough illness, but not absenteeism for other reasons. Although nonspecific, absence due to fever or cough illness may be a useful surrogate endpoint in school-based studies if identification of laboratory confirmed influenza is not feasible. PMID:23991071

  13. Native nucleic acid electrophoresis as an efficient alternative for genotyping method of influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Beata; Lepek, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses are the worldwide major causative agents of human and animal acute respiratory infections. Some of the influenza subtypes have caused epidemics and pandemics among humans. The varieties of methods are available for the rapid isolation and identification of influenza viruses in clinical and environmental samples. Since nucleic acids amplification techniques such as RT-PCR have been adapted, fast and sensitive influenza type and subtype determination is possible. However, in some ambiguous cases other, more detailed assay might be desired. The genetic material of influenza virus is highly unstable and constantly mutates. It is known that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) results in resistance to commercially available anti-viral drugs. The genetic drift of the virus could also result in weakening of immune response to infection. Finally, in a substantial number of patients co-infection with various virus strains or types has been confirmed. Although the detection of co-infection or presence of minor genetic variants within flu-infected patients is not a routine procedure, a rapid and wide spectrum diagnostics of influenza virus infections could reveal an accurate picture of the disease and more importantly, is crucial for choosing the appropriate therapeutics and virus monitoring. Herein we present the evidences that native gel electrophoresis and MSSCP--a method based on multitemperature single strand conformation polymorphism could furnish a useful technique for minor variants, which escape discovery by conventional diagnostic assays.

  14. TEST KIT FOR THE DETECTION AND GENOTYPING OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC INFLUENZA VIRUS A H5N1 BY REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Stepaniuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the annual monitoring of epizooties indicate that highly pathogenic HPAI/H5N1 avian influenza widely circulated in Eurasian region. Over a period of 2010–2013 years more than 165 cases of outbreaks in 14 countries were found out. Ukraine became one of the first countries in Europe where in Autonomous Republic of Crimea in October 2005 outbreak of avian epizootic with HPAI/H5N1 was documented and until February 2008 more than 236,000 poultry were killed. Since then the question of monitoring of infected both migrating birds and poultry in places of cross contact in Ukraine remains of high priority. The test system is developed for identification and genotyping A H5N1 on three genes (M, H5 and N1 HPAI/H5N1 in real-time mode for polymerase chain reaction. Test kit capacity to detect HPAI/h5n1avian influenza virus and differentiate it from the other viral infection agents of birds and animals were studied by testing of HPAI/H5N1 virus isolated during mass infection outbreak in Crimea in 2005 and cultural specimens of other viral pathogens. It was established that the «DIA Real Avian Influenza» test kit was capable to detect RNA influenza A virus of high pathogenic H5N1 strains having high sensitivity (100% while RNA of the Crimean HPAI/H5N1 isolate studying and specificity (100% while RNA viruses of Newcastle birds disease, fowl powershift, syndrome of drop in egg production and horse influenza studying.

  15. A definition for influenza pandemics based on historical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Chris W; Jennings, Roy

    2011-10-01

    To analyse the records of past influenza outbreaks to determine a definition for pandemics. Analysis of publications of large outbreaks of influenza which have occurred since 1889/90, and to match the results against the current definitions of an influenza pandemic. According to the general understanding of a pandemic, nine outbreaks of influenza since 1889/90 satisfy the definition; however, for two of these, occurring in 1900 and 1933, the data are limited. The special condition for an influenza pandemic requires, in one definition, that the virus strain responsible could not have arisen from the previous circulating strain by mutation; and in the second, that the new strain be a different subtype to the previously circulating strain. Both these restrictions deny pandemic status to two, and possibly three, influenza outbreaks which were pandemics according to the more general understanding of the term. These observations suggest that a re-evaluation of the criteria which define influenza pandemics should be carried out. The contradiction outlined above brings the previous definitions of an influenza pandemic into question; however, this can be resolved by defining an influenza pandemic by the following criteria. Thus, an influenza pandemic arises at a single, specific place and spreads rapidly to involve numerous countries. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the emergent virus does not cross-react serologically with the previously dominant virus strain(s), and there is a significant lack of immunity in the population against the emergent virus. These three criteria are interlinked and can be determined early to alert authorities who could respond appropriately. Other criteria associated with pandemics are necessarily retrospective, although important and valid. The implications of this definition are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H6: Initial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Tsao, Yu-Chia; Lee, Fu-Jung; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Wu, Mu-Shiang; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2016-07-01

    A side-polished fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was fabricated to expose the core surface and then deposited with a 40 nm thin gold film for the near surface sensing of effective refractive index changes with surface concentration or thickness of captured avian influenza virus subtype H6. The detection surface of the SPR optical fiber sensor was prepared through the plasma modification method for binding a self-assembled monolayer of isopropanol chemically on the gold surface of the optical fiber. Subsequently, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide was activated to enable EB2-B3 monoclonal antibodies to capture A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 (H6N1) through a flow injection system. The detection limit of the fabricated optical fiber sensor for A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 was 5.14 × 10(5) EID50/0.1 mL, and the response time was 10 min on average. Moreover, the fiber optic sensor has the advantages of a compact size and low cost, thus rendering it suitable for online and remote sensing. The results indicated that the optical fiber sensor can be used for epidemiological surveillance and diagnosing of avian influenza subtype H6 rapidly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  18. Multi-Omics Studies towards Novel Modulators of Influenza A Virus–Host Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Söderholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses (IAVs cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential modulators targeting 199 cellular and two viral proteins. Anti-influenza activity for 48 of them has been reported previously, whereas the antiviral efficacy of the 665 remains unknown. Studying anti-influenza efficacy and immuno/neuro-modulating properties of these compounds and their combinations as well as potential viral and host resistance to them may lead to the discovery of novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza therapeutics.

  19. Sentinel surveillance for influenza in Senegal, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Sagna, Monique; Gregory, Victoria; Goudiaby, Deborah; Hay, Alan; Diop, Ousmane M

    2012-12-15

    Data on influenza in tropical and resource-limited countries are scarce. In this study we present results from 14 years of influenza surveillance in Senegal, one of the few tropical countries in Africa from which longitudinal data are available. From 1996 to 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness at 13 facilities in order to investigate the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and the characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses. Specimens were tested for influenza using viral isolation and/or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). From 1996 to 2009, specimens were obtained from 9176 patients; 1233 (13%) were influenza-positive by virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. Among positive samples, 958 (77%) were influenza A, 268 (22%) influenza B, and 7 (1%) influenza type C; of influenza A viruses, 619 (65%) were A(H3) and 339 (35%) A(H1), of which 13 (1%) were identified as H1N2. The proportion positive was similar for children 55 years (9%). Although influenza A(H1), A(H3), and B all circulated during most years, influenza A(H3N2) predominated during 9 of the 14 years. Influenza activity consistently peaked during the rainy season (July-September). Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses circulating in Senegal were similar to contemporary viruses circulating elsewhere in the world. Our data confirm that influenza is prevalent in Senegal, occurs in seasonal epidemics, and contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases in all age groups.

  20. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  1. Mortality, severe acute respiratory infection, and influenza-like illness associated with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Argentina, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.

  2. The Burden of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Oman, January 2008-June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awaidy, Salah; Hamid, Sarah; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Baqlani, Said; Al Busaidi, Suleiman; Bawikar, Shyam; El-Shoubary, Waleed; Dueger, Erica L; Said, Mayar M; Elamin, Emdeldin; Shah, Parag; Talaat, Maha

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI), including influenza, comprise a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza surveillance provides important information to inform policy on influenza control and vaccination. While the epidemiology of influenza has been well characterized in western countries, few data exist on influenza epidemiology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. We describe the epidemiology of influenza virus in Oman. Using syndromic case definitions and protocols, patients from four regional hospitals in Oman were enrolled in a descriptive prospective study to characterize the burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza. Eligible patients provided demographic information as well as oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Specimens were tested for influenza A and influenza B; influenza A viruses were subtyped using RT-PCR. From January 2008 through June 2013, a total of 5,147 cases were enrolled and tested for influenza. Influenza strains were detected in 8% of cases for whom samples were available. Annual incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 15.4 cases of influenza-associated SARI per 100,000 population. The median age of influenza patients was 6 years with children 0-2 years accounting for 34% of all influenza-associated hospitalizations. By contrast, the median age of non-influenza SARI cases was 1 year with children 0-2 years comprising 59% of SARI. Compared to non-influenza SARI cases, a greater proportion of influenza cases had pre-existing chronic conditions and underwent ventilation during hospitalization. Influenza virus is associated with a substantial proportion of SARI in Oman. Influenza in Oman approximately follows northern hemisphere seasonality, with major peaks in October to December and a lesser peak around April. The burden of influenza was greatest in children and the elderly. Future efforts should examine the burden of influenza in other potential risk groups such as pregnant women to

  3. Evaluation of rapid HIV test kits on whole blood and development of rapid testing algorithm for voluntary testing and counseling centers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegbaru, Belete; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Wolday, Dawit; Meles, PhD Hailu; Tesema, Desalegn; Birhanu, Hiwot; Tesfaye, Girma; Bond, Kyle B; Martin, Robert; Rayfield, Mark A; Wuhib, Tadesse; Fekadu, Makonnen

    2004-10-01

    Five simple and rapid HIV antibody detection assays viz. Determine, Capillus, Oraquick, Unigold and Hemastrip were evaluated to examine their performance and to develop an alternative rapid test based testing algorithm for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Ethiopia. All the kits were tested on whole blood, plasma and serum. The evaluation had three phases: Primary lab review, piloting at point of service and implementation. This report includes the results of the first two phases. A total of 2,693 specimens (both whole blood and plasma) were included in the evaluation. Results were compared to double Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Discordant EIA results were resolved using Western Blot. The assays had very good sensitivities and specificities, 99-100%, at the two different phases of the evaluation. A 98-100% result agreement was obtained from those tested at VCT centers and National Referral Laboratory for AIDS (NRLA), in the quality control phase of the evaluation. A testing strategy yielding 100% [95% CI; 98.9-100.0] sensitivity was achieved by the sequential use of the three rapid test kits. Direct cost comparison showed serial testing algorithm reduces the cost of testing by over 30% compared to parallel testing in the current situation. Determine, Capillus/Oraquick (presence/absence of frefrigeration) and Unigold were recommended as screening, confirmation and tiebreaker tests, respectively.

  4. Influenza and other respiratory virus infections in outpatients with medically attended acute respiratory infection during the 2011-12 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Rinaldo, Charles R; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Gk, Balasubramani; Thompson, Mark G; Moehling, Krissy K; Bullotta, Arlene; Wisniewski, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of outpatient visits, yet only a portion is tested to determine the etiologic organism. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) assays for detection of multiple viruses are being used increasingly in clinical settings. During January-April 2012, outpatients with acute respiratory illness (≤ 7 days) were tested for influenza using singleplex RT-PCR (SRT-PCR). A subset was assayed for 18 viruses using MRT-PCR to compare detection of influenza and examine the distribution of viruses and characteristics of patients using multinomial logistic regression. Among 662 participants (6 months-82 years), detection of influenza was similar between the MRT-PCR and SRT-PCR (κ = 0.83). No virus was identified in 267 (40.3%) samples. Commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV, 15.4%), coronavirus (CoV, 10.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 8.4%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 8.3%), and influenza (6%). Co-detections were infrequent (6.9%) and most commonly occurred among those infections (P = 0.008), nasal congestion was more frequent in CoV, HRV, hMPV, influenza and RSV infections (P = 0.001), and body mass index was higher among those with influenza (P = 0.036). Using MRT-PCR, a viral etiology was found in three-fifths of patients with medically attended outpatient visits for acute respiratory illness during the influenza season; co-detected viruses were infrequent. Symptoms varied by viral etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  6. Burden and characteristics of influenza A and B in Danish intensive care units during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Krause, Tyra Grove; Bragstad, Karoline

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Influenza surveillance in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) was performed during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons to monitor the burden on ICUs. All 44 Danish ICUs reported aggregate data for incidence and point prevalence, and case-based demographical and clinical parameters....... Additional data on microbiological testing, vaccination and death were obtained from national registers. Ninety-six patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were recorded in 2009/10; 106 with influenza A and 42 with influenza B in 2010/11. The mean age of influenza A patients was higher in 2010/11 than in 2009....../10, 53 vs. 44 years (P=0·004). No differences in other demographic and clinical parameters were detected between influenza A and B patients. In conclusion, the number of patients with severe influenza was higher in Denmark during the 2010/11 than the 2009/10 season with a shift towards older age groups...

  7. Screening for influenza viruses in 7804 patients with influenza-like symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuehui Li; Nan Lv; Chen Hangwe; Lanhua You; Huimin Wang

    2010-01-01

    To screen a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms by using the gold-immunochromatographic assay kit. All patients with influenza-like symptoms visiting the outpatient department of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China between May 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected immediately after the patient visited, then a gold-immunochromatographic assay was performed for screening of influenza A and B viruses according to the kit protocol. Among the 7804 patients enrolled in this study, 202 patients were influenza virus-positive; the positive cases accounted for 2.6% of all cases detected. Among the 202 influenza virus-positive patients, 171 patients were influenza virus A-positive, 24 were influenza virus B-positive, and 7 were co-infected with influenza virus A and B. More than 57% of the virus-positive patients were younger than 30 years old. Symptoms such as fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain were more frequently observed in influenza virus A-positive patients than in influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients. The gold immunochromatographic assay kit is very useful for screening a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms. A higher number of influenza virus A-positive patients have sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain than influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients (Author).

  8. Burden of medically attended influenza infection and cases averted by vaccination — United States, 2013/14 through 2015/16 influenza seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Phillips, C. Hallie; Benoit, Joyce; Jackson, Lisa A.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Murthy, Kempapura; McLean, Huong Q.; Belongia, Edward A.; Malosh, Ryan; Zimmerman, Richard; Flannery, Brendan

    2018-01-01

    Background In addition to preventing hospitalizations and deaths due to influenza, influenza vaccination programs can reduce the burden of outpatient visits for influenza. We estimated the incidence of medically-attended influenza at three geographically diverse sites in the United States, and the cases averted by vaccination, for the 2013/14 through 2015/16 influenza seasons. Methods We defined surveillance populations at three sites from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network. Among these populations, we identified outpatient visits laboratory-confirmed influenza via active surveillance, and identified all outpatient visits for acute respiratory illness from healthcare databases. We extrapolated the total number of outpatient visits for influenza from the proportion of surveillance visits with a positive influenza test. We combined estimates of incidence, vaccine coverage, and vaccine effectiveness to estimate outpatient visits averted by vaccination. Results Across the three sites and seasons, incidence of medically attended influenza ranged from 14 to 54 per 1,000 population. Incidence was highest in children aged 6 months to 9 years (33 to 70 per 1,000) and lowest in adults aged 18-49 years (21 to 27 per 1,000). Cases averted ranged from 9 per 1,000 vaccinees (Washington, 2014/15) to 28 per 1,000 (Wisconsin, 2013/14). Discussion Seasonal influenza epidemics cause a considerable burden of outpatient medical visits. The United States influenza vaccination program has caused meaningful reductions in outpatient visits for influenza, even in years when the vaccine is not well-matched to the dominant circulating influenza strain. PMID:29249545

  9. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  10. Rapid acquisition adaptive amino acid substitutions involved in the virulence enhancement of an H1N2 avian influenza virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijun; Sun, Weiyang; Zhang, Xinghai; Cheng, Kaihui; Zhao, Chuqi; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2017-08-01

    Although H1N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) only infect birds, documented cases of swine infection with H1N2 influenza viruses suggest this subtype AIV may pose a potential threat to mammals. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H1N2 AIV to identify adaptive changes that increased virulence in mammals. MLD 50 of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. Variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and replicate in extrapulmonary organs. These data show that enhanced replication capacity and expanded tissue tropism may increase the virulence of H1N2 AIV in mice. Sequence analysis revealed multiple amino acid substitutions in the PB2 (L134H, I647L, and D701N), HA (G228S), and M1 (D231N) proteins. These results indicate that H1N2 AIV can rapidly acquire adaptive amino acid substitutions in mammalian hosts, and these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H1N2 AIV to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in the 2015/2016 season as assessed in both a test-negative case-control study design and a traditional case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiya, Takahisa; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Anzo, Makoto; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Sugaya, Norio; Takahashi, Takao

    2018-04-21

    Both traditional case-control studies (TCCSs) and test-negative case-control studies (TNCCSs) are commonly used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). To compensate for the fact that observational studies are susceptible to bias, we combined both methods to assess VE in one geographical area during the 2015/2016 season, when influenza A (H1N1)pdm was dominant. Our TNCCS covered 331 children aged 6 months to 15 years who visited our hospital with fever, including 182 with influenza, and our TCCS covered 812 pediatric outpatients aged 6 months to 15 years, including 214 with influenza. Influenza infection and vaccination history were reviewed, and VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100. In the TNCCS, VE against influenza A was 68% (95% CI 47-81) overall, and 70% (48-83) for those given two doses; against influenza B, VE was 37% (- 12-64) overall and 49% (2-74) for two doses. In the TCCS, VE against influenza A was 44% (15-63) overall and 44% (13-64) for two doses, and VE against influenza B was 24% (- 19-52) overall and 41% (3-64) for two doses. Both studies confirmed significant VE against influenza A, significant two-dose VE against influenza B, and better two-dose VE than one-dose VE. What is Known: • Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies from year to year. • Observational studies are conventionally used for VE assessment. However, they are inherently susceptible to bias and confounding. What is New: • This is the first report of influenza VE assessment using more than one observational study and performed in a specific area during the same season. • VE estimates obtained in our traditional case-control study were lower than those in our test-negative case-control study, but both studies found significant VE against influenza.

  12. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same ...

  13. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  14. Laboratory preparedness in EU/EEA countries for detection of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, E; Pereyaslov, D; Struelens, M; Palm, D; Meijer, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; McCauley, J; Daniels, R

    2015-01-01

    Following human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net) rapidly posted relevant information, including real-time RT-PCR protocols. An influenza RNA sequence-based computational assessment of detection capabilities for this virus was conducted in 32 national influenza reference laboratories in 29 countries, mostly WHO National Influenza Centres participating in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Twenty-seven countries considered their generic influenza A virus detection assay to be appropriate for the novel A(H7N9) viruses. Twenty-two countries reported having containment facilities suitable for its isolation and propagation. Laboratories in 27 countries had applied specific H7 real-time RT-PCR assays and 20 countries had N9 assays in place. Positive control virus RNA was provided by the WHO Collaborating Centre in London to 34 laboratories in 22 countries to allow evaluation of their assays. Performance of the generic influenza A virus detection and H7 and N9 subtyping assays was good in 24 laboratories in 19 countries. The survey showed that ERLI-Net laboratories had rapidly developed and verified good capability to detect the novel A(H7N9) influenza viruses. PMID:24507469

  15. The safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Alvaro; Huerta, José G; Garcia, Maria de la Luz; Rojas, Arsheli; López-Martínez, Irma; Penagos, Martín; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Deroche, Christele; Mascareñas, Cesar

    2009-07-01

    The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza is substantial in children with asthma. There are no available data on the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Latin America. Furthermore, it is unclear if influenza vaccination may cause asthma exacerbations. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated trivalent split virus influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Mexico. We also measured the impact of influenza vaccination on pulmonary function tests in this population. The inactivated influenza vaccine was immunogenic and safe in terms of local and systemic side effects compared to placebo. We observed no significant impact on pulmonary function tests among vaccine recipients. Given the significant morbidity associated with influenza in children, strategies to promote increased influenza vaccination coverage in this high-risk group in Latin America and elsewhere are urgently needed.

  16. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  17. Novel reassortant of swine influenza H1N2 virus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Roland; Motzke, Susann; Krumbholz, Andi; Wutzler, Peter; Herwig, Volker; Dürrwald, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses arose after multiple reassortment steps involving a porcine influenza virus with avian-influenza-like internal segments and human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses in 1994. In Germany, H1N2 swine influenza viruses first appeared in 2000. Two German H1N2 swine influenza virus strains isolated from pigs with clinical symptoms of influenza are described. They were characterized by the neutralization test, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and complete sequencing of the viral genomes. The data demonstrate that these viruses represent a novel H1N2 reassortant. The viruses showed limited neutralization by sera raised against heterologous A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 viruses. Sera pools from recovered pigs showed a considerably lower HI reaction, indicative of diagnostic difficulties in using the HI test to detect these viruses with A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 antigens. Genome sequencing revealed the novel combination of the human-like HAH1 gene of European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses and the NAN2 gene of European porcine H3N2 viruses.

  18. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected wit...... of the twenty-three VI-positive specimens were negative when tested by RT-PCR-ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR-ELISA was 91% and 97%, respectively, using VI in SPF eggs as the gold reference standard....

  19. Exploring Secondary Students' Knowledge and Misconceptions about Influenza: Development, validation, and implementation of a multiple-choice influenza knowledge scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Folk, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding infectious diseases such as influenza is an important element of health literacy. We present a fully validated knowledge instrument called the Assessment of Knowledge of Influenza (AKI) and use it to evaluate knowledge of influenza, with a focus on misconceptions, in Midwestern United States high-school students. A two-phase validation process was used. In phase 1, an initial factor structure was calculated based on 205 students of grades 9-12 at a rural school. In phase 2, one- and two-dimensional factor structures were analyzed from the perspectives of classical test theory and the Rasch model using structural equation modeling and principal components analysis (PCA) on Rasch residuals, respectively. Rasch knowledge measures were calculated for 410 students from 6 school districts in the Midwest, and misconceptions were verified through the χ 2 test. Eight items measured knowledge of flu transmission, and seven measured knowledge of flu management. While alpha reliability measures for the subscales were acceptable, Rasch person reliability measures and PCA on residuals advocated for a single-factor scale. Four misconceptions were found, which have not been previously documented in high-school students. The AKI is the first validated influenza knowledge assessment, and can be used by schools and health agencies to provide a quantitative measure of impact of interventions aimed at increasing understanding of influenza. This study also adds significantly to the literature on misconceptions about influenza in high-school students, a necessary step toward strategic development of educational interventions for these students.

  20. Evaluation of recombinant influenza virus-simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Amy; De Rose, Robert; Reece, Jeanette C; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Loh, Liyen; Moffat, Jessica M; Laurie, Karen; Hurt, Aeron; Doherty, Peter C; Turner, Stephen J; Kent, Stephen J; Stambas, John

    2009-08-01

    There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected from respiratory tract secretions, although the infections were asymptomatic. Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses bearing the mucosal homing marker beta7 integrin were induced by vaccination of naïve animals. Further, SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses could be boosted by recombinant influenza virus-SIV vaccination of animals with already-established SIV infection. Sequential vaccination with influenza virus-SIV recombinants of different subtypes (H1N1 followed by H3N2 or vice versa) produced only a limited boost in immunity, probably reflecting T-cell immunity to conserved internal proteins of influenza A virus. SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. Although our results suggest that influenza virus-HIV vaccines hold promise for the induction of mucosal immunity to HIV, broader antigen cover will be needed to limit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape.

  1. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  2. Comparative evaluation of the CerTest VIASURE flu A, B & RSV real time RT-PCR detection kit on the BD MAX system versus a routine in-house assay for detection of influenza A and B virus during the 2016/17 influenza season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Andersen, Signe Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    laboratory technician "hands on" time but also the laboratory turnaround time is of interest. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of the VIASURE Flu A, B & RSV Real Time RT-PCR Detection Kit (CerTest Biotec) for detecting Influenza A and B viruses. STUDY DESIGN: During the 2016/17 influenza season 532...

  3. Late diagnosis of influenza in adult patients during a seasonal outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Tark; Park, Ki-Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kwak, Yee Gyung

    2018-03-01

    Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, clinicians are more frequently performing influenza diagnostic tests and referring to their test results ahead of the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). To investigate the clinical significance of the time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of adult patients with influenza who had an early laboratory diagnosis (ED) or a late laboratory diagnosis (LD) at one of four tertiary care centers during a seasonal outbreak of influenza. Clinical data were collected from 1,405 adults during the 2013 to 2014 influenza season. A patient was regarded as receiving an ED or LD if he/she received an influenza diagnostic test at 0 to 1 or 4 to 7 days after symptom onset, respectively. Early NAI therapy and late NAI therapy were defined as the administration of NAI ≤ 2 or > 2 days after symptom onset, respectively. Nearly half of the patients (47.0%) received an ED (n = 661), whereas 13.5% (n = 190) received a LD. Patients with a LD had initial symptoms of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea and experienced pneumonia, antibiotic therapy, hospitalization, and admission to the intensive care unit more often than those with an ED. NAI therapy and early NAI therapy were less frequent in patients with a LD than those with an ED. Of the analyzed baseline characteristics, age ≥ 50 years, influenza B infection, and diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction test were significantly associated with a LD. LD was associated with inappropriate antiviral therapy and complicated presenting features in adult patients with seasonal influenza. ED of influenza should be emphasized, especially for older adults.

  4. Immune responses to influenza virus and its correlation to age and inherited factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bahadoran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae of enveloped viruses and are an important cause of respiratory infections worldwide. The influenza virus is able to infect a wide variety species as diverse as poultry, marine, pigs, horses and humans. Upon infection with influenza virus the innate immunity plays a critical role in efficient and rapid control of viral infections as well as in adaptive immunity initiation. The humoral immune system produces antibodies against different influenza antigens, of which the HA-specific antibody is the most important for neutralization of the virus and thus prevention of illness. Cell mediated immunity including CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are the other arms of adaptive immunity induced upon influenza virus infection. The complex inherited factors and age related changes are associated with the host immune responses. Here, we review the different components of immune responses against influenza virus. Additionally, the correlation of the immune response to age and inherited factors has been discussed. These determinations lead to a better understanding of the limitations of immune responses for developing improved vaccines to control influenza virus infection.

  5. Estimating Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness With the Test-Negative Design Using Alternative Control Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Cowling, Benjamin J; Kelly, Heath; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2018-02-01

    One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated whether such a phenomenon might affect a study design commonly used to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. We identified 12 studies using the test-negative design (2011-2017) that reported VE estimates separately derived by 3 alternative control groups: 1) all patients testing negative for influenza (FLU), VEFLU-; 2) patients who tested positive for other/another respiratory virus (ORV), VEORV+; and 3) patients who tested negative for all viruses in the panel (PAN), VEPAN-. These included VE estimates from 7 countries for all age groups from 2003/2004 to 2013/2014. We observed no difference in vaccination coverage between the ORV-positive and PAN-negative control groups. A total of 63 VEFLU- estimates, 62 VEORV+ estimates, and 33 VEPAN- estimates were extracted. Pooled estimates of the difference in VE (ΔVE) were very similar between groups. In meta-regression, no association was found between the selection of control group and VE estimates. In conclusion, we did not find any differences in VE estimates based on the choice of control group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The microdose rapid 14C urea breath test compares well with the original rapid 14 breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Chatterton, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The 14 C urea breath test (CUBT) is a sensitive test used in the detection of H. pylori infection. The rapid 14 CUBT using 185 KBq of 14 C urea showed a sensitivity of 100% when tested in 36 patients. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 14 CUBT performed following the ingestion of 37KBq microdose 14 C urea capsule (Bicapsule, Trimed) with the earlier method which uses 185 KBq 14 C urea. 19 patients (nine female age 21-52 yrs) were studied. All subjects first underwent a 14 CUBT with the microdose capsule and a single 15 minute post ingestion sample. An hour later the test was repeated but with a dose of 185 KBq 14 C urea in liquid form. A normal result was taken as 2 = 0.92). This is shown above. The Rapid 14 CUBT performed following the microdose capsule whilst reducing patient radiation exposure is an accurate test for the detection of H. pylori. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing influenza primary care visits and hospitalisation in Auckland, New Zealand in 2015: interim estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissielo, A; Pierse, N; Huang, Q S; Thompson, M G; Kelly, H; Mishin, V P; Turner, N

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results for influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against acute respiratory illness with circulating laboratory-confirmed influenza viruses in New Zealand from 27 April to 26 September 2015, using a case test-negative design were 36% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11-54) for general practice encounters and 50% (95% CI: 20-68) for hospitalisations. VE against hospitalised influenza A(H3N2) illnesses was moderate at 53% (95% CI: 6-76) but improved compared with previous seasons.

  8. Stabilization of influenza vaccine enhances protection by microneedle delivery in the mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shi Quan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and effective vaccine administration is particularly important for annually recommended influenza vaccination. We hypothesized that vaccine delivery to the skin using a patch containing vaccine-coated microneedles could be an attractive approach to improve influenza vaccination compliance and efficacy.Solid microneedle arrays coated with inactivated influenza vaccine were prepared for simple vaccine delivery to the skin. However, the stability of the influenza vaccine, as measured by hemagglutination activity, was found to be significantly damaged during microneedle coating. The addition of trehalose to the microneedle coating formulation retained hemagglutination activity, indicating stabilization of the coated influenza vaccine. For both intramuscular and microneedle skin immunization, delivery of un-stabilized vaccine yielded weaker protective immune responses including viral neutralizing antibodies, protective efficacies, and recall immune responses to influenza virus. Immunization using un-stabilized vaccine also shifted the pattern of antibody isotypes compared to the stabilized vaccine. Importantly, a single microneedle-based vaccination using stabilized influenza vaccine was found to be superior to intramuscular immunization in controlling virus replication as well as in inducing rapid recall immune responses post challenge.The functional integrity of hemagglutinin is associated with inducing improved protective immunity against influenza. Simple microneedle influenza vaccination in the skin produced superior protection compared to conventional intramuscular immunization. This approach is likely to be applicable to other vaccines too.

  9. Novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses are potently inhibited by DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallen B Triana-Baltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV. Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1. Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses.The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus isolates was examined in MDCK cells, differentiated primary human respiratory tract culture, ex-vivo human bronchi tissue and mice. DAS181 efficiently inhibited viral replication in each of these models and against all tested pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strains. DAS181 treatment also protected mice from pandemic influenza A(H1N1-induced pathogenesis. Furthermore, DAS181 antiviral activity against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strains was comparable to that observed against seasonal influenza virus including the H274Y oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus.The sialidase fusion protein DAS181 exhibits potent inhibitory activity against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 viruses. As inhibition was also observed with oseltamivir-resistant IFV (H274Y, DAS181 may be active against the antigenically novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus should it acquire the H274Y mutation. Based on these and previous results demonstrating DAS181 broad-spectrum anti-IFV activity, DAS181 represents a potential therapeutic agent for

  10. Improving Accuracy of Influenza-Associated Hospitalization Rate Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Kirley, Pam Daily; Aragon, Deborah; Meek, James; Farley, Monica M.; Ryan, Patricia; Collins, Jim; Lynfield, Ruth; Baumbach, Joan; Zansky, Shelley; Bennett, Nancy M.; Fowler, Brian; Thomas, Ann; Lindegren, Mary L.; Atkinson, Annette; Finelli, Lyn; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic test sensitivity affects rate estimates for laboratory-confirmed influenza–associated hospitalizations. We used data from FluSurv-NET, a national population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations, to capture diagnostic test type by patient age and influenza season. We calculated observed rates by age group and adjusted rates by test sensitivity. Test sensitivity was lowest in adults >65 years of age. For all ages, reverse transcription PCR was the most sensitive test, and use increased from 65 years. After 2009, hospitalization rates adjusted by test sensitivity were ≈15% higher for children 65 years of age. Test sensitivity adjustments improve the accuracy of hospitalization rate estimates. PMID:26292017

  11. Surveillance of feral cats for influenza A virus in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, James T; Jones, Cheryl A; Rue, Joanne; Crawford, Patti Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Stallknecht, David E; Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza and the recent pandemic H1N1 viruses to domestic cats and other felids creates concern because of the morbidity and mortality associated with human infections as well as disease in the infected animals. Experimental infections have demonstrated transmission of influenza viruses in cats. An epidemiologic survey of feral cats was conducted to determine their exposure to influenza A virus. Feral cat sera and oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from November 2008 through July 2010 in Alachua County, FL and were tested for evidence of influenza A virus infection by virus isolation, PCR, and serological assay. No virus was isolated from any of 927 cats examined using MDCK cell or embryonated chicken egg culture methods, nor was viral RNA detected by RT-PCR in 200 samples tested. However, 0.43% of cats tested antibody positive for influenza A by commercial ELISA. These results suggest feral cats in this region are at minimal risk for influenza A virus infection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

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    Odoom John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65% showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen

  13. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

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    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  14. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

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    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  15. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Inoue, Yuji; Yasugi, Mayo; Yamashita, Akifumi; Ramadhany, Ririn; Arai, Yasuha; Du, Anariwa; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Ibrahim, Madiha S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yang [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yuji [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Akifumi; Ramadhany, Ririn; Arai, Yasuha [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Du, Anariwa [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Ibrahim, Madiha S. [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour (Egypt); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  17. Social deprivation and burden of influenza: Testing hypotheses and gaining insights from a simulation model for the spread of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with the burden of influenza among vulnerable populations have mainly been identified using statistical methodologies. Complex simulation models provide mechanistic explanations, in terms of spatial heterogeneity and contact rates, while controlling other factors and may be used to better understand statistical patterns and, ultimately, design optimal population-level interventions. We extended a sophisticated simulation model, which was applied to forecast epidemics and validated for predictive ability, to identify mechanisms for the empirical relationship between social deprivation and the burden of influenza. Our modeled scenarios and associated epidemic metrics systematically assessed whether neighborhood composition and/or spatial arrangement could qualitatively replicate this empirical relationship. We further used the model to determine consequences of local-scale heterogeneities on larger scale disease spread. Our findings indicated that both neighborhood composition and spatial arrangement were critical to qualitatively match the empirical relationship of interest. Also, when social deprivation was fully included in the model, we observed lower age-based attack rates and greater delay in epidemic peak week in the most socially deprived neighborhoods. Insights from simulation models complement current understandings from statistical-based association studies. Additional insights from our study are: (1 heterogeneous spatial arrangement of neighborhoods is a necessary condition for simulating observed disparities in the burden of influenza and (2 unmeasured factors may lead to a better quantitative match between simulated and observed rate ratio in the burden of influenza between the most and least socially deprived populations.

  18. Effectiveness of non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A vaccines for preventing pandemic influenza acute respiratory illness visits in 4 U.S. communities.

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    Marie R Griffin

    Full Text Available We estimated the effectiveness of four monovalent pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccines (three unadjuvanted inactivated, one live attenuated available in the U.S. during the pandemic. Patients with acute respiratory illness presenting to inpatient and outpatient facilities affiliated with four collaborating institutions were prospectively recruited, consented, and tested for influenza. Analyses were restricted to October 2009 through April 2010, when pandemic vaccine was available. Patients testing positive for pandemic influenza by real-time RT-PCR were cases; those testing negative were controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated in logistic regression models adjusted for study community, patient age, timing of illness, insurance status, enrollment site, and presence of high-risk medical conditions. Pandemic virus was detected in 1,011 (15% of 6,757 enrolled patients. Fifteen (1% of 1,011 influenza positive cases and 1,042 (18% of 5,746 test-negative controls had record-verified pandemic vaccination >14 days prior to illness onset. Adjusted effectiveness (95% confidence interval for pandemic vaccines combined was 56% (23%, 75%. Adjusted effectiveness for inactivated vaccines alone (79% of total was 62% (25%, 81% overall and 32% (-92%, 76%, 89% (15%, 99%, and -6% (-231%, 66% in those aged 0.5 to 9, 10 to 49, and 50+ years, respectively. Effectiveness for the live attenuated vaccine in those aged 2 to 49 years was only demonstrated if vaccination >7 rather than >14 days prior to illness onset was considered (61%∶ 12%, 82%. Inactivated non-adjuvanted pandemic vaccines offered significant protection against confirmed pandemic influenza-associated medical care visits in young adults.

  19. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  20. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The integrated information architecture: a pilot study approach to leveraging logistics management with regard to influenza preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chinho; Lin, Chun-Mei; Yen, David C; Wu, Wu-Han

    2012-02-01

    Pandemic influenza is considered catastrophic to global health, with severe economic and social effects. Consequently, a strategy for the rapid deployment of essential medical supplies used for the prevention of influenza transmission and to alleviate public panic caused by the expected shortage of such supplies needs to be developed. Therefore, we employ integrated information concepts to develop a simulated influenza medical material supply system to facilitate a rapid response to such a crisis. Various scenarios are analyzed to estimate the appropriate inventory policy needed under different pandemic influenza outbreaks, and to establish a mechanism to evaluate the necessary stockpiles of medications and other requirements in the different phases of the pandemic. This study constructed a web-based decision support system framework prototype that displayed transparent data related to medical stockpiles in each district and integrated expert opinion about the best distribution of these supplies in the influenza pandemic scenarios. A data collection system was also designed to gather information through a daily VPN transmitted into one central repository for reporting and distribution purposes. This study provides timely and transparent medical supplies distribution information that can help decision makers to make the appropriate decisions under different pandemic influenza outbreaks, and also attempts to establish a mechanism of evaluating the stockpiles and requirements in the different phases of the pandemic.

  2. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Megan E; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-06-15

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection. IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Influenza

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    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  4. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  6. Emerging influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1918 the Spanish influenza pandemic, caused by an avian H1N1 virus, resulted in over 50 million deaths worldwide. Several outbreaks of H7 influenza A viruses have resulted in human cases, including one fatal case. Since 1997, the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

  7. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  8. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  9. Seroprevalence of three influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8) in pet dogs presented to a veterinary hospital in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyesun; Jackson, Yasmine K; Daniels, Joshua B; Ali, Ahmed; Kang, Kyung-Il; Elaish, Mohamed; Lee, Chang-Won

    2017-08-31

    The prevalence of canine H3N8 influenza and human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza in dogs in Ohio was estimated by conducting serologic tests on 1,082 canine serum samples. In addition, risk factors, such as health status and age were examined. The prevalences of human H1N1, H3N2, and canine H3N8 influenzas were 4.0%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively. Two samples were seropositive for two subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2; H1N1 and canine influenza virus [CIV] H3N8). Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with respiratory signs were 5.795 times more likely to be seropositive against H1N1 virus ( p = 0.042). The prevalence of human flu infection increased with dog age and varied by serum collection month. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in this study did not detect nucleoprotein-specific antibodies from many hemagglutination inhibition positive sera, which indicates a need for the development and validation of rapid tests for influenza screening in canine populations. In summary, we observed low exposure of dogs to CIV and human influenza viruses in Ohio but identified potential risk factors for consideration in future investigations. Our findings support the need for establishment of reliable diagnostic standards for serologic detection of influenza infection in canine species.

  10. SNPer: an R library for quantitative variant analysis on single nucleotide polymorphisms among influenza virus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unitsa Sangket

    Full Text Available Influenza virus (IFV can evolve rapidly leading to genetic drifts and shifts resulting in human and animal influenza epidemics and pandemics. The genetic shift that gave rise to the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic originated from a triple gene reassortment of avian, swine and human IFVs. More minor genetic alterations in genetic drift can lead to influenza drug resistance such as the H274Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance. Hence, a rapid tool to detect IFV mutations and the potential emergence of new virulent strains can better prepare us for seasonal influenza outbreaks as well as potential pandemics. Furthermore, identification of specific mutations by closely examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IFV sequences is essential to classify potential genetic markers associated with potentially dangerous IFV phenotypes. In this study, we developed a novel R library called "SNPer" to analyze quantitative variants in SNPs among IFV subpopulations. The computational SNPer program was applied to three different subpopulations of published IFV genomic information. SNPer queried SNPs data and grouped the SNPs into (1 universal SNPs, (2 likely common SNPs, and (3 unique SNPs. SNPer outperformed manual visualization in terms of time and labor. SNPer took only three seconds with no errors in SNP comparison events compared with 40 hours with errors using manual visualization. The SNPer tool can accelerate the capacity to capture new and potentially dangerous IFV strains to mitigate future influenza outbreaks.

  11. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Deteksi Cepat Virus Flu Burung H5N1 (MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR RAPID DETECTION OF H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Wasito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (AIV H5N1 is highly pathogenic and fatal in poultry. The virusis still endemic with low virulence rate, although it may play a critical role in causing high morbidity andmortality rates in poultry in Indonesia. In general, diagnostic approach for AIV H5N1 is based onconventional serological and viral isolation methods that have the potential to produce consumings oftime and relatively expensive cost within the laboratory without compromising test utility. Thus, amolecular approach of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR was developedand applied for the detection of matrix gene type A influenza viruses, AIV subtype subtype H5hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of N1 nucleoprotein gene. Thirty sera specimens fromthe diseased commercial chickens that were specifically amplified positive-RT-PCR for AIV H5N1 wereselected for mRT-PCR. The mRT-PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consistedof DNA fragments of AIV of 245 bp, 545 bp and 343 bp for M, H5 and N1 genes, respectively. Thus, themRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate simultaneously between these genes is very important for thecontrol and even eradication of AIV transmission in poultry in Indonesia.

  12. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt ... Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. ... Reconstituted clinical samples consisting of H5 AIVs mixed with ...

  13. Incidence of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection during three influenza seasons in Bangladesh, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Mustafizur; Homaira, Nusrat; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Sharker, MA Yushuf; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Dee, Jacob; Gurley, Emily S; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Mah-E-Muneer, Syeda; Fry, Alicia M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Lindstrom, Stephen; Azim, Tasnim; Brooks, Abdullah; Podder, Goutam; Hossain, M Jahangir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how much influenza contributes to severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), a leading cause of death in children, among people of all ages in Bangladesh. Methods Physicians obtained nasal and throat swabs to test for influenza virus from patients who were hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or who consulted as outpatients for influenza-like illness (ILI). A community health care utilization survey was conducted to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at study hospitals and calculate the incidence of influenza using this denominator. Findings The estimated incidence of SARI associated with influenza in children < 5 years old was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0–18.3); 4.4 (95% CI: 0–13.4) and 6.5 per 1000 person–years (95% CI: 0–8.3/1000) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The incidence of SARI in people aged ≥ 5 years was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4–2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5–2.2) per 10 000 person–years during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in outpatients with ILI was 10 (95% CI: 8–14), 6.6 (95% CI: 5–9) and 17 per 100 person–years (95% CI: 13–22) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. Conclusion Influenza-like illness is a frequent cause of consultation in the outpatient setting in Bangladesh. Children aged less than 5 years are hospitalized for influenza in greater proportions than children in other age groups. PMID:22271960

  14. Anti-influenza Hyperimmune Immunoglobulin Enhances Fc-functional Antibody Immunity during Human Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Wragg, Kathleen; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Kristensen, Anne B; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Wheatley, Adam K; Wentworth, Deborah; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark; Rockman, Steve; Kent, Stephen J

    2018-05-31

    New treatments for severe influenza are needed. Passive transfer of influenza-specific hyperimmune pooled immunoglobulin (Flu-IVIG) boosts neutralising antibody responses to past strains in influenza-infected subjects. The effect of Flu-IVIG on antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, which may target diverse influenza strains, is unclear. We studied the capacity of Flu-IVIG, relative to standard IVIG, to bind to Fc receptors and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. The effect of Flu-IVIG infusion, compared to placebo infusion, was examined in serial plasma samples from 24 subjects with confirmed influenza infection in the INSIGHT FLU005 pilot study. Flu-IVIG contains higher concentrations of Fc-functional antibodies than IVIG against a diverse range of influenza hemagglutinins. Following infusion of Flu-IVIG into influenza-infected subjects, a transient increase in Fc-functional antibodies was present for 1-3 days against infecting and non-infecting strains of influenza. Flu-IVIG contains antibodies with Fc-mediated functions against influenza virus and passive transfer of Flu-IVIG increases anti-influenza Fc-functional antibodies in the plasma of influenza-infected subjects. Enhancement of Fc-functional antibodies to a diverse range of influenza strains suggests that Flu-IVIG infusion could prove useful in the context of novel influenza virus infections, when there may be minimal or no neutralising antibodies in the Flu-IVIG preparation.

  15. Influenza and other respiratory viruses detected by influenza-like illness surveillance in Leyte Island, the Philippines, 2010-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Otomaru

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined as fever ≥38°C or feverish feeling and either cough or running nose in a patient of any age. Influenza virus and other 5 respiratory viruses were searched. A total of 5,550 ILI cases visited the 3 sites and specimens were collected from 2,031 (36.6% cases. Among the cases sampled, 1,637 (75.6% were children aged <5 years. 874 (43.0% cases were positive for at least one of the respiratory viruses tested. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were predominantly detected (both were 25.7% followed by human rhinovirus (HRV (17.5%. The age distributions were significantly different between those who were positive for influenza, HRV, and RSV. ILI cases were reported throughout the year and influenza virus was co-detected with those viruses on approximately half of the weeks of study period (RSV in 60.5% and HRV 47.4%. In terms of clinical manifestations, only the rates of headache and sore throat were significantly higher in influenza positive cases than cases positive to other viruses. In conclusion, syndromic ILI surveillance in this area is difficult to detect the start of influenza epidemic without laboratory confirmation which requires huge resources. Age was an important factor that affected positive rates of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Involvement of older age children may be useful to detect influenza more effectively.

  16. Detection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Arun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H and the neuraminidase (N surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. Results The nucleoprotein (NP and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. Conclusion The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.

  17. Influenza among the elderly in the Americas: a consensus statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo W. Rüttimann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza exacts a heavy burden on the elderly, a segment of the population that is estimated to experience rapid growth in the near future. In the past decade most developed and several developing countries have recommended influenza vaccination for those > 65 years of age. The World Health Organization (WHO set a goal of 75% influenza vaccination coverage among the elderly by 2010, but it was not achieved. In 2011, the Technical Advisory Group at the Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of WHO for the Americas, reiterated the influenza vaccine recommendation for older adults. Relatively little information has been compiled on the immunological aspect of aging or on reducing its impact, information particularly relevant for clinicians and gerontologist with firsthand experience confronting its effects. To fill this data gap, in 2012 the Americas Health Foundation (Washington, D.C., United States and the nonprofit, Fighting Infectious Diseases in Emerging Countries (Miami, Florida, United States, convened a panel of Latin American clinicians and gerontologists with expertise in influenza to discuss key issues and develop a consensus statement. The major recommendations were to improve influenza surveillance throughout Latin America so that its impact can be quantified; and to conduct laboratory confirmation of influenza for all patients who have flu-like symptoms and are frail, immunosuppressed, have comorbidities, are respiratory compromised, or have been admitted to a hospital. The panel also noted that: since evidence for antivirals in the elderly is unclear, their use should be handled on a case-by-case basis; despite decreased immunological response, influenza vaccination in older adults is still crucial; indirect immunization strategies should be encouraged; and traditional infection control measures are essential in long-term care facilities.

  18. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub

    2007-10-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including fluorescent antibody tests, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic test was compared to a fluorescent antibody test, the rapid immunodiagnostic test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).

  19. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  20. Viruses associated with acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness among outpatients from the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn

    2014-06-01

    The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥ 2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2-17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children.

  1. Viruses associated with influenza-like-illnesses in Papua New Guinea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Jacinta; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Omena, Matthew; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-05-01

    Influenza-like-illness can be caused by a wide range of respiratory viruses. The etiology of influenza-like-illness in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea is poorly understood. The etiological agents associated with influenza-like-illness were investigated retrospectively for 300 nasopharyngeal swabs received by the Papua New Guinea National Influenza Centre in 2010. Real-time PCR/RT-PCR methods were used for the detection of 13 respiratory viruses. Patients with influenza-like-illness were identified according to the World Health Organization case definition: sudden onset of fever (>38°C), with cough and/or sore throat, in the absence of other diagnoses. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 66.3% of the samples tested. Rhinoviruses (17.0%), influenza A (16.7%), and influenza B (12.7%) were the pathogens detected most frequently. Children 5 years of age. Influenza B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were all detected at significantly higher rates in children Papua New Guinea. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Defining the sizes of airborne particles that mediate influenza transmission in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wei, Jianjian; Choy, Ka-Tim; Sia, Sin Fun; Rowlands, Dewi K; Yu, Dan; Wu, Chung-Yi; Lindsley, William G; Cowling, Benjamin J; McDevitt, James; Peiris, Malik; Li, Yuguo; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2018-03-06

    Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1.5 µm, consistent with the quantity and size of virus-laden particles released by the donors. Onward transmission by donors was most efficient before fever onset and may continue for 5 days after inoculation. Multiple virus gene segments enhanced the transmissibility of a swine influenza virus among ferrets by increasing the release of virus-laden particles into the air. We provide direct experimental evidence of influenza transmission via droplets and fine droplet nuclei, albeit at different efficiency. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Low specificity of 2 tetanus rapid tests in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, M; Yvonnet, B; Lesage, G; Tep, B

    2015-01-01

    Rapid testing for tetanus on serum or blood allows for an immediate evaluation of individual protection against tetanus in developed countries, using a "single step" immunochromatographic technique using tetanus toxoid. The specificity of these tests, compared to the reference method for tetanus, mouse serum neutralization testing, has however never been assessed in these countries, due to the difficulty to perform serum neutralization titration in mice, because of animal testing bioethical regulations. A collection of sera from adult volunteers in Cambodia, living in rural environment, was tested for tetanus antibodies by ELISA in France, and by mouse serum neutralization in Vietnam. This allowed estimating the sensitivity and specificity of 2 rapid tetanus tests, available on the market: TQS™ and Tetanotop™. The sensitivity of these tests was adequate, compared to mice serum neutralization test, for a test threshold of 0.01 IU/mL, (100% for TQS™, 91% for Tetanotop™), but their specificity was very low (1% for TQS™ and 13% for Tetanotop™). The results prove that these rapid tests for the assessment of individual protection against tetanus should not be used in the adult rural Cambodian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Tolah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs; mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2% were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25% was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7% were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33 for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs.

  5. Radix isatidis Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza a Virus and Influenza A Virus-Induced Inflammation via Suppression of Host TLR3 Signaling In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza remains one of the major epidemic diseases worldwide, and rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by excessive pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses lead to high mortality rates. Thus, novel therapeutic agents that control influenza A virus (IAV propagation and attenuate excessive pro-inflammatory responses are needed. Polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerted potent anti-IAV activity against human seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 and avian influenza viruses (H6N2 and H9N2 in vitro. The polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and chemokines (IP-10, MIG, and CCL-5 stimulated by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 at a range of doses (7.5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL; however, they were only effective against progeny virus at a high dose. Similar activity was detected against inflammation induced by avian influenza virus H9N2. The polysaccharides strongly inhibited the protein expression of TLR-3 induced by PR8, suggesting that they impair the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors induced by IAV by inhibiting activation of the TLR-3 signaling pathway. The polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis root therefore has the potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of IAV infection.

  6. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  7. Detection and subtyping (H5 and H7) of avian type A influenza virus by reverse transcription-PCR and PCR-ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, M.; Nielsen, L.P.; Handberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    A. A panel of reference influenza strains from various hosts including avian species, human, swine and horse were evaluated in a one tube RT-PCR using primers designed for the amplification of a 218 bp fragment of the NP gene. The PCR products were detected by PCR-ELISA by use of an internal......Avian influenza virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and rapid identification of the virus has important clinical, economical and epidemiological implications. We have developed a one-tube Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the rapid diagnosis of avian influenza...... catching probe confirming the NP influenza A origin. The PCR-ELISA was about 100 times more sensitive than detection of PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and detection by PCR-ELISA is comparable in sensitivity to virus propagation in eggs. We also designed primers for the detection...

  8. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB, cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB, and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  9. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Andersen, Lauren E; Brooks, Paula; Yan, Xiuzhen; Bakre, Abhijeet; Coleman, J Keegan; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  10. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    coli Hemophilus influenzae Bacillus anthracis Bacillus circulans Bacillus coagulans Bacillus cereus T Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Legionel...reveree aide If neceeeary and Identify by block number) Lectins: Rapid Identification, Bacillus anthracisjCryptococcus " neoformans. Neisseria...field-type kit for the rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. We have shown that certain lectins will selectively interact with B. anthracis

  11. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  12. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  13. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  14. Risk of influenza transmission in a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Esteve, Miguel; Bautista-Rentero, Daniel; Zanón-Viguer, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the risk of influenza transmission in patients coming to a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence and to analyze factors associated with transmission. Retrospective observational analysis of a cohort of patients treated in the emergency room during the 2014-2015 flu season. The following variables were collected from records: recorded influenza diagnosis, results of a rapid influenza confirmation test, point of exposure (emergency department, outpatient clinic, or the community), age, sex, flu vaccination or not, number of emergency visits, time spent in the waiting room, and total time in the hospital. We compiled descriptive statistics and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of a Poisson regression to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. The emergency department patients had a RR of contracting influenza 3.29 times that of the communityexposed population (95% CI, 1.53-7.08, P=.002); their risk was 2.05 times greater than that of outpatient clinic visitors (95% CI, 1.04-4.02, P=.036). Emergency patients under the age of 15 years had a 5.27 greater risk than older patients (95% CI, 1.59-17.51; P=.007). The RR of patients visiting more than once was 11.43 times greater (95% CI, 3.58-36.44; P<.001). The risk attributable to visiting the emergency department risk was 70.5%, whereas risk attributable to community exposure was 2%. The risk of contracting influenza is greater for emergency department patients than for the general population or for patients coming to the hospital for outpatient clinic visits. Patients under the age of 15 years incur greater risk.

  15. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  16. Viruses Associated With Acute Respiratory Infections and Influenza-like Illness Among Outpatients From the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    Background The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. Methods From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. Results The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2–17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. Conclusions The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children. PMID:24338352

  17. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

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    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  19. Establishment and evaluation of a theater influenza monitoring platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Hui-Suo; Deng, Bing; Shi, Meng-Jing; Li, Xiang-Da; Nian, Qing-Gong; Song, Wen-Jing; Bing, Feng; Li, Qing-Feng

    2017-11-20

    Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease with a high incidence rate in the Chinese army, which directly disturbs military training and affects soldiers' health. Influenza surveillance systems are widely used around the world and play an important role in influenza epidemic prevention and control. As a theater centers for disease prevention and control, we established an influenza monitoring platform (IMP) in 2014 to strengthen the monitoring of influenza-like illness and influenza virus infection. In this study, we introduced the constitution, influenza virus detection, and quality control for an IMP. The monitoring effect was also evaluated by comparing the monitoring data with data from national influenza surveillance systems. The experiences and problems associated with the platform also were summarized. A theater IMP was established based on 3 levels of medical units, including monitoring sites, testing laboratories and a checking laboratory. A series of measures were taken to guarantee the quality of monitoring, such as technical training, a unified process, sufficient supervision and timely communication. The platform has run smoothly for 3 monitoring years to date. In the 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 monitoring years, sample amount coincided with that obtained from the National Influenza Surveillance program. In the 2015-2016 monitoring year, due to the strict prevention and control measures, an influenza epidemic peak was avoided in monitoring units, and the monitoring data did not coincide with that of the National Influenza Surveillance program. Several problems, including insufficient attention, unreasonable administrative intervention or subordination relationships, and the necessity of detection in monitoring sites were still observed. A theater IMP was established rationally and played a deserved role in the prevention and control of influenza. However, several problems remain to be solved.

  20. Influenza transmission in a cohort of households with children: 2010-2011.

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    Joshua G Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Households play a major role in community spread of influenza and are potential targets for mitigation strategies. METHODS: We enrolled and followed 328 households with children during the 2010-2011 influenza season; this season was characterized by circulation of influenza A (H3N2, A (H1N1pdm09 and type B viruses. Specimens were collected from subjects with acute respiratory illnesses and tested for influenza in real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. Influenza cases were classified as community-acquired or household-acquired, and transmission parameters estimated. RESULTS: Influenza was introduced to 78 (24% households and transmission to exposed household members was documented in 23 households. Transmission was more likely in younger households (mean age <22 years and those not reporting home humidification, but was not associated with household vaccination coverage. The secondary infection risk (overall 9.7% was highest among young children (<9 years and varied substantially by influenza type/subtype with the highest risk for influenza A (H3N2. The serial interval (overall 3.2 days also varied by influenza type and was longest for influenza B. Duration of symptomatic illness was shorter in children compared with adults, and did not differ by influenza vaccination status. DISCUSSION: Prospective study of households with children over a single influenza season identified differences in household transmission by influenza type/subtype, subject age, and home humidification, suggesting possible targets for interventions to reduce transmission.

  1. New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netheriancts/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs Of influenza-like illness 2-3 clays following the killing of the ducks......During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A Viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full......-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza A. We applied the method on samples collected in September 2003 from a Danish flock of mallards with general health problems and by this a previously undescribed influenza A subtype combination, H5N...

  2. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Dan; Gavious, Arieh; Solnik, Eyal; Davidovitch, Nadav; Balicer, Ran D; Galvani, Alison P; Pliskin, Joseph S

    2014-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  3. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yamin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  4. The role of influenza in the epidemiology of pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sourya; Foxman, Betsy; Berus, Joshua; van Panhuis, Willem G.; Steiner, Claudia; Viboud, Cécile; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-01-01

    Interactions arising from sequential viral and bacterial infections play important roles in the epidemiological outcome of many respiratory pathogens. Influenza virus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several respiratory bacterial pathogens commonly associated with pneumonia. Though clinical evidence supporting this interaction is unambiguous, its population-level effects—magnitude, epidemiological impact and variation during pandemic and seasonal outbreaks—remain unclear. To address these unknowns, we used longitudinal influenza and pneumonia incidence data, at different spatial resolutions and across different epidemiological periods, to infer the nature, timing and the intensity of influenza-pneumonia interaction. We used a mechanistic transmission model within a likelihood-based inference framework to carry out formal hypothesis testing. Irrespective of the source of data examined, we found that influenza infection increases the risk of pneumonia by ~100-fold. We found no support for enhanced transmission or severity impact of the interaction. For model-validation, we challenged our fitted model to make out-of-sample pneumonia predictions during pandemic and non-pandemic periods. The consistency in our inference tests carried out on several distinct datasets, and the predictive skill of our model increase confidence in our overall conclusion that influenza infection substantially enhances the risk of pneumonia, though only for a short period. PMID:26486591

  5. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, John Patrick; Hoaglin, David C; Chen, Huaiqing; Boyer, Edward W; Lu, Shan

    2014-08-01

    Early antibody responses to influenza infection are important in both clearance of virus and fighting the disease. Acute influenza antibody titers directed toward H1-antigens and their relation to infection type and patient outcomes have not been well investigated. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, we aimed to characterize the H1-specific antibody titers in patients with influenza infection or another respiratory infection before and after the H1N1-pandemic influenza outbreak. Among patients with acute influenza infection we related duration of illness, severity of symptoms, and need for hospitalization to antibody titers. There were 134 adult patients (average age 34.7) who presented to an urban academic emergency department (ED) from October through March during the 2008-2011 influenza seasons with symptoms of fever and a cough. Nasal aspirates were tested by viral culture, and peripheral blood serum was run in seven H1-subtype HI assays. Acutely infected influenza patients had markedly lower antibody titers for six of the seven pseudotype viruses. For the average over the seven titers (log units, base 2) their mean was 7.24 (95% CI 6.88, 7.61) compared with 8.60 (95% CI 8.27, 8.92) among patients who had a non-influenza respiratory illness, pinfection, titers of some antibodies correlated with severity of symptoms and with total duration of illness (pacute respiratory infections, lower concentrations of H1-influenza-specific antibodies were associated with influenza infection. Among influenza-infected patients, higher antibody titers were present in patients with a longer duration of illness and with higher severity-of-symptom scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Google Flu Trends data in forecasting influenza-like-illness related ED visits in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Ozgur M; Bentley, Dan; Muelleman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits increase during the influenza seasons. It is essential to identify statistically significant correlates in order to develop an accurate forecasting model for ED visits. Forecasting influenza-like-illness (ILI)-related ED visits can significantly help in developing robust resource management strategies at the EDs. We first performed correlation analyses to understand temporal correlations between several predictors of ILI-related ED visits. We used the data available for Douglas County, the biggest county in Nebraska, for Omaha, the biggest city in the state, and for a major hospital in Omaha. The data set included total and positive influenza test results from the hospital (ie, Antigen rapid (Ag) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) tests); an Internet-based influenza surveillance system data, that is, Google Flu Trends, for both Nebraska and Omaha; total ED visits in Douglas County attributable to ILI; and ILI surveillance network data for Douglas County and Nebraska as the predictors and data for the hospital's ILI-related ED visits as the dependent variable. We used Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average and Holt Winters methods with3 linear regression models to forecast ILI-related ED visits at the hospital and evaluated model performances by comparing the root means square errors (RMSEs). Because of strong positive correlations with ILI-related ED visits between 2008 and 2012, we validated the use of Google Flu Trends data as a predictor in an ED influenza surveillance tool. Of the 5 forecasting models we have tested, linear regression models performed significantly better when Google Flu Trends data were included as a predictor. Regression models including Google Flu Trends data as a predictor variable have lower RMSE, and the lowest is achieved when all other variables are also included in the model in our forecasting experiments for the first 5 weeks of 2013 (with RMSE = 57.61). Google Flu Trends data

  7. Serological evidence of influenza A viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa.

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    Gudrun Stephanie Freidl

    Full Text Available Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.

  8. Advances and Future Challenges in Recombinant Adenoviral Vectored H5N1 Influenza Vaccines

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    Jianfeng Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has increased the potential for a new pandemic to occur. This event highlights the necessity for developing a new generation of influenza vaccines to counteract influenza disease. These vaccines must be manufactured for mass immunization of humans in a timely manner. Poultry should be included in this policy, since persistent infected flocks are the major source of avian influenza for human infections. Recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines are an attractive alternative to the currently licensed influenza vaccines. This class of vaccines induces a broadly protective immunity against antigenically distinct H5N1, can be manufactured rapidly, and may allow mass immunization of human and poultry. Recombinant adenoviral vectors derived from both human and non-human adenoviruses are currently being investigated and appear promising both in nonclinical and clinical studies. This review will highlight the current status of various adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines and will outline novel approaches for the future.

  9. Rapid Differentiation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with ClinProTools Mass Spectrum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Wong, Chun-Pong; Wong, Sally C Y; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is associated with severe invasive disease, while Haemophilus haemolyticus is considered part of the commensal flora in the human respiratory tract. Although the addition of a custom mass spectrum library into the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system could improve identification of these two species, the establishment of such a custom database is technically complicated and requires a large amount of resources, which most clinical laboratories cannot afford. In this study, we developed a mass spectrum analysis model with 7 mass peak biomarkers for the identification of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus using the ClinProTools software. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this model using 408 H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates from clinical respiratory specimens from 363 hospitalized patients and compared the identification results with those obtained with the Bruker IVD MALDI Biotyper. The IVD MALDI Biotyper identified only 86.9% of H. influenzae (311/358) and 98.0% of H. haemolyticus (49/50) clinical isolates to the species level. In comparison, the ClinProTools mass spectrum model could identify 100% of H. influenzae (358/358) and H. haemolyticus (50/50) clinical strains to the species level and significantly improved the species identification rate (McNemar's test, P mass spectrometry to handle closely related bacterial species when the proprietary spectrum library failed. This approach should be useful for the differentiation of other closely related bacterial species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Ki-67 expression reveals strong, transient influenza specific CD4 T cell responses after adult vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Miao, Hongyu; Henn, Alicia; Topham, David J; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S; Mosmann, Tim R

    2012-06-29

    Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4-6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vaccine or peptide. Ki-67(+) cell numbers then decline rapidly, and 10 days after vaccination, both Ki-67(+) and overall influenza-specific cell numbers are similar to pre-vaccination levels. These results provide a tool for assessing the quality and quantity of CD4 T cell responses to different influenza vaccines, and raise the possibility that the anti-influenza T cell memory response may be qualitatively altered by vaccination, even if the overall memory cell numbers do not change significantly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Complete genome amplification of Equine influenza virus subtype 2 Amplificación del genoma completo del subtipo 2 del virus de la influenza equina

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    G. H. Sguazza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a method for rapid amplification of the complete genome of equine influenza virus subtype 2 (H3N8. A ThermoScriptTM reverse transcriptase instead of the avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase or Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was used. This enzyme has demonstrated higher thermal stability and is described as suitable to make long cDNA with a complex secondary structure. The product obtained by this method can be cloned, used in later sequencing reactions or nested-PCR with the purpose of achieving a rapid diagnosis and characterization of the equine influenza virus type A. This detection assay might be a valuable tool for diagnosis and screening of field samples as well as for conducting molecular studies.En este trabajo comunicamos un método rápido que permite la amplificación del genoma completo del subtipo 2 (H3N8 del virus de la influenza equina. Se utilizó la enzima transcriptasa reversa ThermoScriptTM en lugar de la transcriptasa reversa del virus de la mieloblastosis aviar o la transcriptasa reversa del virus de la leucemia murina de Moloney. Esta enzima ha demostrado tener una alta estabilidad térmica y la capacidad de hacer largas copias de ADN con una estructura secundaria compleja. El producto obtenido por esta técnica puede ser clonado y utilizado posteriormente en reacciones de secuenciación o de PCR anidada con la finalidad de lograr un diagnóstico rápido y la caracterización del virus de la influenza equina tipo A. Este ensayo de detección puede llegar a ser una valiosa herramienta para el diagnóstico y el análisis de muestras de campo, así como para la realización de estudios moleculares.

  12. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  13. Different virucidal activities of hyperbranched quaternary ammonium coatings on poliovirus and influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Koning, de M.C.; Fundeanu, I.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Virucidal activity of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds (IQACs) coated onto glass and plastic surfaces was tested against enveloped influenza A (H1N1) virus and nonenveloped poliovirus Sabin1. The IQACs tested were virucidal against the influenza virus within 2 min, but no virucidal effect

  14. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  15. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade 2.3.4.4 virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes. Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health.

  16. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  17. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Amr; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt’s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and typed as influenza A or B, and influenza A specimens subtyped. Results From November 2007–November 2014, 2,936/17,441 (17%) SARI cases were influenza-positive. Influenza-positive patients were more likely to be older, female, pregnant, and have chronic condition(s) (all p<0.05). Among them, 53 (2%) died, and death was associated with older age, five or more days from symptom onset to hospitalization, chronic condition(s), and influenza A (all p<0.05). An annual seasonal influenza pattern occurred from July–June. Each season, the proportion of the season’s influenza-positive cases peaked during November–May (19–41%). Conclusions In Egypt, influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality and influenza SARI hospitalization patterns mirror those of the Northern Hemisphere. Additional assessment of influenza epidemiology in Egypt may better guide disease control activities and vaccine policy. PMID:27607330

  18. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Kandeel

    Full Text Available Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt's influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system.Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and typed as influenza A or B, and influenza A specimens subtyped.From November 2007-November 2014, 2,936/17,441 (17% SARI cases were influenza-positive. Influenza-positive patients were more likely to be older, female, pregnant, and have chronic condition(s (all p<0.05. Among them, 53 (2% died, and death was associated with older age, five or more days from symptom onset to hospitalization, chronic condition(s, and influenza A (all p<0.05. An annual seasonal influenza pattern occurred from July-June. Each season, the proportion of the season's influenza-positive cases peaked during November-May (19-41%.In Egypt, influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality and influenza SARI hospitalization patterns mirror those of the Northern Hemisphere. Additional assessment of influenza epidemiology in Egypt may better guide disease control activities and vaccine policy.

  19. Influenza hospitalization epidemiology from a severe acute respiratory infection surveillance system in Jordan, January 2008-February 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Mohammad; Dawson, Patrick; Haddadin, Aktham Jeries; El-Shoubary, Waleed; Dueger, Erica; Al-Sanouri, Tarek; Said, Mayar M; Talaat, Maha

    2016-03-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza typically contributes substantially to the burden of ARI, but only limited data are available on influenza activity and seasonality in Jordan. Syndromic case definitions were used to identify individuals with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) admitted to four sentinel hospitals in Jordan. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and typed as influenza A or B, with influenza A further subtyped. From January 2008-February 2014, 2891 SARI cases were tested for influenza, and 257 (9%) were positive. While 73% of all SARI cases were under 5 years of age, only 57% of influenza-positive cases were under 5 years of age. Eight (3%) influenza-positive cases died. An annual seasonal pattern of influenza activity was observed. The proportion of influenza-positive cases peaked during November-January (14-42%) in the non-pandemic years. Influenza is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in Jordan. The seasonal pattern of influenza aligns with known Northern Hemisphere seasonality. Further characterization of the clinical and financial burden of influenza in Jordan will be critical in supporting decisions regarding disease control activities. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influenza Pandemics: Past, Present and Future

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    Yu-Chia Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is well known for its capability for genetic changes either through antigen drift or antigen shift. Antigen shift is derived from reassortment of gene segments between viruses, and may result in an antigenically novel virus that is capable of causing a worldwide pandemic. As we trace backwards through the history of influenza pandemics, a repeating pattern can be observed, namely, a limited wave in the first year followed by global spread in the following year. In the 20th century alone, there were three overwhelming pandemics, in 1918, 1957 and 1968, caused by H1N1 (Spanish flu, H2N2 (Asian flu and H3N2 (Hong Kong flu, respectively. In 1957 and 1968, excess mortality was noted in infants, the elderly and persons with chronic diseases, similar to what occurred during interpandemic periods. In 1918, there was one distinct peak of excess death in young adults aged between 20 and 40 years old; leukopenia and hemorrhage were prominent features. Acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic pneumonia contributed to rapidly lethal outcome in young adults. Autopsies disclosed multiple-organ involvement, including pericarditis, myocarditis, hepatitis and splenomegaly. These findings are, in part, consistent with clinical manifestations of human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 virus, in which reactive hemophagocytic syndrome was a characteristic pathologic finding that accounted for pancytopenia, abnormal liver function and multiple organ failure. All the elements of an impending pandemic are in place. Unless effective measures are implemented, we will likely observe a pandemic in the coming seasons. Host immune response plays a crucial role in disease caused by newly emerged influenza virus, such as the 1918 pandemic strain and the recent avian H5N1 strain. Sustained activation of lymphocytes and macrophages after infection results in massive cytokine response, thus leading to severe systemic inflammation. Further investigations into how

  1. Transmission of influenza A viruses between pigs and people, Iowa, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebuh, Pauline; Olsen, Christopher W; Wright, Jennifer; Klimov, Alexander; Karasin, Alexander; Todd, Karla; Zhou, Hong; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Kniffen, Tim; Madsen, David; Garten, Rebecca; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2010-11-01

    Triple-reassortant (tr) viruses of human, avian, and swine origin, including H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes, emerged in North American swine herds in 1998 and have become predominant. While sporadic human infections with classical influenza A (H1N1) and with tr-swine influenza viruses have been reported, relatively few have been documented in occupationally exposed swine workers (SW). We conducted a 2-year (2002-2004) prospective cohort study of transmission of influenza viruses between pigs and SW from a single pork production company in Iowa. Respiratory samples were collected and tested for influenza viruses from SW and from pigs under their care through surveillance for influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Serial blood samples from study participants were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) for antibody seroconversion against human and swine influenza viruses (SIV), and antibody seroprevalence was compared to age-matched urban Iowa blood donors. During the first year, 15 of 88 SW had ILI and were sampled; all were culture-negative for influenza. During the second year, 11 of 76 SW had ILI and were sampled; one was culture-positive for a human seasonal H3N2 virus. Among 20 swine herd ILI outbreaks sampled, influenza A virus was detected by rRT-PCR from 17 with 11 trH1N1 and five trH3N2 virus isolates cultured. During both years, HI geometric mean titers were significantly higher among SW compared to blood donor controls for three SIV: classical swine Sw/WI/238/97 (H1N1), tr Sw/IN/9K035/99 (H1N2), and trSw/IA/H02NJ56371/02 (H1N1)] (P influenza viruses and were exposed to diverse influenza virus strains circulating in pigs. Influenza virus surveillance among pigs and SW should be encouraged to better understand cross-species transmission and diversity of influenza viruses at the human-swine interface. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Reduction in the Incidence of Influenza A but Not Influenza B Associated with Use of Hand Sanitizer and Cough Hygiene in Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEBBINS, SAMUEL; CUMMINGS, DEREK A.T.; STARK, JAMES H.; VUKOTICH, CHUCK; MITRUKA, KIREN; THOMPSON, WILLIAM; RINALDO, CHARLES; ROTH, LOREN; WAGNER, MICHAEL; WISNIEWSKI, STEPHEN R.; DATO, VIRGINIA; ENG, HEATHER; BURKE, DONALD S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory-based evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer and respiratory hygiene to reduce the spread of influenza. Methods The Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project was a cluster-randomized trial conducted in ten Pittsburgh, PA elementary schools during the 2007-2008 influenza season. Children in five intervention schools received training in hand and respiratory hygiene, and were provided and encouraged to use hand sanitizer regularly. Children in five schools acted as controls. Children with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza A and B by RT-PCR. Results 3360 children participated. Using RT-PCR, 54 cases of influenza A and 50 cases of influenza B were detected. We found no significant effect of the intervention on the primary study outcome of all laboratory confirmed influenza cases (IRR 0.81 95% CI 0.54, 1.23). However, we did find statistically significant differences in protocol-specified ancillary outcomes. Children in intervention schools had significantly fewer laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections than children in control schools, with an adjusted IRR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.26, 0.87). Total absent episodes were also significantly lower among the intervention group than among the control group; adjusted IRR 0.74 (95% CI 0.56, 0.97). Conclusions Non-pharmaceutical interventions (respiratory hygiene education and the regular use of hand sanitizer) did not reduce total laboratory confirmed influenza. However the interventions did reduce school total absence episodes by 26% and laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections by 52%. Our results suggest that NPIs can be an important adjunct to influenza vaccination programs to reduce the number of influenza A infections among children. PMID:21691245

  3. Dinamika Seroprevalensi Virus Avian Influenza H5 pada Itik di Pasar Unggas Beringkit dan Galiran

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    I Gusti Ngurah Narendra Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Live Bird Market (LBM has a high potential for spreading Avian Influenza Virus (AIV between fowls or from fowl to human. Up to now, a dinamic of avian flue incidents at many LBMs in Bali has not been reported. This research aimed to reveal a dynamic of seroprevalences of avian influenza in ducks at Beringkit (Badung and Galiran (Kelungkung LBMs. A total of 35 duck blood samples was collected from each of LBMs. Sampling was conducted monthly from March to August, 2012 . AIV antibody of duck serum was measured using Rapid Hemagglutination Inhibition (Rapid HI test. Seroprevalence differences were analyzes with Chi-square (?2 Nonparametric statistical test. The results showed that seroprevalences of AIV H5 in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBMs were very high, ranged from 68.6% to 100% and 65.7% to 97.1% respectively. A Dynamic of AIV H5 seroprevalences in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBM had a similar pattern, except in July 2012. This indicates that VAI H5 has been circulating for a long time and has been to be an endemic virus infection in ducks at LBMs in Bali. It can be suggested that an Avian Influenza Virus monitoring should be done continuously over a long period. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  4. Impact of quadrivalent influenza vaccine on public health and influenza-related costs in Australia

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    Aurélien Jamotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV containing three influenza strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and one B have been recommended for the prevention of influenza. However, worldwide co-circulation of two distinct B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata and difficulties in predicting which lineage will predominate each season have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV, which include both B lineages. Our analysis evaluates the public health benefit and associated influenza-related costs avoided which would have been obtained by using QIV rather than TIV in Australia over the period 2002–2012. Methods A static model stratified by age group was used, focusing on people at increased risk of influenza as defined by the Australian vaccination recommendations. B-lineage cross-protection was accounted for. We calculated the potential impact of QIV compared with TIV over the seasons 2002–2012 (2009 pandemic year excluded using Australian data on influenza circulation, vaccine coverage, hospitalisation and mortality rates as well as unit costs, and international data on vaccine effectiveness, influenza attack rate, GP consultation rate and working days lost. Third-party payer and societal influenza-related costs were estimated in 2014 Australian dollars. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Using QIV instead of TIV over the period 2002–2012 would have prevented an estimated 68,271 additional influenza cases, 47,537 GP consultations, 3,522 hospitalisations and 683 deaths in the population at risk of influenza. These results translate into influenza-related societal costs avoided of $46.5 million. The estimated impact of QIV was higher for young children and the elderly. The overall impact of QIV depended mainly on vaccine effectiveness and the influenza attack rate attributable to the mismatched B lineage. Conclusion The broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the number of influenza infections

  5. Determination of HIV Status in African Adults With Discordant HIV Rapid Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Donohue, Kelsey; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J; Eshleman, Susan H

    2015-08-01

    In resource-limited settings, HIV infection is often diagnosed using 2 rapid tests. If the results are discordant, a third tie-breaker test is often used to determine HIV status. This study characterized samples with discordant rapid tests and compared different testing strategies for determining HIV status in these cases. Samples were previously collected from 173 African adults in a population-based survey who had discordant rapid test results. Samples were classified as HIV positive or HIV negative using a rigorous testing algorithm that included two fourth-generation tests, a discriminatory test, and 2 HIV RNA tests. Tie-breaker tests were evaluated, including rapid tests (1 performed in-country), a third-generation enzyme immunoassay, and two fourth-generation tests. Selected samples were further characterized using additional assays. Twenty-nine samples (16.8%) were classified as HIV positive and 24 of those samples (82.8%) had undetectable HIV RNA. Antiretroviral drugs were detected in 1 sample. Sensitivity was 8.3%-43% for the rapid tests; 24.1% for the third-generation enzyme immunoassay; 95.8% and 96.6% for the fourth-generation tests. Specificity was lower for the fourth-generation tests than the other tests. Accuracy ranged from 79.5% to 91.3%. In this population-based survey, most HIV-infected adults with discordant rapid tests were virally suppressed without antiretroviral drugs. Use of individual assays as tie-breaker tests was not a reliable method for determining HIV status in these individuals. More extensive testing algorithms that use a fourth-generation screening test with a discriminatory test and HIV RNA test are preferable for determining HIV status in these cases.

  6. Clinical Expectations for Better Influenza Virus Vaccines—Perspectives from the Young Investigators’ Point of View

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    Kristin G.-I. Mohn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus is one of a few viruses that is capable of rendering an otherwise healthy person acutly bedridden for several days. This impressive knock-out effect, without prodromal symptoms, challenges our immune system. The influenza virus undergoes continuous mutations, escaping our pre-existing immunity and causing epidemics, and its segmented genome is subject to reassortment, resulting in novel viruses with pandemic potential. The personal and socieoeconomic burden from influenza is high. Vaccination is the most cost-effective countermeasure, with several vaccines that are available. The current limitations in vaccine effectivness, combined with the need for yearly updating of vaccine strains, is a driving force for research into developing new and improved influenza vaccines. The lack of public concern about influenza severity, and misleading information concerning vaccine safety contribute to low vaccination coverage even in high-risk groups. The success of future influeza vaccines will depend on an increased public awarness of the disease, and hence, the need for vaccination—aided through improved rapid diagnositics. The vaccines must be safe and broadly acting, with new, measurable correlates of protection and robust post-marketing safety studies, to improve the confidence in influenza vaccines.

  7. Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination with influenza subunit vaccine in young hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G; Esser, E Stein; McMaster, Sean R; Kalluri, Priya; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Prausnitz, Mark R; Skountzou, Ioanna; Denning, Timothy L; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Compans, Richard W

    2015-09-08

    Skin has gained substantial attention as a vaccine target organ due to its immunological properties, which include a high density of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this vaccination route not only in animal models but also in adults. Young children represent a population group that is at high risk from influenza infection. As a result, this group could benefit significantly from influenza vaccine delivery approaches through the skin and the improved immune response it can induce. In this study, we compared the immune responses in young BALB/c mice upon skin delivery of influenza vaccine with vaccination by the conventional intramuscular route. Young mice that received 5 μg of H1N1 A/Ca/07/09 influenza subunit vaccine using MN demonstrated an improved serum antibody response (IgG1 and IgG2a) when compared to the young IM group, accompanied by higher numbers of influenza-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in the bone marrow. In addition, we observed increased activation of follicular helper T cells and formation of germinal centers in the regional lymph nodes in the MN immunized group, rapid clearance of the virus from their lungs as well as complete survival, compared with partial protection observed in the IM-vaccinated group. Our results support the hypothesis that influenza vaccine delivery through the skin would be beneficial for protecting the high-risk young population from influenza infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  9. Influenza neuraminidase: a druggable target for natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Schmidtke, Michaela; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kirchmair, Johannes; Liedl, Klaus R; Rollinger, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    The imminent threat of influenza pandemics and repeatedly reported emergence of new drug-resistant influenza virus strains demonstrate the urgent need for developing innovative and effective antiviral agents for prevention and treatment. At present, influenza neuraminidase (NA), a key enzyme in viral replication, spread, and pathogenesis, is considered to be one of the most promising targets for combating influenza. Despite the substantial medical potential of NA inhibitors (NAIs), only three of these drugs are currently on the market (zanamivir, oseltamivir, and peramivir). Moreover, sudden changes in NAI susceptibility revealed the urgent need in the discovery/identification of novel inhibitors. Nature offers an abundance of biosynthesized compounds comprising chemical scaffolds of high diversity, which present an infinite pool of chemical entities for target-oriented drug discovery in the battle against this highly contagious pathogen. This review illuminates the increasing research efforts of the past decade (2000-2011), focusing on the structure, function and druggability of influenza NA, as well as its inhibition by natural products. Following a critical discussion of publications describing some 150 secondary plant metabolites tested for their inhibitory potential against influenza NA, the impact of three different strategies to identify and develop novel NAIs is presented: (i) bioactivity screening of herbal extracts, (ii) exploitation of empirical knowledge, and (iii) computational approaches. This work addresses the latest developments in theoretical and experimental research on properties of NA that are and will be driving anti-influenza drug development now and in the near future.

  10. Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mallajosyula, JK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 50% survival, or 100% survival with adjuvant, compared with 10% survival after vaccination with a commercially available H 1 N 1 vaccine. TMV-HA is an effective dose-sparing influenza vaccine, using a single-step process to rapidly generate large...

  11. A novel, colorimetric neutralization assay for measuring antibodies to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Liisa; Villberg, Anja; Santanen, Riitta; Ziegler, Thedi

    2009-08-01

    A colorimetric cell proliferation assay for measuring neutralizing antibodies to influenza viruses in human sera is described. Following a 90-min incubation, the serum-virus mixture was transferred to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in 96-well plates. After further incubation for three days, a tetrazolium salt was added to the wells. Cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenases cleave the tetrazolium salt to formazan, and the resulting color change is read by a spectrophotometer. The absorbance values correlate directly to the number of viable cells in the assay well and thus also to the neutralizing activity of influenza-specific antibodies present in the serum. With the few hands-on manipulations required, this assay allows simultaneous testing of a considerable number of sera, offers opportunities for automation, and is suitable for use under biosafety level-3 conditions. The test was used to study the antibody response after the administration of seasonal, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine. Antibody titers determined by the neutralization test in pre- and post-vaccination serum pairs were compared with those obtained by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. The neutralization test yielded higher pre- and post-vaccination titers and a larger number of significant increases in post-vaccination antibody titer than the hemagglutination inhibition test. This new test format could serve as a valuable laboratory tool for influenza vaccine studies.

  12. Characteristics of patients with influenza-like illness, severe acture respiratory illness, and laboratory-confirmed influenza at a major children's hospital in Angola, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Yolanda; Oliveira, Erika; Vasconcelos, Jocelyne; Cohen, Adam L; Francisco, Moises

    2012-12-15

    There are no published data on influenza trends in Angola, where pneumonia is a leading cause of death among young children. This study aims to describe the seasonal trends, types, and subtypes of influenza virus recovered from patients with respiratory illness who were admitted to the major children's hospital in Angola from May 2009 through April 2011. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from patients seen in the outpatient clinic with influenza-like illness (ILI) or hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 691 samples collected, 334 (48%) were from case patients with ILI, and 357 (52%) were from case patients with SARI. Most (86%) of these children were Angola.

  13. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  14. Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Margine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation was licensed more than 60 years ago, current research efforts seek to develop novel vaccination strategies with improved immunogenicity, effectiveness, and breadth of protection. Animal models of influenza have been essential in facilitating studies aimed at understanding viral factors that affect pathogenesis and contribute to disease or transmission. Among others, mice, ferrets, pigs, and nonhuman primates have been used to study influenza virus infection in vivo, as well as to do pre-clinical testing of novel vaccine approaches. Here we discuss and compare the unique advantages and limitations of each model.

  15. Reduction in the incidence of influenza A but not influenza B associated with use of hand sanitizer and cough hygiene in schools: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Samuel; Cummings, Derek A T; Stark, James H; Vukotich, Chuck; Mitruka, Kiren; Thompson, William; Rinaldo, Charles; Roth, Loren; Wagner, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Dato, Virginia; Eng, Heather; Burke, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory-based evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer and respiratory hygiene to reduce the spread of influenza. The Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project was a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 10 elementary schools in Pittsburgh, PA, during the 2007 to 2008 influenza season. Children in 5 intervention schools received training in hand and respiratory hygiene, and were provided and encouraged to use hand sanitizer regularly. Children in 5 schools acted as controls. Children with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza A and B by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A total of 3360 children participated in this study. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 54 cases of influenza A and 50 cases of influenza B were detected. We found no significant effect of the intervention on the primary study outcome of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54, 1.23). However, we did find statistically significant differences in protocol-specified ancillary outcomes. Children in intervention schools had significantly fewer laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections than children in control schools, with an adjusted IRR of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.87). Total absent episodes were also significantly lower among the intervention group than among the control group; adjusted IRR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97). NPIs (respiratory hygiene education and the regular use of hand sanitizer) did not reduce total laboratory-confirmed influenza. However, the interventions did reduce school total absence episodes by 26% and laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections by 52%. Our results suggest that NPIs can be an important adjunct to influenza vaccination programs to reduce the number of influenza A infections among children.

  16. Inactivated Influenza Vaccine That Provides Rapid, Innate-Immune-System-Mediated Protection and Subsequent Long-Term Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Brendon Y; Wong, Chinn Yi; Mifsud, Edin J; Edenborough, Kathryn M; Sekiya, Toshiki; Tan, Amabel C L; Mercuri, Francesca; Rockman, Steve; Chen, Weisan; Turner, Stephen J; Doherty, Peter C; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E; Jackson, David C

    2015-10-27

    The continual threat to global health posed by influenza has led to increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for use in epidemics and pandemics. We show in this study that formulation of a low dose of inactivated detergent-split influenza vaccine with a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist-based lipopeptide adjuvant (R4Pam2Cys) provides (i) immediate, antigen-independent immunity mediated by the innate immune system and (ii) significant enhancement of antigen-dependent immunity which exhibits an increased breadth of effector function. Intranasal administration of mice with vaccine formulated with R4Pam2Cys but not vaccine alone provides protection against both homologous and serologically distinct (heterologous) viral strains within a day of administration. Vaccination in the presence of R4Pam2Cys subsequently also induces high levels of systemic IgM, IgG1, and IgG2b antibodies and pulmonary IgA antibodies that inhibit hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities of homologous but not heterologous virus. Improved primary virus nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are also induced by the use of R4Pam2Cys and are associated with robust recall responses to provide heterologous protection. These protective effects are demonstrated in wild-type and antibody-deficient animals but not in those depleted of CD8(+) T cells. Using a contact-dependent virus transmission model, we also found that heterologous virus transmission from vaccinated mice to naive mice is significantly reduced. These results demonstrate the potential of adding a TLR2 agonist to an existing seasonal influenza vaccine to improve its utility by inducing immediate short-term nonspecific antiviral protection and also antigen-specific responses to provide homologous and heterologous immunity. The innate and adaptive immune systems differ in mechanisms, specificities, and times at which they take effect. The innate immune system responds within hours of

  17. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  18. Epidemiology and burden of influenza in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Schirmer, Patricia L; Wendelboe, Aaron; Oda, Gina; Holodniy, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We describe influenza activity in the US Veterans Affairs (VA) population for the 2010-2011 through 2015-2016 seasons and compare with national CDC FluView data. VA confirmed influenza cases ranged from 1005 to 11 506 per season; triage calls from 6090 to 10 346; outpatient visits from 3849 to 13 406; antiviral prescriptions from 3650 to 32 826; hospitalizations from 546 to 4673; and deaths in hospitalized patients from 17 to 139. Peak activity was generally the same as observed nationally by the CDC. For the seasons analyzed, correlation between VA and CDC %ILI visits (r = .863), influenza hospitalizations (r = .953), positive tests (r = .948), and percent of tests positive (r = .938) was strong. Understanding influenza burden is important for evaluating prevention priorities and resource allocation within VA. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effectiveness of border screening for detecting influenza in arriving airline travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Duncan, Alasdair R; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    We measured symptom and influenza prevalence, and the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza, in arriving international airline travelers. This cross-sectional study collected data from travelers to Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, in winter 2008, via a health questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Forms were returned by 15 976 (68%) travelers. Of these, 17% reported at least 1 influenza symptom, with runny or blocked nose (10%) and cough (8%) most common. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 3769 travelers. Estimated prevalence of influenza was 1.1% (4% among symptomatic, 0.2% among asymptomatic). The sensitivity of screening criteria ranged from 84% for "any symptom" to 3% for a fever of 37.8 °C or greater. The positive predictive value was low for all criteria. Border screening using self-reported symptoms and temperature testing has limitations for preventing pandemic influenza from entering a country. Using "any symptom" or cough would lead to many uninfected people being investigated, yet some infected people would remain undetected. If more specific criteria such as fever were used, most infected people would enter the country despite screening.

  20. [Effectiveness of border screening for detecting Influenza in arriving airline travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Duncan, Alasdair R; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    We measured symptom and influenza prevalence, and the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza, in arriving international airline travelers. This cross-sectional study collected data from travelers to Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, in winter 2008, via a health questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Forms were returned by 15 976 (68%) travelers. Of these, 17% reported at least 1 influenza symptom, with runny or blocked nose (10%) and cough (8%) most common. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 3769 travelers. Estimated prevalence of influenza was 1.1% (4% among symptomatic, 0.2% among asymptomatic). The sensitivity of screening criteria ranged from 84% for "any symptom" to 3% for a fever of 37.8 ºC or greater. The positive predictive value was low for all criteria. Border screening using self-reported symptoms and temperature testing has limitations for preventing pandemic influenza from entering a country. Using "any symptom" or cough would lead to many uninfected people being investigated, yet some infected people would remain undetected. If more specific criteria such as fever were used, most infected people would enter the country despite screening.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses.The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays.Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  2. Vírus influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de-Paris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos registros mais antigos da gripe descrita como doença é de autoria de Hipócrates, em meados do ano 412 a.C. Desta forma, seu agente etiológico, o vírus influenza, tem circulação entre a população humana há muito tempo.  Entretanto, o primeiro isolamento do vírus influenza humano ocorreu somente em 1933, realizado por Smith, Andrewes e Laidlaw, pesquisadores do “National Institute for Medical Research” – Londres. Este vírus isolado foi considerado o primeiro vírus influenza humano e denominado de “influenza A”.

  3. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  4. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  5. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007–2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was...

  6. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  7. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  8. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus in saliva by real-time PCR method using sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles; application to clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Suda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and convenient method for detecting influenza virus was developed using modified end-point melt curve analysis of a RT-qPCR SYBR Green method and influenza virus-binding sugar chain-immobilized gold-nanoparticles (SGNP. Because SGNPs capture influenza viruses, the virus-SGNP complex was separated easily by centrifugation. Viral RNA was detected at very low concentrations, suggesting that SGNP increased sensitivity compared with standard methods. This method was applied to clinical studies. Influenza viruses were detected in saliva of patients or inpatients who had been considered influenza-free by a rapid diagnostic assay of nasal swabs. Furthermore, the method was applied to a human trial of prophylactic anti-influenza properties of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92. The incidence of influenza viruses in saliva of the L-92 group was found to be significantly lower compared to the control group. Thus, this method was useful for monitoring the course of anti-influenza treatment or preventive measures against nosocomial infection.

  9. Department of Defense Influenza and Other Respiratory Disease Surveillance during the 2009 Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    2009 novel A/H1N1 virus [16]. Moreover, while these tests can distinguish between influenza A and B viruses , they are rarely able to subtype specific...Twenty-six viruses (two seasonal A/H1N1, two A/H3N2, and 22 novel A/H1N1) from six Legend • Human influenza cohort • Zoonotic influenza cohort...personnel. PloS one 5(5):e10722. 18. Munster VJ, Fouchier RA: Avian influenza virus : of virus and bird ecology. Vaccine 2009, 27(45):6340-6344. 19

  10. Low dose influenza virus challenge in the ferret leads to increased virus shedding and greater sensitivity to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Anthony C; Dove, Brian K; Whittaker, Catherine J; Bruce, Christine; Ryan, Kathryn A; Bean, Thomas J; Rayner, Emma; Pearson, Geoff; Taylor, Irene; Dowall, Stuart; Plank, Jenna; Newman, Edmund; Barclay, Wendy S; Dimmock, Nigel J; Easton, Andrew J; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J; Carroll, Miles W

    2014-01-01

    Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) induces mild to moderate respiratory disease in infected ferrets, following inoculation with 106 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus. We have demonstrated that reducing the challenge dose to 102 pfu delays the onset of clinical signs by 1 day, and results in a modest reduction in clinical signs, and a less rapid nasal cavity innate immune response. There was also a delay in virus production in the upper respiratory tract, this was up to 9-fold greater and virus shedding was prolonged. Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract was not noticeably delayed by the reduction in virus challenge. A dose of 104 pfu gave an infection that was intermediate between those of the 106 pfu and 102 pfu doses. To address the hypothesis that using a more authentic low challenge dose would facilitate a more sensitive model for antiviral efficacy, we used the well-known neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. Oseltamivir-treated and untreated ferrets were challenged with high (106 pfu) and low (102 pfu) doses of influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. The low dose treated ferrets showed significant delays in innate immune response and virus shedding, delayed onset of pathological changes in the nasal cavity, and reduced pathological changes and viral RNA load in the lung, relative to untreated ferrets. Importantly, these observations were not seen in treated animals when the high dose challenge was used. In summary, low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines.

  11. Low dose influenza virus challenge in the ferret leads to increased virus shedding and greater sensitivity to oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Marriott

    Full Text Available Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 induces mild to moderate respiratory disease in infected ferrets, following inoculation with 106 plaque-forming units (pfu of virus. We have demonstrated that reducing the challenge dose to 102 pfu delays the onset of clinical signs by 1 day, and results in a modest reduction in clinical signs, and a less rapid nasal cavity innate immune response. There was also a delay in virus production in the upper respiratory tract, this was up to 9-fold greater and virus shedding was prolonged. Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract was not noticeably delayed by the reduction in virus challenge. A dose of 104 pfu gave an infection that was intermediate between those of the 106 pfu and 102 pfu doses. To address the hypothesis that using a more authentic low challenge dose would facilitate a more sensitive model for antiviral efficacy, we used the well-known neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. Oseltamivir-treated and untreated ferrets were challenged with high (106 pfu and low (102 pfu doses of influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. The low dose treated ferrets showed significant delays in innate immune response and virus shedding, delayed onset of pathological changes in the nasal cavity, and reduced pathological changes and viral RNA load in the lung, relative to untreated ferrets. Importantly, these observations were not seen in treated animals when the high dose challenge was used. In summary, low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines.

  12. Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve

  13. Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive

  14. Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Reduces Inflammation and Facilitates Establishment of Cross-Strain Protective T Cell Memory to Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Nicola L.; Olson, Matthew R.; Hurt, Aeron C.; Oshansky, Christine M.; Oh, Ding Yuan; Reading, Patrick C.; Chua, Brendon Y.; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Handel, Andreas; Jackson, David C.; Turner, Stephen J.; Thomas, Paul G.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    CD8(+) T cells directed against conserved viral regions elicit broad immunity against distinct influenza viruses, promote rapid virus elimination and enhanced host recovery. The influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, is prescribed for therapy and prophylaxis, although it remains unclear how the drug impacts disease severity and establishment of effector and memory CD8(+) T cell immunity. We dissected the effects of oseltamivir on viral replication, inflammation, acute CD8(+) T cell r...

  15. Increased immunogenicity of avian influenza DNA vaccine delivered to the skin using a microneedle patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Choi, Seong-O; Lee, Jeong Woo; Donis, Ruben O.; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective public health responses to an influenza pandemic require an effective vaccine that can be manufactured and administered to large populations in the shortest possible time. In this study, we evaluated a method for vaccination against avian influenza virus that uses a DNA vaccine for rapid manufacturing and delivered by a microneedle skin patch for simplified administration and increased immunogenicity. We prepared patches containing 700 µm-long microneedles coated with an avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin DNA vaccine from A/Viet Nam/1203/04 influenza virus. The coating DNA dose increased with DNA concentration in the coating solution and the number of dip coating cycles. Coated DNA was released into the skin tissue by dissolution within minutes. Vaccination of mice using microneedles induced higher levels of antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition titers, and improved protection against lethal infection with avian influenza as compared to conventional intramuscular delivery of the same dose of the DNA vaccine. Additional analysis showed that the microneedle coating solution containing carboxymethylcellulose and a surfactant may have negatively affected the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. Overall, this study shows that DNA vaccine delivery by microneedles can be a promising approach for improved vaccination to mitigate an influenza pandemic. PMID:22504442

  16. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  17. Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Martin; Zieg, Jakub

    2017-09-07

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Two patients had bona fide TTP with ADAMTS13 activity rational treatment approaches.

  18. MEM spectral analysis for predicting influenza epidemics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Kamo, Ken-ichi

    2012-03-01

    The prediction of influenza epidemics has long been the focus of attention in epidemiology and mathematical biology. In this study, we tested whether time series analysis was useful for predicting the incidence of influenza in Japan. The method of time series analysis we used consists of spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain. Using this time series analysis, we analyzed the incidence data of influenza in Japan from January 1948 to December 1998; these data are unique in that they covered the periods of pandemics in Japan in 1957, 1968, and 1977. On the basis of the MEM spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated with the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. An extension of the LSF curve could be used to predict the incidence of influenza quantitatively. Our study suggested that MEM spectral analysis would allow us to model temporal variations of influenza epidemics with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than by using the method of conventional time series analysis, which has been used previously to investigate the behavior of temporal variations in influenza data.

  19. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  20. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  1. Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelley, Lauren; Levy, Avram; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Lang, Jurissa; Buettner, Iwona; Druce, Julian; Blyth, Chris; Effler, Paul; Smith, David; Barr, Ian G

    2016-11-01

    Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years. Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures. Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A simple method for the parallel deep sequencing of full influenza A genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Given the major threat of influenza A to human and animal health, and its ability to evolve rapidly through mutation and reassortment, tools that enable its timely characterization are necessary to help monitor its evolution and spread. For this purpose, deep sequencing can be a very valuable tool....... This study reports a comprehensive method that enables deep sequencing of the complete genomes of influenza A subtypes using the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (GAIIx). By using this method, the complete genomes of nine viruses were sequenced in parallel, representing the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, H5N1 virus...

  3. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Blood samples collected from 272 volunteers in two communities of Bayelsa State in the Niger. Delta area were investigated for falciparum malaria parasite using the rapid test based on the detection of soluble antigen and laboratory microscopy test. The data showed that out of the 272 samples collected, ...

  4. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  5. The new school absentees reporting system for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzue

    Full Text Available To evaluate the new Japanese School Absentees Reporting System for Infectious Disease (SARSID for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection in comparison with the National epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Disease (NESID.We used data of 53,223 students (97.7% in Takamatsu city Japan. Data regarding school absentees in SARSID was compared with that in NESID from Oct 13, 2009 to Jan 12, 2010.Similar trends were observed both in SARSID and NESID. However, the epidemic trend for influenza in SARSID was thought to be more sensitive than that in NESID.The epidemic trend for influenza among school-aged children could be easily and rapidly assessed by SARSID compared to NESID. SARSID might be useful for detecting the epidemic trend of influenza.

  6. THE ANTIGENIC POTENCY OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS FOLLOWING INACTIVATION BY ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas E.; Lavin, G. I.; Francis, Thomas

    1940-01-01

    A study of the antigenic potency of influenza virus inactivated by ultraviolet radiation has been made. Virus so inactivated is still capable of functioning as an immunizing agent when given to mice by the intraperitoneal route. In high concentrations inactivated virus appears to be nearly as effective as active virus but when quantitative comparisons of the immunity induced by different dilutions are made, it is seen that a hundredfold loss in immunizing capacity occurs during inactivation. Virus in suspensions prepared from the lungs of infected mice is inactivated more rapidly than virus in tissue culture medium. A standard for the comparison of vaccines of epidemic influenza virus is proposed. PMID:19871057

  7. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  8. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  9. Estimating burden of influenza-associated influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection at public healthcare facilities in Romania during the 2011/12-2015/16 influenza seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Pistol, Adriana; Popescu, Rodica; Popovici, Odette; Ciurea, Daniel; Dolk, Christiaan; Jit, Mark; Gross, Diane

    2018-01-01

    Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public healthcare facilities in Romania. Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, were used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100 000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The overall annual incidence of ILI and influenza-associated ILI per 100 000 persons in Romania varied between 68 (95% CI: 61-76) and 318 (95% CI: 298-338) and between 23 (95% CI: 19-29) and 189 (95% CI: 149-240), respectively. The highest ILI and influenza incidence was among children aged 0-4 years. We estimated that SARI incidence per 100 000 persons was 6 (95% CI: 5-7) to 9 (95% CI: 8-10), of which 2 (95% CI: 1-2) to 3 (95% CI: 2-4) were due to influenza. Up to 0.3% of the Romanian population were annually reported with ILI, and 0.01% was hospitalized with SARI, of which as much as one-third could be explained by influenza. This evaluation was the first study estimating influenza burden in Romania. We found that during each influenza season, a substantial number of persons in Romania suffer from influenza-related ILI or are hospitalized due to influenza-associated SARI. © 2017 The World Health Organization. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Interim estimates of the effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalisations and primary care visits in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N; Pierse, N; Huang, Q S; Radke, S; Bissielo, A; Thompson, M G; Kelly, H

    2014-10-23

    We present preliminary results of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in New Zealand using a case test-negative design for 28 April to 31 August 2014. VE adjusted for age and time of admission among all ages against severe acute respiratory illness hospital presentation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza was 54% (95% CI: 19 to 74) and specifically against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 65% (95% CI:33 to 81). For influenza-confirmed primary care visits, VE was 67% (95% CI: 48 to 79) overall and 73% (95% CI: 50 to 85) against A(H1N1)pdm09.

  11. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: influenza surveillance data from ten countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Busto, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C. de; Mora, D. de; Fasce, R. A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Pessanha Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Séblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  12. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Bustos, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C.; Mora, D. De; Fasce, R.A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Seblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  13. A comparison of test statistics for the recovery of rapid growth-based enumeration tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.

    This paper considers five test statistics for comparing the recovery of a rapid growth-based enumeration test with respect to the compendial microbiological method using a specific nonserial dilution experiment. The finite sample distributions of these test statistics are unknown, because they are

  14. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected...

  15. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  16. Influenza vaccine-mediated protection in older adults: Impact of influenza infection, cytomegalovirus serostatus and vaccine dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merani, Shahzma; Kuchel, George A; Kleppinger, Alison; McElhaney, Janet E

    2018-07-01

    Age-related changes in T-cell function are associated with a loss of influenza vaccine efficacy in older adults. Both antibody and cell-mediated immunity plays a prominent role in protecting older adults, particularly against the serious complications of influenza. High dose (HD) influenza vaccines induce higher antibody titers in older adults compared to standard dose (SD) vaccines, yet its impact on T-cell memory is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antibody and T-cell responses in older adults randomized to receive HD or SD influenza vaccine as well as determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus affects the response to vaccination, and identify differences in the response to vaccination in those older adults who subsequently have an influenza infection. Older adults (≥65years) were enrolled (n=106) and randomized to receive SD or HD influenza vaccine. Blood was collected pre-vaccination, followed by 4, 10 and 20weeks post-vaccination. Serum antibody titers, as well as levels of inducible granzyme B (iGrB) and cytokines were measured in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Surveillance conducted during the influenza season identified those with laboratory confirmed influenza illness or infection. HD influenza vaccination induced a high antibody titer and IL-10 response, and a short-lived increase in Th1 responses (IFN-γ and iGrB) compared to SD vaccination in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Of the older adults who became infected with influenza, a high IL-10 and iGrB response in virus-challenged cells was observed post-infection (week 10 to 20), as well as IFN-γ and TNF-α at week 20. Additionally, CMV seropositive older adults had an impaired iGrB response to influenza virus-challenge, regardless of vaccine dose. This study illustrates that HD influenza vaccines have little impact on the development of functional T-cell memory in older adults. Furthermore, poor outcomes of influenza infection in

  17. Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Jittimanee, Supattra; Sitthicharoenchai, Panchan; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Poolperm, Pariwat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2017-10-01

    Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: the test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, E. van; Darvishian, M.; Dijkstra, F.; Donker, G.A.; Overduin, P.; Meijer, A.; Hak, E.

    2017-01-01

    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014 : The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Eva; Darvishian, Maryam; Dijkstra, Frederika; Donker, Gé A; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE

  20. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Eva; Darvishian, Maryam; Dijkstra, Frederika; Donker, Gé A; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE

  1. EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena; Langeveld, Jan P.M.; Groschup, Martin H.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Andrèoletti, Olivier; Lantier, Isabelle; Keulen, Van Lucien; Bossers, Alex; Pitardi, Danilo; Nonno, Romolo; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Ingravalle, Francesco; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity,

  2. The role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horby

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has identified studies of the role of host genetics on susceptibility to severe influenza as a priority. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the current state of evidence on the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001380.PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and OpenSIGLE were searched using a pre-defined strategy for all entries up to the date of the search. Two reviewers independently screened the title and abstract of 1,371 unique articles, and 72 full text publications were selected for inclusion. Mouse models clearly demonstrate that host genetics plays a critical role in susceptibility to a range of human and avian influenza viruses. The Mx genes encoding interferon inducible proteins are the best studied but their relevance to susceptibility in humans is unknown. Although the MxA gene should be considered a candidate gene for further study in humans, over 100 other candidate genes have been proposed. There are however no data associating any of these candidate genes to susceptibility in humans, with the only published study in humans being under-powered. One genealogy study presents moderate evidence of a heritable component to the risk of influenza-associated death, and while the marked familial aggregation of H5N1 cases is suggestive of host genetic factors, this remains unproven.The fundamental question "Is susceptibility to severe influenza in humans heritable?" remains unanswered. Not because of a lack of genotyping or analytic tools, nor because of insufficient severe influenza cases, but because of the absence of a coordinated effort to define and assemble cohorts of cases. The recent pandemic and the ongoing epizootic of H5N1 both represent rapidly closing windows of opportunity to increase understanding of the pathogenesis of severe influenza through multi-national host genetic studies.

  3. Rapid lysostaphin test to differentiate Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, C; Stevens, M

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, simple lysostaphin lysis susceptibility test to differentiate the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus was evaluated. Of 181 strains from culture collections, 95 of 95 Staphylococcus strains were lysed, and 79 of 79 Micrococcus strains were not lysed. The seven Planococcus strains were resistant. Clinical isolates (890) were tested with lysostaphin and for the ability to produce acid from glycerol in the presence of erythromycin. Overall agreement between the methods was 99.2%. All clinical Micrococcus strains (43) were resistant to lysostaphin, and all clinical Staphylococcus strains (847) were susceptible. Seven of the Staphylococcus strains did not produce acid from glycerol in the presence of erythromycin. This lysostaphin test provides results in 2 h. It is easier to perform than previously described lysostaphin lysis methods. It is also more rapid and accurate than the glycerol-erythromycin test. PMID:3519667

  4. Update: Influenza Activity - United States and Worldwide, May 21-September 23, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lenee; Wentworth, David E; Alabi, Noreen; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Barnes, John; Brammer, Lynnette; Burns, Erin; Davis, C Todd; Dugan, Vivien G; Fry, Alicia M; Garten, Rebecca; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Gubareva, Larisa; Kniss, Krista; Lindstrom, Stephen; Mustaquim, Desiree; Olsen, Sonja J; Roguski, Katherine; Taylor, Calli; Trock, Susan; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel

    2017-10-06

    During May 21-September 23, 2017,* the United States experienced low-level seasonal influenza virus activity; however, beginning in early September, CDC received reports of a small number of localized influenza outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) viruses. In addition to influenza A(H3N2) viruses, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were detected during May-September worldwide and in the United States. Influenza B viruses predominated in the United States from late May through late June, and influenza A viruses predominated beginning in early July. The majority of the influenza viruses collected and received from the United States and other countries during that time have been characterized genetically or antigenically as being similar to the 2017 Southern Hemisphere and 2017-18 Northern Hemisphere cell-grown vaccine reference viruses; however, a smaller proportion of the circulating A(H3N2) viruses showed similarity to the egg-grown A(H3N2) vaccine reference virus which represents the A(H3N2) viruses used for the majority of vaccine production in the United States. Also, during May 21-September 23, 2017, CDC confirmed a total of 33 influenza variant virus † infections; two were influenza A(H1N2) variant (H1N2v) viruses (Ohio) and 31 were influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses (Delaware [1], Maryland [13], North Dakota [1], Pennsylvania [1], and Ohio [15]). An additional 18 specimens from Maryland have tested presumptive positive for H3v and further analysis is being conducted at CDC.

  5. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.

  6. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Jane B.; Remigio, Cheryl; Milligan, Thomas; Deline, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  7. Using the ferret as an animal model for investigating influenza antiviral effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort towards the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titre of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness.

  8. Replication of swine and human influenza viruses in juvenile and layer turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Yassine, Hadi; Awe, Olusegun O; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-04-12

    Since the first reported isolation of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in turkeys in the 1980s, transmission of SIVs to turkeys was frequently documented. Recently, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, that was thought to be of swine origin, was detected in turkeys with a severe drop in egg production. In this study, we assessed the infectivity of different mammalian influenza viruses including swine, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human influenza viruses in both juvenile and layer turkeys. In addition, we investigated the potential influenza virus dissemination in the semen of experimentally infected turkey toms. Results showed that all mammalian origin influenza viruses tested can infect turkeys. SIVs were detected in respiratory and digestive tracts of both juvenile and layer turkeys. Variations in replication efficiencies among SIVs were observed especially in the reproductive tract of layer turkeys. Compared to SIVs, limited replication of seasonal human H1N1 and no detectable replication of recent human-like swine H1N2, pandemic H1N1 and seasonal human H3N2 viruses was noticed. All birds seroconverted to all tested viruses regardless of their replication level. In turkey toms, we were able to detect swine H3N2 virus in semen and reproductive tract of infected toms by real-time RT-PCR although virus isolation was not successful. These data suggest that turkey hens could be affected by diverse influenza strains especially SIVs. Moreover, the differences in the replication efficiency we demonstrated among SIVs and between SIV and human influenza viruses in layer turkeys suggest a possible use of turkeys as an animal model to study host tropism and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Our results also indicate a potential risk of venereal transmission of influenza viruses in turkeys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  10. Hospital triage system for adult patients using an influenza-like illness scoring system during the 2009 pandemic--Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus emerged during 2009. To help clinicians triage adults with acute respiratory illness, a scoring system for influenza-like illness (ILI was implemented at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico.A medical history, laboratory and radiology results were collected on emergency room (ER patients with acute respiratory illness to calculate an ILI-score. Patients were evaluated for admission by their ILI-score and clinicians' assessment of risk for developing complications. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from intermediate and high-risk patients for influenza testing by RT-PCR. The disposition and ILI-score of those oseltamivir-treated versus untreated, clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 patients versus test-negative patients were compared by Pearson's Chi(2, Fisher's Exact, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.Of 1840 ER patients, 230 were initially hospitalized (mean ILI-score = 15, and the rest were discharged, including 286 ambulatory patients given oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 11, and 1324 untreated (median ILI-score = 5. Fourteen (1% untreated patients returned, and 3 were hospitalized on oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 19. Of 371 patients tested by RT-PCR, 104 (28% had pandemic influenza and 42 (11% had seasonal influenza A detected. Twenty (91% of 22 imaged hospitalized pandemic influenza patients had bilateral infiltrates compared to 23 (38% of 61 imaged hospital test-negative patients (p<0.001. One patient with confirmed pandemic influenza presented 6 days after symptom onset, required mechanical ventilation, and died.The triaging system that used an ILI-score complimented clinicians' judgment of who needed oseltamivir and inpatient care and helped hospital staff manage a surge in demand for services.

  11. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity to pandemic H1N1 influenza in a Canadian cohort one year post-pandemic: implications for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Wagar

    Full Text Available We evaluated a cohort of Canadian donors for T cell and antibody responses against influenza A/California/7/2009 (pH1N1 at 8-10 months after the 2nd pandemic wave by flow cytometry and microneutralization assays. Memory CD8 T cell responses to pH1N1 were detectable in 58% (61/105 of donors. These responses were largely due to cross-reactive CD8 T cell epitopes as, for those donors tested, similar recall responses were obtained to A/California 2009 and A/PR8 1934 H1N1 Hviruses. Longitudinal analysis of a single infected individual showed only a small and transient increase in neutralizing antibody levels, but a robust CD8 T cell response that rose rapidly post symptom onset, peaking at 3 weeks, followed by a gradual decline to the baseline levels seen in a seroprevalence cohort post-pandemic. The magnitude of the influenza-specific CD8 T cell memory response at one year post-pandemic was similar in cases and controls as well as in vaccinated and unvaccinated donors, suggesting that any T cell boosting from infection was transient. Pandemic H1-specific antibodies were only detectable in approximately half of vaccinated donors. However, those who were vaccinated within a few months following infection had the highest persisting antibody titers, suggesting that vaccination shortly after influenza infection can boost or sustain antibody levels. For the most part the circulating influenza-specific T cell and serum antibody levels in the population at one year post-pandemic were not different between cases and controls, suggesting that natural infection does not lead to higher long term T cell and antibody responses in donors with pre-existing immunity to influenza. However, based on the responses of one longitudinal donor, it is possible for a small population of pre-existing cross-reactive memory CD8 T cells to expand rapidly following infection and this response may aid in viral clearance and contribute to a lessening of disease severity.

  12. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  13. Influenza-Like Illnesses in Senegal: Not Only Focus on Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Thiam, Diamilatou; Faye Sarr, Tening; Espié, Emmanuelle; OmarBa, Ibrahim; Coly, Malang; Niang, Mbayame; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Influenza surveillance in African countries was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. In Senegal, the network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 101,640 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 35-2013; 22% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 23% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Influenza viruses were the second most frequent cause of ILI (20%), after adenoviruses (21%) and before rhinoviruses (18%) and enteroviruses (15%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. The first months of implementation of the enhanced surveillance system confirmed that viruses other the influenza make large contributions to influenza-like illnesses. It is therefore important to consider these etiologies in the development of strategies to reduce respiratory infections. More informative tools and research studies are required to assess the burden of respiratory infections in developing countries. PMID:24675982

  14. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  15. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  16. Multiple estimates of transmissibility for the 2009 influenza pandemic based on influenza-like-illness data from small US military populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Riley

    Full Text Available Rapidly characterizing the amplitude and variability in transmissibility of novel human influenza strains as they emerge is a key public health priority. However, comparison of early estimates of the basic reproduction number during the 2009 pandemic were challenging because of inconsistent data sources and methods. Here, we define and analyze influenza-like-illness (ILI case data from 2009-2010 for the 50 largest spatially distinct US military installations (military population defined by zip code, MPZ. We used publicly available data from non-military sources to show that patterns of ILI incidence in many of these MPZs closely followed the pattern of their enclosing civilian population. After characterizing the broad patterns of incidence (e.g. single-peak, double-peak, we defined a parsimonious SIR-like model with two possible values for intrinsic transmissibility across three epochs. We fitted the parameters of this model to data from all 50 MPZs, finding them to be reasonably well clustered with a median (mean value of 1.39 (1.57 and standard deviation of 0.41. An increasing temporal trend in transmissibility ([Formula: see text], p-value: 0.013 during the period of our study was robust to the removal of high transmissibility outliers and to the removal of the smaller 20 MPZs. Our results demonstrate the utility of rapidly available - and consistent - data from multiple populations.

  17. Detection of gonococcal infection : pros and cons of a rapid test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Peter; Peeling, Rosanna W; Watts, Charlotte; Mabey, David

    2005-01-01

    WHO estimates that 62 million cases of gonorrhea occur annually worldwide. Untreated infection can cause serious long-term complications, especially in women. In addition, Neisseria gonorrheae infection can facilitate HIV transmission, and babies born to infected mothers are at risk of ocular infection, which can lead to blindness. Where diagnostic facilities are lacking, gonorrhea can be treated syndromically. However, this inevitably leads to over-treatment, especially in women in whom the syndrome of vaginal discharge may be due not to N. gonorrheae infection but to several other more prevalent conditions. Over-treatment is a major concern because of widespread N. gonorrheae antibiotic resistance. Moreover, a high proportion of gonorrhea cases are asymptomatic and so do not present for syndromic management. Such cases will only be detected by screening tests. The gold standard test for the detection of N. gonorrheae is culture, which has high sensitivity and specificity. However, it requires well trained staff and its performance is affected by specimen transport conditions. Other options include microscopy and tests that detect gonococcal antigen or nucleic acid. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have higher sensitivity and can be used on non-invasive samples (urine). However, they can cross-react with other Neisseria species and are expensive, requiring highly trained staff and sophisticated equipment. In settings where patients are asked to return for laboratory results, some infected patients never receive treatment as they fail to return for their test results. This reduction in treatment, and the possible onward transmission of N. gonorrheae during any delay in treatment, means that a rapid test of lower sensitivity may be more effective if it results in patients being treated at the initial visit. Indeed, even with the low sensitivity of currently available rapid tests (50-70%), modeling shows that they can outperform gold standard tests in

  18. Seasonality of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses and the Effect of Climate Factors in Subtropical-Tropical Asia Using Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Data, 2010 -2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Taro; Chaw, Liling; Tan, Alvin G; Tamaki, Raita; Alday, Portia P; Javier, Jenaline B; Olveda, Remigio M; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Tallo, Veronica L

    2016-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is well known, and many analyses have been conducted in temperate countries; however, this is still not well understood in tropical countries. Previous studies suggest that climate factors are involved in the seasonality of these viruses. However, the extent of the effect of each climate variable is yet to be defined. We investigated the pattern of seasonality and the effect of climate variables on influenza and RSV at three sites of different latitudes: the Eastern Visayas region and Baguio City in the Philippines, and Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Wavelet analysis and the dynamic linear regression model were applied. Climate variables used in the analysis included mean temperature, relative and specific humidity, precipitation, and number of rainy days. The Akaike Information Criterion estimated in each model was used to test the improvement of fit in comparison with the baseline model. At all three study sites, annual seasonal peaks were observed in influenza A and RSV; peaks were unclear for influenza B. Ranges of climate variables at the two Philippine sites were narrower and mean variables were significantly different among the three sites. Whereas all climate variables except the number of rainy days improved model fit to the local trend model, their contributions were modest. Mean temperature and specific humidity were positively associated with influenza and RSV at the Philippine sites and negatively associated with influenza A in Okinawa. Precipitation also improved model fit for influenza and RSV at both Philippine sites, except for the influenza A model in the Eastern Visayas. Annual seasonal peaks were observed for influenza A and RSV but were less clear for influenza B at all three study sites. Including additional data from subsequent more years would help to ascertain these findings. Annual amplitude and variation in climate variables are more important than their absolute values for

  19. Seasonality of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses and the Effect of Climate Factors in Subtropical-Tropical Asia Using Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Data, 2010 -2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kamigaki

    Full Text Available The seasonality of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is well known, and many analyses have been conducted in temperate countries; however, this is still not well understood in tropical countries. Previous studies suggest that climate factors are involved in the seasonality of these viruses. However, the extent of the effect of each climate variable is yet to be defined.We investigated the pattern of seasonality and the effect of climate variables on influenza and RSV at three sites of different latitudes: the Eastern Visayas region and Baguio City in the Philippines, and Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Wavelet analysis and the dynamic linear regression model were applied. Climate variables used in the analysis included mean temperature, relative and specific humidity, precipitation, and number of rainy days. The Akaike Information Criterion estimated in each model was used to test the improvement of fit in comparison with the baseline model.At all three study sites, annual seasonal peaks were observed in influenza A and RSV; peaks were unclear for influenza B. Ranges of climate variables at the two Philippine sites were narrower and mean variables were significantly different among the three sites. Whereas all climate variables except the number of rainy days improved model fit to the local trend model, their contributions were modest. Mean temperature and specific humidity were positively associated with influenza and RSV at the Philippine sites and negatively associated with influenza A in Okinawa. Precipitation also improved model fit for influenza and RSV at both Philippine sites, except for the influenza A model in the Eastern Visayas.Annual seasonal peaks were observed for influenza A and RSV but were less clear for influenza B at all three study sites. Including additional data from subsequent more years would help to ascertain these findings. Annual amplitude and variation in climate variables are more important than their

  20. Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wichmann, Ole; Harder, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional databases (1990-2013). Review characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to assess the influence of review characteristics on AMSTAR-score. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high (median AMSTAR-score: 8), but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). Detailed analysis showed that this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05). In the adjusted analysis, no other factor, including industry sponsorship or journal impact factor had an influence on AMSTAR score. Systematic reviews on influenza vaccination showed large differences regarding their methodological quality. Reviews conducted by the Cochrane collaboration were of higher quality than others. When using systematic reviews to guide the development of vaccination recommendations, the methodological quality of a review in addition to its content should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular detection and typing of influenza viruses. Are we ready for an influenza pandemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, W.G.; Loon, A.M. van; Niedrig, M.; Meijer, A.; Lina, B.; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cannot predict when an influenza pandemic will occur or which variant of the virus will cause it. Little information is currently available on the ability of laboratories to detect and subtype influenza viruses including the avian influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability

  2. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  3. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by targeting broad host cell pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Marois

    Full Text Available Antivirals that are currently used to treat influenza virus infections target components of the virus which can mutate rapidly. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of resistant strains to one or many antivirals in recent years. Here we compared the antiviral effects of lysosomotropic alkalinizing agents (LAAs and calcium modulators (CMs, which interfere with crucial events in the influenza virus replication cycle, against avian, swine, and human viruses of different subtypes in MDCK cells. We observed that treatment with LAAs, CMs, or a combination of both, significantly inhibited viral replication. Moreover, the drugs were effective even when they were administered 8 h after infection. Finally, analysis of the expression of viral acidic polymerase (PA revealed that both drugs classes interfered with early events in the viral replication cycle. This study demonstrates that targeting broad host cellular pathways can be an efficient strategy to inhibit influenza replication. Furthermore, it provides an interesting avenue for drug development where resistance by the virus might be reduced since the virus is not targeted directly.

  4. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  5. The safety of influenza vaccines in children: An Institute for Vaccine Safety white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Neal A; Talaat, Kawsar R; Greenbaum, Adena; Mensah, Eric; Dudley, Matthew Z; Proveaux, Tina; Salmon, Daniel A

    2015-12-30

    Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Human influenza A (H5N1): a brief review and recommendations for travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Although avian influenza A (H5N1) is common in birds worldwide, it has only recently led to disease in humans. Humans who are infected with the disease (referred to as human influenza A [H5N1]) have a greater than 50% mortality rate. Currently there has not been documented sustained human-to-human transmission; however, should the virus mutate and make this possible, the world could experience an influenza pandemic. Probable risk factors for infection include slaughtering, defeathering, and butchering fowl; close contact with wild birds or caged poultry; ingestion of undercooked poultry products; direct contact with surfaces contaminated with poultry feces; and close contact with infected humans. Possible risk factors include swimming in or ingesting water contaminated with bird feces or dead birds and the use of unprocessed poultry feces as fertilizer. Clinically, early human influenza A (H5N1) resembles typical influenza illnesses, with fever and a preponderance of lower respiratory tract symptoms. Often, patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory failure and require ventilatory support. Treatment is primarily supportive care with the addition of antiviral medications. Currently, travelers to countries with both human and avian influenza A (H5N1) have a low risk of developing the disease. There are no current recommended travel restrictions. Travelers are advised to avoid contact with all birds, especially poultry; avoid surfaces contaminated with poultry feces; and avoid undercooked poultry products. The use of prophylactic antiviral medications is not recommended.

  7. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.

  8. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  9. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from...... typical H. influenzae.Methods. A prospective study of adults with COPD was conducted. Strains of apparent H. influenzae obtained from a range of clinical sources were evaluated by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and sequencing of the conserved P6 gene.......Results. Variant strains were determined to be Haemophilus haemolyticus by means of 4 independent methods. Analysis of 490 apparent H. influenzae strains, identified by standard methods, revealed that 39.5% of sputum isolates and 27.3% of nasopharyngeal isolates were H. haemolyticus. Isolates obtained from...

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  11. Predictors of H1N1 influenza in the emergency department: proposition for a modified H1N1 case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, H; Drescher, M; Prattes, J; Tovilo, K; Kessler, H H; Vander, K; Seeber, K; Palfner, M; Raggam, R B; Avian, A; Krause, R; Hoenigl, M

    2014-02-01

    Reliable and rapid diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 is essential to initiate appropriate antiviral therapy and preventive measures. We analysed the differences in clinical presentation and laboratory parameters between emergency department patients with PCR-confirmed H1N1 influenza infection (n = 199) and those with PCR-negative influenza-like illness (ILI; n = 252). Cough, wheezing, leucopenia, eosinopenia and a lower C-reactive protein remained significant predictors of H1N1 influenza. Proposed combinations of clinical symptoms with simple laboratory parameters (e.g. reported or measured fever and either cough or leucocytes definitions that use clinical criteria alone. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Induction of long-term protective immune responses by influenza H5N1 virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Moo Kang

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus pose a threat of eventually causing a pandemic. Early vaccination of the population would be the single most effective measure for the control of an emerging influenza pandemic.Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs produced in insect cell-culture substrates do not depend on the availability of fertile eggs for vaccine manufacturing. We produced VLPs containing influenza A/Viet Nam1203/04 (H5N1 hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix proteins, and investigated their preclinical immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Mice immunized intranasally with H5N1 VLPs developed high levels of H5N1 specific antibodies and were 100% protected against a high dose of homologous H5N1 virus infection at 30 weeks after immunization. Protection is likely to be correlated with humoral and cellular immunologic memory at systemic and mucosal sites as evidenced by rapid anamnestic responses to re-stimulation with viral antigen in vivo and in vitro.These results provide support for clinical evaluation of H5N1 VLP vaccination as a public health intervention to mitigate a possible pandemic of H5N1 influenza.

  13. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  14. Pan-Influenza A Protection by Prime-Boost Vaccination with Cold-Adapted Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Joo Young; Byun, Young Ho; Son, Ahyun; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Lee, Yoon Jae; Chang, Jun; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses. Using a mouse model, we tested different prime-boost combinations of CAIVs for their ability to induce humoral and T-cell responses, and protective efficacy against H1 and H5 (HA group 1) as well as H3 and H7 (HA group 2) influenza viruses. Notably, even in the absence of antibody-mediated neutralizing activity or HA inhibitory activity in vitro , CAIVs provided a potent protection against heterologous and heterosubtypic lethal challenges in vivo . Heterologous combination of prime (H1)-boost (H5) vaccine strains showed the most potent cross-protection efficacy. In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated not only that T cells and natural killer cells contributed to the cross-protection, but also the involvement of antibody-dependent mechanisms for the cross-protection. Vaccination-induced antibodies did not enhance the infectivity of heterologous viruses, and prime vaccination did not interfere with neutralizing antibody generation by the boost vaccination, allaying vaccine safety concerns associated with heterogeneity between the vaccines and challenge strains. Our data show that CAIV-based strategy can serve as a simple but powerful option for developing a "truly" universal influenza vaccine providing pan-influenza A protection, which has not been achieved yet by other vaccine strategies. The promising results

  15. Pan-Influenza A Protection by Prime–Boost Vaccination with Cold-Adapted Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Joo Young; Byun, Young Ho; Son, Ahyun; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Lee, Yoon Jae; Chang, Jun; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses. Using a mouse model, we tested different prime–boost combinations of CAIVs for their ability to induce humoral and T-cell responses, and protective efficacy against H1 and H5 (HA group 1) as well as H3 and H7 (HA group 2) influenza viruses. Notably, even in the absence of antibody-mediated neutralizing activity or HA inhibitory activity in vitro, CAIVs provided a potent protection against heterologous and heterosubtypic lethal challenges in vivo. Heterologous combination of prime (H1)–boost (H5) vaccine strains showed the most potent cross-protection efficacy. In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated not only that T cells and natural killer cells contributed to the cross-protection, but also the involvement of antibody-dependent mechanisms for the cross-protection. Vaccination-induced antibodies did not enhance the infectivity of heterologous viruses, and prime vaccination did not interfere with neutralizing antibody generation by the boost vaccination, allaying vaccine safety concerns associated with heterogeneity between the vaccines and challenge strains. Our data show that CAIV-based strategy can serve as a simple but powerful option for developing a “truly” universal influenza vaccine providing pan-influenza A protection, which has not been achieved yet by other vaccine strategies. The promising

  16. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  17. Pandemic Influenza A (N1H1: what to learn from it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rolim Neumann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza pandemics are natural events that occur periodically. The pandemic’s current agent, Influenza virus A (H1N1 was first identified in Mexico in April 2009, spread rapidly and has caused deaths mainly among young adults. The objective of this manuscript is to present the biological aspects involved in the outbreak of this pandemic, as well as population-control strategies for pandemic influenza. In addition to the population mitigation measures, whose efficacy has been described by theoretical models, today we also have drugs with efficacy valued in some patient groups. These drugs reduce moderately the duration and severity of symptoms, as long as they are started early. This pandemic, with a large number of cases, but caused by a virus of low lethality, could be managed preferably in Units of Primary Health Care, that would treat the wild cases and forward the severe ones to the hospitals. However, what occurred in numerous cities was the burden on emergency care with triage situations, forcing managers to improvise field hospitals, tents and containers to house the extra work in services that were already at the limit of physical infrastructure and human resources. Pandemic Influenza exposed the fragility of our network of primary care and lack of ICU beds.

  18. [Status of acute upper respiratory infection, influenza-like illness, and influenza vaccination coverage among community residents in Jinan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Shaoxia; Wang, Wei; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Wen; Han, Debiao; Liu, Ti; Wu, Julong; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014. Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ(2)-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features. The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ(2)=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of

  19. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  20. Microdroplet sandwich real-time rt-PCR for detection of pandemic and seasonal influenza subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Angione

    Full Text Available As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR. Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic, H1N1s (seasonal, and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 10(4 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies.

  1. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  2. Detection of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in meat and tracheal samples from experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh; Spackman, Erica; Thomas, Colleen; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L

    2008-03-01

    The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes a systemic disease with high mortality of poultry and is potentially zoonotic. In both chickens and ducks, the virus has been demonstrated to replicate in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. Experimentally, H5N1 HPAI virus has been transmitted to chickens through the consumption of raw infected meat. In this study, we investigated virus replication in cardiac and skeletal muscle and in the trachea of chickens after experimental intranasal inoculation with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The virus was detected in tissues by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation, and in the trachea by RRT-PCR and a commercial avian influenza (AI) viral antigen detection test. A modified RNA extraction protocol was developed for rapid detection of the virus in tissues by RRT-PCR. The H5N1 HPAI virus was sporadically detected in meat and the tracheas of infected birds without any clinical sign of disease as early as 6 hr postinfection (PI), and was detected in all samples tested at 24 hr PI and later. No differences in sensitivity were seen between virus isolation and RRT-PCR in meat samples. The AI viral antigen detection test on tracheal swabs was a useful method for identifying infected chickens when they were sick or dead, but was less sensitive in detecting infected birds when they were preclinical. This study provides data indicating that preslaughter tracheal swab testing can identify birds infected with HPAI among the daily mortality and prevent infected flocks from being sent to processing plants. In addition, the modified RNA extraction and RRT-PCR test on meat samples provide a rapid and sensitive method of identifying HPAI virus in illegal contraband or domestic meat samples.

  3. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  4. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  5. Effect of autolysis on the specificity of bovine spongiform encephalopathy rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramelli Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine rapid testing for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE has highlighted some problems with BSE rapid test performance, the most significant being the number of initially reactive samples and the false positive results on autolyzed tissue. This point is important for BSE active surveillance in risk populations, because tissue autolysis is often unavoidable in routine cases. A robust test suitable for use on field material is therefore needed. To date, very limited information regarding the effect of autolysis on the robustness of rapid tests has been documented; therefore, the National Reference Centre for Animal Encephalopathies (CEA rapid test laboratory selected 450 autolyzed and negative brain stem samples from fallen stock bovines older than 24 months to assess the specificity of four tests approved for BSE active surveillance: Biorad TeSeE, Enfer TSE version 2.0, Prionics® Check LIA, and IDEXX Herd Check BSE Antigen Kit EIA. The samples were graded according to the degree of autolysis and then dissected into five portions, four of which randomly assigned to processing by rapid tests and one to be available for confirmatory Western blot analysis. Findings The specificity of the four systems was 100% for all three grades of autolysis, while the percentage of initially reactive results was 0.00 (95%CI 0.00-0.82, 0.22 (95%CI 0.006-1.23, 0.44 (95%CI 0.05-1.60, and 0.89 (95%CI 0.24-2.26 for the Biorad TeSeE, the Prionics® Check LIA, the IDEXX Herd Check BSE and the Enfer TSE tests, respectively. No association with the degree of autolysis could be drawn. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the four rapid tests can be considered well-running diagnostic tools regardless of tissue quality; nevertheless, the number of initial reactive samples reported for some systems must not be underestimated in routine testing. Furthermore the compliance with the reported performance can be guaranteed only when an ongoing

  6. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  7. Future directions for the European influenza reference laboratory network in influenza surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, N; Rebelo-de-Andrade, H; Meijer, A; McCauley, J; Daniels, R; Zambon, M

    2015-07-30

    By defining strategic objectives for the network of influenza laboratories that have national influenza centre status or national function within European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway, it is possible to align their priorities in undertaking virological surveillance of influenza. This will help maintain and develop the network to meet and adapt to new challenges over the next 3-5 years and underpin a longer-term strategy over 5-10 years. We analysed the key activities undertaken by influenza reference laboratories in Europe and categorised them into a framework of four key strategic objectives areas: enhancing laboratory capability, ensuring laboratory capacity, providing emergency response and translating laboratory data into information for public health action. We make recommendations on the priority areas for future development.

  8. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of InFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO©) Scores in Influenza-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Stringer, Sonja; Kim, Katherine; Memoli, Matthew J; Han, Alison; Fairchok, Mary P; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C; Danaher, Patrick J; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H; Millar, Eugene V; Hernández, Andrés; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Smolskis, Mary C; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Pett, Sarah; Fischer, William; Gillor, Daniel; Macias, Laura Moreno; DuVal, Anna; Rothman, Richard; Dugas, Andrea; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2018-02-01

    To assess the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of InFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO©) scores for quantifying the presence and severity of influenza symptoms. An observational prospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with influenza-like illness in the United States, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and South America was conducted. Participants completed the 37-item draft FLU-PRO daily for up to 14 days. Item-level and factor analyses were used to remove items and determine factor structure. Reliability of the final tool was estimated using Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficients (2-day reliability). Convergent and known-groups validity and responsiveness were assessed using global assessments of influenza severity and return to usual health. Of the 536 patients enrolled, 221 influenza-positive subjects comprised the analytical sample. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years, 60.2% were women, and 59.7% were white. The final 32-item measure has six factors/domains (nose, throat, eyes, chest/respiratory, gastrointestinal, and body/systemic), with a higher order factor representing symptom severity overall (comparative fit index = 0.92; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06). Cronbach α was high (total = 0.92; domain range = 0.71-0.87); test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, day 1-day 2) was 0.83 for total scores and 0.57 to 0.79 for domains. Day 1 FLU-PRO domain and total scores were moderately to highly correlated (≥0.30) with Patient Global Rating of Flu Severity (except nose and throat). Consistent with known-groups validity, scores differentiated severity groups on the basis of global rating (total: F = 57.2, P FLU-PRO score improvement by day 7 than did those who did not, suggesting score responsiveness. Results suggest that FLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive to change in influenza-positive adults. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes

  9. Neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility profile of human influenza viruses during the 2016-2017 influenza season in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijuan; Cheng, Yanhui; Li, Xiyan; Tan, Minju; Wei, Hejiang; Zhao, Xiang; Xiao, Ning; Dong, Jie; Wang, Dayan

    2018-06-01

    To understand the current situation of antiviral-resistance of influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in Mainland China, The antiviral-resistant surveillance data of the circulating influenza viruses in Mainland China during the 2016-2017 influenza season were analyzed. The total 3215 influenza viruses were studied to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) for oseltamivir and zanamivir using a fluorescence-based assay. Approximately 0.3% (n = 10) of viruses showed either highly reduced inhibition (HRI) or reduced inhibition (RI) against at least one NAI. The most common neuraminidase (NA) amino acid substitution was H275Y in A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, which confers HRI by oseltamivir. Two A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses contained a new NA amino acid substitution respectively, S110F and D151E, which confers RI by oseltamivir or/and zanamivir. Two B/Victoria-lineage viruses harbored a new NA amino acid substitution respectively, H134Q and S246P, which confers RI by zanamivir. One B/Victoria-lineage virus contained dual amino acid substitution NA P124T and V422I, which confers HRI by zanamivir. One B/Yamagata-lineage virus was a reassortant virus that haemagglutinin (HA) from B/Yamagata-lineage virus and NA from B/Victoria-lineage virus, defined as B/Yamagata-lineage virus confers RI by oseltamivir, but as B/Victoria-lineage virus confers normal inhibition by oseltamivir. All new substitutions that have not been reported before, the correlation of these substitutions and observed changes in IC 50 should be further assessed. During the 2016-2017 influenza season in Mainland China the majority tested viruses were susceptible to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antiviral for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-06-01

    Serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the United States. In addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. Only bald eagles were notably seropositive (22/406). One each of peregrine falcon, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) from a total of 472, 81, and 100, respectively, were also positive. None of the turkey vultures (n = 21) or black vultures (n = 8) was positive. No clinical signs referable to avian influenza were seen in any bird at the time of capture. These data indicate that, among raptors, bald eagles do have exposure to influenza A viruses.

  11. Prevalence of influenza virus among the paediatric population in Mumbai during 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Patil, D; Dahake, R; Mukherjee, S; Athlekar, S V; Deshmukh, R A; Chowdhary, A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza has a major impact on public heath, annually affecting 15-20% of the global population. Information on the activity of influenza virus in Mumbai is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of influenza viruses causing acute respiratory infections in children by molecular methods. To study the prevalence of influenza viruses among the paediatric population in Mumbai by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From July 2007 to July 2009, 100 respiratory samples (nasal and throat swabs) were collected from paediatric patients with acute respiratory symptoms. attending out patients department, and admitted to the paediatric wards of B. J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai. The samples were collected and processed as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Viral RNA was extracted and one-step rRT-PCR was performed to detect influenza type A (H1 and H3) and influenza type B virus. Out of 100 samples processed by rRT-PCR, a total of 11 samples (11%) were positive for influenza virus. The typing for influenza A subtypes showed 1% (1) positivity for H1 and 5% (5) positivity for H3 subtypes and 5% (5) samples tested positive for influenza type B virus. It was observed that both influenza type A and B viruses were prevalent in Mumbai during the study period. Such surveillance data are important in the early detection of any antigenic variants that may be helpful in global influenza vaccine preparation and for any pandemic preparedness activity.

  12. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Ma. Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La influenza es una infección viral aguda de las vías respiratorias, altamente contagiosa. Es causada por el virus de la influenza A, B y C. Puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios durante epidemias, aunque tiene mayor morbilidad en los extremos de la vida. La enfermedad frecuentemente requiere de atención médica y hospitalización, contribuyendo sustancialmente a pérdidas económicas, exceso en el número de días/cama-hospital y muertes. Considerando la epidemia reciente en México del virus de...

  13. Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics, an...

  14. The susceptibility of circulating human influenza viruses to tizoxanide, the active metabolite of nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmanis, Danielle; van Baalen, Carel; Oh, Ding Yuan; Rossignol, Jean-Francois; Hurt, Aeron C

    2017-11-01

    Nitazoxanide is a thiazolide compound that was originally developed as an anti-parasitic agent, but has recently been repurposed for the treatment of influenza virus infections. Thought to exert its anti-influenza activity via the inhibition of hemagglutinin maturation and intracellular trafficking in infected cells, the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in treating patients with non-complicated influenza is currently being assessed in phase III clinical trials. Here, we describe the susceptibility of 210 seasonal influenza viruses to tizoxanide, the active circulating metabolite of nitazoxanide. An optimised cell culture-based focus reduction assay was used to determine the susceptibility of A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and influenza B viruses circulating in the southern hemisphere from the period March 2014 to August 2016. Tizoxanide showed potent in vitro antiviral activity against all influenza viruses tested, including neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant viruses, allowing the establishment of a baseline level of susceptibility for each subtype. Median EC 50 values (±IQR) of 0.48 μM (0.33-0.71), 0.62 μM (0.56-0.75), 0.66 μM (0.62-0.69), and 0.60 μM (0.51-0.67) were obtained for A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), B(Victoria lineage), and B(Yamagata lineage) influenza viruses respectively. There was no significant difference in the median baseline tizoxanide susceptibility for each influenza subtype tested. This is the first report on the susceptibility of circulating viruses to tizoxanide. The focus reduction assay format described is sensitive, robust, and less laborious than traditional cell based antiviral assays, making it highly suitable for the surveillance of tizoxanide susceptibility in circulating seasonal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-05

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.  Created: 3/5/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/5/2009.

  16. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Brith; Pauksen, Karlis; Sylvan, Staffan P E

    2008-04-28

    The present prospective study was conducted from 2003-2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area.The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS) even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31%) received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11%) were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34%) individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21%) the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39%) individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28%) the pneumococcal vaccine.Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age). For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75-84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza season 2005. The present study confirmed the

  17. Replication of avian influenza viruses in equine tracheal epithelium but not in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Thomas M.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.; Reedy, Stephanie E.; Tiwari, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a hypothesis that horses are susceptible to avian influenza viruses by in vitro testing, using explanted equine tracheal epithelial cultures, and in vivo testing by aerosol inoculation of ponies. Results showed that several subtypes of avian influenza viruses detectably replicated in vitro. Three viruses with high in vitro replication competence were administered to ponies. None of the three demonstrably replicated or caused disease signs in ponies. While these results do not exh...

  18. Influenza in Poland in 2013 and 2013/2014 epidemic season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Staszewska, Ewa; Bednarska, Karolina; Cielebąk, Ewa; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of epidemiological situation of influenza in Poland in 2013 and 2013/14 epidemic season in reference to previous years and seasons. Analysis was based on: 1) data collected within influenza routine surveillance system in Poland, including data published in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” as well as unpublished data gathered in the Department of Epidemiology of the NIPH-NIH; 2) data collected within influenza system - Sentinel, and beyond this system, concerning results of virological tests carried out in 2013/14 epidemic season in the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center in the NIPHNIH and/or laboratories of provincial sanitary and epidemiological stations which are gathered in the National Influenza Center. Compared to 2012, the number of influenza and influenza-like cases increased more than twofold in 2013 in Poland. A total of 3 164 405 cases were reported. Incidence was 8 218.7 per 100,000 population (33 733.2 in 0-4 age group). As many as 0.45% of patients were referred to hospitals. According to the data of the Central Statistical Office, 115 deaths due to influenza were notified. Based on the data of the sanitary inspection (incomplete data), the percentage of population vaccinated against influenza was 2.4% (7.7% of persons aged more than 64 years). A total of 2 780 945 cases were registered in 2013/14 epidemic season. Its peak was reported in March 2014. Incidence was 7 224.0 per 100,000 population (35 172.8 in 0-4 age group). Compared to 2012/13 epidemic season, it was lower by 8.0%. Incidence rates ranged from 29 339.6 in pomorskie voivodeship to 1 306.5 in lubuskie voivodeship. Nearly a half of all cases (48.7%) were registered in children and adolescents up to 15 years. As many as 0.34% of patients were referred to hospitals (0.87% of persons aged more than 64 years). From the data of the Central Statistical Office transpires that 8 deaths due to influenza were reported in epidemic

  19. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.

  20. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  1. The ENSO-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Lipsitch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific, which affects weather conditions, including temperatures, precipitation, winds and storm activity, across the planet. ENSO has two extreme phases marked by either warmer (El Niño) or cooler (La Niña) than average sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific. We find that the 4 most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Niña conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in ENSO have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Niña conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence in various host species, and avian migration patterns.

  2. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A virus infections in Minnesota turkey premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Cesar A; Gramer, Marie; Lauer, Dale; Davies, Peter R

    2012-09-01

    Influenza virus infections can cause respiratory and systemic disease of variable severity and also result in economic losses for the turkey industry. Several subtypes of influenza can infect turkeys, causing diverse clinical signs. Influenza subtypes of swine origin have been diagnosed in turkey premises; however, it is not known how common these infections are nor the likely routes of transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of influenza viruses and examine factors associated with infection on Minnesota turkey premises. Results from influenza diagnostic tests and turkey and pig premise location data were obtained from the Minnesota Poultry Testing Laboratory and the Minnesota Board of Animal Health, respectively, from January 2007 to September 2008. Diagnostic data from 356 premises were obtained, of which 17 premises tested positive for antibodies to influenza A virus by agar gel immunodiffusion assay and were confirmed as either H1N1 or H3N2 influenza viruses by hemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition assays. Influenza infection status was associated with proximity to pig premises and flock size. The latter had a sparing effect on influenza status. This study suggests that H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus infections of turkey premises in Minnesota are an uncommon event. The route of influenza virus transmission could not be determined; however, the findings suggest that airborne transmission should be considered in future studies.

  4. Microculture virus titration--a simple colourimetric assay for influenza virus titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, R; Beeor-Tzahar, T; Arnon, R

    1995-03-01

    Influenza antigens can be detected by several well established methods. However, when it is important to determine the titre of infective virions, a bioassay should be employed. The standard and the most widely used tests for influenza infectivity are titration carried out in embryonated hen eggs, or the plaque assay employing tissue culture techniques. A simple colourimetric assay for influenza virus detection and titration is described. Samples of allantoic fluid or mice lung homogenates were used to infect MDCK cultures in microplate wells. After an incubation period, the tetrazolium (MTT) colourimetric assay was used to determine cell viability, and when compared to untreated culture control enabled the detection and titration of several influenza strains. When samples were assayed simultaneously in embryonated eggs and by the MCVT method, good correlation in determined titres was obtained. The availability of an additional method for influenza titration allows more flexibility in the choice of titration method according to the specific needs of the study. Furthermore, this method lends itself to full automatization. Similar procedures should also be applicable to titration of other cytopathic viruses.

  5. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  6. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  7. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  8. Factors associated with differential uptake of seasonal influenza immunizations among underserved communities during the 2009-2010 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Bond, Keosha T; Jones, Kandice C; Ompad, Danielle C

    2012-04-01

    Influenza vaccination coverage remains low and disparities persist. In New York City, a community-based participatory research project (Project VIVA) worked to address this issue in Harlem and the South Bronx by supplementing existing vaccination programs with non-traditional venues (i.e., community-based organizations). We conducted a 10 min survey to assess access to influenza vaccine as well as attitudes and beliefs towards influenza vaccination that could inform intervention development for subsequent seasons. Among 991 participants recruited using street intercept techniques, 63% received seasonal vaccine only, 11% seasonal and H1N1, and 26% neither; 89% reported seeing a health care provider (HCP) during the influenza season. Correlates of immunization among those with provider visits during the influenza season included being US-born, interest in getting the vaccine, concern about self or family getting influenza, an HCP's recommendation and comfort with government. Among those without an HCP visit, factors associated with immunization included being US born, married, interest in getting the vaccine, understanding influenza information, and concern about getting influenza. Factors associated with lack of interest in influenza vaccine included being born outside the US, Black and uncomfortable with government. In medically underserved areas, having access to routine medical care and understanding the medical implications of influenza play an important role in enhancing uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination. Strategies to improve vaccination rates among Blacks and foreign-born residents need to be addressed. The use of non-traditional venues to provide influenza vaccinations in underserved communities has the potential to reduce health disparities.

  9. Characteristics and management of patients with influenza in a German hospital during the 2014/2015 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Ludewig, Katrin; Moeser, Anne; Baier, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin; Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review the management of patients with influenza during the influenza season 2014/2015 (n = 197). Our study revealed a high rate of healthcare-associated influenza infection (35.5 %) and a correlation between the total number of patients with HA influenza and the number of nurses on sick leave. The results of the study underline the importance of strict hygiene management. Furthermore, widespread influenza vaccination for both high-risk patients and health care workers is recommended.

  10. AVIDITY EVALUATION OF LOCAL IgA ANTIBODIES IN PERSONS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. At present, immunogenicity evaluation of influenza vaccines is performed by quantitative assessment of increased serum antibodies. It was, however, shown that the degree of human defense against influenza is mostly related to their qualitative characteristics, i.e., avidity (functional activity. Leading role of local immunity is demonstrated in protection against influenza. Such immunity is mediated by IgA antibodies from mucosal airways. Meanwhile, the avidity issues for local antibodies still remain open.In present study, an attempt was undertaken to evaluate post-vaccination local immunological memory for influenza A virus, according to IgA antibodies from upper respiratory secretions. Two techniques were used to evaluate antibody avidity, that were previously applied for studying this phenomenon with serum imunoglobulins, i.e., a dynamic test (measurement of antigen-antibody reaction rates, and a test with urea, a chaotropic agent (avidity is determined as a strength of antigen-antibody complex. A total of 202 persons (18 to 20 years old were enrolled into the study.With both tests, a broad range of individual avidity values was observed for the antibodies. A significant cohort (up to 30 per cent of persons immunized with live influenza vaccine, showed sharply increased avidity of secretory IgA antibodies by both methods, along with accumulation of these immunoglobulins after vaccination. A reverse relationship is revealed between avidity levels of these antibodies before vaccination, and increase of this parameter post-immunization. The data present convincing arguments for specific renewal of local humoral immunological memory, as induced by live influenza vaccine. The study substantiates a necessity for application of the both tests in parallel, when determining avidity of secretory IgA antibodies. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 423-430.

  11. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the strongest correlate of cross-reactive antibody responses in migratory bird handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshansky, Christine M; Wong, Sook-San; Jeevan, Trushar; Smallwood, Heather S; Webby, Richard J; Shafir, Shira C; Thomas, Paul G

    2014-12-09

    Avian species are reservoirs of influenza A viruses and could harbor viruses with significant pandemic potential. We examined the antibody and cellular immune responses to influenza A viruses in field or laboratory workers with a spectrum of occupational exposure to avian species for evidence of zoonotic infections. We measured the seroprevalence and T cell responses among 95 individuals with various types and degrees of prior field or laboratory occupational exposure to wild North American avian species using whole blood samples collected in 2010. Plasma samples were tested using endpoint enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination (HA) inhibition (HAI) assays to subtypes H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, and H12 proteins. Detectable antibodies were found against influenza HA antigens in 77% of individuals, while 65% of individuals tested had measurable T cell responses (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay [ELISPOT]) to multiple HA antigens of avian origin. To begin defining the observed antibody specificities, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ELISA responses, which measure both head- and stalk-binding antibodies, do not predict HAI reactivities, which measure primarily head-binding antibodies. This result suggests that ELISA titers can report cross-reactivity based on the levels of non-head-binding responses. However, the strongest positive correlate of HA-specific ELISA antibody titers was receipt of seasonal influenza virus vaccination. Occupational exposure was largely uncorrelated with serological measures, with the exception of individuals exposed to poultry, who had higher levels of H7-specific antibodies than non-poultry-exposed individuals. While the cohort had antibody and T cell reactivity to a broad range of influenza viruses, only occupational exposure to poultry was associated with a significant difference in antibody levels to a specific subtype (H7). There was no evidence that T cell assays

  12. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Evaluation of IFITM3 rs12252 Association With Severe Pediatric Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Adrienne G; Yip, Wai-Ki; Allen, Emma Kaitlynn; Rosenberger, Carrie M; Agan, Anna A; Ash, Stephanie A; Zhang, Yu; Bhangale, Tushar R; Finkelstein, David; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Mourani, Peter M; Hall, Mark W; Su, Helen C; Thomas, Paul G

    2017-07-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) restricts endocytic fusion of influenza virus. IFITM3 rs12252_C, a putative alternate splice site, has been associated with influenza severity in adults. IFITM3 has not been evaluated in pediatric influenza. The Pediatric Influenza (PICFLU) study enrolled children with suspected influenza infection across 38 pediatric intensive care units during November 2008 to April 2016. IFITM3 was sequenced in patients and parents were genotyped for specific variants for family-based association testing. rs12252 was genotyped in 54 African-American pediatric outpatients with influenza (FLU09), included in the population-based comparisons with 1000 genomes. Splice site analysis of rs12252_C was performed using PICFLU and FLU09 patient RNA. In PICFLU, 358 children had influenza infection. We identified 22 rs12252_C homozygotes in 185 white non-Hispanic children. rs12252_C was not associated with influenza infection in population or family-based analyses. We did not identify the Δ21 IFITM3 isoform in RNAseq data. The rs12252 genotype was not associated with IFITM3 expression levels, nor with critical illness severity. No novel rare IFITM3 functional variants were identified. rs12252 was not associated with susceptibility to influenza-related critical illness in children or with critical illness severity. Our data also do not support it being a splice site. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Distinct Host Tropism Protein Signatures to Identify Possible Zoonotic Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.

  15. Integrated Detection and Prediction of Influenza Activity for Real-Time Surveillance: Algorithm Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, Armin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Cowling, Benjamin John; Timpka, Toomas

    2017-06-15

    Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat to communities worldwide. The rapidly growing availability of electronic "big data" from diagnostic and prediagnostic sources in health care and public health settings permits advance of a new generation of methods for local detection and prediction of winter influenza seasons and influenza pandemics. The aim of this study was to present a method for integrated detection and prediction of influenza virus activity in local settings using electronically available surveillance data and to evaluate its performance by retrospective application on authentic data from a Swedish county. An integrated detection and prediction method was formally defined based on a design rationale for influenza detection and prediction methods adapted for local surveillance. The novel method was retrospectively applied on data from the winter influenza season 2008-09 in a Swedish county (population 445,000). Outcome data represented individuals who met a clinical case definition for influenza (based on International Classification of Diseases version 10 [ICD-10] codes) from an electronic health data repository. Information from calls to a telenursing service in the county was used as syndromic data source. The novel integrated detection and prediction method is based on nonmechanistic statistical models and is designed for integration in local health information systems. The method is divided into separate modules for detection and prediction of local influenza virus activity. The function of the detection module is to alert for an upcoming period of increased load of influenza cases on local health care (using influenza-diagnosis data), whereas the function of the prediction module is to predict the timing of the activity peak (using syndromic data) and its intensity (using influenza-diagnosis data). For detection modeling, exponential regression was used based on the assumption that the beginning

  16. Cold-adapted influenza and recombinant adenovirus vaccines induce cross-protective immunity against pH1N1 challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Soboleski

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1 highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus.BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP and consensus matrix 2 (M2 (NP+M2-rAd. Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus.Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic.

  17. Economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mejbah U; Luby, Stephen P; Alamgir, Nadia I; Homaira, Nusrat; Mamun, Abdullah A; Khan, Jahangir A M; Abedin, Jaynal; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Gurley, Emily S; Zaman, Rashid U; Alamgir, A S M; Rahman, Mahmudur; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh. From May through October 2010, investigators identified both outpatients and inpatients at four tertiary hospitals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection through rRT-PCR. Research assistants visited case-patients' homes within 30 days of hospital visit/discharge and administered a structured questionnaire to capture direct medical costs (physician consultation, hospital bed, medicines and diagnostic tests), direct non-medical costs (food, lodging and travel) and indirect costs (case-patients' and caregivers' lost income). We used WHO-Choice estimates for routine healthcare service costs. We added direct, indirect and healthcare service costs to calculate cost-per-episode. We used median cost-per-episode, published influenza-associated outpatient and hospitalization rates and Bangladesh census data to estimate the annual economic burden of influenza-associated illnesses in 2010. We interviewed 132 outpatients and 41 hospitalized patients. The median cost of an influenza-associated outpatient visit was US$4.80 (IQR = 2.93-8.11) and an influenza-associated hospitalization was US$82.20 (IQR = 59.96-121.56). We estimated that influenza-associated outpatient visits resulted in US$108 million (95% CI: 76-147) in direct costs and US$59 million (95% CI: 37-91) in indirect costs; influenza-associated hospitalizations resulted in US$1.4 million (95% CI: 0.4-2.6) in direct costs and US$0.4 million (95% CI: 0.1-0.8) in indirect costs in 2010. In Bangladesh, influenza-associated illnesses caused an estimated US$169 million in economic loss in 2010, largely driven by frequent but low-cost outpatient visits. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons

  18. Vector optimization and needle-free intradermal application of a broadly protective polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine for pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Bragstad, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    such as the induction of cellular and humoral immunity, inherent safety and rapid production time. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding selected influenza proteins of pandemic origin and demonstrated broad protective immune responses in ferrets and pigs. In this study, we evaluated our DNA vaccine......The threat posed by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus emphasized the need for new influenza A virus vaccines inducing a broad cross-protective immune response for use in both humans and pigs. An effective and broad influenza vaccine for pigs would greatly benefit the pork industry and contribute...... to public health by diminishing the risk of emerging highly pathogenic reassortants. Current inactivated protein vaccines against swine influenza produce only short-lived immunity and have no efficacy against heterologous strains. DNA vaccines are a potential alternative with advantages...

  19. Modeling Influenza Transmission Using Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Kiang, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that has significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden worldwide. It infects approximately 5-15% of the world population, and causes 250,000 500,000 deaths each year. The role of environments on influenza is often drawn upon the latitude variability of influenza seasonality pattern. In regions with temperate climate, influenza epidemics exhibit clear seasonal pattern that peak during winter months, but it is not as evident in the tropics. Toward this end, we developed mathematical model and forecasting capabilities for influenza in regions characterized by warm climate Hong Kong (China) and Maricopa County (Arizona, USA). The best model for Hong Kong uses Land Surface Temperature (LST), precipitation and relative humidity as its covariates. Whereas for Maricopa County, we found that weekly influenza cases can be best modelled using mean air temperature as its covariates. Our forecasts can further guides public health organizations in targeting influenza prevention and control measures such as vaccination.

  20. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  1. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  2. The impacts of email reminder/recall on adolescent influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombkowski, Kevin J; Cowan, Anne E; Reeves, Sarah L; Foley, Matthew R; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2017-05-25

    We sought to: (1) explore the feasibility of using email for seasonal influenza vaccination reminders to parents of adolescents and (2) assess influenza vaccination rates among adolescents whose parents were randomized to either receive or not receive email reminders. Email addresses were obtained for parents of patients 10-18years from 4 practices in Michigan. Addresses were randomized to either receive email reminders, or not. Reminder messages were sent during October 2012-March 2013 (Season 1) and October 2013-March 2014 (Season 2). Vaccination status was determined 60days following the last email reminder for each season using the statewide Michigan Care Improvement Registry (MCIR); per protocol bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate reminder notification. After email cleaning, testing, and matching with MCIR, approximately half of email addresses (2348 of 5312 in Season 1; 3457 of 6549 in Season 2) were randomized. Bivariate analyses found that influenza vaccination within 60days after notification date was similar among those notified (34%) versus not notified (29%) in both Season 1 (p=0.06) and Season 2 (39% vs. 37%, p=0.20). However, multivariate models adjusted for season, site, and receipt of notification in two seasons found a higher likelihood of influenza vaccination among children that received notification (aOR=1.28, 95% CI=1.09, 1.51); in addition, differences in influenza vaccination were also observed between practice sites (range: p=0.15 to pemail influenza vaccine reminders to parents of adolescents are feasible, but not without complications. Our study demonstrates that email reminders from practices can yield increases in influenza vaccination rates among adolescents. Practices should consider email as an option for influenza reminders and establish business practices for collecting and maintaining patient email addresses. This study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov id #NCT01732315. Copyright

  3. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  4. La influenza A (H1N1: estado actual del conocimiento Influenza A (H1N1 virus: current information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita González Valdés

    2010-03-01

    this infection and produces a temporary burden on the health services. This virus is transmitted like other influenza viruses. Its lethality is similar to that observed for the seasonal influenza, but may be enhanced in people having risk factors and in healthy young adults. Asthma and pregnancy seem to be basic conditions to increase the severity of the infection. Certain degree of protection may exist, due to cross immunity with ancient strains that circulated in the past times. The clinical spectrum goes from asymptomatic people to the most severe forms requiring intensive care, when a rapid deterioration of the health up to reach a respiratory failure in 24 hours. Vaccination during the epidemics seems to be non effective. Antiviral agents (oseltamivir and zanamivir are necessary, and the preventive hygiene-sanitary measures are highly effective.

  5. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  6. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  7. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  8. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; van Genderen, P; Ward, B J; Wilder-Smith, A; Steffen, R; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some travellers. © International Society of

  9. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  10. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1, produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3 µg/ml dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg, which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg. This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg. Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry.

  11. A sensitive one-step real-time PCR for detection of avian influenza viruses using a MGB probe and an internal positive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delogu Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses (AIVs are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. The ability to rapidly recognise AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. The advent of molecular methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction has allowed improvement of detection methods currently used in laboratories, although not all of these methods include an Internal Positive Control (IPC to monitor for false negative results. Therefore we developed a one-step reverse transcription real time PCR (RRT-PCR with a Minor Groove Binder (MGB probe for the detection of different subtypes of AIVs. This technique also includes an IPC. Methods RRT-PCR was developed using an improved TaqMan technology with a MGB probe to detect AI from reference viruses. Primers and probe were designed based on the matrix gene sequences from most animal and human A influenza virus subtypes. The specificity of RRT-PCR was assessed by detecting influenza A virus isolates belonging to subtypes from H1–H13 isolated in avian, human, swine and equine hosts. The analytical sensitivity of the RRT-PCR assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro transcribed matrix gene RNA. The use of a rodent RNA as an IPC in order not to reduce the efficiency of the assay was adopted. Results The RRT-PCR assay is capable to detect all tested influenza A viruses. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be between 5 and 50 RNA copies per reaction and the standard curve demonstrated a linear range from 5 to 5 × 108 copies as well as excellent reproducibility. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10–100 times higher than conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion The high sensitivity, rapidity, reproducibility and specificity of the AIV RRT-PCR with

  12. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include

  14. Promoting influenza vaccination: Insights from a qualitative meta-analysis of 14 years of influenza-related communications research by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen J.; Sheedy, Kristine; Bursey, Kelli; Smith, Teresa M.; Basket, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Introduction A primary mission of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) is promoting immunization against seasonal influenza. As with most education efforts, CDCs influenza-related communications are often informed by formative research. Methods A qualitative meta-analysis of 29 unpublished, primarily qualitative CDC-sponsored studies related to flu and flu vaccination knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KABs). The studies, undertaken between 2000 and 2013, involved focus groups, in-depth interviews, message testing and surveys. Some involved health care professionals, while others involved members of the public, including sub-populations at risk for severe illness. Findings The themes that emerged suggested progress in terms of KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccination, but also the persistence of many barriers to vaccine acceptance. With respect to the public, recurring themes included limited understanding of influenza and immunization recommendations, indications of greater sub-group recognition of the value of flu vaccination, continued resistance to vaccination among many, and overestimation of the effectiveness of non-vaccine measures. Seven cognitive facilitators of vaccination were identified in the studies along with six cognitive barriers. For health care providers, the analysis suggests greater knowledge and more favorable beliefs, but many misperceptions persist and are similar to those held by the public. KABs often differed by type or category of health care provider. Conclusions The themes identified in this qualitative analysis illustrate the difficulty in changing KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccine, particularly on the scope and scale needed to greatly improve uptake. Even with an influenza pandemic and more vaccine options available, public and some health care provider perceptions and beliefs are difficult and slow to change. This meta-analysis does, however, provide important insights from previously

  15. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral-flow device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyue Ge

    Full Text Available A severe disease in humans caused by a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus emerged in China recently, which has caused at least 128 cases and 26 deaths. Rapid detection of the novel H7N9 virus is urgently needed to differentiate the disease from other infections, and to facilitate infection control as well as epidemiologic investigations. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow device (RT-LAMP-LFD assay to rapidly detect H7N9 virus was developed and evaluated. The RT-LAMP primers were designed to target the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of H7N9 virus. Results of 10-fold dilution series assays showed that analysis of RT-LAMP products by the LFD method was as sensitive as real-time turbidity detection, and that the analytic sensitivities of the HA and NA RT-LAMP assays were both 10 copies of synthetic RNA. Furthermore, both the assays showed 100% clinical specificity for identification of H7N9 virus. The performance characteristics of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay were evaluated with 80 clinical specimens collected from suspected H7N9 patients. The NA RT-LAMP-LFD assay was more sensitive than real time RT-PCR assay. Compared with a combination of virus culture and real-time RT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay were all 100%. Overall, The RT-LAMP-LFD assay established in this study can be used as a reliable method for early diagnosis of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus infection.

  17. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  18. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    ” viruses which have been circulating in Danish pigs since it was found for the first time in 1981. ii) H1N2 reassortant viruses which comprise HA from “avian like” H1N1 and NA from swine H3N2. The reassortant H1N2 virus was discovered in Danish pig for the first time in 2003 and is now well established......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24......% of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...

  20. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  1. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza

  2. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  3. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  4. Selective expansion of influenza a virus-specific T cells in symptomatic human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; van der Meer, Jelger J.; Teeling, Peter; van der Sluijs, Koen; Idu, Mirza M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Levi, Marcel; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Boer, Onno J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Evidence is accumulating that infection with influenza A virus contributes to atherothrombotic disease. Vaccination against influenza decreases the risk of atherosclerotic syndromes, indicating that inflammatory mechanisms may be involved. We tested the hypothesis that

  5. A flow-through chromatography process for influenza A and B virus purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Thomas; Solomaier, Thomas; Peuker, Alessa; Pathapati, Trinath; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Vaccination is still the most efficient measure to protect against influenza virus infections. Besides the seasonal wave of influenza, pandemic outbreaks of bird or swine flu represent a high threat to human population. With the establishment of cell culture-based processes, there is a growing demand for robust, economic and efficient downstream processes for influenza virus purification. This study focused on the development of an economic flow-through chromatographic process avoiding virus strain sensitive capture steps. Therefore, a three-step process consisting of anion exchange chromatography (AEC), Benzonase(®) treatment, and size exclusion chromatography with a ligand-activated core (LCC) was established, and tested for purification of two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. The process resulted in high virus yields (≥68%) with protein contamination levels fulfilling requirements of the European Pharmacopeia for production of influenza vaccines for human use. DNA was depleted by ≥98.7% for all strains. The measured DNA concentrations per dose were close to the required limits of 10ng DNA per dose set by the European Pharmacopeia. In addition, the added Benzonase(®) could be successfully removed from the product fraction. Overall, the presented downstream process could potentially represent a simple, robust and economic platform technology for production of cell culture-derived influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New methods and reagents to improve the ferret model for human influenza infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Kirkeby, Svend; Aasted, Bent

    The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, ...... improvements of the model will aim at establishing a reliable RT-PCR for ferret cytokines, as well as investigating the location of influenza receptors and viral particles in the upper and lower respiratory tract via immunohistochemistry......The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, CD...

  7. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-de

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (