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Sample records for influenza cairns australia

  1. Imported dengue cases, weather variation and autochthonous dengue incidence in Cairns, Australia.

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    Xiaodong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF outbreaks often arise from imported DF cases in Cairns, Australia. Few studies have incorporated imported DF cases in the estimation of the relationship between weather variability and incidence of autochthonous DF. The study aimed to examine the impact of weather variability on autochthonous DF infection after accounting for imported DF cases and then to explore the possibility of developing an empirical forecast system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDS: Data on weather variables, notified DF cases (including those acquired locally and overseas, and population size in Cairns were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics. A time-series negative-binomial hurdle model was used to assess the effects of imported DF cases and weather variability on autochthonous DF incidence. Our results showed that monthly autochthonous DF incidences were significantly associated with monthly imported DF cases (Relative Risk (RR:1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01-2.28, monthly minimum temperature ((oC (RR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.77-2.93, monthly relative humidity (% (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, monthly rainfall (mm (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.81 and monthly standard deviation of daily relative humidity (% (RR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.50. In the zero hurdle component, the occurrence of monthly autochthonous DF cases was significantly associated with monthly minimum temperature (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.67. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research suggested that incidences of monthly autochthonous DF were strongly positively associated with monthly imported DF cases, local minimum temperature and inter-month relative humidity variability in Cairns. Moreover, DF outbreak in Cairns was driven by imported DF cases only under favourable seasons and weather conditions in the study.

  2. Climate variation and incidence of Ross river virus in Cairns, Australia: a time-series analysis.

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    Tong, S; Hu, W

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of climate variability on the Ross River virus (RRv) transmission and validated an epidemic-forecasting model in Cairns, Australia. Data on the RRv cases recorded between 1985 and 1996 were obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The cross-correlation function (CCF) showed that maximum temperature in the current month and rainfall and relative humidity at a lag of 2 months were positively and significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRv, whereas relative humidity at a lag of 5 months was inversely associated with the RRv transmission. We developed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models on the data collected between 1985 to 1994, and then validated the models using the data collected between 1995 and 1996. The results show that the relative humidity at a lag of 5 months (p < 0.001) and the rainfall at a lag of 2 months (p < 0.05) appeared to play significant roles in the transmission of RRv disease in Cairns. Furthermore, the regressive forecast curves were consistent with the pattern of actual values. PMID:11748035

  3. Impact of quadrivalent influenza vaccine on public health and influenza-related costs in Australia

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    Aurélien Jamotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV containing three influenza strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and one B have been recommended for the prevention of influenza. However, worldwide co-circulation of two distinct B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata and difficulties in predicting which lineage will predominate each season have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV, which include both B lineages. Our analysis evaluates the public health benefit and associated influenza-related costs avoided which would have been obtained by using QIV rather than TIV in Australia over the period 2002–2012. Methods A static model stratified by age group was used, focusing on people at increased risk of influenza as defined by the Australian vaccination recommendations. B-lineage cross-protection was accounted for. We calculated the potential impact of QIV compared with TIV over the seasons 2002–2012 (2009 pandemic year excluded using Australian data on influenza circulation, vaccine coverage, hospitalisation and mortality rates as well as unit costs, and international data on vaccine effectiveness, influenza attack rate, GP consultation rate and working days lost. Third-party payer and societal influenza-related costs were estimated in 2014 Australian dollars. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Using QIV instead of TIV over the period 2002–2012 would have prevented an estimated 68,271 additional influenza cases, 47,537 GP consultations, 3,522 hospitalisations and 683 deaths in the population at risk of influenza. These results translate into influenza-related societal costs avoided of $46.5 million. The estimated impact of QIV was higher for young children and the elderly. The overall impact of QIV depended mainly on vaccine effectiveness and the influenza attack rate attributable to the mismatched B lineage. Conclusion The broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the number of influenza infections

  4. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

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    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

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    Jelley, Lauren; Levy, Avram; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Lang, Jurissa; Buettner, Iwona; Druce, Julian; Blyth, Chris; Effler, Paul; Smith, David; Barr, Ian G

    2016-11-01

    Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years. Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures. Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia.

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    Watkins, Rochelle E; Cooke, Feonagh C; Donovan, Robert J; MacIntyre, C Raina; Itzwerth, Ralf; Plant, Aileen J

    2007-07-17

    Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness for pandemic influenza among small and medium business owners and managers. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 201 small and medium business owners or managers in New South Wales and Western Australia. Eligible small or medium businesses were defined as those that had less than 200 employees. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of having considered the impact of, having a plan for, and needing help to prepare for pandemic influenza. Approximately 6 per cent of participants reported that their business had a plan for pandemic influenza, 39 per cent reported that they had not thought at all about the impact of pandemic influenza on their business, and over 60 per cent stated that they required help to prepare for a pandemic. Beliefs about the severity of pandemic influenza and the ability to respond were significant independent predictors of having a plan for pandemic influenza, and the perception of the risk of pandemic influenza was the most important predictor of both having considered the impact of, and needing help to prepare for a pandemic. Our findings suggest that small and medium businesses in Australia are not currently well prepared for pandemic influenza. We found that beliefs about the risk, severity, and the ability to respond effectively to the threat of pandemic influenza are important predictors of preparedness. Campaigns targeting small and medium businesses should emphasise the severity of the consequences to their

  7. Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia

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    MacIntyre C Raina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness for pandemic influenza among small and medium business owners and managers. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 201 small and medium business owners or managers in New South Wales and Western Australia. Eligible small or medium businesses were defined as those that had less than 200 employees. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of having considered the impact of, having a plan for, and needing help to prepare for pandemic influenza. Results Approximately 6 per cent of participants reported that their business had a plan for pandemic influenza, 39 per cent reported that they had not thought at all about the impact of pandemic influenza on their business, and over 60 per cent stated that they required help to prepare for a pandemic. Beliefs about the severity of pandemic influenza and the ability to respond were significant independent predictors of having a plan for pandemic influenza, and the perception of the risk of pandemic influenza was the most important predictor of both having considered the impact of, and needing help to prepare for a pandemic. Conclusion Our findings suggest that small and medium businesses in Australia are not currently well prepared for pandemic influenza. We found that beliefs about the risk, severity, and the ability to respond effectively to the threat of pandemic influenza are important predictors of preparedness. Campaigns targeting small and medium

  8. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

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    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

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    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pandemic influenza-implications for critical care resources in Australia and New Zealand.

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    Anderson, Therese A; Hart, Graeme K; Kainer, Marion A

    2003-09-01

    To quantify resource requirements (additional beds and ventilator capacity), for critical care services in the event of pandemic influenza. Cross-sectional survey about existing and potential critical care resources. Participants comprised 156 of the 176 Australasian (Australia and New Zealand) critical care units on the database of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Research Centre for Critical Care Resources. The Meltzer, Cox and Fukuda model was adapted to map a range of influenza attack rate estimates for hospitalisation and episodes likely to require intensive care and to predict critical care admission rates and bed day requirements. Estimations of ventilation rates were based on those for community-acquired pneumonia. The estimated extra number of persons requiring hospitalisation ranged from 8,455 (10% attack rate) to 150,087 (45% attack rate). The estimated number of additional admissions to critical care units ranged from 423 (5% admission rate, 10% attack rate) to 37,522 (25% admission rate, 45% attack rate). The potential number of required intensive care bed days ranged from 846 bed days (2 day length of stay, 10% attack rate) to 375,220 bed days (10 day length of stay, 45% attack rate). The number of persons likely to require mechanical ventilation ranged from 106 (25% of projected critical care admissions, 10% attack rate) to 28,142 (75% of projected critical care admissions, 45% attack rate). An additional 1,195 emergency ventilator beds were identified in public sector and 248 in private sector hospitals. Cancellation of elective surgery could release a potential 76,402 intensive care bed days (per annum), but in the event of pandemic influenza, 31,150 bed days could be required over an 8- to 12-week period. Australasian critical care services would be overwhelmed in the event of pandemic influenza. More work is required in relation to modelling, contingency plans, and resource allocation.

  11. Understanding motivators and barriers of hospital-based obstetric and pediatric health care worker influenza vaccination programs in Australia.

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    Tuckerman, Jane L; Shrestha, Lexa; Collins, Joanne E; Marshall, Helen S

    2016-07-02

    Understanding motivators and barriers of health care worker (HCW) vaccination programs is important for determining strategies to improve uptake. The aim of this study was to explore key drivers and HCW decision making related to recommended vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccination programs. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 22 HCWs working at a tertiary pediatric and obstetric hospital in South Australia. A thematic analysis and coding were used to examine data. Key motivators that emerged included: sense of responsibility, convenience and ease of access, rotating trolleys, the influenza vaccine being free, basic knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccination, peer pressure, personal values and family culture, as well as the culture of support for the program. Personal decisions were the major barrier to HCWs receiving the influenza vaccine which were predominantly self-protection related or due to previous experience or fear of adverse reactions. Other barriers that emerged were misconceptions about the influenza vaccine, needle phobia and privacy concerns. This study identified both attitudinal and structural barriers that could be addressed to improve uptake of the seasonal influenza vaccine.

  12. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

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    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  13. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

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    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  14. External validation of the Cairns Prediction Model (CPM) to predict conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.

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    Hu, Alan Shiun Yew; Donohue, Peter O'; Gunnarsson, Ronny K; de Costa, Alan

    2018-03-14

    Valid and user-friendly prediction models for conversion to open cholecystectomy allow for proper planning prior to surgery. The Cairns Prediction Model (CPM) has been in use clinically in the original study site for the past three years, but has not been tested at other sites. A retrospective, single-centred study collected ultrasonic measurements and clinical variables alongside with conversion status from consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2013 to 2016 in The Townsville Hospital, North Queensland, Australia. An area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to externally validate of the CPM. Conversion was necessary in 43 (4.2%) out of 1035 patients. External validation showed an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.93, p = 1.1 × 10 -14 ). In comparison with most previously published models, which have an AUC of approximately 0.80 or less, the CPM has the highest AUC of all published prediction models both for internal and external validation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influenza

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    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Ma. Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La influenza es una infección viral aguda de las vías respiratorias, altamente contagiosa. Es causada por el virus de la influenza A, B y C. Puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios durante epidemias, aunque tiene mayor morbilidad en los extremos de la vida. La enfermedad frecuentemente requiere de atención médica y hospitalización, contribuyendo sustancialmente a pérdidas económicas, exceso en el número de días/cama-hospital y muertes. Considerando la epidemia reciente en México del virus de...

  16. Influenza

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    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  17. An effective strategy for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in Australia: experience at a large health service without a mandatory policy.

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    Heinrich-Morrison, Kristina; McLellan, Sue; McGinnes, Ursula; Carroll, Brendan; Watson, Kerrie; Bass, Pauline; Worth, Leon J; Cheng, Allen C

    2015-02-06

    Annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) is recommended in Australia, but uptake in healthcare facilities has historically been low (approximately 50%). The objective of this study was to develop and implement a dedicated campaign to improve uptake of staff influenza annual vaccination at a large Australian health service. A quality improvement program was developed at Alfred Health, a tertiary metropolitan health service spanning 3 campuses. Pre-campaign evaluation was performed by questionnaire in 2013 to plan a multimodal vaccination strategy. Reasons for and against vaccination were captured. A campaign targeting clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers was then implemented between March 31 and July 31 2014. Proportional uptake of influenza vaccination was determined by campus and staff category. Pre-campaign questionnaire responses were received from 1328/6879 HCWs (response rate 20.4%), of which 76% were vaccinated. Common beliefs held by unvaccinated staff included vaccine ineffectiveness (37.1%), that vaccination makes staff unwell (21.0%), or that vaccination is not required because staff are at low risk for acquiring influenza (20.2%). In 2014, 6009/7480 (80.3%) staff were vaccinated, with significant improvement in uptake across all campuses and amongst nursing, medical and allied health staff categories from 2013 to 2014 (p strategy utilising social marketing and a customised staff database was successful in increasing influenza vaccination uptake by all staff categories. The sustainability of dedicated campaigns must be evaluated.

  18. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Yap, S. L.; Terças, H.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q d  = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U 0 ) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0

  19. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  20. Effect of antiviral prophylaxis on influenza outbreaks om aged care facilities in three local health districts in New South Wales, Australia, 2014

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    Tony Merritt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There was a record number (n = 111 of influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities in New South Wales, Australia during 2014. To determine the impact of antiviral prophylaxis recommendations in practice, influenza outbreak data were compared for facilities in which antiviral prophylaxis and treatment were recommended and for those in which antivirals were recommended for treatment only. Methods: Routinely collected outbreak data were extracted from the Notifiable Conditions Information Management System for two Local Health Districts where antiviral prophylaxis was routinely recommended and one Local Health District where antivirals were recommended for treatment but not routinely for prophylaxis. Data collected on residents included counts of influenza-like illness, confirmed influenza, hospitalizations and related deaths. Dates of onset, notification, influenza confirmation and antiviral recommendations were also collected for analysis. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess the significance of differences between group medians for key parameters. Results: A total of 41 outbreaks (12 in the prophylaxis group and 29 in the treatment-only group were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in overall outbreak duration; outbreak duration after notification; or attack, hospitalization or case fatality rates between the two groups. The prophylaxis group had significantly higher cases with influenza-like illness (P = 0.03 and cases recommended antiviral treatment per facility (P = 0.01. Discussion: This study found no significant difference in key outbreak parameters between the two groups. However, further high quality evidence is needed to guide the use of antivirals in responding to influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities.

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for equine influenza spread onto horse premises during the 2007 epidemic in Australia.

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    Firestone, Simon M; Schemann, Kathrin A; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2011-06-01

    The 2007 epidemic of equine influenza in Australia provided an opportunity to investigate the effectiveness of on-farm biosecurity measures in preventing the spread of a novel pathogen in a largely naive population. We conducted a case-control study of 200 horse premises from highly affected regions of the state of New South Wales (NSW), to investigate risk factors for the spread of equine influenza onto horse premises, specifically, non-compliance with biosecurity measures recommended to horse owners by the relevant animal health authority, the NSW Department of Primary Industries. The study was restricted to cases occurring during the first seven weeks of the epidemic, a period prior to vaccination and the relaxation of some movement restrictions. Case and control premises were selected from a laboratory testing dataset and interviews were conducted with horse owners and managers on premises between July and November 2009. The proximity of premises to the nearest infected premises was the factor most strongly associated with case status. Case premises were more likely than control premises to be within 5 km and beyond 10 km of an infected premises. Having a footbath in place on the premises before any horses were infected was associated with a nearly four-fold reduction in odds of infection (odds ratio=0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.83). This protective association may have reflected overall premises biosecurity standards related to the fomite transmission of equine influenza. Compliance with certain on-farm biosecurity practices seemingly prevented horses on premises in high risk areas being infected with equine influenza during the 2007 outbreak in Australia. In future outbreaks, in addition to broader disease control measures, on-farm biosecurity practices should be adopted by horse owners and managers to prevent equine influenza spread. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking Cairns: Biologging Improves the Use of Seabirds as Sentinels of the Sea

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    Emile Brisson-Curadeau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, David Cairns proposed that a gradient of colony-based measures on seabirds could be used to assess food supply in the ocean. Measures closely tied to the ocean, such as foraging trip duration, would be sensitive to small declines in food supply while measures more closely tied with the nest site, such as reproductive success, would be sensitive to large declines in food supply. The continual refinement of tracking devices holds the potential to clearly link variables measured via seabirds to food supply, possibly extending Cairns' hypothesis. Here, we review the various tests of Cairns' hypothesis, and demonstrate that those tests have had variable success, partly because of the complex and nonlinear relationships between food supply and colony-based measures. We summarize the metrics available from biologgers and argue that such devices can provide a more direct proxy of food supply. We conclude that Cairns' hypothesis can be extended to biologger-derived parameters and that seabird behavior can be used as an early warning signal for declining food supply.

  3. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  4. Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Fielding

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccination in communities in South Africa, Vietnam and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter T; Kelso, Joel K; Halder, Nilimesh; Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Barr, Ian G; Postma, Maarten J; Milne, George J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To inform national healthcare authorities whether quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) provide better value for money than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), we assessed the cost-effectiveness of TIV and QIV in low-and-middle income communities based in South Africa and Vietnam and

  6. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  7. Human coronavirus OC43 causes influenza-like illness in residents and staff of aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, C. J.; Clothier, H. J.; Seccull, A.; Tran, T.; Catton, M. C.; Lambert, S. B.; Druce, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Three outbreaks of respiratory illness associated with human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection occurred in geographically unrelated aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia during August and September 2002. On clinical and epidemiological grounds the outbreaks were first thought to be caused by influenza virus. HCoV-OC43 was detected by RT-PCR in 16 out of 27 (59%) specimens and was the only virus detected at the time of sampling. Common clinical manifestations were cough (74%), rhinorrhoea (59%) and sore throat (53%). Attack rates and symptoms were similar in residents and staff across the facilities. HCoV-OC43 was also detected in surveillance and diagnostic respiratory samples in the same months. These outbreaks establish this virus as a cause of morbidity in aged-care facilities and add to increasing evidence of the significance of coronavirus infections. PMID:15816152

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality in Cairn Terriers with normospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.

    2017-01-01

    Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......). Although some effects could be identified for selected parameters, we failed to identify a clear trend about how a 3 months VitE and/or Se supplementation affects semen parameters in normospermic Cairn Terriers....

  9. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for decades decimated overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter C; Greenway, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide unique coastal habitats critical to the life cycle of many species. Seagrasses are a major store of organic carbon. While seagrasses are globally threatened and in decline, in Cairns Harbour, Queensland, on the tropical east coast of Australia, they have flourished. We assessed seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour between 1953 and 2012 from historical aerial photographs, Google map satellite images, existing reports and our own surveys of their distribution. Seasonal seagrass physiology was assessed through gross primary production, respiration and photosynthetic characteristics of three seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii and Zostera muelleri. At the higher water temperatures of summer, respiration rates increased in all three species, as did their maximum rates of photosynthesis. All three seagrasses achieved maximum rates of photosynthesis at low tide and when they were exposed. For nearly six decades there was little change in seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour. This was most likely because the seagrasses were able to achieve sufficient light for growth during intertidal and low tide periods. With historical data of seagrass distribution and measures of species production and respiration, could seagrass survival in a changing climate be predicted? Based on physiology, our results predicted the continued maintenance of the Cairns Harbour seagrasses, although one species was more susceptible to thermal disturbance. However, in 2011 an unforeseen episodic disturbance - Tropical Cyclone Yasi - and associated floods lead to the complete and catastrophic loss of all the seagrasses in Cairns Harbour.

  10. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  11. Multibeam collection for VANC12MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-08-08 to 2003-08-16, Darwin, Australia to Cairns, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Weather-Driven Variation in Dengue Activity in Australia Examined Using a Process-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Williams, Craig; Ritchie, Scott A.; Rau, Gina; Lindesay, Janette; Mercer, Geoff; Harley, David

    2013-01-01

    The impact of weather variation on dengue transmission in Cairns, Australia, was determined by applying a process-based dengue simulation model (DENSiM) that incorporated local meteorologic, entomologic, and demographic data. Analysis showed that inter-annual weather variation is one of the significant determinants of dengue outbreak receptivity. Cross-correlation analyses showed that DENSiM simulated epidemics of similar relative magnitude and timing to those historically recorded in reported dengue cases in Cairns during 1991–2009, (r = 0.372, P < 0.01). The DENSiM model can now be used to study the potential impacts of future climate change on dengue transmission. Understanding the impact of climate variation on the geographic range, seasonality, and magnitude of dengue transmission will enhance development of adaptation strategies to minimize future disease burden in Australia. PMID:23166197

  13. Bilan du 7e congrès organisé par l’International Society For the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL, à Cairns, Australie, du 23 au 28 juillet 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guesnet Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th congress was organized by the International Society For the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL in Cairns (Australia from 23 to 28 July 2006. It joined more than 400 delegates from 35 countries. The meeting included a plenary program, with 25 conferences and selected short communications, and 32 concurrent sessions in which around 300 free communications were presented (oral + posters. The primary themes explored several areas of research on lipids, fatty acids, metabolism and cerebral functions (3 sessions and 4 plenary conferences with respect to maternal and infant health (3 sessions, ageing (1 session and Alzheimer disease (1 session, omega-3 fatty acids and mental health (1 session, PUFA metabolism (3 sessions, the impact of dietary omega-3 and trans fatty acids on several pathologies such as obesity (1 session, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome (4 sessions and 3 plenary conferences, diabetes (1 session, cancer (1 session and osteoporosis (1 session. Lastly, several concurrent sessions focused on methodological aspects for implementing new dietary sources of fatty acids (4 sessions.

  14. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  15. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same ...

  16. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  17. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  18. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  19. Emerging influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1918 the Spanish influenza pandemic, caused by an avian H1N1 virus, resulted in over 50 million deaths worldwide. Several outbreaks of H7 influenza A viruses have resulted in human cases, including one fatal case. Since 1997, the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

  20. Climate change in the Cairns and Great Barrier Reef region. Scope and Focus for an Integrated Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimp, S.; Balston, J.; Ash, A.; Anderson-Berry, L.; Done, T.; Greiner, R.; Hilbert, D.; Howden, M.; Jones, R.; Stokes, C.; Stoeckl, N.; Sutherst, B.; Whetton, P.

    2004-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the scope and focus for an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the Cairns Great Barrier Reef (CGBR) region. To achieve this, the authors employed both technical expertise and regional stakeholder input. This document describes the study objectives and the process used to meet these objectives, and provides an overview of the CGBR region, the views of technical experts on potential climate change impacts, stakeholder prioritisation of impacts and adaptation options, a list of perceived knowledge gaps, and a recommended structure for a future integrated assessment in the region. The aim of the study was to determine the scope and focus for an integrated regional assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the CGBR region. The key objectives of the study were: Define and describe the study region; Develop a process for the study, which includes key stakeholders in the region; Prepare a comprehensive list of the regional stakeholders; Brief regional stakeholders about potential climate changes in the region; Gain insight from stakeholders into the climatic dependencies of key sectors and issues in the region (agriculture, fishing, forestry, tourism, natural ecosystems, infrastructure, pests, diseases and human health); Identify possible adaptation and/or amelioration strategies for each sector; Identify synergies with other sectors, and possible barriers to undertaking climate change adaptation strategies; Identify knowledge gaps, research priorities and current activities that may need alteration or enhancement; Define the scope of a possible integrated assessment of climate change impacts on, and adaptation options for, the region

  1. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  2. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  3. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  4. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  5. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  6. Continental synchronicity of human influenza virus epidemics despite climactic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Saavedra, Aldo F; Duchêne, Sebastián; Sullivan, Sheena; Barr, Ian; Holmes, Edward C

    2018-01-01

    The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia. We used laboratory-confirmed influenza data to characterize the spread of influenza virus across Australia during 2007-2016. The onset of established epidemics varied across seasons, with highly synchronized epidemics coinciding with the emergence of antigenically distinct viruses, particularly during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. The onset of epidemics was largely synchronized between the most populous cities, even those separated by distances of >3000 km and those that experience vastly diverse climates. In addition, by analyzing global phylogeographic patterns we show that the synchronized dissemination of influenza across Australian cities involved multiple introductions from the global influenza population, coupled with strong domestic connectivity, rather than through the distinct radial patterns of geographic dispersal that are driven by work-flow transmission as observed in the United States. In addition, by comparing the spatial structure of influenza A and B, we found that these viruses tended to occupy different geographic regions, and peak in different seasons, perhaps indicative of moderate cross-protective immunity or viral interference effects. The highly synchronized outbreaks of influenza virus at a continental-scale revealed here highlight the importance of coordinated public health responses in the

  7. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia: A multi-national population-based assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin B; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited. METHODS: Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000-20...

  8. Pandemisk influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    danske myndigheder kommunikerede åbent og løbende om influenza-krisen og dens trusler. Indsatsen blev anerkendt fra alle sider og førte på intet tidspunkt til alvorlig og længerevarende kritik af myndighederne. Der var tale om en tilfredsstillende krisehåndtering, hvad angår den del, der fokuserede på...... kommunikation om denne tog en drejning i forhold til selve influenza-krisen. Myndighedernes kommunikation blev mere uklar, forvirringen voksede i befolkningen, og der blev rejst kritik i offentligheden. Forløbet rejser spørgsmålene om, den samlede håndtering af kommunikationsindsatsen kunne have været mere...

  9. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  10. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  11. Australia: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.

  12. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  14. Australia`s uranium opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, K.

    1996-12-31

    The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.

  15. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  16. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  18. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  19. Harvesting Australia's mineral wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Anderson Strathclyde plc is becoming increasingly involved in supplying equipment for the coal industry in Australia. It now has 2 subsidiary companies based in Australia: Anderson Strathclyde Australia and A B Rea.

  20. Inter-Seasonal Influenza is Characterized by Extended Virus Transmission and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Ross, Zoe; Komadina, Naomi; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Kelly, Heath A.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Barr, Ian G.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    The factors that determine the characteristic seasonality of influenza remain enigmatic. Current models predict that occurrences of influenza outside the normal surveillance season within a temperate region largely reflect the importation of viruses from the alternate hemisphere or from equatorial regions in Asia. To help reveal the drivers of seasonality we investigated the origins and evolution of influenza viruses sampled during inter-seasonal periods in Australia. To this end we conducted an expansive phylogenetic analysis of 9912, 3804, and 3941 hemagglutinnin (HA) sequences from influenza A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B, respectively, collected globally during the period 2009-2014. Of the 1475 viruses sampled from Australia, 396 (26.8% of Australian, or 2.2% of global set) were sampled outside the monitored temperate influenza surveillance season (1 May – 31 October). Notably, rather than simply reflecting short-lived importations of virus from global localities with higher influenza prevalence, we documented a variety of more complex inter-seasonal transmission patterns including “stragglers” from the preceding season and “heralds” of the forthcoming season, and which included viruses sampled from clearly temperate regions within Australia. We also provide evidence for the persistence of influenza B virus between epidemic seasons, in which transmission of a viral lineage begins in one season and continues throughout the inter-seasonal period into the following season. Strikingly, a disproportionately high number of inter-seasonal influenza transmission events occurred in tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, providing further evidence that climate plays an important role in shaping patterns of influenza seasonality. PMID:26107631

  1. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  2. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  3. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  4. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  5. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  6. ADULT INFLUENZA VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with ... .well as the potential benefit and the safety of the vaccine ..... 4.6 Antiviral agents for influenza A2 ... persons who are to travel to other areas, e.g. northern.

  7. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  8. Multibeam collection for VANC26MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-03-31 to 2004-04-10, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to Cairns, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for VANC19MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-01-07 to 2004-01-12, Cairns, Australia to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for VANC24MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-03-12 to 2004-03-19, Cairns, Australia to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for VANC30MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-05-18 to 2004-05-27, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to Cairns, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for VANC16MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-09-27 to 2003-10-05, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to Cairns, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for VANC23MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-02-29 to 2004-03-09, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea to Cairns, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for VANC27MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2004-04-16 to 2004-04-22, Cairns, Australia to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for VANC13MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-08-21 to 2003-08-26, Cairns, Australia to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  17. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  18. New treatments for influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  19. New treatments for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2012-09-13

    Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  20. Clinical factors associated with the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath KD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik D Nath,1,2 Julie G Burel,1 Viswanathan Shankar,3 Antonia L Pritchard,1 Michelle Towers,2 David Looke,1,2 Janet M Davies,1 John W Upham1,2 1The University of Queensland (School of Medicine, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background and objective: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at a high risk of developing significant complications from infection with the influenza virus. It is therefore vital to ensure that prophylaxis with the influenza vaccine is effective in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of the 2010 trivalent influenza vaccine in persons with COPD compared to healthy subjects without lung disease, and to examine clinical factors associated with the serological response to the vaccine. Methods: In this observational study, 34 subjects (20 COPD, 14 healthy received the 2010 influenza vaccine. Antibody titers at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI assay. Primary endpoints included seroconversion (≥4-fold increase in antibody titers from baseline and the fold increase in antibody titer after vaccination. Results: Persons with COPD mounted a significantly lower humoral immune response to the influenza vaccine compared to healthy participants. Seroconversion occurred in 90% of healthy participants, but only in 43% of COPD patients (P=0.036. Increasing age and previous influenza vaccination were associated with lower antibody responses. Antibody titers did not vary significantly with cigarette smoking, presence of other comorbid diseases, or COPD severity. Conclusion: The humoral immune response to the 2010 influenza vaccine was lower in persons with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. The antibody response also declined with increasing age and in those with

  1. Influenza and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses. For the this ... endorsement of a particular individual, group, company or product. Related Resources Order Patient Brochures Education & Support for ...

  2. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . Surveillance for Avian Influenza CDC, ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  3. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  4. Vírus influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de-Paris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos registros mais antigos da gripe descrita como doença é de autoria de Hipócrates, em meados do ano 412 a.C. Desta forma, seu agente etiológico, o vírus influenza, tem circulação entre a população humana há muito tempo.  Entretanto, o primeiro isolamento do vírus influenza humano ocorreu somente em 1933, realizado por Smith, Andrewes e Laidlaw, pesquisadores do “National Institute for Medical Research” – Londres. Este vírus isolado foi considerado o primeiro vírus influenza humano e denominado de “influenza A”.

  5. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  6. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  7. Energy in Australia 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.

    2011-04-01

    Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.

  8. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  10. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  11. Influenza | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Women's Health WIC Program Community Health Minority Health & Health Equity People with influenza A viruses since early March. * This late-season circulation of influenza B is expected. View the

  12. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  13. Tuberculosis in Far North Queensland, Australia: a retrospective clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Malcolm; Weston, Jana; Mullen, Annette; Knight, Trevor; Simpson, Graham

    2018-06-05

    Compared with global numbers, Australia has enjoyed relatively good tuberculosis control over the last thirty years with an annual incidence of 5.7 per 100,000 population. 1 Thanks to its unique geography and proximity to high-burden countries, such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), Far North Queensland (FNQ) has previously been shown to have higher rates of tuberculosis compared with both the state and national average. 2,3 AIMS: Document tuberculosis epidemiology in FNQ with comparison to two previous audits of the region. Retrospective clinical audit of all cases of tuberculosis notified to the Cairns Tuberculosis Control Unit between 2006 and 2016. 453 cases were identified, 374 with microbiological/histological confirmation. There were 312 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis; 155 extra-pulmonary; and 21 disseminated. Three-quarters (327/453) were identified in the overseas-born population. Of the remaining 126 cases, 40 were Torres Strait Islander and 19 Aboriginal Australians. Where drug susceptibility was known, two-thirds (247/368) were fully sensitive; 42 mono-resistant; 78 multidrug-resistant; and one extensively drug resistant. Rates of HIV co-infection were less than three percent (10/362). Tuberculosis remains a significant problem in FNQ. Case numbers have increased three-fold since the 1990s. Much of the increase comes from the overseas-born population. Although PNG accounts for the majority, the number of positive notifications amongst those born elsewhere abroad has increased five-fold since 2010. Tuberculosis amongst Aboriginal Australians has decreased following policy changes in response previous audits. Tuberculosis in Torres Strait residents, however, has increased from 12 cases (1993-2002) to 40 (2006-2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). Australian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Princess Charlotte Bay. Area 2 - Cairns. Area 3 - Cumberland Islands. Area 4 - Rockhampton. Area 5 - Brisbane. Area 6 - Coffs Harbour. Area 7 - Sydney. Area 8 - Cape Howe NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Weather Service Detachment Asheville, N. C. 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERf«) 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS National Climatic Center...Australian East Coast, Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney and Cape Howe NE. ^ 20...OVER-ALL) 1»S«-1973 AREA 0006 COFFS HARBOUR 30.3S 193.36 fERCENT FR60UENCY OF MSATHER OCCURRENCE BY NINO OIRECTION

  15. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  16. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  17. Knowledge about pandemic influenza and compliance with containment measures among Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David; Francis, J Lynn; d'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Duncan, Sarah; Islam, Fakhrul; Speare, Rick

    2009-08-01

    To examine the level of stated compliance with public health pandemic influenza control measures and explore factors influencing cooperation for pandemic influenza control in Australia. A computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted by professional interviewers to collect information on the Australian public's knowledge of pandemic influenza and willingness to comply with public health control measures. The sample was randomly selected using an electronic database and printed telephone directories to ensure sample representativeness from all Australian states and territories. After we described pandemic influenza to the respondents to ensure they understood the significance of the issue, the questions on compliance were repeated and changes in responses were analysed with McNemar's test for paired data Only 23% of the 1166 respondents demonstrated a clear understanding of the term 'pandemic influenza'. Of those interviewed, 94.1% reported being willing to comply with home quarantine; 94.2%, to avoid public events; and 90.7%, to postpone social gatherings. After we explained the meaning of 'pandemic' to interviewees, stated compliance increased significantly (to 97.5%, 98.3% and 97.2% respectively). Those who reported being unfamiliar with the term 'pandemic influenza,' male respondents and employed people not able to work from home were less willing to comply. In Australia, should the threat arise, compliance with containment measures against pandemic influenza is likely to be high, yet it could be further enhanced through a public education programme conveying just a few key messages. A basic understanding of pandemic influenza is associated with stated willingness to comply with containment measures. Investing now in promoting measures to prepare for a pandemic or other health emergency will have considerable value.

  18. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.

  19. Influenza pandemic planning guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  1. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  2. Pandemic influenza communication: views from a deliberative forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A; Street, Jackie M; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Hiller, Janet E

    2009-09-01

    To use a deliberative forum to elicit community perspectives on communication about pandemic influenza planning, and to compare these findings with the current Australian national communication strategy. Deliberative forum of 12 persons randomly selected from urban South Australia. Forum members were briefed by experts in infection control, virology, ethics and public policy before deliberating on four key questions: what, how and when should the community be told about pandemic influenza and by whom? The forum recommended provision of detailed and comprehensive information by credible experts, rather than politicians, using a variety of media including television and internet. Recommendations included cumulative communication to build expertise in the community, and specific strategies to include groups such as young people, people with physical or mental disabilities, and rural and remote communities. Information provided should be practical, accurate, and timely, with no 'holding back' about the seriousness of a pandemic. The forum expressed confidence in the expert witnesses, despite the acknowledged uncertainty of many of the predictions. The deliberative forum's recommendations were largely consistent with the Australian national pandemic influenza communication strategy and the relevant literature. However, the forum recommended: release of more detailed information than currently proposed in the national strategy; use of non-political spokespersons; and use of novel communication methods. Their acceptance of uncertainty suggests that policy makers should be open about the limits of knowledge in potentially threatening situations. Our findings show that deliberative forums can provide community perspectives on topics such as communication about pandemic influenza.

  3. Influenza-associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis Study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine; Crawford, Nigel W; Marshall, Helen; Clark, Julia E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Webster, Richard I; Cheng, Allen C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2017-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data were reviewed by an expert panel and cases were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. We extracted cases associated with laboratory identification of influenza virus for this analysis; among these cases, specific IAE syndromes were identified where clinical and radiologic features were consistent with descriptions in the published literature. We identified 13 cases of IAE during 3 southern hemisphere influenza seasons at 5 tertiary children's hospitals in Australia; 8 children with specific acute encephalopathy syndromes including: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction, mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome. Use of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and prior influenza vaccination were infrequent. In contrast, death or significant neurologic morbidity occurred in 7 of the 13 children (54%). The conditions comprising IAE are heterogeneous with varied clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging changes, and outcomes. Overall, outcome of IAE is poor emphasizing the need for optimized prevention, early recognition, and empiric management.

  4. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  5. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  6. Uranium production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)

  7. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  8. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  9. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  10. Hablemos de la Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-08

    En la charla, un médico responde a las preguntas frecuentes sobre la vacuna contra la influenza (gripe).  Created: 12/8/2010 by Centro Nacional para la Inmunización y Enfermedades Respiratorias (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2010.

  11. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  12. Hospital capacity and management preparedness for pandemic influenza in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Ben; Barr, Ian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate acute hospital pandemic influenza preparedness in Victoria, Australia, particularly focussing on planning and management efforts. A prospective study was conducted by questionnaire and semi-structured interview of health managers across the Victorian hospital system from July to October 2011. Participants with responsibility for emergency management, planning and operations were selected from every hospital in Victoria with an emergency department to complete a questionnaire (response rate 22/43 = 51%). Each respondent was invited to participate in a phone-based semi-structured interview (response rate 11/22 = 50%). Rural/regional hospitals demonstrated higher levels of clinical (86%) and non-clinical (86%) staff contingency planning than metropolitan hospitals (60% and 40% respectively). Pandemic plans were not being sufficiently tested in exercises or drills, which is likely to undermine their effectiveness. All respondents reported hand hygiene and standard precautions programs in place, although only one-third (33%) of metropolitan respondents and no rural/regional respondents reported being able to meet patient needs with high levels of staff absenteeism. Almost half Victoria's healthcare workers were unvaccinated against influenza. Hospitals across Victoria demonstrated different levels of influenza pandemic preparedness and planning. If a more severe influenza pandemic than that of 2009 arose, Victorian hospitals would struggle with workforce and infrastructure problems, particularly in rural/regional areas. Staff absenteeism threatens to undermine hospital pandemic responses. Various strategies, including education and communication, should be included with in-service training to provide staff with confidence in their ability to work safely during a future pandemic. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  14. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  15. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  16. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  17. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  18. Nuclear issues in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switkowski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: After a twenty year pause in discussion of nuclear power in Australia, the public debate has resumed in this past year - partly in search for clean, non fossil fuel energy alternatives, and partly from the different political strategies in the lead up to this year's federal election. Although there is evidence of a revival of interest in the nuclear power globally, countries considering installing their first nuclear reactor confront formidable obstacles including community concerns and long lead times. This presentation will describe the Climate Change context which shapes political and corporate strategies, possible nuclear scenarios for Australia, solutions to the still long list of reservations, and likely milestones ahead. It concludes that if we are to decarbonise our economy, and continue on a path of improving standards of living and prosperity, then any strategy for adding the required base-load electricity generation capacity must consider nuclear power for Australia

  19. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  20. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include

  1. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  2. Why do we not want to recommend influenza vaccination to young children? A qualitative study of Australian parents and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biezen, Ruby; Grando, Danilla; Mazza, Danielle; Brijnath, Bianca

    2018-02-01

    Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i.e., general practitioners, practice nurses, maternal and child health nurses, and pharmacists) and five focus groups with parents (n = 50) between June 2014 and July 2015 in Melbourne, Australia. Data were thematically analysed. Parents thought the vaccine could cause influenza, and influenza vaccination was not necessary for their children as they needed to build their own 'immunity'. Parents said that they would consider vaccinating their children if recommended by their GP and if the influenza vaccine was part of the immunisation schedule. PCPs also expressed concerns regarding the efficacy of the vaccine as well as out-of-pocket costs incurred by families, and uncertainty regarding the mortality and morbidity of influenza in otherwise healthy children. However, they said they would recommend the vaccine to high-risk groups (e.g. children with chronic disease(s), and asthma). Despite the established safety of influenza vaccines, barriers to uptake include concerns regarding the iatrogenic effects of vaccination, its administration schedule, and knowledge of influenza severity. Updated information on influenza and the efficacy of the vaccine, and incorporating influenza vaccination into the immunisation schedule may overcome some of these barriers to increase influenza vaccination in this vulnerable cohort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Summary of Guangdong provincial seminar on avian influenza and influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-yi; Chen, Qing; Hu, Gui-fang

    2005-12-01

    On 8th November 2005, an academic seminar on avian influenza and influenza in Guangdong Province was held by Guangdong Society of Tropical Medicine and the Epidemiology Committee of the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Society in Southern Medical University, addressing the current problems in epidemics of avian influenza. The specialists attending the conference arrived at the common consideration that at present, the avian influenza virus H5N1 has not the capacity to trigger an pandemic in human population, but scattered cases had been reported to increase the suspicions of H5N1 virus transmission between humans. Due attention should be paid to the tendency of expansion of the host range and epidemic area, and the possibility of disastrous influenza pandemic among human populations persists, for which rational consideration is called for, and the role of specialists should be fully recognized who are endeavoring to examine the possible scale of influenza occurrence and devise strategy to deal with the epidemic in Guangdong province according to the practical situation in China. Increased funds and investment in scientific research on avian influenza is urged for influenza prediction and surveillance, rapid and early diagnostic assays, understanding of virus variation, mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to human hosts, effective medicines and vaccines for prevention and therapy of avian influenza. Laboratory bio-safety control should be enforced to prevent infections originated from laboratories. The specialists appeal that the media report the news objectively and issue the public warnings against avian influenza after consulting specialists, so as to avoid unnecessary social panic.

  4. Influenza: prevention, prophylaxis and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three and five million cases of severe illness and between a quarter and half a million ... period from 1997 to 2001, influenza and pneumonia combined was one of the top five ... be a consequence of the influenza or due to secondary bacterial .... community-acquired pneumonia in children – South African Thoracic Society.

  5. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  6. Influenza as a human disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza as a human disease. Commonly perceived as a mild disease, affects every one, sometimes a couple of times in a year. Globally, seasonal influenza epidemics result in about three to five million yearly cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 yearly ...

  7. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  8. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, R.

    1987-01-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come

  9. Mathematical Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  10. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  11. Banknote Quality in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Cowling; Monica Howlett

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank aims to keep the quality of banknotes in circulation high to ensure that they meet the needs of the public and to make it more difficult for counterfeits to be passed or remain in circulation. This article discusses the quality of banknotes in Australia and Reserve Bank initiatives that have improved the quality of banknotes in recent years.

  12. Australia's nuclear headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, D.

    1997-01-01

    With the temporary storage of nuclear waste, constituted by HIFAR spent fuel, at Lucas Heights reaching full capacity by 1998, there is an urgent need for a technical, social and political solution. Some of the fundamental uncertainties in relation to nuclear waste disposal and hence the operation of a nuclear research reactor in Australia are presented

  13. Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Martin; Zieg, Jakub

    2017-09-07

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Two patients had bona fide TTP with ADAMTS13 activity rational treatment approaches.

  14. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  15. Climate Change. Solutions for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)

    2004-06-01

    The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.

  16. viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review 40

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family. Orthomyxoviridae. .... low pathogenicity avian influenza may be as mild as ruffled feathers, a ... influenza A viruses are zoonotic agents recognized as continuing ...

  17. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  18. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  19. WAVFH delegates' reports: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation measuring and control before Chernobyl: Continuous measurements of fallout in different parts of Australia, including the food producing areas, have been made since the mid 1950s. Levels have decreased rapidly since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere in 1974 and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1980. Measurements of concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout were made for the major groups of foods affected by the radioactive contaminants, starting in the 1950s and continuing until concentrations were so low that further effort in measurement was not warranted, i.e., less than 0.1 Bq/kg or 0.1 Bq/l. Changes in the concentrations of radionuclides in foods follow the same trends as the fallout levels. Based on the low levels of fallout measured in Australia since the 1950s, and taking into account the extremely low levels during the past decade, the concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout in foods grown and processed in Australia are extremely small. Results from the fall-out from Chernobyl. Since the Chernobyl accident, measurements of the concentrations of 137 Cs in a variety of foodstuffs grown in Australia have been made, mainly for export purposes. A summary of the results of these measurements is given in Table 111 of Attachment 2. No 134 Cs has been detected, nor is it likely to be. By taking into account these measurements, the earlier measurements of foodstuffs, predictive modelling values and the very low levels of fall-out in deposit and in air, it is concluded that the concentrations of 137 Cs in all foodstuffs grown in Australia are extremely small. Accordingly, their consumption would result in no significant risk to the health of a population. With world atmospheric conditions being as they are, it will probably be 12 to 18 months before any fallout reaches Australia. Even if some fall-out does occur, it will be minimal and should not significantly increase our very low natural levels

  20. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  1. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  2. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  3. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  4. Casemix funding in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J; Hindle, D; Phelan, P D; Hanson, R

    1998-06-01

    Casemix funding for hospitals with the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), which organise patients' conditions into similar clinical categories with similar costs, was introduced in Australia five years ago. It has been applied in different ways and to a greater or lesser extent in different Australian States. Only Victoria and South Australia have implemented casemix funding across all healthcare services. Attempts have been made to formally evaluate its impact, but they have not met the required scientific standards in controlling for confounding factors. Casemix funding remains a much-discussed issue. In this Debate, Braithwaite and Hindle take a contrary position, largely to stimulate policy debate; Phelan defends the casemix concept and advocates retaining its best features; and Hanson adds a plea for consumer input.

  5. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  6. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  7. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  8. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  9. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  10. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated October 2017 The best way to protect against flu is by getting a flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  11. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  12. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: influenza surveillance data from ten countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Busto, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C. de; Mora, D. de; Fasce, R. A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Pessanha Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Séblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  13. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Bustos, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C.; Mora, D. De; Fasce, R.A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Seblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  14. Australia needs nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A matter of increasing concern in Australian society is the absence of a Commonwealth Government policy on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The lack of University level teaching facilities in nuclear energy engineering is also perceived to be an issue of national importance which must be addressed. More and more Australians deeply regret the lack of informed realism and scientific integrity which goes into endless debates on the technical, environmental and societal aspects of nuclear energy. Within the Australian community such important issues as uranium mining in Kakadu National Park, research reactor operation at Lucas Heights, the establishment of an international nuclear waste repository in Western Australia or the domestic use of nuclear electricity generation to minimise Australia's greenhouse emissions are still being debated at the intellectual level of radio talkback programs. Decision making in such areas deserves the disciplines of appropriate tertiary education. The Australian community has a right to know the relative risks and the environmental impacts of various fuel cycles as well as the technical limitations, true costs and energy audits of the 'alternative' energy technologies. Presently the Commonwealth of Australia is without a single School of Nuclear Engineering operating at a University level. Such a situation is believed to be unprecedented amongst the developed countries of the world. It is viewed with a measure of incredulity by the academic, diplomatic and political communities of the 'developing' countries of East Asia and the Pacific Basin. Many of these have a massive investment in the growth of peaceful nuclear energy and nuclear science and technology within their borders. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Energy News

  15. Australia's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Sneddon Little

    2002-01-01

    According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.

  16. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  17. Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place

  18. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae ...

  19. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  20. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  1. Active SMS-based influenza vaccine safety surveillance in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Alexis; Quinn, Helen; Cashman, Patrick; Leeb, Alan; Macartney, Kristine

    2017-12-18

    Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey. Retrospective data from 2 years were combined to examine specific AEFI rates, particularly fever and medical attendance as a proxy for serious adverse events (SAE), with and without concomitant vaccine administration. As trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) were funded in Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP) in 2015 and quadrivalent (QIV) in 2016, respectively, we compared their safety profiles. 7402 children were included. Data were reported weekly through each vaccination season; no safety signals or excess of adverse events were detected. More children who received a concomitant vaccine had fever (7.5% versus 2.8%; p vaccine was associated with the highest increase in AEFI rates among children receiving a specified concomitant vaccine: 30.3% reported an AEFI compared with 7.3% who received an influenza vaccine alone (p safety profiles included low and expected AEFI rates (fever: 4.3% for TIV compared with 3.2% for QIV (p = .015); injection site reaction: 1.9% for TIV compared with 3.0% for QIV (p safety profile between brands. Active participant-reported data provided timely vaccine brand-specific safety information. Our surveillance system has particular utility in monitoring the safety of influenza vaccines, given that they may vary in composition annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  3. Year book Australia 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R J

    1985-01-01

    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all aspects of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence and repatriation services and international relations. The first Official Year Book was published in 1908. This is the sixty-ninth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However, chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1983 or 1984. More detailed, and in many cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications. The more significant of these publications are listed at the end of the relevant chapters of the Year book; the ABS Catalogue of Publications (1101.0) lists all current publications of the ABS.

  4. Ground for concern. Australia's uranium and human survival. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, M

    1977-01-01

    The book contains a number of articles which propose that Australia should not mine and export its uranium in order to influence the nuclear establishment against uncontrollable proliferation. Topics covered include: uranium mining in Australia, reactor safety, nuclear wastes, nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear theft and the politics of the nuclear industry.

  5. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  6. Screening for influenza viruses in 7804 patients with influenza-like symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuehui Li; Nan Lv; Chen Hangwe; Lanhua You; Huimin Wang

    2010-01-01

    To screen a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms by using the gold-immunochromatographic assay kit. All patients with influenza-like symptoms visiting the outpatient department of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China between May 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected immediately after the patient visited, then a gold-immunochromatographic assay was performed for screening of influenza A and B viruses according to the kit protocol. Among the 7804 patients enrolled in this study, 202 patients were influenza virus-positive; the positive cases accounted for 2.6% of all cases detected. Among the 202 influenza virus-positive patients, 171 patients were influenza virus A-positive, 24 were influenza virus B-positive, and 7 were co-infected with influenza virus A and B. More than 57% of the virus-positive patients were younger than 30 years old. Symptoms such as fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain were more frequently observed in influenza virus A-positive patients than in influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients. The gold immunochromatographic assay kit is very useful for screening a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms. A higher number of influenza virus A-positive patients have sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain than influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients (Author).

  7. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  8. Influenza and risk of later celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Gunnes, Nina; Størdal, Ketil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Influenza has been linked to autoimmune conditions, but its relationship to subsequent celiac disease (CD) is unknown. Our primary aim was to determine the risk of CD after influenza. A secondary analysis examined the risk of CD following pandemic influenza vaccination. METHODS...

  9. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  10. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  11. Influenza Vaccination in Community Dwelling Elderly Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.G. Voordouw (Bettie)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn influenza epidemic was first described in 1173, although there are reports of influenza as early as 412 BC. Recurrent epidemics and incidental pandemics caused by influenza virus are documented since the last 400 years. These were based upon clinical observation and epidemiology.

  12. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  13. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  14. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  15. History and evolution of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovari, P; Alberti, M; Alicino, C

    2011-09-01

    Since the isolation of influenza virus in 1933, a great deal of work was carried out in order to develop influenza vaccines and improve these fundamental tools of prevention in terms of production, quality control, safety and tolerability, and immunogenicity. The paper summarizes the cornerstones of the continuous evolution of influenza vaccines and the most recent and promising developments in this field.

  16. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  17. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  18. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...

  19. Building nuclear skills in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for nuclear skills in Australia has traditionally been met by recruitment but as the nuclear industry grows worldwide, such skills are in demand. This paper discusses he likely numbers of skilled people needed for a nuclear industry in Australia and what initiatives have been, or could be in, taken to address the needs

  20. Lexicography in Australia | Delbridge | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of Australian English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal languages touched on. The greatest change in the language setting came with Australia's immigration policy in its post-World War II form. This resulted in the government's eventual recognition of Australia ...

  1. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  2. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  3. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  4. Astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F.; Couch, W.

    2017-12-01

    Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.

  5. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.

  6. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  7. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-05

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.  Created: 3/5/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/5/2009.

  8. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Influenza Transmission Using Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Kiang, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that has significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden worldwide. It infects approximately 5-15% of the world population, and causes 250,000 500,000 deaths each year. The role of environments on influenza is often drawn upon the latitude variability of influenza seasonality pattern. In regions with temperate climate, influenza epidemics exhibit clear seasonal pattern that peak during winter months, but it is not as evident in the tropics. Toward this end, we developed mathematical model and forecasting capabilities for influenza in regions characterized by warm climate Hong Kong (China) and Maricopa County (Arizona, USA). The best model for Hong Kong uses Land Surface Temperature (LST), precipitation and relative humidity as its covariates. Whereas for Maricopa County, we found that weekly influenza cases can be best modelled using mean air temperature as its covariates. Our forecasts can further guides public health organizations in targeting influenza prevention and control measures such as vaccination.

  10. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  11. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  12. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  13. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  15. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  16. Anti-influenza Hyperimmune Immunoglobulin Enhances Fc-functional Antibody Immunity during Human Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Wragg, Kathleen; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Kristensen, Anne B; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Wheatley, Adam K; Wentworth, Deborah; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark; Rockman, Steve; Kent, Stephen J

    2018-05-31

    New treatments for severe influenza are needed. Passive transfer of influenza-specific hyperimmune pooled immunoglobulin (Flu-IVIG) boosts neutralising antibody responses to past strains in influenza-infected subjects. The effect of Flu-IVIG on antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, which may target diverse influenza strains, is unclear. We studied the capacity of Flu-IVIG, relative to standard IVIG, to bind to Fc receptors and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. The effect of Flu-IVIG infusion, compared to placebo infusion, was examined in serial plasma samples from 24 subjects with confirmed influenza infection in the INSIGHT FLU005 pilot study. Flu-IVIG contains higher concentrations of Fc-functional antibodies than IVIG against a diverse range of influenza hemagglutinins. Following infusion of Flu-IVIG into influenza-infected subjects, a transient increase in Fc-functional antibodies was present for 1-3 days against infecting and non-infecting strains of influenza. Flu-IVIG contains antibodies with Fc-mediated functions against influenza virus and passive transfer of Flu-IVIG increases anti-influenza Fc-functional antibodies in the plasma of influenza-infected subjects. Enhancement of Fc-functional antibodies to a diverse range of influenza strains suggests that Flu-IVIG infusion could prove useful in the context of novel influenza virus infections, when there may be minimal or no neutralising antibodies in the Flu-IVIG preparation.

  17. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  18. Flu (Influenza) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fluinfluenzatest.html Flu (Influenza) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Flu (Influenza) Test? Influenza, known as the flu , is ...

  19. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  20. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  1. Australia's unresolved nuclear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines three acts of monumental incompetence which have all but destroyed Australia's once great potential to play a leading role in nuclear technology in South East Asia. Political chicanery and monumental technological and economic foresight, professional weakness and vacillation in the engineering community and the vicious pseudo scientific propaganda of most branches of the media, the teaching profession and sadly, even the politicisation of our churches, has all but destroyed a potential Australian ''sunrise industry''. Over the next forty years the population of planet Earth will approximately double. Unless Australians realise that their children and grand-children, and future generations of our neighbouring third world countries will require nuclear technology for an equitable and acceptable shared life-style, they will continue to allow taxpayers' money to be wasted on costly, technically unacceptable and environmentally undesirable attempts to develop ''alternative'' or ''renewable'' energy sources. These are neither alternative nor renewable but politically trendy. The tragedy of such projects is that their limited applicability and suitability for small scale energy production by wealthy users in limited geographical locations will only increase the need for base load energy supplies of the conventional type. Unless this is nuclear, planet Earth faces environmental despolation of monumental proportions. (J.P.N.)

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  3. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  4. Expectations of vulnerability in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Neikirk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of refugees to gain admission to Australia is increasingly based on perceptions of helplessness, suffering and ‘deservingness’. One consequence is that men in particular are marginalised following resettlement.

  5. Migration from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  6. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  7. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  8. Formulation of influenza T cell peptides : in search of a universal influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soema, Peter Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines rely on the induction of antibodies to neutralize the virus. However, influenza viruses frequently undergo genetic mutations due to antigenic drift and shift, altering the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to which antibodies usually bind. This

  9. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.

    1991-01-01

    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  10. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  11. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  12. Transforming growth factor-β: activation by neuraminidase and role in highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Carlson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, a multifunctional cytokine regulating several immunologic processes, is expressed by virtually all cells as a biologically inactive molecule termed latent TGF-β (LTGF-β. We have previously shown that TGF-β activity increases during influenza virus infection in mice and suggested that the neuraminidase (NA protein mediates this activation. In the current study, we determined the mechanism of activation of LTGF-β by NA from the influenza virus A/Gray Teal/Australia/2/1979 by mobility shift and enzyme inhibition assays. We also investigated whether exogenous TGF-β administered via a replication-deficient adenovirus vector provides protection from H5N1 influenza pathogenesis and whether depletion of TGF-β during virus infection increases morbidity in mice. We found that both the influenza and bacterial NA activate LTGF-β by removing sialic acid motifs from LTGF-β, each NA being specific for the sialic acid linkages cleaved. Further, NA likely activates LTGF-β primarily via its enzymatic activity, but proteases might also play a role in this process. Several influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, H5N9, H6N1, and H7N3 except the highly pathogenic H5N1 strains activated LTGF-β in vitro and in vivo. Addition of exogenous TGF-β to H5N1 influenza virus-infected mice delayed mortality and reduced viral titers whereas neutralization of TGF-β during H5N1 and pandemic 2009 H1N1 infection increased morbidity. Together, these data show that microbe-associated NAs can directly activate LTGF-β and that TGF-β plays a pivotal role protecting the host from influenza pathogenesis.

  13. Human Phase 1 trial of low-dose inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David L; Sajkov, Dimitar; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Wilks, Samuel H; Aban, Malet; Barr, Ian G; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-07-19

    Influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted but addition of adjuvant may improve immunogenicity and permit dose-sparing, critical for vaccine supply in the event of an influenza pandemic. The aim of this first-in-man study was to determine the effect of delta inulin adjuvant on the safety and immunogenicity of a reduced dose seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy male and female adults aged 18-65years were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled study to compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a reduced-dose 2007 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (LTIV+Adj) when compared to a full-dose of the standard TIV vaccine which does not contain an adjuvant. LTIV+Adj provided equivalent immunogenicity to standard TIV vaccine as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against each vaccine strain as well as against a number of heterosubtypic strains. HI responses were sustained at 3months post-immunisation in both groups. Antibody landscapes against a large panel of H3N2 influenza viruses showed distinct age effects whereby subjects over 40years old had a bimodal baseline HI distribution pattern, with the highest HI titers against the very oldest H3N2 isolates and with a second HI peak against influenza isolates from the last 5-10years. By contrast, subjects >40years had a unimodal baseline HI distribution with peak recognition of H3N2 isolates from approximately 20years ago. The reduced dose TIV vaccine containing Advax adjuvant was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Hence, delta inulin may be a useful adjuvant for use in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000599471. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  15. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  16. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  17. Molecular detection and typing of influenza viruses. Are we ready for an influenza pandemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, W.G.; Loon, A.M. van; Niedrig, M.; Meijer, A.; Lina, B.; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cannot predict when an influenza pandemic will occur or which variant of the virus will cause it. Little information is currently available on the ability of laboratories to detect and subtype influenza viruses including the avian influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability

  18. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  19. Evolution of Therapeutic Antibodies, Influenza Virus Biology, Influenza, and Influenza Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Chaisri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment against both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Influenza, a highly contagious disease, precipitates annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, resulting in high health and economic burden worldwide. Currently available drugs are becoming less and less effective against this rapidly mutating virus. Alternative treatment strategies are needed, particularly for individuals at high risk for severe morbidity. In a setting where vaccines are not yet protective or available, human antibodies that are broadly effective against various influenza subtypes could be highly efficacious in lowering morbidity and mortality and controlling unprecedented epidemic/pandemic. Prototypes of human single-chain antibodies to several conserved proteins of influenza virus with no Fc portion (hence, no ADE effect in recipients are available. These antibodies have high potential as a novel, safe, and effective anti-influenza agent.

  20. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  1. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  2. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD

  3. Virulence determinants of pandemic influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, Donna M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause recurrent, seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. The ability of influenza A viruses to adapt to various hosts and undergo reassortment events ensures constant generation of new strains with unpredictable degrees of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and pandemic potential. Currently, the combination of factors that drives the emergence of pandemic influenza is unclear, making it impossible to foresee the details of a future outbreak. Identification and characterization of influenza A virus virulence determinants may provide insight into genotypic signatures of pathogenicity as well as a more thorough understanding of the factors that give rise to pandemics. PMID:21206092

  4. The safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in Australian children in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nicholas J; Blyth, Chris C; Willis, Gabriela A; Richmond, Peter; Gold, Michael S; Buttery, Jim P; Crawford, Nigel; Crampton, Michael; Yin, J Kevin; Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Macartney, Kristine

    2014-11-17

    To examine influenza vaccine safety in Australian children aged under 10 years in 2013. Active prospective surveillance study conducted with parents or carers of children who received influenza vaccine in outpatient clinics at six tertiary paediatric hospitals or from selected primary health care providers between 18 March and 19 July 2013. Parental-reported frequency of systemic reactions (fever, headache, nausea, abdominal symptoms, convulsions, rash, rigors and fatigue), injection site reactions (erythema, swelling and/or pain at the injection site), use of antipyretics or analgesics, and medical attendance or advice within 72 hours after vaccination. Of 981 children enrolled in the surveillance, 893 children aged 6 months to children received 1052 influenza vaccine doses. Fever was reported in 5.5% (95% CI, 4.1%-7.3%) and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%) of children after Doses 1 and 2, respectively. One febrile convulsion occurred in a child with a known seizure disorder. Injection site reactions occurred in 21.2% (95% CI, 18.5%-24.1%) and 6.0% (95% CI, 3.1%-10.2%) after Doses 1 and 2, respectively; most were mild. Very few parents sought medical follow-up for their child's reaction: 22 (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.6%-3.9%) after Dose 1, and 11 (5.5%; 95% CI, 2.8%-9.6%) after Dose 2. These results are consistent with clinical trials and other observational studies of influenza vaccines currently registered for use in young children in Australia and can reassure parents and health care providers that influenza vaccination is safe and well tolerated.

  5. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  6. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus--the unrecognised cause of health and economic burden among young children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Brown, Laurie; Lidbury, Brett A

    2011-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents very similar to influenza and is the principle cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children worldwide. Yet, there is no systematic monitoring of RSV activity in Australia. This study uses existing published data sources to estimate incidence, hospitalisation rates, and associated costs of RSV among young children in Australia. Published reports from the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, a passive voluntary surveillance system, and the National Hospital Morbidity Dataset were used to estimate RSV-related age-specific hospitalisation rates in New South Wales and Australia. These estimates and national USA estimates of RSV-related hospitalisation rates were applied to Australian population data to estimate RSV incidence in Australia. Direct economic burden was estimated by applying cost estimates used to derive economic cost associated with the influenza virus. The estimated RSV-related hospitalisation rates ranged from 2.2-4.5 per 1,000 among children less than 5 years of age to 8.7-17.4 per 1,000 among infants. Incidence ranged from 110.0-226.5 per 1,000 among the under five age group to 435.0-869.0 per 1,000 among infants. The total annual direct healthcare cost was estimated to be between $24 million and $50 million. Comparison with the health burdens attributed to the influenza virus and rotavirus suggests that the disease burden caused by RSV is potentially much higher. The limitations associated with using a passive surveillance system to estimate disease burden, and the need to explore further assessments and to monitor RSV activity are discussed.

  8. Comparative population assessments of Nautilus sp. in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, and American Samoa using baited remote underwater video systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Barord

    Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.

  9. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; van Genderen, P; Ward, B J; Wilder-Smith, A; Steffen, R; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some travellers. © International Society of

  10. Stockpiling Ventilators for Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Araz, Ozgur M; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Damien, Paul; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-06-01

    In preparing for influenza pandemics, public health agencies stockpile critical medical resources. Determining appropriate quantities and locations for such resources can be challenging, given the considerable uncertainty in the timing and severity of future pandemics. We introduce a method for optimizing stockpiles of mechanical ventilators, which are critical for treating hospitalized influenza patients in respiratory failure. As a case study, we consider the US state of Texas during mild, moderate, and severe pandemics. Optimal allocations prioritize local over central storage, even though the latter can be deployed adaptively, on the basis of real-time needs. This prioritization stems from high geographic correlations and the slightly lower treatment success assumed for centrally stockpiled ventilators. We developed our model and analysis in collaboration with academic researchers and a state public health agency and incorporated it into a Web-based decision-support tool for pandemic preparedness and response.

  11. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  12. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.

    1974-12-01

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  13. Development of stable influenza vaccine powder formulations : Challenges and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought

  14. Recommendations pertaining to the use of influenza vaccines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination is the most effective strategy to prevent influenza. It is recommended that influenza vaccine be administered each year before the influenza season, i.e. from March to June, although for individuals at increased risk of severe influenza in whom vaccination was missed, vaccine may be administered later.

  15. Viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the most important viruses associated with human and animal influenza are reported. These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A virus being the most pathogenic and wide spread with many subtypes has constantly cause epidemics in several ...

  16. Increasing Influenza Vaccine Uptake. A Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans - van den Akker, I.

    2009-01-01

    General introduction: To prevent influenza virus infection, immunization against influenza has been recommended for individuals with increased risk of complications. These groups comprise individuals of 60 years and older, individuals with risk-elevating co-morbid conditions, residents of nursing

  17. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  18. Societal and economic consequences of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-10-01

    High rates of vaccination coverage for preschool and school-aged children can reduce morbidity and mortality related to influenza outbreak. More focused and effective influenza prevention strategies are necessary to improve quality of life and to limit the burden of flu complications.

  19. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  20. Spontaneous Subconjunctival Abscess Because of Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    any recent sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal discharge, or sores. Her past medical history included mild seasonal allergies and no history of...culture confirmed a nontypeable strain of H. influenzae. DISCUSSION H. influenzae is a small aerobic Gram-negative cocco- bacillus found mainly in the

  1. Global spread and control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/G...

  2. Avian Influenza: A growing threat to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is probably the most widespread avian influenza subtype in poultry around the world being endemic in a large part of Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and in Germany. Currently, there is no standardized clade system to describe the antigenic vari...

  3. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  4. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza

  5. Australia's role in Pacific energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region

  6. Progress on RERTR issues in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, M.I.; Horlock, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Australia has long been involved with and sympathetic to the goals of the RERTR program. This overview paper gives a brief introduction to RERTR-related activities in Australia since RERTR-2000. (author)

  7. Measuring Research Impact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of the national Research Engagement and Impact Assessment in Australia provides a timely opportunity to review attempts to improve the non-academic impact of academic research. The impact agenda represents a new phase in academic research evaluation and funding, characterised by a heightened need to demonstrate a return on…

  8. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099

  9. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  10. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  11. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  12. (Highly pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a zoonotic agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff , Donata; Globig , Anja; Beer , Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence b...

  13. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Performance of the Quidel Sofia Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test During the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 Influenza Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Performance of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza diagnostic test during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons Peter E. Kammerer, Jennifer M... Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay was used to test nasal swab specimens from patients with influenza -like illness at US–Mexico border-area clinics in...the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Compared with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the overall sensitivities and

  15. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  16. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  17. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  18. Parents’ Experience and Views of Vaccinating Their Child against Influenza at Primary School and at the General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Paterson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents’ experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March–June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia. The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents’ perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents’ view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs.

  19. Parents’ Experience and Views of Vaccinating Their Child against Influenza at Primary School and at the General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Will; Larson, Heidi J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents’ experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP). A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March–June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents’ perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents’ view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs. PMID:29597341

  20. Parents' Experience and Views of Vaccinating Their Child against Influenza at Primary School and at the General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Schulz, Will; Utley, Martin; Larson, Heidi J

    2018-03-28

    The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents' experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP). A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March-June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents' perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents' view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs.

  1. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea in Queensland, Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Skelly, Chris; Dohnt, Michael; Smythe, Lee D

    2015-06-14

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease, with increasing frequency and severity of outbreaks, changing epidemiology of populations at risk, and the emergence of new serovars. Environmental drivers of disease transmission include flooding, urbanisation, poor sanitation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, and socioeconomic factors. In Queensland, human infection with Leptosira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea was first reported in 2001. This study aims to report the emergence of serovar Arborea in Queensland from 2001 to 2013, and investigate potential risk factors for infection and drivers of emergence. Data on laboratory-confirmed cases of human leptospirosis in Queensland were obtained from the enhanced surveillance system at the WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis in Brisbane, Australia. The changing epidemiology of serovar Arborea from 2001 to 2003 was described with respect to case numbers, proportion of leptospirosis cases attributed to the serovar, and geographic distribution. Differences in risk factors for the most common serovars were compared. During this period, 1289 cases of leptospirosis were reported, including 233 cases attributed to serovar Arborea. Risk factors for infection include male gender (91 % of cases), occupation, and recreational exposure. Most common occupations recorded were banana workers (28.4 %), meat workers (7.2 %), dairy farmers (5.8 %), graziers/stockmen (5.5 %), 'other agricultural/rural workers' (16.4 %), and tourists or tourism operators (4.6 %). Time trend analysis showed that while non-Arborea cases decreased over the study period, Arborea cases increased by 3.4 cases per year. The proportion of annual cases attributed to Arborea peaked at 49 % in 2011 after unprecedented flooding in Queensland. Mapping of cases by residential location showed expansion of the geographic range of serovar Arborea, concentrating mostly around Brisbane, Cairns and Innisfail. Serovars

  2. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  3. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  4. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Big gas project for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. The impact of a vaccine scare on parental views, trust and information needs: a qualitative study in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine King

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccine safety scares can undermine public confidence in vaccines and decrease immunisation rates. Understanding and addressing parental concerns arising during such scares can assist in lessening their impact. In Australia in April 2010 there was a temporary suspension of influenza vaccine for children under 5 years of age after reports of an increase in the rate of adverse events following vaccination. This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of the vaccine suspension on parental knowledge, attitudes, trust, information needs, and intent related to influenza vaccination and broader immunisation programs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of children attending childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, between June 2010 and May 2011. Centres were selected to include parents from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed using an approach informed by grounded theory. Results Findings indicated that, for those who recalled the vaccine suspension, there was a lasting sense of uncertainty and confusion and a perceived lack of information. Parents had distinct information needs following the vaccine suspension, especially in regards to vaccine safety, testing and recommendations. For many, influenza vaccination intent was conditional on receipt of information from a trusted, authoritative source allaying safety concerns. Importantly, the impact of the scare was contained to influenza vaccines only, and not other vaccine programs. Conclusions Parental concerns and information gaps following a vaccine safety scare need to be actively addressed. We provide policy and practice suggestions for proactively managing such incidents, particularly in relation to communication of timely, targeted information to parents and immunisation providers.

  8. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season.

  9. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007–2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was...

  10. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  11. Observing urban forests in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...

  12. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  13. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, P A

    1982-11-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. So far, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment.

  14. Atomic Australia: 1944-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, Alice.

    1992-01-01

    This book tells how successive Australian governments pursued the elusive uranium dream. With Australian uranium committed to the West's atomic arsenals, Australia seemed set to become a nation powered by the atom. But by the mid-1950 the Australian government learnt that their expectations were premature, if not unrealistic. The background of the creation of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is also given along with the examination of the uranium controversies of the 1970s and 1980s. 150 refs

  15. Progress in food irradiation: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in food irradiation treatment of Australian commodities, such as meat, pepper, honey, fruit is described. Irradiation took place with 60 Co gamma radiation while testing for radiation sensitivity of Staphyllococcus in meat, of Bacillus aureus in pepper, of Streptococcus plutin and Bacillus larvae in honey, and of the fruitfly Dacus tryoni infesting fruit. Sofar, two State Health Commissions in Australia have authorised irradiation of shrimps with their sale being restricted to the State authorising treatment. (AJ) [de

  16. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  17. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication.......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  18. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  19. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug...

  20. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication....

  1. Australia: Approaching an energy crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Jim; Settle, Domenica

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers energy policy in Australia in the context of its considerable energy resources, climate change and a recent change in government. It examines the possible paths that future energy use and policy in Australia could take, including published projections based largely on a 'business as usual' approach and projections based on a dramatic shift towards more efficient use of energy and renewable energy technologies. It also considers the various factors affecting future policy direction, including energy security, the advocacy in Australia for establishing nuclear electricity generation and other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle, responses to climate change, and carbon sequestration. It concludes that while the Australian Government is currently reluctant to move away from a dependence on coal, and unlikely to adopt nuclear energy generation, a low-emissions future without waiting for the deployment of carbon capture and storage and without resorting to nuclear power is within reach. However, in the face of strong pressure from interest groups associated with energy intensive industry, making the necessary innovations will require further growth of community concern about climate change, and the development of greater understanding of the feasibility of employing low carbon-emissions options.

  2. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y.; Lafond, Kathryn E.; Storms, Aaron D.; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Storey, J. Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 vir...

  3. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  4. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  5. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  6. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to the loss of tens of millions of birds, either to disease or preventive culling. ... is to stimulate regional collaboration on avian influenza prevention and control. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  8. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2017-01-01

    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  10. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Morris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012. Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  15. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  16. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  17. Influenza [Perspectives in medical virology, v. 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, C. W

    2002-01-01

    ..." [publisher's web site]. "Since the influenza virus was first isolated in the laboratory some 70 years ago, the disease has been the subject of intense study, and our knowledge has escalated as the newer techniques...

  18. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  19. Mink kan også have influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    , hvis der opstår mistanke om influenza ved obduktionen, eller hvis der er alvorlige langvarige udbrud. For at kunne iværksætte foranstaltninger, der begrænser forekomsten af influenza hos mink, er det nødvendigt at kende udbredelsen af influenzavirus blandt farmede mink i Danmark. Formålet med denne...... minkobduktionskursus, samt vilde mink. Der blev påvist influenza A virus i mink fra otte farme. Genetiske analyser indikerede, at disse virus stammede fra både danske svin og mennesker. For at forebygge udbrud af influenza i farmede mink anbefales det, at undgå kontakt mellem mink og influenzasyge personer, samt sikre...

  20. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  1. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  2. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  3. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  4. siRNA for Influenza Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailen Barik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA, has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  5. siRNA for Influenza Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2010-07-01

    Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA), has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  6. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  7. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  8. I costi dell’influenza in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lucioni

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenza is an acute viral infection that strikes respiratory tract and its diffusion is characteristic of epidemic and pandemic reoccurence. Globally the influenza represents, for the entity of its social impact (measurable in terms of morbility, hospitalization and mortality, a heavy healt care problem. In Italy the estimated incidence is 10-15%: the influenza is the third death cause for infectiuos disease, after AIDS and tubercolosis. This study is based on the Studio 606, the first italian study that allow us to pass from the presumptive phase to the observational one. The Studio 606 has been projected and realized by the Società Italiana di Medicina Generale (SIMG, involving about 200 general practitioners (MMG in two sample region, Lombardia and Puglia. The study has been developed between December the 15th, 1998 and March the 15th, 1999. The influenza causes especially indirect costs: most of people affected with influenza doesn’t go to work for about five days and these absences create an average cost per capita of £558.000. This indirect cost represents 87% of total average cost of one single influenza event.

  9. Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics, an...

  10. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  11. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  12. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  14. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  16. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured

  17. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Flu Treating Flu What is Influenza (also called Flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  18. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called “variant” ...

  19. Mapping of the US Domestic Influenza Virologic Surveillance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Barbara; Schwerzmann, Joy; Mustaquim, Desiree; Aden, Tricia; Brammer, Lynnette; Humes, Rosemary; Shult, Pete; Shahangian, Shahram; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Miller, Joseph; Jernigan, Daniel

    2018-07-17

    Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  1. tion and/or treatment of influenza virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    more frequent in children and more seri- ous in the elderly, ... The main option for the prevention of influenza and ... rapid development of influenza virus resistance ... drugs that affect the CNS, particu- .... include employees of hospitals, clinics ...

  2. Influenza Virus and Glycemic Variability in Diabetes: A Killer Combination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina D. Hulme

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, numerous studies identified the striking link between diabetes mellitus and influenza disease severity. Typically, influenza virus is a self-limiting infection but in individuals who have a pre-existing chronic illness, such as diabetes mellitus, severe influenza can develop. Here, we discuss the latest clinical and experimental evidence for the role of diabetes in predisposing the host to severe influenza. We explore the possible mechanisms that underlie this synergy and highlight the, as yet, unexplored role that blood glucose oscillations may play in disease development. Diabetes is one of the world’s fastest growing chronic diseases and influenza virus represents a constant and pervasive threat to human health. It is therefore imperative that we understand how diabetes increases influenza severity in order to mitigate the burden of future influenza epidemics and pandemics.

  3. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses. Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenza-virus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and nucleic acid-based vaccines. This review discusses recent scientific advances in the development of next-generation universal influenza vaccines.

  4. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  5. The new energy technologies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  7. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)

  8. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reassortant viruses during the 2001–2002 influenza season. J Infect Dis 186: 1490–1493. 6. Taubenberger...Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry Rangarajan Sampath1*, Kevin L. Russell2, Christian Massire1, Mark W...Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America Background. Effective influenza surveillance requires

  9. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Saha, Siddhartha; Barnes, John; Smith, Catherine; Shaw, Michael; Chadha, Mandeep; Lal, Renu B.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June. PMID:25279651

  10. Rural male suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  12. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorentino, C.M.R.; Butler, R.D.; Thomas, C.M.; McIlveen, G.R.; Huxlin, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  13. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  14. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  16. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  18. Influenza: the next pandemic?: a review | Adungo, | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the diversity of susceptible reservoirs of influenza viruses and the interspecies transmission recently reported, a mutated strain of the virus to which people have no immunity could cause an influenza pandemic once the virus gains efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission. The fear that avian influenza ...

  19. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... Secretary issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended a number of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was published on January 26, 2007,\\1\\ and was...

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Type a Meningitis in Immunocompetent Child, Oman, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawardekar, Kiran P

    2017-07-01

    Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was eliminated in Oman after the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2001. However, a case of H. influenzae type a meningitis was diagnosed in a child from Oman in 2015, which highlights the need to monitor the incidence of invasive non-Hib H. influenzae disease.

  1. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  2. Workplace health and safety during pandemic influenza : CAGC guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    Pandemic influenza is a possible biological hazard that employers must take into account during hazard assessment and emergency planning. This report presented a guideline to all workplaces in Alberta and provided information on legislated requirements, best practices, guidelines and strategies in workplace health and safety and employment standards in the event of a pandemic influenza. The report explained the difference between a pandemic and a pandemic influenza, and why scientists expect another pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza was described as being different from seasonal influenza. This document also explained how pandemic influenza relates to the worker and the workplace, and how the workplace can prepare for and respond to pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza hazard categories were also listed along with steps in the hazard assessment and control of pandemic influenza. The steps involve listing the types of work and work-related activities; identifying the hazard; assessing the hazards; implementing controls; communicating the information to workers and providing training; and evaluating the effectiveness of controls. The guide also addressed emergency response plan development for pandemic influenza; first aid; and employment standards during pandemic influenza. refs., tabs.

  3. Bestrijding van aviaire influenza onder pluimvee: vaccinatie als aanvullende mogelijkheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, P van; Breytenbach, J; Schueller, S

    2006-01-01

    Since mid-December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused an epidemic in the Asian poultry sector and avian influenza cases have been reported in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Human fatalities catapulted avian influenza into the public arena with fears of a possible global

  4. Considerable progress in European preparations for a potential influenza pandemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.

    2005-01-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic has been heightened in the past two years by outbreaks of avian influenza concentrated in South East Asia which have resulted in human deaths. So far, the avian influenza virus seems difficult to transmit from human to human, but changes in the virus genome may

  5. Influenza A induced cellular signal transduction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Bleiblo, Farag; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Rutherford, Michael; Khurana, Sandhya; Tai, T.C.; Kumar, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae Family. This enveloped virus contains 8 segments of viral RNA which encodes 11 viral proteins. Influenza A infects humans and is the causative agent of the flu. Annually it infects approximately 5% to 15% of the population world wide and results in an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths a year. The nature of influenza A replication results in a high mutation rate which results in the need for seasonal vaccinations. In addition the zoonotic nature of the influenza virus allows for recombination of viral segments from different strains creating new variants that have not been encountered before. This type of mutation is the method by which pandemic strains of the flu arises. Infection with influenza results in a respiratory illness that for most individuals is self limiting. However in susceptible populations which include individuals with pre-existing pulmonary or cardiac conditions, the very young and the elderly fatal complications may arise. The most serious of these is the development of viral pneumonia which may be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Progression of pneumonia leads to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute lung injury (ALI) and potentially respiratory failure. This progression is a combined effect of the host immune system response to influenza infection and the viral infection itself. This review will focus on molecular aspects of viral replication in alveolar cells and their response to infection. The response of select innate immune cells and their contribution to viral clearance and lung epithelial damage will also be discussed. Molecular aspects of antiviral response in the cells in particular the protein kinase RNA dependent response, and the oligoadenylate synthetase RNAse L system in relation to influenza infection. PMID:23977434

  6. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  7. Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve

  8. Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive

  9. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  10. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  11. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013

  12. Influenza in the immediate post-pandemic era : A comparison with seasonal and pandemic influenza in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Tutuhatunewa, E. D.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Hak, E.; Koopmans, M.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.

    Background: Comparative data on severity and treatment of seasonal, pandemic and post-pandemic influenza virus infections are scarce. Objectives: To systematically analyze characteristics of hospitalized patients with influenza in the post-pandemic period compared to seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  13. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza community transmission was established in one Australian state when the virus was first identified in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mid-June 2009 the State of Victoria in Australia appeared to have the highest notification rate of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza in the world. We hypothesise that this was because community transmission of pandemic influenza was already well established in Victoria at the time testing for the novel virus commenced. In contrast, this was not true for the pandemic in other parts of Australia, including Western Australia (WA. METHODS: We used data from detailed case follow-up of patients with confirmed infection in Victoria and WA to demonstrate the difference in the pandemic curve in two Australian states on opposite sides of the continent. We modelled the pandemic in both states, using a susceptible-infected-removed model with Bayesian inference accounting for imported cases. RESULTS: Epidemic transmission occurred earlier in Victoria and later in WA. Only 5% of the first 100 Victorian cases were not locally acquired and three of these were brothers in one family. By contrast, 53% of the first 102 cases in WA were associated with importation from Victoria. Using plausible model input data, estimation of the effective reproductive number for the Victorian epidemic required us to invoke an earlier date for commencement of transmission to explain the observed data. This was not required in modelling the epidemic in WA. CONCLUSION: Strong circumstantial evidence, supported by modelling, suggests community transmission of pandemic influenza was well established in Victoria, but not in WA, at the time testing for the novel virus commenced in Australia. The virus is likely to have entered Victoria and already become established around the time it was first identified in the US and Mexico.

  14. Feasibility of uranium enrichment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards

  15. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  16. Sentinel surveillance for influenza in Senegal, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Sagna, Monique; Gregory, Victoria; Goudiaby, Deborah; Hay, Alan; Diop, Ousmane M

    2012-12-15

    Data on influenza in tropical and resource-limited countries are scarce. In this study we present results from 14 years of influenza surveillance in Senegal, one of the few tropical countries in Africa from which longitudinal data are available. From 1996 to 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness at 13 facilities in order to investigate the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and the characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses. Specimens were tested for influenza using viral isolation and/or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). From 1996 to 2009, specimens were obtained from 9176 patients; 1233 (13%) were influenza-positive by virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. Among positive samples, 958 (77%) were influenza A, 268 (22%) influenza B, and 7 (1%) influenza type C; of influenza A viruses, 619 (65%) were A(H3) and 339 (35%) A(H1), of which 13 (1%) were identified as H1N2. The proportion positive was similar for children 55 years (9%). Although influenza A(H1), A(H3), and B all circulated during most years, influenza A(H3N2) predominated during 9 of the 14 years. Influenza activity consistently peaked during the rainy season (July-September). Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses circulating in Senegal were similar to contemporary viruses circulating elsewhere in the world. Our data confirm that influenza is prevalent in Senegal, occurs in seasonal epidemics, and contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases in all age groups.

  17. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  18. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wutzler, B.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  19. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Design Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Setting Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. Participants A total of 83 613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. Main outcome measure A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Results Of the 16 models including ‘number of newspaper articles’ with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (pnewspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=−0.301, pnewspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6–10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. PMID:26719323

  20. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  1. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  3. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  4. Influenza vaccinations of health care personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting people of all age groups all over the world. Seasonal influenza leads to substantial morbidity and mortality on a global scale. Vaccines are undeniably one of the most important health advances of the past century, however, managing influenza in working populations remains a difficult issue. Vaccination of health care workers (HCW is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers have significant impact on the frequency with which vaccines are offered and accepted, but many HCWs are poorly equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits and risks. Principal reasons for vaccination are the willing not to be infected and avoiding transmission to patients and the family. The main reasons for refusing is lack of time, a feeling of invulnerability to vaccination, conviction of not being at risk, of being too young or in good health. Misconceptions about influenza vaccine efficacy, like adverse effects, and fear of contracting illness from the vaccine are significantly associated with noncompliance with vaccination. Therefore, strategies to increase awareness of the importance of recommending influenza immunization among health professionals are required. Med Pr 2013;64(1:119–129

  5. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  6. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  7. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  8. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel

    2016-01-01

    and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...... from a relatively advantaged socioeconomic background. DISCUSSION: The online survey format was a successful and economical approach for engaging young people with type 1 diabetes and their parents. This rich quantitative and qualitative dataset focuses not only on diabetes management and healthcare...... and their parents. These will inform future research and support services to meet the needs of young Australians with type 1 diabetes and their families....

  9. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  10. Assessment of the RNASound RNA Sampling Card for the preservation of influenza virus RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Lau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shipping influenza virus specimens, isolates or purified RNA is normally conducted at ultra-low temperatures using dry ice to ensure minimal degradation of the samples but this is expensive and requires special packaging and shipping conditions. Therefore, alternative methods for shipping influenza viruses or RNA at ambient temperatures would be desirable.The RNASound RNA Sampling Card (FortiusBio LLC, CA, USA is a device that enables specimens or isolates to be applied to a card, whereby viruses are inactivated, while RNA is preserved and purified RNA can also easily be eluted. To evaluate this card, we applied influenza virus cell culture isolate supernatants to either the RNASound card or Whatman Grade No. 1 filter paper (GE Healthcare, NSW, Australia and compared the preservation to that of material stored in liquid form. Preservation was tested using influenza A and B viruses at two different storage temperatures (cool 2-8oC or room temperature 18-22oC and these were compared with control material stored at -80°C, for 7, 14 or 28 days. The quality of the RNA recovered was assessed using real time RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The RNASound card was effective in preserving influenza RNA at room temperature for up to 28 days, with only a minor change in real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold values for selected gene targets when comparing between viruses applied to the card or stored at -80°C. Similar results were obtained with filter paper, whilst virus in liquid form performed the worst. Nevertheless, as the RNASound card also has the capability to inactivate viruses in addition to preserving RNA at room temperature for many weeks, this makes it feasible to send samples to laboratories using regular mail, and thus avoid the need for expensive shipping conditions requiring biohazard containers and dry ice. Moreover, the quick and simple RNA recovery from the RNASound card allows recipient labs to obtain RNA without the need for special reagents

  11. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  12. Polyarteritis nodosa related with influenza vaccine = Poliarteritis nodosa relacionada con vacuna contra la influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Escobar, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis can be secondary to various processes, among them infections, malignancies, connective tissue diseases or medications, or primary, generally idiopathic. The reported adverse events after vaccination can be mild and transient or more serious such as autoimmune diseases. Possibly the most frequently described autoimmune phenomena after influenza vaccination are different forms of vasculitis. We report the case of a patient who presented a clinical picture of vasculitis classified as polyarteritis nodosa that began two weeks after receiving the influenza vaccine. After critically reviewing the literature, this would be the first clearly documented case of polyarteritis nodosa associated with vaccination against influenza.

  13. Relations between Teachers' Classroom Goals and Values: A Case Study of High School Teachers in Far North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudelko, Claudia E.; Boon, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is an empirical gap in the evidence of the relations between teachers' classroom goals and values, two key variables linked to students' achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship in an Australian teacher sample. We surveyed 102 high school teachers from seven schools in Cairns, Queensland…

  14. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  15. Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H; Murphy, A; Leong, W; Leydon, J; Tresise, P; Gerrard, M; Chibo, D; Birch, C; Andrews, R; Catton, M

    2000-12-01

    Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. Serological, virus-antigen detection, virus culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to establish the diagnosis of influenza. Two laboratories at major teaching hospitals in Melbourne provided additional data on influenza virus identification. General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. The clinical suspicion of influenza was confirmed in 49 to 54 per cent of cases seen in general practice.

  16. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  17. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

  18. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  19. Characteristics and management of patients with influenza in a German hospital during the 2014/2015 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Ludewig, Katrin; Moeser, Anne; Baier, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin; Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review the management of patients with influenza during the influenza season 2014/2015 (n = 197). Our study revealed a high rate of healthcare-associated influenza infection (35.5 %) and a correlation between the total number of patients with HA influenza and the number of nurses on sick leave. The results of the study underline the importance of strict hygiene management. Furthermore, widespread influenza vaccination for both high-risk patients and health care workers is recommended.

  20. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  1. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  2. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  3. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Firestone, Simon M; Taylor, Melanie R; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-07-31

    A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers' perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors.

  4. Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011 and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ≤ 18 years from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness. Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%, medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case, antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%, and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%; young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in

  5. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  6. Women and Ultramodern Buddhism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Halafoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhists started arriving in Australia in large numbers during the mid-1800s, and the first Buddhist societies and centres began to be formed in the mid-late 1900s. This paper examines the role of women in bringing Buddhism to and establishing it in Australia. Women have featured prominently in a small amount of scholarship, including Paul Croucher’s (1989 Buddhism in Australia: 1848–1988 and Cristina Rocha and Michelle Barker’s (eds. 2011 edited volume on Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. This paper draws on these sources, but primarily on more recent digital oral histories of prominent Buddhist women and men in Australia, recorded as part of the first stage of the Buddhist Life Stories of Australia project in 2014–2015. These first-hand accounts bring the early female pioneers of Buddhism in Australia to life and provide a rich re-telling of this history with emphasis on women’s contributions to it. We also argue that these women’s experiences can best be understood through a framework of ‘ultramodern Buddhism,’ built upon theories of modern and post-modern Buddhism, as many of these women were trailblazers bridging dualisms of tradition and modernity, Asia and the West, and adhering to both feminist and Buddhist principles.

  7. Ultraviolet air disinfection for protection against influenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Three converging lines of evidence support the belief that it may be possible, under appropriate circumstances, to interrupt the airborne transmission of influenza by ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection. These lines of evidence are: (a) that influenza is airborne; (b) that UV irradiation of the upper air of a room can provide safe and effective disinfection of air in the lower part of the room; and (c) that epidemic spread of airborne viral infections in humans can be prevented if the population under consideration remains in the UV-protected environment

  8. Future directions for the European influenza reference laboratory network in influenza surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, N; Rebelo-de-Andrade, H; Meijer, A; McCauley, J; Daniels, R; Zambon, M

    2015-07-30

    By defining strategic objectives for the network of influenza laboratories that have national influenza centre status or national function within European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway, it is possible to align their priorities in undertaking virological surveillance of influenza. This will help maintain and develop the network to meet and adapt to new challenges over the next 3-5 years and underpin a longer-term strategy over 5-10 years. We analysed the key activities undertaken by influenza reference laboratories in Europe and categorised them into a framework of four key strategic objectives areas: enhancing laboratory capability, ensuring laboratory capacity, providing emergency response and translating laboratory data into information for public health action. We make recommendations on the priority areas for future development.

  9. New research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1992-01-01

    HIFAR, Australia's major research reactor was commissioned in 1958 to test materials for an envisaged indigenous nuclear power industry. HIFAR is a Dido type reactor which is operated at 10 MW. With the decision in the early 1970's not to proceed to nuclear power, HIFAR was adapted to other uses and has served Australia well as a base for national nuclear competence; as a national facility for neutron scattering/beam research; as a source of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment; and as a source of export revenue from the neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the semiconductor industry. However, all of HIFAR's capabilities are becoming less than optimum by world and regional standards. Neutron beam facilities have been overtaken on the world scene by research reactors with increased neutron fluxes, cold sources, and improved beams and neutron guides. Radioisotope production capabilities, while adequate to meet Australia's needs, cannot be easily expanded to tap the growing world market in radiopharmaceuticals. Similarly, neutron transmutation doped silicon production, and export income from it, is limited at a time when the world market for this material is expanding. ANSTO has therefore embarked on a program to replace HIFAR with a new multi-purpose national facility for nuclear research and technology in the form of a reactor: a) for neutron beam research, - with a peak thermal flux of the order of three times higher than that from HIFAR, - with a cold neutron source, guides and beam hall, b) that has radioisotope production facilities that are as good as, or better than, those in HIFAR, c) that maximizes the potential for commercial irradiations to offset facility operating costs, d) that maximizes flexibility to accommodate variations in user requirements during the life of the facility. ANSTO's case for the new research reactor received significant support earlier this month with the tabling in Parliament of a report by the Australian Science

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis and the incidence of influenza and influenza-related complications: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumentals William A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are known to be at increased risk of infection, particularly if they are taking drugs with immunomodulatory effects. There is a need for more information on the risk of influenza in patients with RA. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data gathered from a large US commercial health insurance database (Thomson Reuters Medstat MarketScan from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Patients were ≥18 years of age, with at least two RA claims diagnoses. The database was scanned for incidence of seasonal influenza and its complications on or up to 30 days after an influenza diagnosis in RA patients and matched controls. Other factors accounted for included medical conditions, use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs, use of biological agents, influenza vaccination and high- or low-dose corticosteroids. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated for influenza and its complications in patients with RA. Results 46,030 patients with RA and a matching number of controls had a median age of 57 years. The incidence of influenza was higher in RA patients than in controls (409.33 vs 306.12 cases per 100,000 patient-years, and there was a 2.75-fold increase in incidence of complications in RA. Presence or absence of DMARDs or biologics had no significant effect. The adjusted IRR of influenza was statistically significant in patients aged 60–69 years, and especially among men. A significantly increased rate of influenza complications was observed in women and in both genders combined (but not in men only when all age groups were combined. In general, the risk of influenza complications was similar in RA patients not receiving DMARDs or biologics to that in all RA patients. Pneumonia rates were significantly higher in women with RA. Rates of stroke/myocardial infarction (MI were higher in men, although statistical significance was borderline. Conclusions RA is

  11. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Brith; Pauksen, Karlis; Sylvan, Staffan P E

    2008-04-28

    The present prospective study was conducted from 2003-2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area.The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS) even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31%) received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11%) were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34%) individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21%) the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39%) individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28%) the pneumococcal vaccine.Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age). For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75-84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza season 2005. The present study confirmed the

  12. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  13. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  14. A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

  15. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, Economic Evaluation Database (EED and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication.Selection criteria:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events.Data collection and analysis:We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs, and we used random-effects models.MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251, in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347 focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population

  16. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen

    2015-05-05

    This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Economic Evaluation Database (EED) and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs), and we used random-effects models. We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251), in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347) focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682) focused on prevention of

  17. Transmission characteristics of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: comparison of 8 Southern hemisphere countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulla Opatowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While in Northern hemisphere countries, the pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm was introduced outside of the typical influenza season, Southern hemisphere countries experienced a single wave of transmission during their 2009 winter season. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the spread of a single virus in different countries and study the factors influencing its transmission. Here, we estimate and compare transmission characteristics of H1N1pdm for eight Southern hemisphere countries/states: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Victoria (Australia. Weekly incidence of cases and age-distribution of cumulative cases were extracted from public reports of countries' surveillance systems. Estimates of the reproduction numbers, R(0, empirically derived from the country-epidemics' early exponential phase, were positively associated with the proportion of children in the populations (p = 0.004. To explore the role of demography in explaining differences in transmission intensity, we then fitted a dynamic age-structured model of influenza transmission to available incidence data for each country independently, and for all the countries simultaneously. Posterior median estimates of R₀ ranged 1.2-1.8 for the country-specific fits, and 1.29-1.47 for the global fits. Corresponding estimates for overall attack-rate were in the range 20-50%. All model fits indicated a significant decrease in susceptibility to infection with age. These results confirm the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was relatively low compared with past pandemics. The pattern of age-dependent susceptibility found confirms that older populations had substantial--though partial--pre-existing immunity, presumably due to exposure to heterologous influenza strains. Our analysis indicates that between-country-differences in transmission were at least partly due to differences in population demography.

  18. 76 FR 78658 - Webinar Overview of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup's Draft Report and Draft Recommendations for Achieving the Healthy People 2020 Annual Coverage Goals for Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel... Influenza Vaccination Subgroup (HCPIVS), will host an informational webinar to introduce the committee's...

  19. Implementation of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Valette, M.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Perez-Brena, P.; Paget, J.; Brown, C.; Velden, K. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased need for accurate influenza laboratory surveillance data in the European Union required formalisation of the existing network of collaborating national influenza reference laboratories participating in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). OBJECTIVE: To

  20. Influenza-Like Illnesses in Senegal: Not Only Focus on Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Thiam, Diamilatou; Faye Sarr, Tening; Espié, Emmanuelle; OmarBa, Ibrahim; Coly, Malang; Niang, Mbayame; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Influenza surveillance in African countries was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. In Senegal, the network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 101,640 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 35-2013; 22% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 23% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Influenza viruses were the second most frequent cause of ILI (20%), after adenoviruses (21%) and before rhinoviruses (18%) and enteroviruses (15%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. The first months of implementation of the enhanced surveillance system confirmed that viruses other the influenza make large contributions to influenza-like illnesses. It is therefore important to consider these etiologies in the development of strategies to reduce respiratory infections. More informative tools and research studies are required to assess the burden of respiratory infections in developing countries. PMID:24675982

  1. Book Review: Interest Rate Models: An Introduction by AJG Cairns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    cumbersome and often exceeds the prescribed OH and S single person lifting limits. The role of industrial radiography has expanded to inspect not only welds and castings, so that it now includes inspection of assembled and processed goods ranging from automotive air-bags to canned food. It is also used in security systems at airports and other facilities. Almost all these applications use cabinet systems which are rarely the subject of serious radiation incidents or accidents. Gamma ray inspection no longer uses radium. The most common radio-isotopes in use now are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Their freedom from the need for an electrical power supply; their high radiation energy and the ability to place a source in positions of limited physical access, ensures the ongoing attraction of the method. The useful activity ranges of typical sources vary according to their application and the effect on total inspection costs. Common source activities in Australia range between 185 and 370 GBq for Cobalt 60; and between 1500 and 3700 GBq for Iridium 192. Outside Australia however there are recent reports of routine industrial radiography using more than 5500 GBq of Iridium 192. Thus it can be appreciated that any radiation accidents involving these high activity sources have the potential for significant radiation doses. Personal Dose Data: ARPANSA and its predecessor, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, has been providing a personal radiation monitoring service for some time, and releases a summary report every few years (ARPANSA/TR 139, ARL/TR 121, ARL/TR 107). The selected data shown in Table 2 indicate a downward trend in occupational doses received by industrial radiographers working in open site situations, which are potentially the most hazardous. This trend is encouraging, especially when the number of industrial radiographers is increasing. A comparison of the ARPANSA data indicate that whilst the average Australian industrial radiographer's annual dose is higher than the

  3. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Role of Extracellular Histones in Influenza Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Harshini K; Mueller, Nathan C; Rudd, Jennifer M; Snider, Timothy A; Achanta, Mallika; Prasanthi, Maram; Pulavendran, Sivasami; Thomas, Paul G; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R; Ritchey, Jerry W; Rajasekhar, Rachakatla; Chow, Vincent T K; Esmon, Charles T; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2018-01-01

    Although exaggerated host immune responses have been implicated in influenza-induced lung pathogenesis, the etiologic factors that contribute to these events are not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps exacerbate pulmonary injury during influenza pneumonia. Histones are the major protein components of neutrophil extracellular traps and are known to have cytotoxic effects. Here, we examined the role of extracellular histones in lung pathogenesis during influenza. Mice infected with influenza virus displayed high accumulation of extracellular histones, with widespread pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Occluded pulmonary blood vessels with vascular thrombi often exhibited endothelial necrosis surrounded by hemorrhagic effusions and pulmonary edema. Histones released during influenza induced cytotoxicity and showed strong binding to platelets within thrombi in infected mouse lungs. Nasal wash samples from influenza-infected patients also showed increased accumulation of extracellular histones, suggesting a possible clinical relevance of elevated histones in pulmonary injury. Although histones inhibited influenza growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with histones did not yield antiviral effects and instead exacerbated lung pathology. Blocking with antihistone antibodies caused a marked decrease in lung pathology in lethal influenza-challenged mice and improved protection when administered in combination with the antiviral agent oseltamivir. These findings support the pathogenic effects of extracellular histones in that pulmonary injury during influenza was exacerbated. Targeting histones provides a novel therapeutic approach to influenza pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  6. PET joint SPECT in Australia nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the scientific merit, clinical use and some historical aspects of the introduction and development of the positron emission tomography as a diagnostic technique in Australia. 4 refs

  7. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  8. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  9. Renewable energy development and prospects in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zahedi

    2000-01-01

    Development of renewable energies in Australia is still in its infancy and will require active support by government, utilities and financing institutions to ensure a steady growth. Much has been done to increase the utilisation of renewable energies in the energy supply, but much still remains to be done, especially in the areas of promotion, demonstration, training and technology transfer. This process will lead to meeting the energy needs of the population in rural areas and to contributing to a suitable development of the region during the next century. Australia is endowed with a wealth of renewable energy resources that hold great promise for addressing a host of important environmental, employment and socioeconomic issues. Australia has a set of climate, geographic and other factors that provide favourable conditions for many specific renewable energy applications. The objectives of this paper is to look at the current situation of renewable energies in Australia, opportunities, constraints, current projects, available potential and future prospects. (Author)

  10. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millais, C.

    2001-01-01

    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given

  11. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  12. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie

    1976-01-01

    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  13. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  14. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the

  15. Promoting Influenza Vaccination to Restaurant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Parrish, Amanda T; Ahmed, Faruque; Zhou, Chuan; Allen, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate an evidence-based workplace approach to increasing adult influenza vaccination levels applied in the restaurant setting We implemented an intervention and conducted a pre/post analysis to determine effect on vaccination. Eleven Seattle-area restaurants. Restaurants with 25+ employees speaking English or Spanish and over 18 years. Restaurants received influenza vaccination promotion materials, assistance arranging on-site vaccination events, and free influenza vaccinations for employees. Pre/post employee surveys of vaccination status with direct observation and employer interviews to evaluate implementation. We conducted descriptive analysis of employee survey data and performed qualitative analysis of implementation data. To assess intervention effect, we used a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a restaurant-specific random effect. Vaccination levels increased from 26% to 46% (adjusted odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.69, 3.22), with 428 employees surveyed preintervention, 305 surveyed postintervention, and response rates of 73% and 55%, respectively. The intervention was effective across subgroups, but there were restaurant-level differences. An access-based workplace intervention can increase influenza vaccination levels in restaurant employees, but restaurant-level factors may influence success. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  16. Conducting polymers as sorbents of influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, V. T.; Garina, E. O.; Burtseva, E. I.; Kirillova, E. S.; Ivanova, M. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 495-503 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : influenza viruses * conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  17. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  18. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  19. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  20. Medical students' attitude towards influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Birthe A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wicker, Sabine; Chapman, Gretchen; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-04-15

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare personnel (HCP) and most institutions offer vaccination for free and on site. However, medical students do not always have such easy access, and the predictors that might guide the motivation of medical students to get vaccinated are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among pre-clinical medical students in a German University hospital to assess the social cognitive predictors of influenza vaccination, as well as reasons for refusal and acceptance of the vaccine. Findings show that pre-clinical medical students have comparable knowledge gaps and negative attitudes towards influenza vaccination that have previously been reported among HCP. Lower injunctive norms and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to no intention to get vaccinated against influenza, while a positive instrumental attitude and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to a high intention to get vaccinated. The variables in the regression model explained 20% of the variance in intention to get vaccinated. The identified factors should be addressed early in medical education, and hospitals might benefit from a more inclusive vaccination program and accessibility of free vaccines for their medical students.

  1. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  2. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  3. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  4. Planar Hall Sensor for Influenza Immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph

    2006-01-01

    følsomt kan detektere magnetiske nanokugler. Indledende biodetektionsforsøg rettet mod detektion af influenza-virus blev udført i samarbejde med Statens Serum-Institut. Det blev demonstreret, at sensorerne har et stort potentiale til biodetektion men også at den uspecifikke binding af magnetiske kugler...

  5. Getting Beyond Getting Ready for Pandemic Influenza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2009-01-01

    .... We watch avian influenza move across the world, worry about how more than 60% of those people that contract the disease die from it, and realize that further mutations in currently circulating strains could cause them to easily infect human beings...

  6. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-12

    Dr. Elizabeth Briere discusses Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae which causes a variety of infections in children and adults.  Created: 11/12/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2015.

  7. INFLUENZA IMMUNISATION IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 1997' (surpassing the 6O'lb vaccine coverage goal for the country's Healthy People 2000 Project). ... (i) are HIV-infected persons at special risk for influenza complications and is annual immunisation .... virus type' 1 rep :cation can be increased in peripheral 0100d of sero- positive patiems aher influenrc. vacdnation.

  8. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Chris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5% and 99% specificity, the WCR and

  9. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods

  10. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  11. Evolution of stone management in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  12. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  13. Transmission of Influenza B Viruses in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Natalie; Chou, Yi-Ying; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic influenza is typically caused by infection with viruses of the A and B types and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality during a given season. Here we demonstrate that influenza B viruses can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of the guinea pig and that viruses of the two main lineages can be transmitted with 100% efficiency between inoculated and naïve animals in both contact and noncontact models. Our results also indicate that, like in the case for influenza A virus, transmission of influenza B viruses is enhanced at colder temperatures, providing an explanation for the seasonality of influenza epidemics in temperate climates. We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission. PMID:22301149

  14. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal influenza vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Arun; Meldgaard, Trine Sundebo; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses....... Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenzavirus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could...... provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly...

  15. CXCR1/2 Antagonism Is Protective during Influenza and Post-Influenza Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RationaleInfluenza A infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially when associated with secondary pneumococcal infections. Inflammation is important to control pathogen proliferation but may also cause tissue injury and death. CXCR1/2 are chemokine receptors relevant for the recruitment of neutrophils. We investigated the role of CXCR1/2 during influenza, pneumococcal, and post-influenza pneumococcal infections.MethodsMice were infected with influenza A virus (IAV or Streptococcus pneumoniae and then treated daily with the CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2162. To study secondary pneumococcal infection, mice were infected with a sublethal inoculum of IAV then infected with S. pneumoniae 14 days later. DF2162 was given in a therapeutic schedule from days 3 to 6 after influenza infection. Lethality, weight loss, inflammation, virus/bacteria counts, and lung injury were assessed.ResultsCXCL1 and CXCL2 were produced at high levels during IAV infection. DF2162 treatment decreased morbidity and this was associated with decreased infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs and reduced pulmonary damage and viral titers. During S. pneumoniae infection, DF2162 treatment decreased neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary damage, and lethality rates, without affecting bacteria burden. Therapeutic treatment with DF2162 during sublethal IAV infection reduced the morbidity associated with virus infection and also decreased the magnitude of inflammation, lung damage, and number of bacteria in the blood of mice subsequently infected with S. pneumoniae.ConclusionModulation of the inflammatory response by blocking CXCR1/2 improves disease outcome during respiratory influenza and pneumococcal infections, without compromising the ability of the murine host to deal with infection. Altogether, inhibition of CXCR1/2 may be a valid therapeutic strategy for treating lung infections caused by these pathogens, especially controlling secondary bacterial

  16. Making evidence-based selections of influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Childress, Billy-Clyde; Montney, Joshua D; Albro, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Years ago, intramuscular influenza vaccines were the only option for those who wanted to arm themselves against the flu. Today there are alternatives, including intradermal injections and intranasal sprays. In order to select the right influenza vaccine for their patients, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals must have a basic understanding of the immune system. Influenza vaccines elicit different levels of immune response involving innate and adaptive immunity, which are critical ...

  17. Mathematical Assessment of Canada’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba B Gumel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

  18. Establishment and evaluation of a theater influenza monitoring platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Hui-Suo; Deng, Bing; Shi, Meng-Jing; Li, Xiang-Da; Nian, Qing-Gong; Song, Wen-Jing; Bing, Feng; Li, Qing-Feng

    2017-11-20

    Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease with a high incidence rate in the Chinese army, which directly disturbs military training and affects soldiers' health. Influenza surveillance systems are widely used around the world and play an important role in influenza epidemic prevention and control. As a theater centers for disease prevention and control, we established an influenza monitoring platform (IMP) in 2014 to strengthen the monitoring of influenza-like illness and influenza virus infection. In this study, we introduced the constitution, influenza virus detection, and quality control for an IMP. The monitoring effect was also evaluated by comparing the monitoring data with data from national influenza surveillance systems. The experiences and problems associated with the platform also were summarized. A theater IMP was established based on 3 levels of medical units, including monitoring sites, testing laboratories and a checking laboratory. A series of measures were taken to guarantee the quality of monitoring, such as technical training, a unified process, sufficient supervision and timely communication. The platform has run smoothly for 3 monitoring years to date. In the 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 monitoring years, sample amount coincided with that obtained from the National Influenza Surveillance program. In the 2015-2016 monitoring year, due to the strict prevention and control measures, an influenza epidemic peak was avoided in monitoring units, and the monitoring data did not coincide with that of the National Influenza Surveillance program. Several problems, including insufficient attention, unreasonable administrative intervention or subordination relationships, and the necessity of detection in monitoring sites were still observed. A theater IMP was established rationally and played a deserved role in the prevention and control of influenza. However, several problems remain to be solved.

  19. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein ...

  20. Safety of influenza vaccination in children with allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Global guidelines strongly recommend annual influenza vaccination in people age 6 months and older, particularly in asthmatic children. There is no doubt about the benefit of influenza vaccination in asthmatic children. However, some of the vaccine's components may elicit an IgE mediated hypersensitivity or disease exacerbation, including life-threatening events, in children with allergic diseases. As a result, concerns regarding the safety of the vaccine still continue today. The influenza v...

  1. Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weigong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.

  2. Timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance through work and school absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Bollaerts, K; Antoine, J; Robesyn, E; Van Proeyen, L; Vomberg, J; Feys, E; De Decker, E; Catry, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of work and school absenteeism surveillance as an early warning system for influenza. In particular, time trends in daily absenteeism rates collected during the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic are compared with weekly incidence rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) obtained from the Belgian Sentinel General Practitioner (SGP) network. The results indicate a rise in absenteeism rates prior to the onset of the influenza epidemic, suggesting that absenteeism sur...

  3. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens Wentzel; Bruun, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan...

  4. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens; Bruun, Brita

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  5. [Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Lind, J.W.; Bruun, B.

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/19...

  6. Sialic acid tissue distribution and influenza virus tropism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumlin, Urban; Olofsson, Sigvard; Dimock, Ken; Arnberg, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract? Avian influenza A viruses exhibit a strong preference for using ?2,3?linked sialic acid as a receptor. Until recently, the presumed lack of this receptor in human airways was believed to constitute an efficient barrier to avian influenza A virus infection of humans. Recent zoonotic outbreaks of avian influenza A virus have triggered researchers to analyse tissue distribution of sialic acid in further detail. Here, we review and extend the current knowledge about sialic acid distribu...

  7. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  8. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Immunization safety review: influenza vaccines and neurological complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen R

    ..., unlike other vaccines. The Immunization Safety Review committee reviewed the data on influenza vaccine and neurological conditions and concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship...

  11. Anti-influenza drugs: the development of sialidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Itzstein, Mark; Thomson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Viruses, particularly those that are harmful to humans, are the 'silent terrorists' of the twenty-first century. Well over four million humans die per annum as a result of viral infections alone. The scourge of influenza virus has plagued mankind throughout the ages. The fact that new viral strains emerge on a regular basis, particularly out of Asia, establishes a continual socio-economic threat to mankind. The arrival of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 heightened the threat of a potential human pandemic to the point where many countries have put in place 'preparedness plans' to defend against such an outcome. The discovery of the first designer influenza virus sialidase inhibitor and anti-influenza drug Relenza, and subsequently Tamiflu, has now inspired a number of continuing efforts towards the discovery of next generation anti-influenza drugs. Such drugs may act as 'first-line-of-defence' against the spread of influenza infection and buy time for necessary vaccine development particularly in a human pandemic setting. Furthermore, the fact that influenza virus can develop resistance to therapeutics makes these continuing efforts extremely important. An overview of the role of the virus-associated glycoprotein sialidase (neuraminidase) and some of the most recent developments towards the discovery of anti-influenza drugs based on the inhibition of influenza virus sialidase is provided in this chapter.

  12. Unsynchronized influenza epidemics in two neighboring subtropical cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the synchrony of influenza epidemics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen, two neighboring subtropical cities in South China. Methods: Laboratory-confirmed influenza data for the period January 2006 to December 2016 were obtained from the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Health in Hong Kong. The population data were retrieved from the 2011 population censuses. The weekly rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were compared between Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Results: Unsynchronized influenza epidemics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen were frequently observed during the study period. Influenza A/H1N1 caused a more severe pandemic in Hong Kong in 2009, but the subsequent seasonal epidemics showed similar magnitudes in both cities. Two influenza A/H3N2 dominant epidemic waves were seen in Hong Kong in 2015, but these epidemics were very minor in Shenzhen. More influenza B epidemics occurred in Shenzhen than in Hong Kong. Conclusions: Influenza epidemics appeared to be unsynchronized between Hong Kong and Shenzhen most of the time. Given the close geographical locations of these two cities, this could be due to the strikingly different age structures of their populations. Keywords: Influenza epidemics, Synchrony, Shenzhen, Hong Kong

  13. Molecular Determinants of Influenza Virus Pathogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jaqueline M.; York, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Mice are widely used for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunology because of their low cost, the wide availability of mouse-specific reagents, and the large number of mouse strains available, including knockout and transgenic strains. However, mice do not fully recapitulate the signs of influenza infection of humans: transmission of influenza between mice is much less efficient than in humans, and influenza viruses often require adaptation before they are able to efficiently replicate in mice. In the process of mouse adaptation, influenza viruses acquire mutations that enhance their ability to attach to mouse cells, replicate within the cells, and suppress immunity, among other functions. Many such mouse-adaptive mutations have been identified, covering all 8 genomic segments of the virus. Identification and analysis of these mutations have provided insight into the molecular determinants of influenza virulence and pathogenesis, not only in mice but also in humans and other species. In particular, several mouse-adaptive mutations of avian influenza viruses have proved to be general mammalian-adaptive changes that are potential markers of pre-pandemic viruses. As well as evaluating influenza pathogenesis, mice have also been used as models for evaluation of novel vaccines and anti-viral therapies. Mice can be a useful animal model for studying influenza biology as long as differences between human and mice infections are taken into account. PMID:25038937

  14. Immunogenicity and Clinical Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination In Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Kay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk from influenza due to disproportionate morbidity, mortality, and adverse pregnancy outcomes following infection. As such, they are classified as a high priority group for vaccination. However, changes in the maternal immune system required to accommodate the allogeneic fetus may alter the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines. A large number of studies have evaluated the safety of the influenza vaccine. Here, we will review available studies on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, focusing on both humoral and cellular immunity.

  15. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  16. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Russell, Kevin L; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W; Harpin, Vanessa; Blyn, Lawrence B; Melton, Rachael; Ivy, Cristin; Pennella, Thuy; Li, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating...

  17. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  18. The age distribution of mortality due to influenza: pandemic and peri-pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza is said to 'shift mortality' to younger age groups; but also to spare a subpopulation of the elderly population. Does one of these effects dominate? Might this have important ramifications? Methods We estimated age-specific excess mortality rates for all-years for which data were available in the 20th century for Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the UK, and the USA for people older than 44 years of age. We modeled variation with age, and standardized estimates to allow direct comparison across age groups and countries. Attack rate data for four pandemics were assembled. Results For nearly all seasons, an exponential model characterized mortality data extremely well. For seasons of emergence and a variable number of seasons following, however, a subpopulation above a threshold age invariably enjoyed reduced mortality. 'Immune escape', a stepwise increase in mortality among the oldest elderly, was observed a number of seasons after both the A(H2N2) and A(H3N2) pandemics. The number of seasons from emergence to escape varied by country. For the latter pandemic, mortality rates in four countries increased for younger age groups but only in the season following that of emergence. Adaptation to both emergent viruses was apparent as a progressive decrease in mortality rates, which, with two exceptions, was seen only in younger age groups. Pandemic attack rate variation with age was estimated to be similar across four pandemics with very different mortality impact. Conclusions In all influenza pandemics of the 20th century, emergent viruses resembled those that had circulated previously within the lifespan of then-living people. Such individuals were relatively immune to the emergent strain, but this immunity waned with mutation of the emergent virus. An immune subpopulation complicates and may invalidate vaccine trials. Pandemic influenza does not 'shift' mortality to younger age groups; rather, the mortality level is reset by the virulence

  19. Pathogen Presence in European Starlings Inhabiting Commercial Piggeries in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hayley E; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-06-01

    The majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., or Campylobacter spp. These bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. Additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV, including Kunjin disease), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in Australia. Introduced European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus) are one of the most-frequently reported birds on piggeries in Australia. The presence of the three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli , as well as the three viral pathogens AIV, WNV, and NDV, were evaluated in starlings captured on four commercial piggeries in South Australia. A total of 473 starlings were captured on the four piggeries in 2008 and 2009. A cloacal swab was taken from each bird and cultured for bacterial identification, with follow-up serotyping of any positives, whilst fifty samples were analyzed by PCR for the three target viral pathogens. There was no AIV, WNV, or NDV detected in the 50 starlings sampled. Escherichia coli was found to be present in the starling populations on all four piggeries whilst Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni were found to be present only in the starling population sampled on one piggery. Serotyping identified pig-pathogenic strains of the bacteria. The prevalence of these production-limiting bacterial pathogens in starlings, coupled with the large starling populations often found inside piggeries during daylight hours in the summer months, presents a disease transmission risk and jeopardizes piggery disease management. Removal of starlings from agricultural enterprises (as shown by international studies), or prevention of starling access to animal feed and water, could substantially reduce the risk of transmission of enterobacterial pathogens from starlings to

  20. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-12-30

    We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. A total of 83,613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Of the 16 models including 'number of newspaper articles' with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of 'number of newspaper articles' at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of 'number of newspaper articles' that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (p<0.05) were the weekly number of newspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=-0.301, p<0.01; time shift of 9 weeks, β=-0.200, p<0.01; time shift of 8 weeks, β=-0.156, p<0.01; time shift of 7 weeks, β=-0.122, p<0.05; time shift of 6 weeks, β=-0.113, p<0.05). We found that the number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6-10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  2. Commercialisation of science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.

    2003-01-01

    and the business proposition have merit - government assistance (e.g. BIF, R and D Start, STI funding) and some type of relationship with Big Pharma/Big Biotech provide assurances. In the life sciences, durable and strong IP is critical. This presentation will focus on choice of commercialisation strategy (i.e. licensing vs. start up vs. joint venture etc); the hazards of 'expropriation' for the small end of town; little c versus big C commercialisation; creating value in the biopharmaceutical sector; and persistent restraints to innovation in Australia

  3. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  4. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  5. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Health and Economic Impact of Maine's 2009 Influenza Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Localization of influenza virus proteins to nuclear dot 10 structures in influenza virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Suzuki, Chie; Awashima, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yasuhiro; Yewdell, Jonathan; Kuroda, Kazumichi

    2003-01-01

    We studied influenza virus M1 protein by generating HeLa and MDCK cell lines that express M1 genetically fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-M1 was incorporated into virions produced by influenza virus infected MDCK cells expressing the fusion protein indicating that the fusion protein is at least partially functional. Following infection of either HeLa or MDCK cells with influenza A virus (but not influenza B virus), GFP-M1 redistributes from its cytosolic/nuclear location and accumulates in nuclear dots. Immunofluorescence revealed that the nuclear dots represent nuclear dot 10 (ND10) structures. The colocalization of authentic M1, as well as NS1 and NS2 protein, with ND10 was confirmed by immunofluorescence following in situ isolation of ND10. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated involvement of influenza virus with ND10, a structure involved in cellular responses to immune cytokines as well as the replication of a rapidly increasing list of viruses

  7. Factors associated with differential uptake of seasonal influenza immunizations among underserved communities during the 2009-2010 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Bond, Keosha T; Jones, Kandice C; Ompad, Danielle C

    2012-04-01

    Influenza vaccination coverage remains low and disparities persist. In New York City, a community-based participatory research project (Project VIVA) worked to address this issue in Harlem and the South Bronx by supplementing existing vaccination programs with non-traditional venues (i.e., community-based organizations). We conducted a 10 min survey to assess access to influenza vaccine as well as attitudes and beliefs towards influenza vaccination that could inform intervention development for subsequent seasons. Among 991 participants recruited using street intercept techniques, 63% received seasonal vaccine only, 11% seasonal and H1N1, and 26% neither; 89% reported seeing a health care provider (HCP) during the influenza season. Correlates of immunization among those with provider visits during the influenza season included being US-born, interest in getting the vaccine, concern about self or family getting influenza, an HCP's recommendation and comfort with government. Among those without an HCP visit, factors associated with immunization included being US born, married, interest in getting the vaccine, understanding influenza information, and concern about getting influenza. Factors associated with lack of interest in influenza vaccine included being born outside the US, Black and uncomfortable with government. In medically underserved areas, having access to routine medical care and understanding the medical implications of influenza play an important role in enhancing uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination. Strategies to improve vaccination rates among Blacks and foreign-born residents need to be addressed. The use of non-traditional venues to provide influenza vaccinations in underserved communities has the potential to reduce health disparities.

  8. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: Maintained Protection Throughout the Duration of Influenza Seasons 2010-2011 through 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    effectiveness: Maintained protection throughout the duration of influenza seasons 2010–2011 through 2013–2014http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine...Unfortunately, we did not have data on the proportion who received the higher-dose vaccine. Another limitation of our study is that we did not conduct a...significant protection against influenza infection for the duration of the influenza season or up to 6 months postvac- cination. Since the start of the

  9. The Burden of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Oman, January 2008-June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awaidy, Salah; Hamid, Sarah; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Baqlani, Said; Al Busaidi, Suleiman; Bawikar, Shyam; El-Shoubary, Waleed; Dueger, Erica L; Said, Mayar M; Elamin, Emdeldin; Shah, Parag; Talaat, Maha

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI), including influenza, comprise a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza surveillance provides important information to inform policy on influenza control and vaccination. While the epidemiology of influenza has been well characterized in western countries, few data exist on influenza epidemiology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. We describe the epidemiology of influenza virus in Oman. Using syndromic case definitions and protocols, patients from four regional hospitals in Oman were enrolled in a descriptive prospective study to characterize the burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza. Eligible patients provided demographic information as well as oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Specimens were tested for influenza A and influenza B; influenza A viruses were subtyped using RT-PCR. From January 2008 through June 2013, a total of 5,147 cases were enrolled and tested for influenza. Influenza strains were detected in 8% of cases for whom samples were available. Annual incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 15.4 cases of influenza-associated SARI per 100,000 population. The median age of influenza patients was 6 years with children 0-2 years accounting for 34% of all influenza-associated hospitalizations. By contrast, the median age of non-influenza SARI cases was 1 year with children 0-2 years comprising 59% of SARI. Compared to non-influenza SARI cases, a greater proportion of influenza cases had pre-existing chronic conditions and underwent ventilation during hospitalization. Influenza virus is associated with a substantial proportion of SARI in Oman. Influenza in Oman approximately follows northern hemisphere seasonality, with major peaks in October to December and a lesser peak around April. The burden of influenza was greatest in children and the elderly. Future efforts should examine the burden of influenza in other potential risk groups such as pregnant women to

  10. Outbreak of H3N2 influenza at a US military base in Djibouti during the H1N1 pandemic of 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Cosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. OBJECTIVE: We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1pdm09]. METHODS: Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. RESULTS: rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78% of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6% were A(H1N1pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed.

  11. Outbreak of H3N2 influenza at a US military base in Djibouti during the H1N1 pandemic of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosby, Michael T; Pimentel, Guillermo; Nevin, Remington L; Fouad Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John D; Amir, Ehab; Younan, Mary; Browning, Robert; Sebeny, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition) and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR) methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78%) of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed.

  12. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  13. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Early history of IVF in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Janežič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 1970s and 1980s represent the early era of in vitro fertilization (IVF research. This article is a concise review of the early history of IVF, focusing on the contributions made by Australian pioneers.Objectives: To research the history of the early days of IVF in Australia.Search Strategy: ‘IVF history’ was used as a search criteria in PubMed.Selection criteria: We selected articles that were dealing with Australian research on IVF in 1970–1980s and were also statistically sound where applicable.Data collection and analysis: We collected, processed, and analyzed the data, and summed up two decades of IVF research in Australia.Main results: The first ideas about introducing IVF research in Australia started in 1970. Years of trials and hard work bore success and the first baby was born in 1980. IVF procedures then spread quickly across Australia.Conclusions: Australia was a leading force in the early days of IVF and with many innovative approaches contributed greatly to the development of IVF as we know it today.

  15. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb

    2016-11-07

    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  16. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  17. Influenza vaccine-mediated protection in older adults: Impact of influenza infection, cytomegalovirus serostatus and vaccine dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merani, Shahzma; Kuchel, George A; Kleppinger, Alison; McElhaney, Janet E

    2018-07-01

    Age-related changes in T-cell function are associated with a loss of influenza vaccine efficacy in older adults. Both antibody and cell-mediated immunity plays a prominent role in protecting older adults, particularly against the serious complications of influenza. High dose (HD) influenza vaccines induce higher antibody titers in older adults compared to standard dose (SD) vaccines, yet its impact on T-cell memory is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antibody and T-cell responses in older adults randomized to receive HD or SD influenza vaccine as well as determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus affects the response to vaccination, and identify differences in the response to vaccination in those older adults who subsequently have an influenza infection. Older adults (≥65years) were enrolled (n=106) and randomized to receive SD or HD influenza vaccine. Blood was collected pre-vaccination, followed by 4, 10 and 20weeks post-vaccination. Serum antibody titers, as well as levels of inducible granzyme B (iGrB) and cytokines were measured in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Surveillance conducted during the influenza season identified those with laboratory confirmed influenza illness or infection. HD influenza vaccination induced a high antibody titer and IL-10 response, and a short-lived increase in Th1 responses (IFN-γ and iGrB) compared to SD vaccination in PBMCs challenged ex vivo with live influenza virus. Of the older adults who became infected with influenza, a high IL-10 and iGrB response in virus-challenged cells was observed post-infection (week 10 to 20), as well as IFN-γ and TNF-α at week 20. Additionally, CMV seropositive older adults had an impaired iGrB response to influenza virus-challenge, regardless of vaccine dose. This study illustrates that HD influenza vaccines have little impact on the development of functional T-cell memory in older adults. Furthermore, poor outcomes of influenza infection in

  18. Underdiagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lauren; Zhu, Yuwei; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Talbot, H Keipp

    2018-03-01

    To describe factors associated with provider-ordered influenza testing in hospitalized older adults. Information on participant demographics, symptoms, and provider-ordered influenza testing were collected by questionnaire and chart review. We conducted prospective laboratory-based surveillance using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the criterion standard for diagnosis of influenza, to determine how participant characteristics and provider-ordered testing affected accurate influenza diagnosis. One academic and three community hospitals in Davidson County, Tennessee. Adults aged 18 and older with acute respiratory illness or nonlocalizing fever (N=1,422). We compared characteristics of participants with and without provider-ordered testing for influenza using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors predictive of provider-ordered influenza testing. Twenty-eight percent (399/1,422) of participants had provider-ordered influenza testing. Participants who were tested were younger than those not tested (58 ± 18 vs 66 ± 15, p<.001) and more likely to have influenza-like illness (ILI) (71% vs 49%, p<.001). ILI decreased with increasing age (aged 18-49, 63%; aged 50-64, 60%; aged ≥65, 48%). ILI and younger age were independent predictors of provider-ordered testing. Of the 136 participants with influenza confirmed using RT-PCR, ILI was the only significant predictor of provider-ordered testing (adjusted odds ratio=3.43, 95% confidence interval=1.22-9.70). Adults aged 65 and older hospitalized with fever or respiratory symptoms during influenza season are less likely to undergo a provider-ordered influenza test than younger adults. Some, but not all, of this disparity is due to a lower likelihood of ILI. Further strategies are needed to increase clinician awareness and testing in this vulnerable group. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018

  19. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L; Nelson, Jennifer C

    2013-04-19

    The test-negative design has emerged in recent years as the preferred method for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in observational studies. However, the methodologic basis of this design has not been formally developed. In this paper we develop the rationale and underlying assumptions of the test-negative study. Under the test-negative design for influenza VE, study subjects are all persons who seek care for an acute respiratory illness (ARI). All subjects are tested for influenza infection. Influenza VE is estimated from the ratio of the odds of vaccination among subjects testing positive for influenza to the odds of vaccination among subjects testing negative. With the assumptions that (a) the distribution of non-influenza causes of ARI does not vary by influenza vaccination status, and (b) VE does not vary by health care-seeking behavior, the VE estimate from the sample can generalized to the full source population that gave rise to the study sample. Based on our derivation of this design, we show that test-negative studies of influenza VE can produce biased VE estimates if they include persons seeking care for ARI when influenza is not circulating or do not adjust for calendar time. The test-negative design is less susceptible to bias due to misclassification of infection and to confounding by health care-seeking behavior, relative to traditional case-control or cohort studies. The cost of the test-negative design is the additional, difficult-to-test assumptions that incidence of non-influenza respiratory infections is similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups within any stratum of care-seeking behavior, and that influenza VE does not vary across care-seeking strata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of influenza at Hajj: applications for mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Elizabeth; Barasheed, Osamah; Memish, Ziad A; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases that spread via respiratory route, e.g. influenza, are common amongst Hajj congregation in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian authority successfully organized the Hajj 2009 amidst fear of pandemic influenza. While severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was rare, the true burden of pandemic influenza at Hajj that year remains speculative. In this article we review the latest evidence on influenza control and discuss our experience of influenza and its prevention at Hajj and possible application to other mass gatherings. Depending on study design the attack rate of seasonal influenza at Hajj has ranged from 6% in polymerase chain reaction or culture confirmed studies to 38% in serological surveillance. No significant effect of influenza vaccine or the use of personal protective measures against influenza has been established from observational studies, although the uptake of the vaccine and adherence to face masks and hand hygiene has been low. In all, there is a relatively poor evidence base for control of influenza. Until better evidence is obtained, vaccination coupled with rapid antiviral treatment of symptomatic individuals remains the mainstay of prevention at Hajj and other mass gatherings. Hajj pilgrimage provides a unique opportunity to test the effectiveness of various preventive measures that require a large sample size, such as testing the efficacy of plain surgical masks against laboratory-confirmed influenza. After successful completion of a pilot trial conducted among Australian pilgrims at the 2011 Hajj, a large multinational cluster randomized controlled trial is being planned. This will require effective international collaboration.

  1. Dermatology training and practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Murrell, Dédée F

    2014-10-01

    Dermatology is a relatively young discipline in Australia compared to other specialities within the medical fraternity. From its humble beginnings, the profession has evolved significantly over the decades and is now represented by the Australasian College of Dermatologists which is charged with training the next generation of dermatologists and advocating for and advancing the profession. The authors reviewed and describe the history of dermatology training and practice in Australia. Despite the progress in education, there are only 415 dermatologists serving a population of 23.3 million (1 per 58 000) and yet it has the highest incidence and prevalence of skin cancer in the world. The scope of clinical practice is wide in Australia, with clinicians well versed in medical and procedural dermatology. It is hoped that Australian dermatology will continue to bolster the dermatology profession globally. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)

  3. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of influenza A virus haemagglutinin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Polakova, K.

    1978-01-01

    Haemagglutinin released from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to the strain A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] by bromelain treatment and purified by rate zonal centrifugation (further on B-HA) was examined for possible contamination by neuraminidase. Specific enzymatic activities of the MRC11 virus and the B-HA respectively showed that B-HA contained less than 0.1% of enzymatically active neuraminidase originally present in the virus. Gel double diffusion tests, specificities of rabbit antisera induced by B-HA as well as radioimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that B-HA was devoid of any antigenically active neuraminidase. Precipitation of 125 I-labelled B-HA with antisera to influenza virus recombinants with N2 neuraminidase was evidently caused by antibodies to host antigenic determinant(s) present in these sera. As for purity and radioimmunoprecipitation properties, B-HA is quite suitable for radioimmunoassay experiments. (author)

  5. What's new with the flu? Reflections regarding the management and prevention of influenza from the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium, November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, Nadia A; Mansoor, Osman D; Murfitt, Diana; Turner, Nikki M

    2016-09-09

    Influenza is a common respiratory viral infection. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza cause substantial morbidity and mortality that burdens healthcare services every year. The influenza virus constantly evolves by antigenic drift and occasionally by antigenic shift, making this disease particularly challenging to manage and prevent. As influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and also have the ability to cause pandemics leading to widespread social and economic losses, focused discussions on improving management and prevention efforts is warranted. The Immunisation Advisory Centre (IMAC) hosted the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium (NZiS) in November 2015. International and national participants discussed current issues in influenza management and prevention. Experts in the field presented data from recent studies and discussed the ecology of influenza viruses, epidemiology of influenza, methods of prevention and minimisation, and experiences from the 2015 seasonal influenza immunisation campaign. The symposium concluded that although much progress in this field has been made, many areas for future research remain.

  6. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.

  7. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  8. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  9. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2-8) ...

  10. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human–animal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to sw...

  11. A Critical Role of Cell Tropism for the Pathogenesis of Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza A virus, together with Influenza B virus, Influenza C virus, Isavirus and Thogotovirus, are the five genera forming the family Orthomyxoviridae. Orthomyxoviridae are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses with a segmented genome. Influenza A viruses can be further categorized

  12. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); C.E. van Elk; P.E. Bunskoek (Paulien); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); S.L. Smits (Saskia); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses

  13. Seasonal influenza activity for 2005-2006 season seems to be ending in most European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, W.J.; Meijer, A.; Falcao, J.M.; Jong, J.C. de; Kyncl, J.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Meuwissen, L.E.; Nicoll, A.; Velden, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005-2006 season, seasonal influenza epidemics started late in countries across Europe. Clinical influenza activity has only reached moderate levels and has mainly been associated with influenza B viruses. There has been co-circulation of influenza A and B viruses in many countries, and

  14. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis

  15. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  16. An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed Farm By The Introduction Of A Water Fowl. ... C A Meseko, A T Oladokun, B Shehu. Abstract. Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a range of Influenza type A viruses of high and low pathogenicity (Fauci, 2005). H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) ...

  17. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J

    2008-01-07

    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  18. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng

    1999-01-01

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  19. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  20. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)