WorldWideScience

Sample records for influencing energy decisions

  1. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosch, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.brosch@unige.ch [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Patel, Martin K. [Energy Group, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Energy Group, Forel Institute, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-17

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  2. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, Tobias; Patel, Martin K.; Sander, David

    2014-01-01

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  3. Affective influences on energy-related decisions and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic, the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use, demonstrating that the appraisal-emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Finally, we discuss how the appraisal-emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  4. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  5. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  6. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  7. Preference Construction Processes for Renewable Energies: Assessing the Influence of Sustainability Information and Decision Support Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotada Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability information and decision support can be two important driving forces for making sustainable transitions in society. However, not enough knowledge is available on the effectiveness of these two factors. Here, we conducted an experimental study to support the hypotheses that acquisition of sustainability information and use of decision support methods consistently construct preferences for renewable power generation technologies that use solar power, wind power, small-scale hydroelectric power, geothermal power, wood biomass, or biogas as energy sources. The sustainability information was prepared using a renewable energy-focused input-output model of Japan and contained life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation costs, and job creation. We measured rank-ordered preferences in the following four steps in experimental workshops conducted for municipal officials: provision of (1 energy-source names; (2 sustainability information; (3 additional explanation of public value; and (4 knowledge and techniques about multi-attribute value functions. The degree of changes in preference orders was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The consistency of rank-ordered preferences among participants was determined by using the maximum eigenvalue for the coefficient matrix. The results show: (1 the individual preferences evolved drastically in response to the sustainability information and the decision support method; and (2 the rank-ordered preferences were more consistent during the preference construction processes. These results indicate that provision of sustainability information, coupled with decision support methods, is effective for decision making regarding renewable energies.

  8. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  9. The Influence of Political Decisions upon the Evolution of Renewable Energy in Romania. Case Study: Aeolian Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE POPA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted the fact that the foreseeable effects of the climate changes will have a major impact on the environment, and the human activities, especially fossil fuel combustion, represents the main cause of global warming. Both climate changes and the raise of the world consumption of energy and the perspective of diminishing the mineral energy resources turn the renewable energy into the main viable alternative. Between the renewable resources, the wind (Aeolian energy has a great potential. In this context, in the last few decades, as a result of the political support towards the renewable energy, the global production of wind energy has met considerable development. In Romania, the insertion of the promotion of electric energy produced by the renewable energy sources system has gathered plenty investments, leading to spectacular risings. The evolution in this domain has though been mostly influenced by the governmental policies. The repetitive changes of legislation led to an uncertain future for the Aeolian energy in Romania, on short term to say the least.

  10. Ethical factors influencing decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1993-01-01

    Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de

  11. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  12. Energy decisions: technocracy x democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1984-06-01

    In all the countries of the world, official energy policies and programs are criticized by experts from the academic community and by the population at large. It is quite normal that people censure their government, but under the cloak of scientific arguments, one can usually find political objectives. In this paper, we try to analyse parameters which are an influence in this power game: up to what point can or should technocrats decide in the name of the people. When and now can or should the people demonstrate their preferences. As this is a vast and polemic theme, and ir order that some concrete conclusion could be drawn, we tried to concentrate our analysis on a specific case: the Brazilian decision to use nuclear energy. (Author) [pt

  13. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  14. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, D.; Breen, J.P.; Thorne, F.; Wallace, M.

    2012-01-01

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ► We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ► Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ► REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ► Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ► Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  15. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  16. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-73 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters is of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973 the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programme for the period 1975-85 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations. These were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper then describes how the public, by its activities in the energy study circles, was given a possibility to influence the formulation of the new Swedish energy policy. It outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the key energy issues, especially as regards the future role of nuclear power. Finally, it also tries to evaluate to what extent this effort in education and involvement can be expected to react on the implementation of the energy policy programme and on future energy policy decisions

  17. Energy Decision Science and Informatics | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Decision Science and Informatics Energy Decision Science and Informatics NREL utilizes and advances state-of-the-art decision science and informatics to help partners make well-informed energy decisions backed by credible, objective data analysis and insights to maximize the impact of energy

  18. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  19. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  20. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  2. Human Factors Influencing Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    and Einhom (1991); Zeelenberg et al. (1997). This environmental context also makes it difficult to associate measured personality traits with specific... Zeelenberg and Beattie5 (1997): People are motivated to minimize post-decision regret. As a result people can become risk averse or risk seeking...188-201), Ablex, Norwood NJ, 1993. 5 Zeelenberg M. and J. Beattie. "Consequences of regret aversion 2: additional evidence for effects of feedback on

  3. Decision support tools for advanced energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Karel; Schindler, Zdenek; Stluka, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Rising fuel costs boost energy prices, which is a driving force for improving efficiency of operation of any energy generation facility. This paper focuses on enhancing the operation of distributed integrated energy systems (IES), system that bring together all forms of cooling, heating and power (CCHP) technologies. Described methodology can be applied in power generation and district heating companies, as well as in small-scale systems that supply multiple types of utilities to consumers in industrial, commercial, residential and governmental spheres. Dispatching of such system in an optimal way needs to assess large number of production and purchasing schemes in conditions of continually changing market and variable utility demands influenced by many external factors, very often by weather conditions. The paper describes a combination of forecasting and optimization methods that supports effective decisions in IES system management. The forecaster generates the future most probable utility demand several hours or days ahead, derived from the past energy consumer behaviour. The optimizer generates economically most efficient operating schedule for the IES system that matches these forecasted energy demands and respects expected purchased energy prices. (author)

  4. The Art of Influencing Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegmueller, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Influencing educational decision makers requires creating ongoing relationships, keeping everyone informed, and developing persuasive skills. Persuasion requires preparation, refinement, hard work, and a sound understanding of the people being lobbied. Lobbying must be factual and relevant to the audience. The article looks at influence from the…

  5. Lineup Administrator Influences on Eyewitness Identification Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E.; Marshall, Tanya E.; Rosenthal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The present research examines how a lineup administrator may influence eyewitness identification decisions through different forms of influence, after providing the witness with standard, unbiased instructions. Participant-witnesses viewed a staged crime and were later shown a target-present or target-absent lineup. The lineup administrators…

  6. Teacher Grading Decisions: Influences, Rationale, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study applied a decision-making theoretical framework to an investigation of teacher grading in a large urban school district in California. A sample of 251 high school teachers of core subjects were surveyed, and 15 teachers participated in four focus group interviews in order provide data on the influences, rationale, and…

  7. Influence of Emotions on Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cida Sanches

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to verify whether emotions and feelings influence the decisions of entrepreneurs differently in terms of gender using data collected via instruments i.e. questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The findings suggest that out of 13 factors under study, 8 showed significant differences in the responses given by the two groups: love, unfairness, compassion, dissension, individualism, insecurity, anger and surprise. Men tend to face a decision situation as an intellectual challenge. They avoid listening to other people and decide rapidly, as they understand these actions as a sign of capacity and independence. The results showed that male and female entrepreneurs are significantly affected by feelings and emotions. Women showed a greater tendency than men did towards the following factors: love, jealousy and dissension. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship liteature and broadens the empirical base of studies related to the influence of emotions and feelings of male and female entrepreneurs, providing a possible new perspective regarding decisions, taking into account the gender of the decision maker.

  8. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  9. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  10. The Effects Of Decision Framing Influences On Decision Performance

    OpenAIRE

    David Shelby Harrison; Sanela Porca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two components of decision framing [commitment and verbalization] in decision optimization, and how information quality impacts framing effects on decision performance. The theory of cognitive dissonance predicts that commitment to a decision will foster insensitivity to alternative choices. We find that such bias can be beneficial in certain decision strategies, and more powerfully influential as information quality worsens. We used an interactive compu...

  11. Factors influencing career decisions in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, C; Cawood, T

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Taylor, P.; Bahn, O.; Das, S.R.; Wei, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a

  13. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  14. Decision making about nuclear energy, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of the various influences on the process of making decisions at the governmental level in the Netherlands on nuclear power, covering the last 20 years. The conflicting statements in memoranda, the role of the industry, the lack of public information and the coloured information generated by different ministries as an answer to extra-parliamentary opposition to nuclear power, are in turn put into focus

  15. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  16. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Angelarosa Longo; Viviana Ventre

    2015-01-01

    Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the m...

  17. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelarosa Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the modeler. Behavioral Operational Research (BOR studies these influences to create efficient models to define choices in similar decision processes.

  18. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  19. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  20. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  1. Anytime decision making based on unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luque, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2016-01-01

    . This paper addresses this problem by proposing an anytime algorithm that at any time provides a qualified recommendation for the first decisions of the problem. The algorithm performs a heuristic-based search in a decision tree representation of the problem. We provide a framework for analyzing......Unconstrained influence diagrams extend the language of influence diagrams to cope with decision problems in which the order of the decisions is unspecified. Thus, when solving an unconstrained influence diagram we not only look for an optimal policy for each decision, but also for a so-called step......-policy specifying the next decision given the observations made so far. However, due to the complexity of the problem, temporal constraints can force the decision maker to act before the solution algorithm has finished, and, in particular, before an optimal policy for the first decision has been computed...

  2. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  3. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-1973 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973, the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programmme for the period 1975-1985 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision-making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations, which were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the energy issues. (author)

  4. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jun; Gong, Jingjing; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.

  5. Influence of framing on medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.

  6. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  7. Administrative Jurisdiction in NMa decisions with respect to Energy Jurisdiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algera, W.T.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 decisions were made in 14 energy issues with respect to decisions of the Netherlands Competition Authority NMa. All the decisions were done by Court of Appeal for trade and industry. The decisions touch upon a broad spectrum of subjects and comprise several procedures. They are discussed and commented in this thematic annual analysis. [nl

  8. Fair play in energy policy decisions: Procedural fairness, outcome fairness and acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To raise public acceptance of new energy policies, promoting the fairness of the outcomes and of the decision-making procedure has been suggested. Very few studies have examined the role of fairness in public acceptance of rebuilding nuclear power plants. Therefore, using a large mail survey, we investigated the public’s acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants in Switzerland by 2020. The study examined the influence of procedural fairness and outcome fairness on the acceptance of this decision, as well as other factors such as risk perception and benefit perception. Additionally, we investigated the moderating influence of general attitudes towards nuclear power on the relation between fairness and decision acceptance. Results indicated that outcome fairness strongly increased decision acceptance, along with general attitudes towards nuclear power and perceived economic benefits. Procedural fairness had only a small impact on decision acceptance. The influence of fairness on decision acceptance did not seem to depend on general nuclear attitudes. Our findings imply that, in the case of rebuilding nuclear power plants, perceived benefits and outcome fairness are important determinants of acceptance of the decision, while procedural fairness only has a limited impact. - Highlights: ► We investigated the role of fairness in the acceptance of a nuclear policy decision. ► Outcome fairness strongly influenced decision acceptance regarding nuclear power plants. ► The role of procedural fairness was relatively small in this respect. ► Also, nuclear attitudes and perceived economic benefits affected decision acceptance. ► Outcome fairness seems more relevant for decision acceptance than procedural fairness.

  9. Social influence and perceptual decision making: a diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germar, Markus; Schlemmer, Alexander; Krug, Kristine; Voss, Andreas; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Classic studies on social influence used simple perceptual decision-making tasks to examine how the opinions of others change individuals' judgments. Since then, one of the most fundamental questions in social psychology has been whether social influence can alter basic perceptual processes. To address this issue, we used a diffusion model analysis. Diffusion models provide a stochastic approach for separating the cognitive processes underlying speeded binary decisions. Following this approach, our study is the first to disentangle whether social influence on decision making is due to altering the uptake of available sensory information or due to shifting the decision criteria. In two experiments, we found consistent evidence for the idea that social influence alters the uptake of available sensory evidence. By contrast, participants did not adjust their decision criteria.

  10. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  11. Catastrophic risk : Social influences on insurance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Michal; Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    We study behavioral patterns of insurance demand for low-probability large-loss events (catastrophic losses). Individual patterns of belief formation and risk attitude that were suggested in the behavioral decisions literature emerge robustly in the current set of insurance choices. However, social

  12. Evaluating reproductive decisions as discrete choices under social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Brock, William A; Caiado, Camila C S; O'Brien, Michael J

    2016-04-19

    Discrete choice, coupled with social influence, plays a significant role in evolutionary studies of human fertility, as investigators explore how and why reproductive decisions are made. We have previously proposed that the relative magnitude of social influence can be compared against the transparency of pay-off, also known as the transparency of a decision, through a heuristic diagram that maps decision-making along two axes. The horizontal axis represents the degree to which an agent makes a decision individually versus one that is socially influenced, and the vertical axis represents the degree to which there is transparency in the pay-offs and risks associated with the decision the agent makes. Having previously parametrized the functions that underlie the diagram, we detail here how our estimation methods can be applied to real-world datasets concerning sexual health and contraception. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  14. Influence of Culture on the Process of Managing Decisions Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Lucian Isac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different cultural environment requires a corresponding managerial environment. The process of managing decisions adoption is influenced by the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the employees.

  15. Factors influencing Nigerian men's decision to undergo prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study explores the factors that influence a group of Nigerian men's decision to go for Prostate Specific ..... older they were in the habit of regularly visiting the hospi- .... friends with prostate cancer was an important stimulus.

  16. Game Relativity: How Context Influences Strategic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Existing models of strategic decision making typically assume that only the attributes of the currently played game need be considered when reaching a decision. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the so-called "cooperativeness" of the previously played prisoner's dilemma games influence choices and predictions in the current…

  17. Collective Leadership: Principals' Decision Influence and the Supportive or Inhibiting Decision Influence of Other Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongmei; Yan, Rui; Pounder, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Using the collective leadership framework, this study examines (a) how principals perceive their own influence and that of other key stakeholders in various school decisions and (b) how principals' perceived influences of other stakeholders are associated with their own influence. Research Method/Approach: This study uses the nationally…

  18. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  19. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants’ decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  20. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants' decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  1. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2008-04-01

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  2. A decision model for energy resource selection in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Kocaoglu, Dundar F.; Daim, Tugrul U.; Yang Jiting

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and renewable energy resources as energy alternatives for China through use of a hierarchical decision model. The results indicate that although coal is still the major preferred energy alternative, it is followed closely by renewable energy. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the most critical criterion for energy selection is the current energy infrastructure. A hierarchical decision model is used, and expert judgments are quantified, to evaluate the alternatives. Criteria used for the evaluations are availability, current energy infrastructure, price, safety, environmental impacts and social impacts.

  3. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  4. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  5. Influence of dopaminergically mediated reward on somatosensory decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reward-related dopaminergic influences on learning and overt behaviour are well established, but any influence on sensory decision-making is largely unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while participants judged electric somatosensory stimuli on one hand or other, before being rewarded for correct performance at trial end via a visual signal, at one of four anticipated financial levels. Prior to the procedure, participants received either placebo (saline, a dopamine agonist (levodopa, or an antagonist (haloperidol.higher anticipated reward improved tactile decisions. Visually signalled reward reactivated primary somatosensory cortex for the judged hand, more strongly for higher reward. After receiving a higher reward on one trial, somatosensory activations and decisions were enhanced on the next trial. These behavioural and neural effects were all enhanced by levodopa and attenuated by haloperidol, indicating dopaminergic dependency. Dopaminergic reward-related influences extend even to early somatosensory cortex and sensory decision-making.

  6. Influence of portofolio management in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolney Baptestone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to demonstrate how portfolio management influences the decision-making process in the projects of a financial organization. And to achieve this goal was used the single case study method. In order to reach this goal, the study began by means of bibliometric research on the subject of portfolio management and subsequent bibliographic research on the theme, decision making. Next, the relationships between portfolio management and decision making were studied. The results of the data collected confirmed the relationship between "the use of the project identification process in portfolio management to influence decision making" in order to add value to the business. It is also possible to demonstrate moderately that "the use of criteria for project selection influences the consequences of decision making", helping in the strategic management of the organization. One of the academic contributions was to note a migration of the portfolio management process, such as a tool that only controls the projects that will compose the portfolio of an organization, for a process that aims at a direct alignment with the strategic management of the organization. Regarding the practical implications, it was verified the importance of portfolio analysis for decision making, to the detriment of the evaluation of only one project. Taking into account the profitability and the return on investment of the projects, as the most important aspects for a decision making.

  7. TAU INFLUENCE ON DECISION MAKING IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Correia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in sport emerges from the players' interaction with the game context (Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006. Results from studies on the one-on-one in basketball identified interpersonal distance and relative velocity as relevant variables (i.e., control parameters. These results are reinterpreted in the perspective of the General Tau Theory (Lee, 1998, in which movement is regarded as guided by controlling tau motion-gaps (time to fulfil a gap and taucouplings. Further empirical evidence for this argument, came from a recent study in a team ball sport, where the tau variable was considered and verified as significantly related to decisional behaviour. Following this, it is assumed that the focus in candidate control parameters that detach the spatial component from the temporal one, presented in previous studies, may not be sufficient to explain the decisional behaviour in basketball. In this way, the variable tau is proposed as more informative given that enfolds inextricably spatial-temporal information.

  8. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Sovacool, Benjamin; Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Goldthau, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    All too often, energy policy and technology discussions are limited to the domains of engineering and economics. Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, e...

  9. Peer Influences on Adolescent Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-04-01

    Research efforts to account for elevated risk behavior among adolescents have arrived at an exciting new stage. Moving beyond laboratory studies of age differences in "cool" cognitive processes related to risk perception and reasoning, new approaches have shifted focus to the influence of social and emotional factors on adolescent neurocognition. We review recent research suggesting that adolescent risk-taking propensity derives in part from a maturational gap between early adolescent remodeling of the brain's socio-emotional reward system and a gradual, prolonged strengthening of the cognitive control system. At a time when adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with their peers, research suggests that peer-related stimuli may sensitize the reward system to respond to the reward value of risky behavior. As the cognitive control system gradually matures over the course of the teenage years, adolescents grow in their capacity to coordinate affect and cognition, and to exercise self-regulation even in emotionally arousing situations. These capacities are reflected in gradual growth in the capacity to resist peer influence.

  10. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  11. The influence of firms on female lifecycle decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Saki

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a dramatic increase in the labor force participation of women in many countries has occurred. Female lifestyle choices appear to be more flexible than they were earlier. Yet certain cross-national differences remain. What causes these differences to emerge? My Master's thesis addressed how the decisions of firms regarding family leave influence the decision-making process of women. According to a game theoretic model, the availability and cost of childcare are the two central f...

  12. What influences parents' decisions to limit or withdraw life support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mahesh; Meert, Kathleen L; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2005-09-01

    Decisions to forgo life support from critically ill children are commonly faced by parents and physicians. Previous research regarding parents' perspectives on the decision-making process has been limited by retrospective methods and the use of closed-ended questionnaires. We prospectively identified and described parents' self-reported influences on decisions to forgo life support from their children. Deeper understanding of parents' views will allow physicians to focus end-of-life discussions on factors important to parents and help resolve conflicts. Prospective, qualitative pilot study. Pediatric intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. A total of 14 parents of ten children whose pediatric intensive care unit physician had made a recommendation to limit or withdraw life support. : In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents during their decision-making process. Factors influencing the parents in this study in their decision to forgo life support included their previous experience with death and end-of-life decision making for others, their personal observations of their child's suffering, their perceptions of their child's will to survive, their need to protect and advocate for their child, and the family's financial resources and concerns regarding life-long care. Parents in this study expressed the desire to do what is best for their child but struggled with feelings of selfishness, guilt, and the need to avoid agony and sorrow. Physician recommendations, review of options, and joint formulation of a plan helped parents gain a sense of control over their situation. Parents of eight children agreed to forgo life support and parents of two did not. Prospective interviews with open-ended questions identified factors influencing parents' decision making not previously described in the critical care literature such as parents' past experiences with end-of-life decisions and their anticipated emotional adjustments and

  13. [Influence of music on a decision of mathematical logic tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlygina, R A; Karamysheva, N N; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I

    2012-01-01

    Accompaniment of a decision of mathematical logical tasks by music (different style and power) influenced on the time of the decision. Classical music 35 and 65 dB and roc-music 65 and 85 dB decreased the time of the decision. More powerful classical music (85 dB) did not effect like that. The decision without the musical accompaniment led to increasing of coherent values especially in beta1, beta2, gamma frequency ranges in EEG of occipital cortex. The intrahemispheric and the interhemispheric coherences of frontal EEG increased and EEG asymmetry (in a number of Coh-connections in left and right hemispheres) arose during the tasks decision accompanied by music. Application of classical music 35 and 65 dB caused left-side asymmetry in EEG. Using of more powerful classical or rock music led to prevalence of quantity of Coh-connections in a right hemisphere.

  14. Interpersonal Influence in Virtual Social Networks and Consumer Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botti Abbade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the attitude of college students regarding to interpersonal influence in virtual social networks related to consume decisions. It was conducted a survey with 200 college students from an Institution of Higher Education located in Santa Maria/RS. The sample was obtained through voluntary adhesion and the data collection instrument was applied in a virtual environment. Scales were adapted to measure and evaluate the propensity of students to influence and be influenced by their virtual contacts. The results suggest that the scales adapted are satisfactory to measure what they intend to do. The study also found that men are more able to influence the opinions of their virtual social contacts. On the other hand, the time dedicated to access the Internet positively and significantly influences the propensity of users to be influenced by their virtual social contacts. The correlation between the ability to influence the propensity to be influenced is significant and positive.

  15. Energy Technology Investments: Maximizing Efficiency Through a Maritime Energy Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Investment (ROI) and Break Even Point ( BEP ). These metrics are essential for determining whether an initiative would be worth pursuing. Balanced...is Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy...Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy Efficiency 4

  16. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The neural substrates of social influence on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Damon; Nedic, Andrea; Prentice, Deborah A; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that govern human learning and decision making under uncertainty have been the focus of intense behavioral and, more recently, neuroscientific investigation. Substantial progress has been made in building models of the processes involved, and identifying underlying neural mechanisms using simple, two-alternative forced choice decision tasks. However, less attention has been given to how social information influences these processes, and the neural systems that mediate this influence. Here we sought to address these questions by using tasks similar to ones that have been used to study individual decision making behavior, and adding conditions in which participants were given trial-by-trial information about the performance of other individuals (their choices and/or their rewards) simultaneously playing the same tasks. We asked two questions: How does such information about the behavior of others influence performance in otherwise simple decision tasks, and what neural systems mediate this influence? We found that bilateral insula exhibited a parametric relationship to the degree of misalignment of the individual's performance with those of others in the group. Furthermore, activity in the bilateral insula significantly predicted participants' subsequent choices to align their behavior with others in the group when they were misaligned either in their choices (independent of success) or their degree of success (independent of specific choices). These findings add to the growing body of empirical data suggesting that the insula participates in an important way in social information processing and decision making.

  18. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  20. Decision influences and aftermath: parents, stillbirth and autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horey, Dell; Flenady, Vicki; Conway, Liz; McLeod, Emma; Yee Khong, Teck

    2014-08-01

    Stillbirth, among the most distressing experiences an adult may face, is also a time when parents must decide whether an autopsy or other post-mortem examinations will be performed on their infant. Autopsies can reveal information that might help explain stillbirth, yet little is known about how people make this difficult decision. This study examines the influences on decisions about autopsy after stillbirth among Australian parents. The study involved secondary analysis of transcripts of three focus groups using qualitative content analysis. Seventeen parents of 14 stillborn babies participated in consultations around the revision of a perinatal mortality audit guideline. Parents shared the decision making. Four decision drivers were identified: parents' preparedness or readiness to make decisions; parental responsibility; concern for possible consequences of an autopsy and the role of health professionals. Each decision driver involved reasons both for and against autopsy. Two decision aftermath were also present: some parents who agreed to an autopsy were dissatisfied with the way the autopsy results were given to them and some parents who did not have an autopsy for their infant expressed some form of regret or uncertainty about the choice they made. To make decisions about autopsy after stillbirth, parents need factual information about autopsy procedures, recognition that there might be fear of blame, an environment of trust, and health services and professionals prepared and skilled for difficult conversations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding how culture influence emotions in consumer decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying to understand how other cultural dimensions than the traditionally studied influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision-making. It is revealed that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which...... Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions, but it is also revealed that it could be crucial when studying the influence of culture on emotions in decision-making to distinguish between more than high and low arousal positive and negative...

  2. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  3. An analogue study of the factors influencing competency decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashfield, R K; Robbins, L; Barnard, G W

    1994-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists who were members of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law analyzed case histories to make a competency or incompetency decision. The case histories were created to alter background information, diagnostic information, information about the defendants' understanding of the adversarial process, courtroom behavior, and the nature of the crime. The information that had the most influence on the decisions of the forensic psychiatrists included the cognitive status of the defendant, psychotic features, courtroom behavior, and understanding of the adversarial process. Relationship with the lawyer, alcohol/drug use history, psychiatric history, and criminal history had less influence. The forensic psychiatrists tended to "error" toward a decision for competency unless compelling evidence was presented to the contrary.

  4. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  5. Prospect relativity: how choice options influence decision under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick; Stott, Henry P; Reimers, Stian

    2003-03-01

    In many theories of decision under risk (e.g., expected utility theory, rank-dependent utility theory, and prospect theory), the utility of a prospect is independent of other options in the choice set. The experiments presented here show a large effect of the available options, suggesting instead that prospects are valued relative to one another. The judged certainty equivalent for a prospect is strongly influenced by the options available. Similarly, the selection of a preferred prospect is strongly influenced by the prospects available. Alternative theories of decision under risk (e.g., the stochastic difference model, multialternative decision field theory, and range frequency theory), where prospects are valued relative to one another, can provide an account of these context effects.

  6. Autonomy and coordination: Controlling external influences on decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve optimal results, an agent's way of decision making might need to change according to the circumstances. One of the aspects an agent can adapt is the way it processes external events. Therewith it controls to what extend it is being influenced by external factors. We argue that

  7. Decision-making by an authority under influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    1993-01-01

    A characteristic set of decision problems is given when an authority has to choose between a finite number of alternatives and is being influenced by a number of parties. For instance, the location of a firm when local authorities are competing for being the host, various types of lobbyism, or when...

  8. Decentralised water systems: emotional influences on resource decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi

    2012-09-01

    The study of emotion has gathered momentum in the field of environmental science, specifically in the context of community resource decision-making. Of particular interest in this review is the potential influence of emotion, risk and threat perception on individuals' decisions to acceptance and adopt decentralised water systems, such as rainwater tanks and greywater systems. The role of message framing is also considered in detail, as well as the influences that different types of framing can have on decision making. These factors are considered as possible predictors for analysing community acceptance of decentralised water in urban environments. Concepts believed to be influenced by emotion, such as trust and framing, are also discussed as potentially meaningful contributors to an overall model of community acceptance of decentralised water. Recommendations are made for how emotion-based concepts, such as risk and threat, can be targeted to facilitate widespread adoption of decentralised systems and how researchers can explore different types of emotions that influence decision making in distinct ways. This review is an important theoretical step in advancing the psycho-social understanding of acceptance and adoption of on-site water sources. Avenues for future research are recommended, including the need for greater theoretical development to encourage future social science research on decentralised systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Color Perception on Marketing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šliburytė Laimona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines colour (sight marketing as one of the element of sensory marketing highlighting the importance of its perception and use in marketing decisions. Theoretical studies reveal that seeking to influence consumer behaviour, colour is used in setting linkages with characteristics of the product, as well as defining product packaging, advertising, point of sale, and brand communication.

  10. Factors Influencing the College Choice Decisions of Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ruth E.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the relative importance of 31 institutional characteristics in 1,068 graduate students' decisions to enroll or not enroll in the institution. Factors having the greatest influence included residency status, quality and other academic environment characteristics, work-related concerns, spouse considerations, financial aid, and…

  11. Decision Making Policies and Worker Influence in Employee Owned Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tove Helland

    A study of a small employee-owned furniture company indicated that the three occupational groups agreed that management should have more influence in decisions affecting the future of the organization. On the other hand, issues which would directly affect employee welfare are seen as areas where control should be fairly evenly divided, with…

  12. Does ambiguity aversion influence the framing effect during decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmont, Anaïs; Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Houdé, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Decision-makers present a systematic tendency to avoid ambiguous options for which the level of risk is unknown. This ambiguity aversion is one of the most striking decision-making biases. Given that human choices strongly depend on the options' presentation, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether ambiguity aversion influences the framing effect during decision making. We designed a new financial decision-making task involving the manipulation of both frame and uncertainty levels. Thirty-seven participants had to choose between a sure option and a gamble depicting either clear or ambiguous probabilities. The results revealed a clear preference for the sure option in the ambiguity condition regardless of frame. However, participants presented a framing effect in both the risk and ambiguity conditions. Indeed, the framing effect was bidirectional in the risk condition and unidirectional in the ambiguity condition given that it did not involve preference reversal but only a more extreme choice tendency.

  13. Energy related design decisions deserve simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Building energy consumption and indoor climate result from complex dynamic thermal interactions between outdoor environment, building structure, environmental control systems, and occupants. This reality is too complicated to be casted in simple expressions, rules or graphs. After a general overview

  14. Public participation in energy-related decision making: workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document contains edited transcripts of presentations and discussion at plenary sessions of a workshop on Public Participation in Energy Related Decision Making sponsored by the National Science Foundation and held at The MITRE Corporation in McLean, Virginia, on September 21 and 22, 1976. The Emergency Core Cooling System rulemaking, the consideration of Energy Parks in Pennsylvania, and the Seabrook, New Hampshire Nuclear Station decisions are summarized, and the process of public participation in each decision is analyzed by actual participants in the respective cases. Also summarized are the North Anna decision, the Sears Island decision, and the Big Rock Point decision. The conclusions and recommendations from working group discussions on the role and process of public participation are presented. An overall summary is provided, along with the final report of the National Academy of Public Administration Panel which was convened to assist in the design and conduct of the workshop. A companion volume to these proceedings, Public Participation in Energy Related Decision Making: Six Case Studies, M76-53, was distributed to participants prior to the workshop and includes complete case studies of the above six decisions

  15. Renewable Energy Data, Analysis, and Decisions: A Guide for Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grue, Nicholas W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leisch, Jennifer E. [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2018-03-16

    High-quality renewable energy resource data and other geographic information system (GIS) data are essential for the transition to a clean energy economy that prioritizes local resources, improves resiliency, creates jobs, and promotes energy independence. This guide is intended to support policymakers and planners, as well as technical experts, consultants, and academics in incorporating improved data and analysis into renewable energy decision-making.

  16. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajot, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.cajot@alumni.epfl.ch [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirakyan, Atom [Energy Economics and Planning Department, Lahmeyer International, Bad Vilbel (Germany); Koch, Andreas [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maréchal, François [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-05-30

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  17. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajot, Sébastien; Mirakyan, Atom; Koch, Andreas; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  18. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Roger B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate. The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Results Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3% had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65–79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65–79. Conclusion While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing

  19. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; McCarthy, Ellen P; York, Meghan; Davis, Roger B; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2007-11-16

    Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65-79. Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65-79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate). The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3%) had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65-79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65-79). While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions, habit and reassurance

  20. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  1. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard T. Klapwijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction.

  3. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  4. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  5. Investment in energy: a decision with manifold objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, E.

    1978-04-01

    Assuming that the level of welfare of the economy is influenced by divergencies observed in the amplitude of certain regional elements, it is admitted that such information must be added to the one conventionally included in the decision's criteria. Specifically: if distributive data are added to the efficiency data already existing, the former ones must be explicitly stated in decision's criteria. Discussions are based on microeconomic analysis welfare economics and correlation aspects [pt

  6. Influence of branding on preference-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philiastides, Marios G; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Branding has become one of the most important determinants of consumer choices. Intriguingly, the psychological mechanisms of how branding influences decision making remain elusive. In the research reported here, we used a preference-based decision-making task and computational modeling to identify which internal components of processing are affected by branding. We found that a process of noisy temporal integration of subjective value information can model preference-based choices reliably and that branding biases are explained by changes in the rate of the integration process itself. This result suggests that branding information and subjective preference are integrated into a single source of evidence in the decision-making process, thereby altering choice behavior.

  7. Non-medical influences on medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, J B; Potter, D A; Feldman, H A

    1996-03-01

    The influence of non-medical factors on physicians' decision-making has been documented in many observational studies, but rarely in an experimental setting capable of demonstrating cause and effect. We conducted a controlled factorial experiment to assess the influence of non-medical factors on the diagnostic and treatment decisions made by practitioners of internal medicine in two common medical situations. One hundred and ninety-two white male internists individually viewed professionally produced video scenarios in which the actor-patient, presenting with either chest pain or dyspnea, possessed various balanced combinations of sex, race, age, socioeconomic status, and health insurance coverage. Physician subjects were randomly drawn from lists of internists in private practice, hospital-based practice, and HMO's, at two levels of experience. The most frequent diagnoses for both chest pain and dyspnea were psychogenic origin and cardiac problems. Smoking cessation was the most frequent treatment recommendation for both conditions. Younger patients (all other factors being the same) were significantly more likely to receive the psychogenic diagnosis. Older patients were more likely to receive the cardiac diagnosis for chest pain, particularly if they were insured. HMO-based physicians were more likely to recommend a follow-up visit for chest pain. Several interactions of patient and physician factors were significant in addition to the main effects. The variability in decision-making evidenced by physicians in this experiment was not entirely accounted for by strictly rational Bayesian inference (the common prescriptive model for medical decision-making), in-as-much as non-medical factors significantly affected the decisions that they made. There is a need to supplement idealized medical schemata with considerations of social behavior in any comprehensive theory of medical decision-making.

  8. Creating energy security indexes with decision matrices and quantitative criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Shupe, Darren

    2010-09-15

    Energy security is becoming an important policy issue in a growing number of jurisdictions because of volatile energy markets and production challenges faced by many producers. As a result, policymakers and politicians are looking for tools or methods that can create an energy security index with results that are justifiable, understandable, and reproducible. This paper describes a method which employs a decision matrix to produce an energy security index using quantitative criteria and metrics. The method allows a range of indexes to be produced, thereby offering further insight into the state of a jurisdiction's energy security.

  9. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Goldthau, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    All too often, energy policy and technology discussions are limited to the domains of engineering and economics. Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, energy poverty and climate change — as pressing justice concerns. We conclude by proposing an energy justice framework centred on availability, affordability, due process, transparency and accountability, sustainability, equity and responsibility, which highlights the futurity, fairness and equity dimensions of energy production and use.

  10. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  11. What are the decision criteria of an energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daures, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The author analyses and comments the determining factors of an energy policy. The first issue is to match supply and demand. He outlines why demand is difficult to control. As far as supply is concerned, several scales must be taken into account, notably a time scale (differences between base energies and intermittent energies) and a geographical scale (mass production and local production). Other determining factors are security of energy supply, preservation of the local environment, impact on climate, costs and prices, competitiveness of national companies, and the management of risks. The author then discusses how to take a decision, how to arbitrate between these factors as decisions are important and have long-lasting effects, as calculations on the long term raise the issue of future actualisation, as externalities must be integrated and valorised, and as an energy policy must set clear objectives and be aimed at the common good

  12. Sustainable energy planning decision using the intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: choosing energy technology in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Lazim; Najib, Liana

    2016-04-01

    Energy consumption for developing countries is sharply increasing due to the higher economic growth due to industrialisation along with population growth and urbanisation. The increasing demand of energy leads to global energy crisis. Selecting the best energy technology and conservation requires both quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. The fuzzy set-based approach is one of the well-known theories to handle fuzziness, uncertainty in decision-making and vagueness of information. This paper proposes a new method of intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (IF-AHP) to deal with the uncertainty in decision-making. The new IF-AHP is applied to establish a preference in the sustainable energy planning decision-making problem. Three decision-makers attached with Malaysian government agencies were interviewed to provide linguistic judgement prior to analysing with the new IF-AHP. Nuclear energy has been decided as the best alternative in energy planning which provides the highest weight among all the seven alternatives.

  13. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  14. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...

  15. Understanding How Culture Influences Emotions in Consumer Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    to understand how other cultural dimensions, than those traditionally studied (individualism vs. collectivism) in relation to consumers’ behavior, influence emotions. It is confirmed that indeed also Danes as other Western cultures prefer high arousal positive emotions over low arousal positive emotions......The present research contributes to a limited researched area in consumer research focusing on culture and emotion. Little is known about how culture influence emotions in consumer decision making but there is an emerging interest in deepening the understanding of this. Review of previous studies...... reveal that culture shapes how consumers ideally want to feel, and that this in turn influences preferences and choice, which is guided by anticipated emotions. Empirical results confirm that some emotions are preferred more than others and that studying discrete emotions may be important when trying...

  16. How do Regional Headquarters Influence Corporate Decisions in Networked MNCs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In networked MNCs where knowledge and power are distributed, corporate strategy processes benefit from input arising from many different levels of the organization. Recently, the regional (i.e., supra-national) level has been emphasized as an important additional source of knowledge and input......, and as a bridge between local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters. This paper builds theory on the antecedents to regional headquarters' influence on corporate decisions (i.e., organizational, behavioral, and motivational). Based on a survey of regional headquarters in Europe and their relations...... with MNC headquarters, we provide empirical evidence that a regional headquarters' autonomy and signaling behavior have significant effects on its influence on corporate strategy. Furthermore, we find support for our hypothesis that the regional headquarters' charter moderates such bottom–up influence....

  17. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  18. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  19. Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Lafayette, Colorado: Using Energy Data for Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning" explains how the City of Lafayette used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. Decision making in energy policies with conflicting interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    After the accident in Chernobyl policy making and implementation of energy decisions have become more difficult than ever. On the one hand the public reacts with fear and opposition to a possible extention of nuclear power, on the other hand the economic prosperity of a country depends on an inexpensive and non-exhaustive energy source like nuclear energy. The paper describes a concept of energy planning developed by a study group of the Nuclear Research Centre in Julich (FRG). The concept is based on the idea that in a pluralistic society different social groups should participate in the policy formulation process and that the values of the public should be incorporated in the weighting process to make choices between given options. As reference theory the basic framework of decision analysis is used. (orig./DG)

  1. An intertemporal decision framework for electrochemical energy storage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Moutis, Panayiotis; Kar, Soummya; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2018-05-01

    Dispatchable energy storage is necessary to enable renewable-based power systems that have zero or very low carbon emissions. The inherent degradation behaviour of electrochemical energy storage (EES) is a major concern for both EES operational decisions and EES economic assessments. Here, we propose a decision framework that addresses the intertemporal trade-offs in terms of EES degradation by deriving, implementing and optimizing two metrics: the marginal benefit of usage and the average benefit of usage. These metrics are independent of the capital cost of the EES system, and, as such, separate the value of EES use from the initial cost, which provides a different perspective on storage valuation and operation. Our framework is proved to produce the optimal solution for EES life-cycle profit maximization. We show that the proposed framework offers effective ways to assess the economic values of EES, to make investment decisions for various applications and to inform related subsidy policies.

  2. How customer relationship management influences making better decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Izadi Manesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the primary sources of making appropriate decisions and their feedbacks normally help us improve the quality of systems. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors influencing managers of banking industry make better decisions. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 32 questions, distributes it among some bank managers. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.805. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.701 and 1675, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived nine factors including customers’ welfare strategy, systems integration, organizational culture assessment, corporate strategies, organizational development, intelligence data strategies, supporting strategies, resource planning as well as research and development.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  4. The influence of travel decisions on the carbon dioxide emissions of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norava, M.

    2001-01-01

    During the recent years the reduction of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of transport have been essential objectives in transport policy. At the moment, technical means to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have been emphasized and the research has focused on the technical innovations. However, there are also substantial possibilities to reduce energy consumption by influencing the individual travel decisions and behaviour. This study is focused on the individual travel behaviour and how it can be influenced. Travel behaviour is studied by dividing the individual travel decisions into separate categories and assessing the possibilities of influence within each category. The study concentrates on daily travel choices, because the daily mobility is the most important factor in the total emissions. The travel decisions have divided into trip production, destination choice, mode choice, choice of the starting point of the trip, route choice and the choice of the driving style and car use habits. The trip production and mode choice are the most significant decisions, when energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are concerned. For example, the amount of shopping trip and leisure trip mileage can be reduced by approximately 10 % by extending the trip chains. This reduction would decrease the carbon dioxide emissions of passenger car traffic by 6 %. Extending of the trip chains demands to some extent more detailed planning of the daily mobility, but does not limit the travel need. The attitudes towards mobility, car use habits and the travel behaviour were studied in an influence assessment study of 42 respondents from Helsinki Region and Tampere Region. The influence assessment study consisted of attitude survey and travel diary survey. After the first inquiries the respondents received information about motoring, car use habits, public transport, environment, walking and cycling. In addition, the respondents were offered a possibility to

  5. South Lake Tahoe, California: Using Energy Data to Partner on Building Energy Efficiency Actions (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "South Lake Tahoe, California: Using Energy Data to Partner on Building Energy Efficiency Actions" explains how the City of South Lake Tahoe used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  6. Moab, Utah: Using Energy Data to Target Carbon Reductions from Building Energy Efficiency (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "Moab, Utah: Using Energy Data to Target Carbon Reductions from Building Energy Efficiency" explains how the City of Moab used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  7. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  8. Need for public participation in decision-making on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norte Gomez, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the need to expand and improve public participation in decision-making on energy. In an advanced society like ours you can not continue using the same tools they used a century ago. Provide and transmit by the scientific community to society, information science and technology in an appropriate language that comes to them, giving them opportunities and enabling them to participate objectively in this decision making. There must be a legitimate, honest, sincere and plural debate where the participation of all the actors involved and from all strata of society. (Author)

  9. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  10. Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Laura Díaz; Baker, Erin; Bosetti, Valentina

    2017-05-01

    Public energy research and development (R&D) is recognized as a key policy tool for transforming the world's energy system in a cost-effective way. However, managing the uncertainty surrounding technological change is a critical challenge for designing robust and cost-effective energy policies. The design of such policies is particularly important if countries are going to both meet the ambitious greenhouse-gas emissions reductions goals set by the Paris Agreement and achieve the required harmonization with the broader set of objectives dictated by the Sustainable Development Goals. The complexity of informing energy technology policy requires, and is producing, a growing collaboration between different academic disciplines and practitioners. Three analytical components have emerged to support the integration of technological uncertainty into energy policy: expert elicitations, integrated assessment models, and decision frameworks. Here we review efforts to incorporate all three approaches to facilitate public energy R&D decision-making under uncertainty. We highlight emerging insights that are robust across elicitations, models, and frameworks, relating to the allocation of public R&D investments, and identify gaps and challenges that remain.

  11. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  12. Modeling decision making as a support tool for policy making on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannemi, Marco; García-Melón, Mónica; Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on decision making models for the analysis of capital-risk investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. The aim of the work is to improve the support tools for policy makers in the field of renewable energy development. Analytic Network Process (ANP) helps to better understand capital-risk investors preferences towards different kinds of biomass fueled power plants. The results of the research allow public administration to better foresee the investors’ reaction to the incentive system, or to modify the incentive system to better drive investors’ decisions. Changing the incentive system is seen as major risk by investors. Therefore, public administration must design better and longer-term incentive systems, forecasting market reactions. For that, two scenarios have been designed, one showing a typical decision making process and another proposing an improved decision making scenario. A case study conducted in Italy has revealed that ANP allows understanding how capital-risk investors interpret the situation and make decisions when investing on biomass power plants; the differences between the interests of public administrations’s and promoters’, how decision making could be influenced by adding new decision criteria, and which case would be ranked best according to the decision models. - Highlights: • We applied ANP to the investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. • The aim is to improve the advising tools for renewable energy policy making. • A case study has been carried out with the help of two experts. • We designed two scenarios: decision making as it is and how could it be improved. • Results prove ANP is a fruitful tool enhancing participation and transparency

  13. Personnel decisions: cost benefits and opportunities for the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, T J

    1982-09-01

    This article reviews current practice in personnel decision making in the energy industry, outlining the conditions under which it developed. Changes in today's environment are noted and the utility equation is introduced as an aid to understanding the dollar impacts of these changes. Recent developments that make it possible to tally up the dollar benefits of alternative recruitment and selection programs are explained. Results of utility analyses for the job of roughneck on an oil rig, clerk-typist and assistant buyer are presented. The discussion points to human resource investments likely to have high net benefits and favorable return on investment for the energy industry.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  15. Development of a decision aid for energy resource management for the Navajo Nation incorporating environmental cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necefer, Len Edward

    Decision-making surrounding pathways of future energy resource management are complexity and requires balancing tradeoffs of multiple environmental, social, economic, and technical outcomes. Technical decision aid can provide a framework for informed decision making, allowing individuals to better understand the tradeoff between resources, technology, energy services, and prices. While technical decision aid have made significant advances in evaluating these quantitative aspects of energy planning and performance, they have not been designed to incorporate human factors, such as preferences and behavior that are informed by cultural values. Incorporating cultural values into decision tools can provide not only an improved decision framework for the Navajo Nation, but also generate new insights on how these perspective can improve decision making on energy resources. Ensuring these aids are a cultural fit for each context has the potential to increase trust and promote understanding of the tradeoffs involved in energy resource management. In this dissertation I present the development of a technical tool that explicitly addresses cultural and spiritual values and experimentally assesses their influence on the preferences and decision making of Navajo citizens. Chapter 2 describes the results of a public elicitation effort to gather information about stakeholder views and concerns related to energy development in the Navajo Nation in order to develop a larger sample survey and a decision-support tool that links techno-economic energy models with sociocultural attributes. Chapter 3 details the methods of developing the energy decision aid and its underlying assumptions for alternative energy projects and their impacts. This tool also provides an alternative to economic valuation of cultural impacts based upon an ordinal index tied to environmental impacts. Chapter 4 details the the influence of various cultural, environmental, and economic outcome information provided

  16. Decision analytic tools for resolving uncertainty in the energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Within the context of a Social Compatibility Study on Energy Supply Systems a complex decision making model was used to incorporate scientific expertize and public participation into the process of policy formulation and evaluation. The study was directed by the program group ''Technology and Society'' of the Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. It consisted of three parts: First, with the aid of value tree analysis the whole spectrum of concern and dimensions relevant to the energy issue in Germany was collected and structured in a combined value tree representing the values and criteria of nine important interest groups in the Federal Republic of Germany. Second, the revealed criteria were translated into indicators. Four different energy scenarios were evaluated with respect to each indicator making use of physical measurement, literature review and expert surveys. Third, the weights for each indicator were elicited by interviewing randomly chosen citizens. Those citizens were informed about the scenarios and their impacts prior to the weighting process in a four day seminar. As a result most citizens favoured more moderate energy scenarios assigning high priority to energy conservation. Nuclear energy was perceived as necessary energy source in the long run, but should be restricted to meet only the demand that cannot be covered by other energy means. (orig.)

  17. Influences on decision-making for young women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, Rachael; O'Connor, Moira; Ives, Angela; Saunders, Christobel; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influences on decision-making of younger women (decision-making were identified: fear and anxiety, children, personal experiences with BC, health professional's influence. The decision to undergo BPM for younger women (account the way younger women perceive information given to them when discussing risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence diagrams and decision trees for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, W.W.J.

    1996-09-01

    A review of relevant methodologies based on Influence Diagrams (IDs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Containment Event Trees (CETs) was conducted to assess the practicality of these methods for the selection of effective strategies for Severe Accident Management (SAM). The review included an evaluation of some software packages for these methods. The emphasis was on possible pitfalls of using IDs and on practical aspects, the latter by performance of a case study that was based on an existing Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The study showed that the use of a combined ID/DT model has advantages over CET models, in particular when conservatisms in the Level 2 PSA have been identified and replaced by fair assessments of the uncertainties involved. It is recommended to use ID/DT models complementary to CET models. (orig.).

  19. Influence diagrams and decision trees for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, W.W.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Bedford, T.J.

    1996-08-01

    A review of relevent methodologies based on Influence Diagrams (IDs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Containment Event Trees (CETs) was conducted to assess the practicality of these methods for the selection of effective strategies for Severe Accident Management (SAM). The review included an evaluation of some software packages for these methods. The emphasis was on possible pitfalls of using IDs and on practical aspects, the latter by performance of a case study that was based on an existing Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The study showed that the use of a combined ID/DT model has advantages over CET models, in particular when conservatisms in the Level 2 PSA have been identified and replaced by fair assessments of the uncertainties involved. It is recommended to use ID/DT models as complementary to CET models. (orig.)

  20. Influence diagrams and decision trees for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, W.W.J.

    1996-09-01

    A review of relevant methodologies based on Influence Diagrams (IDs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Containment Event Trees (CETs) was conducted to assess the practicality of these methods for the selection of effective strategies for Severe Accident Management (SAM). The review included an evaluation of some software packages for these methods. The emphasis was on possible pitfalls of using IDs and on practical aspects, the latter by performance of a case study that was based on an existing Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The study showed that the use of a combined ID/DT model has advantages over CET models, in particular when conservatisms in the Level 2 PSA have been identified and replaced by fair assessments of the uncertainties involved. It is recommended to use ID/DT models complementary to CET models. (orig.)

  1. Decision Making on the Labor and Delivery Unit: An Investigation of Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Feitosa, Jennifer; Benishek, Lauren E; Hughes, Ashley M; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1). In Study 2, we observed the influence of state NA, state decision-making style, state time stress, and their relationship with decision quality on real clinical decisions. Results In Study 1, we found that trait NA significantly predicted avoidant decision-making style. Furthermore, those who were higher on trait time stress and trait avoidant decision-making style exhibited poorer decisions. In Study 2, we observed associations between state NA with state avoidant and analytical decision-making styles. We also observed that these decision-making styles, when considered in tandem with time stress, were influential in predicting clinical decision quality. Conclusion NA predicts some decision-making styles, and decision-making style can affect decision quality under time stress. This is particularly true for state factors. Application Individual differences, such as affect and decision-making style, should be considered during selection. Training to reduce time stress perceptions should be provided.

  2. Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Duffey, Kiyah; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, the environment is defined as the macro- and community-level factors, including physical, legal and policy factors, that influence household and individual decisions. Thus, environment is conceived as the external context in which household and individual decisions are made. This paper reviews the literature on the ways the environment affects diet, physical activity, and obesity. Other key environmental factors discussed include economic, legal, and policy factors. Behind the major changes in diet and physical activity in the US and globally lie large shifts in food production, processing, and distribution systems as well as food shopping and eating options, resulting in the increase in availability of energy-dense foods. Similarly, the ways we move at home, work, leisure, and travel have shifted markedly, resulting in substantial reductions in energy expenditure. Many small area studies have linked environmental shifts with diet and activity changes. This paper begins with a review of environmental influences on diet and physical activity, and includes the discussion of two case studies on environmental influences on physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. The case studies illustrate the important role of physical activity resources and the inequitable distribution of such activity-related facilities and resources, with high minority, low educated populations at strong disadvantage. Further, the research shows a significant association of such facilities with individual-level health behavior. The inequity in environmental supports for physical activity may underlie health disparities in the US population.

  3. BUILDING DESIGN INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Ligia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient design is a high priority in the national energy strategy of European countries considering the latest requirements of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. The residential sector is responsible for a significant quantity of energy consumptions from the total amount of consumptions on a worldwide level. In residential building most of the energy consumptions are given mainly by heating, domestic hot water and lighting. Retrofitting the existing building stock offers great opportunities for reducing global energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. The first part of the paper will address the need of thermal and energy retrofit of existing buildings. The second part will provide an overview on how various variables can influence the energy performance of a building that is placed in all four climatic zones from Romania. The paper is useful for specialist and designers from the construction field in understanding that buildings behave differently from the energy point of view in different climatic regions, even if the building characteristic remain the same.

  4. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  5. Factors influencing teacher decisions on school, classroom, and curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Robert K.; Banfield, Helen

    This article describes a study designed to explore sources of influence on the judgments made by science teachers on school characteristics, classroom features, and properties of a science curriculum. The study had its theoretical basis in the concept that members of a social organization operate under certain functional paradigms, which govern their approach to events within the organization, and particularly to the implementation of innovations. Empirically, the study formed part of the Canadian contribution to the Second International Science Study, and was based on a survey of some 2000 Canadian teachers. The survey used an adaptation of policy capturing methodology, in which teachers were presented with variations in a hypothetical scenario designed to simulate a decision-making situation. Results suggest that teachers' judgments center around a number of factors, the primary ones being concern for student ability and interest, teaching methods, and school spirit and morale. On the other hand, variations in the scientific basis of a curriculum appear to exert little influence. The results are interpreted as indicators of the major elements of teacher functional paradigms.

  6. Strategic decisions in turbulent times: lessons from the energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander; Berger, Andreas

    2019-01-01

    of time, traditional business models eroded, and dominant players lost their positions in the industry. Based on personal interviews with the CEOs from RWE (Germany) and NRG (USA) we analyze how they led the transformation of their organizations. We get immersed in their decision-making processes......Most of the firms currently in the S&P 500 will probably not be part of this list in 15 years. In times of great uncertainty managers are called to make the right choices in their strategy, they are asked to preserve the core businesses, and to prepare their organizations for an unclear future. How...... can managers make the right choices when the whole industry is under transformation? In this light, we explore how the popular VUCA framework can help to make sense of turbulent contexts and drive the decision-making of managers. We study the case of the energy industry, where, in a short period...

  7. City-Level Energy Decision Making. Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-08

    The Cities-LEAP technical report, City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities, explores how a sample of cities incorporates data into making energy-related decisions. This report provides the foundation for forthcoming components of the Cities-LEAP project that will help cities improve energy decision making by mapping specific city energy or climate policies and actions to measurable impacts and results.

  8. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  9. Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a model of a representative wind power investor's decision making process using a Monte Carlo simulation of a project financial analysis. Data, in the form of probability distribution functions (PDFs) for key input variables were collected from interviews with investors and other professionals active in the U.S. wind power industry using a formal expert elicitation protocol. This study presents the first quantitative estimates of the effect of the U.S. voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market on renewable energy generation. The results indicate that the investment decisions of wind power project developers in the United States are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. The problem with the current voluntary REC market is that it does not offer developers a reliable risk-adjusted revenue stream. Consequently, the claims by U.S. green power retailers and promoters that voluntary market RECs result in additional wind power projects lack credibility. Even dramatic increases in voluntary market REC prices, in the absence of long-term contracts, were found to have only a small effect on investor behavior. - Highlights: • I use a formal expert elicitation to collect data from wind power investors. • I use a Monte Carlo model to look at the influence of Renewable Energy Certificates on investment. • Investment decisions are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. • Claims that the U.S. green power market result in additional wind power lack credibility

  10. Influence Strategies Used When Couples Make Work-Family Decisions and Their Importance for Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated how marital partners influenced each other concerning work and family decisions and connected influence strategies to martial satisfaction in 61 married couples who had faced work-family decisions in past 6 months. Found that gender role ideology and indirect influence strategies were related to marital satisfaction. Variables related…

  11. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-10-30

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  12. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernández Uribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  14. A DFuzzy-DAHP Decision-Making Model for Evaluating Energy-Saving Design Strategies for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lung Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a high-pollution and high-energy-consumption industry. Energy-saving designs for residential buildings not only reduce the energy consumed during construction, but also reduce long-term energy consumption in completed residential buildings. Because building design affects investment costs, designs are often influenced by investors’ decisions. A set of appropriate decision-support tools for residential buildings are required to examine how building design influences corporations externally and internally. From the perspective of energy savings and environmental protection, we combined three methods to develop a unique model for evaluating the energy-saving design of residential buildings. Among these methods, the Delphi group decision-making method provides a co-design feature, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP includes multi-criteria decision-making techniques, and fuzzy logic theory can simplify complex internal and external factors into easy-to-understand numbers or ratios that facilitate decisions. The results of this study show that incorporating solar building materials, double-skin facades, and green roof designs can effectively provide high energy-saving building designs.

  15. Informing the Romanian decision makers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Sandru, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the 'pro-nuclear' sector of the Romanian civil society activity to better inform the Romanian Decision Makers on nuclear power issues. The 'Romanian Nuclear Energy Association' - AREN and the Romanian Radioprotection Society - SRRp, having the support of the 'Romanian General Association of Engineers' - AGIR, started on December 1996 a strong campaign to form a correct opinion among the new elected bodies and the new Government of the country, related to the future development of the Romanian Nuclear Program as a national priority and to expedite the restart of the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 2 completion. The paper describes the strategy of this lobby campaign, the objectives assumed and the results. The authors have taken advantage of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency information exchange about the Decision Makers informing process about nuclear energy and have the intention to share their experience with other sister societies dealing with similar conditions. This could be also a good experience for other areas of activity. (authors)

  16. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  17. Overview of dual process behavioural models and their implications on decision-making of private dwellers regarding deep energy renovation

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    Understanding both rational and heuristic thinking is important for explaining proenvironmental behaviour. Theoretical findings regarding dual process models can be useful to explain and influence decisions of private owners in the context of energy renovation. The existing building stock has a big potential in contributing to the reduction of energy consumption. Even though surveys show that dwellers acknowledge the importance of energy efficient buildings and the technologies to achieve ...

  18. Sustainable Decision-Making: Non-Monetary Incentives for Pro-Social Behavior in the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rosenkranz; K.S. Muehlfeld; G. van der Laan; G.U. Weitzel; J. van der Donk; H. Ivanova; E.J. van Kesteren; M. Ottink; H. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account insights into the reality of human decision-making, is an important challenge for today’s policymakers. Are there `cheaper´, more efficient and possibly as well more effective, non-financial ways of influencing the behaviour of private and corporate citizens, nudging them towards socially desired choices, for example, in the domain of energy consumption? Can such mechanisms complement or substitute for monetary incentives in fostering sustainable decision-making in poli...

  19. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  20. The influence of emotions on trust in ethical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wing-Shing; Selart, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to delineate the interaction between trust, emotion, and ethical decision making. The authors first propose that trust can either in cite an individual toward ethical decisions or drag him or her away from ethical decisions, depending on different situations. The authors then postulate that the feeling of guilt is central in understanding how trust affects the ethical decision making process. Several propositions based on these assumptions are in...

  1. A portfolio decision analysis approach to support energy research and development resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, Margaret; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Bates, Matthew E.; Bridges, Todd S.; Summers, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) aims to facilitate a clean and independent energy future for the nation. Strategic planning for energy research and development (R&D) can be complex and dynamic, in part due to federal budgetary constraints and volatility. Managing R&D funding to advance energy technologies, in spite of these challenges, is a crucial component of the nation's long term energy policy. This study demonstrates a portfolio decision analysis (PDA) approach to support R&D resource allocation decisions for the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's Carbon Capture and Storage R&D program. A multi-attribute value model uses technology readiness levels (TRLs) and other metrics to represent the overall objectives of the R&D program in order to evaluate alternative research portfolios given limited funding. Mathematical optimization identifies efficient funding allocations for each technology program area to maximize the multi-attribute value generated from the total budget. This is especially useful for responding to externally imposed budget changes. As the case study demonstrates, explicitly funding the most value-generating options leads to greater expected R&D programmatic value than typical strategies of equal or proportional distributions of a budget change among technology program areas. - Highlights: • Decision analysis can minimize the effect of a budget decrement on an R&D program. • Greater expected benefits are yielded by differentially funding technologies. • Budget scenario testing illustrates factors that influence value generation. • Coordinating with US DOE bridges gap between decision research and practice.

  2. Decision Making in the PICU: An Examination of Factors Influencing Participation Decisions in Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosky, Laura E.; Burke, Natasha L.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. In stressful situations, decision making processes related to informed consent may be compromised. Given the profound levels of distress that surrogates of children in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) experience, it is important to understand what factors may be influencing the decision making process beyond the informed consent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of clinician influence and other factors on decision making regarding participation in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Method. Participants were 76 children under sedation in a PICU and their surrogate decision makers. Measures included the Post Decision Clinician Survey, observer checklist, and post-decision interview. Results. Age of the pediatric patient was related to participation decisions in the RCT such that older children were more likely to be enrolled. Mentioning the sponsoring institution was associated with declining to participate in the RCT. Type of health care provider and overt recommendations to participate were not related to enrollment. Conclusion. Decisions to participate in research by surrogates of children in the PICU appear to relate to child demographics and subtleties in communication; however, no modifiable characteristics were related to increased participation, indicating that the informed consent process may not be compromised in this population. PMID:25161672

  3. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Carl Christian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  4. Sustainable energy catalogue - for European decision-makers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram, S.; Jacobsen, Soeren

    2006-10-15

    The Green paper - A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006 states that Europe has a rising dependency on imported energy reserves, which are concentrated in a few countries. The Rising gas and oil prices along with demands on lower emissions of CO2 adds pressure on the need for a new energy future for Europe. EU has since 1990 planned to become world leader in the renewable energy field. Therefore the EU member states have agreed that by 2010 21% of the consumed electricity and 5,75% of the consumed gasoline and diesel should originate from renewable energy sources. If the EU countries are to reach their goals, a commitment on several levels to develop and install energy from sustainable energy sources is needed. The purpose of this catalogue is to offer planners and decision-makers in EU states an inspirational tool to be used during local or regional transition towards sustainable energy technologies. The catalogue can also be used by everyone else who needs an overview of the sustainable energy technologies and their current development level and future potential, among others educational use is relevant. The catalogue provides an introduction to the following technologies that are already or are estimated to become central to a development with renewable energy in EU: Technologies for wind energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy, solar energy, hydropower and fuel cells. The catalogue also includes a section about energy systems, which also includes a part about technologies for efficient use of energy. The catalogue could have included a few other technologies as e.g. heating pumps, but due to the size of the catalogue a priority was necessary. The catalogue does not claim to give all answers or to be complete regarding all details about the individual technologies; even so it offers information, which cannot easily be looked up on the Internet. In the back of the catalogue, under 'References and links' there

  5. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  6. The comparison of the energy performance of hotel buildings using PROMETHEE decision-making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujosevic Milica L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual energy performance of the atrium type hotel buildings in Belgrade climate conditions are analysed in this paper. The objective is to examine the impact of the atrium on the hotel building’s energy needs for space heating and cooling, thus establishing the best design among four proposed alternatives of the hotels with atrium. The energy performance results are obtained using EnergyPlus simulation engine, taking into account Belgrade climate data and thermal comfort parameters. The selected results are compared and the hotels are ranked according to certain criteria. Decision-making process that resulted in the ranking of the proposed alternatives is conducted using PROMETHEE method and Borda model. The methodological approach in this research includes the creation of a hypothetical model of an atrium type hotel building, numerical simulation of energy performances of four design alternatives of the hotel building with an atrium, comparative analysis of the obtained results and ranking of the proposed alternatives from the building’s energy performance perspective. The main task of the analysis is to examine the influence of the atrium, with both its shape and position, on the energy performance of the hotel building. Based on the results of the research it can be to determine the most energy efficient model of the hotel building with atrium for Belgrade climate condition areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social aspects of the Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts

  7. Parental Influence on Exploratory Students' College Choice, Major, and Career Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores parental influence on exploratory students' college choice, major, and career decision making. The research began with examination of a first year academic advising model and Living Learning Community. Parental influence emerged as a key theme in student decision making processes. The project was conducted using grounded…

  8. HIV-1 resistance testing influences treatment decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sobhie Diaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigates how the use of HIV-1 resistance tests influences physician decision-making. METHODS: Ten experienced reference physicians from the Brazilian Network for Drug Resistance each received ten patients' case histories. The selected patients had experienced at least two virological failures. First, reference physicians were asked to empirically select a new regimen for each patient. Second, after genotype report (ViroSeq 2.6 was provided, and physicians were again asked to select a new regimen considering this additional information. Finally, they were asked to select a regimen after receiving a virtual phenotype result (vircoTYPE 3.9.00. RESULTS: In 79% of the cases, physicians changed their empirical choice of regimen after receiving the genotype report, resulting in an increase in the mean number of active drugs from 1.8 to 2.2 (p = 0.0003, while the average number of drugs/regimen remained at 4.0. After receipt of the virtual phenotype report, additional changes were made in 75% of the patient cases, resulting in an increase in the number of active drugs to 2.8 (p < 0.0001, while the average number of drugs/regimen remained at 4.0. After receipt of the genotype report, 48% of the changes were in NRTIs, 29% were in NNRTIs and 60% were in PIs; after consideration of the virtual phenotype, 61%, 10% and 49% of the changes, respectively, were in these categories of drugs. Fourteen percent of the physicians rated the genotype report as "extremely useful", whereas 34% rated the subsequent virtual phenotype report as "extremely useful" (p = 0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance testing has a significant impact on physicians' choices of antiretroviral salvage therapies, and it promotes the selection of more active drugs

  9. Influence of acute stress on decision outcomes and heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J; Kovacs, Attila J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the take-the-first (TTF) heuristic and decision outcomes in sports under conditions of no, mental, and physical stress. Participants (N.=68) performed 8 video decision-making trials under each of 3 stress conditions: no stress (counting backwards), mental stress (mental serial subtraction), and physical stress (running on treadmill at 13 RPE). Prior to each decision-making trial, participants were exposed to 30 seconds of stress. The decision-making task required participants to watch a video depicting an offensive situation in basketball and then decide what the player with the ball should do next. No differences were found between the 3 stress conditions on TTF frequency, number of options generated, quality of first generated option, or final decision quality. However, participants performing under conditions of no stress and physical stress generated their first option and made their final decision faster than they did when making decisions under mental stress. Overall, results suggest that mental stress impairs decision speed and that TTF is an ecologically rationale heuristic in dynamic, time-pressured situations.

  10. Factors that Influence Career Decision-Making among Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; McGregor-Bayne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    A common belief about elite athletes is that they invest so much effort into the pursuit of their athletic careers that they fail to develop good career decision-making skills. Recent findings challenge that belief. The present study investigated career decision-making difficulties among 117 elite Australian athletes. Participants completed…

  11. Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Hoss, F.; Welle, P.; Larkin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Science, Technology, and Math (STEM) fields are responsible for more than half of our sustained economic expansion, and over the past 25 years the science and engineering workforce has remained at over 5% of all U.S. jobs. However, America lags behind other nations when it comes to STEM education; globally, American students rank 23th in math and 31st in science. While our youngest students show an interest in STEM subjects, roughly 40% of college students planning to major in STEM switch to other subjects. Women and minorities, 50% and 43% of school-age children, are disproportionally underrepresented in STEM fields (25% and 15%, respectively). Studies show that improved teacher curriculum combined with annual student-centered learning summer programs can promote and sustain student interest in STEM fields. Many STEM fields appear superficially simple, and yet can be truly complex and controversial topics. Carnegie Mellon University's Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making focuses on two such STEM fields: climate and energy. In 2011, we created SUCCEED: the Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making. SUCCEED consisted of two pilot programs: a 2-day workshop for K-12 teacher professional development and a free 5-day summer school targeted at an age gap in the university's outreach, students entering 10th grade. In addition to teaching lessons climate, energy, and environment, the program aimed to highlight different STEM careers so students could better understand the breadth of choices available. SUCCEED, repeated in 2012, was wildly successful. A pre/post test demonstrated a significant increase in understanding of STEM topics. Furthermore, SUCCEED raised excitement for STEM; teachers were enthusiastic about accurate student-centered learning plans and students wanted to know more. To grow these efforts, an additional component has been added to the SUCCEED 2013 effort: online publicly available curricula. Using the curricula form

  12. Three essays on decision-making in energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Zachary Ann

    This dissertation examines three issues surrounding decision-making in energy policy. Over the past decade, technological advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have allowed the economical extraction of natural gas and petroleum from shale basins. Thus far, natural gas has been produced from shale at a commercial scale only in certain American States and Canadian Provinces, though potential shale plays exist elsewhere in North America and the world. Whether, how, and to what extent SGD diffuses to new shale basins and jurisdictions will depend on several questions about energy policy. The first chapter examines the potential for SGD in the European Union. Among EU institutions, the European Parliament has been the strongest proponent for regulation of SGD, preferring a balance between environmental protection and opportunities for economic development, energy security, and climate mitigation. Analysis of roll call voting on SGD in the Seventh European Parliament shows that ideological preferences are the primary explanation of voting behavior, followed by national interests in decarbonization. Prospects for further regulatory action are discussed. ? The second chapter takes a closer look at the potential of shale gas to facilitate decarbonization in the electricity sector. Proponents of SGD have claimed that high carbon fossil fuels can be immediately phased out and replaced in the short term by power plants that burn cheap, abundant natural gas, which emits half the greenhouse gasses over a well-to-wire life cycle. A value of information analysis examines the conditions under which this may be so and quantifies how valuable it would be to have perfect information about uncertain parameters in a cost function characterizing the global electricity sector. The third chapter is describes a new tool of policy analysis, the Indiana Scalable Energy-Economy Model (IN-SEEM). State and local governments have played an increasing role in energy and climate

  13. Environmental Aspects as Assessment Criteria in Municipal Heat Energy Decisions - Case of Eno Energy Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, Asko [North Karelia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide information whether it is possible to consider the sustainable development perspectives in the decision making of the district energy decision. The new EU-directives concerning public procurements allow the use of environmental aspects as selection criteria. The focus here is on small-scale district heating systems and their fuel-supply chains. The comparable fuels included the analysis are forest chips, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and peat. The paper focuses to the concept of the sustainable development and establishes the indicators for ecological-, social- and economical aspects of the district heating. The indicators are utilized in the case study on the Eno Energy Cooperative. The equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and the combustion of the fuel, the employment impacts of the fuel production and the formation of the price of energy for the consumers are considered. After presenting the sustainable development indicators in the case of Eno Energy Cooperative, the investment models of heat entrepreneurship business are discussed. Finally, we also raise an attention into important aspects to be considered when establishing a local district heating scheme. The indicators used in this presentation show that the use of forest chips in energy production has positive effect through the reduced greenhouse gases. The use of wood in energy production also provides employment opportunities and is more favourable to consumers, because of the steady fuel price when compared to other alternative fuels.

  14. Anticipatory stress influences decision making under explicit risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.

  15. Testing interventions to influence women's dietary decisions in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that responds to national priorities for establishing an evidence-based culture for ... It will host a workshop with researchers, local nutrition specialists and social ... of dietary behaviour and practical solutions to improve nutrition decisions.

  16. Influence of Uncertainty and Time Stress on Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    a. . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A General Theoretical Framwork .a .........* 24 Concepts for Aiding Decisions Under Conditions of...seemed to be how they were conceptualizing uncer- tainty). A third, somewhat %tinor change would be to present participants with the COA after the

  17. Leadership, Training, and Gender Influences on Team Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Megan

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the effects of gender of the leader, gender of the non-leader, and whether the leader or non-leader was trained on team decision making while solving a computerized Tower of Hanoi puzzle...

  18. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez, Michael D.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Nunez, Srinivasan and Vandekerckhove. Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision ...

  19. Research on efficiency evaluation model of integrated energy system based on hybrid multi-attribute decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2017-05-25

    The efficiency evaluation model of integrated energy system, involving many influencing factors, and the attribute values are heterogeneous and non-deterministic, usually cannot give specific numerical or accurate probability distribution characteristics, making the final evaluation result deviation. According to the characteristics of the integrated energy system, a hybrid multi-attribute decision-making model is constructed. The evaluation model considers the decision maker's risk preference. In the evaluation of the efficiency of the integrated energy system, the evaluation value of some evaluation indexes is linguistic value, or the evaluation value of the evaluation experts is not consistent. These reasons lead to ambiguity in the decision information, usually in the form of uncertain linguistic values and numerical interval values. In this paper, the risk preference of decision maker is considered when constructing the evaluation model. Interval-valued multiple-attribute decision-making method and fuzzy linguistic multiple-attribute decision-making model are proposed. Finally, the mathematical model of efficiency evaluation of integrated energy system is constructed.

  20. Combined Influence of Selective Focus and Decision Involvement on Attitude-Decision Consistency in a Memory-based Decision Context

    OpenAIRE

    A. VAN KERCKHOVE; I. VERMEIR; M. GEUENS

    2009-01-01

    Marketers often use salient stimuli to draw consumers’ attention to a specific brand in the hope that a selective focus on the own brand increases the sales of this brand. However, previous studies are inconsistent concerning the impact that selectively focusing on a specific brand has on final brand choice. To offer an explanation for these inconsistent results, this paper introduces decision involvement as a moderator of the relation between selective focus and attitude-decision consistency...

  1. The effects of peer influence on adolescent pedestrian road-crossing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, K; Hunter, E

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for pedestrian injury. It is also a time of heightened susceptibility to peer influence. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of peer influence on the pedestrian road-crossing decisions of adolescents. Using 10 videos of road-crossing sites, 80 16- to 18-year-olds were asked to make pedestrian road-crossing decisions. Participants were assigned to one of 4 experimental conditions: negative peer (influencing unsafe decisions), positive peer (influencing cautious decisions), silent peer (who observed but did not comment), and no peer (the participant completed the task alone). Peers from the adolescent's own friendship group were recruited to influence either an unsafe or a cautious decision. Statistically significant differences were found between peer conditions. Participants least often identified safe road-crossing sites when accompanied by a negative peer and more frequently identified dangerous road-crossing sites when accompanied by a positive peer. Both cautious and unsafe comments from a peer influenced adolescent pedestrians' decisions. These findings showed that road-crossing decisions of adolescents were influenced by both unsafe and cautious comments from their peers. The discussion highlighted the role that peers can play in both increasing and reducing adolescent risk-taking.

  2. Incidental rewarding cues influence economic decisions in people with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmank, Jakob; Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan; Horstmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that obesity is linked to prominent alterations in learning and decision-making. This general difference may also underlie the preference for immediately consumable, highly palatable but unhealthy and high-calorie foods. Such poor food-related inter-temporal decision-making can explain weight gain; however, it is not yet clear whether this deficit can be generalized to other domains of inter-temporal decision-making, for example financial decisions. Further, little is known about the stability of decision-making behavior in obesity, especially in the presence of rewarding cues. To answer these questions, obese and lean participants (n = 52) completed two sessions of a novel priming paradigm including a computerized monetary delay discounting task. In the first session, general differences between groups in financial delay discounting were measured. In the second session, we tested the general stability of discount rates. Additionally, participants were primed by affective visual cues of different contextual categories before making financial decisions. We found that the obese group showed stronger discounting of future monetary rewards than the lean group, but groups did not differ in their general stability between sessions nor in their sensitivity toward changes in reward magnitude. In the obese group, a fast decrease of subjective value over time was directly related to a higher tendency for opportunistic eating. Obese in contrast to lean people were primed by the affective cues, showing a sex-specific pattern of priming direction. Our findings demonstrate that environments rich of cues, aiming at inducing unhealthy consumer decisions, can be highly detrimental for obese people. It also underscores that obesity is not merely a medical condition but has a strong cognitive component, meaning that current dietary and medical treatment strategies may fall too short. PMID:26528158

  3. Incidental rewarding cues influence economic decision-making in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eSimmank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that obesity is linked to prominent alterations in learning and decision-making. This general difference may also underlie the preference for immediately consumable, highly palatable but unhealthy and high-calorie foods. Such poor food-related inter-temporal decision-making can explain weight gain; however, it is not yet clear whether this deficit can be generalized to other domains of inter-temporal decision-making, for example financial decisions. Further, little is known about the stability of decision-making behavior in obesity, especially in the presence of rewarding cues. To answer these questions, obese and lean participants (n=52 completed two sessions of a novel priming paradigm including a computerized monetary delay discounting task. In the first session, general differences between groups in financial delay discounting were measured. In the second session, we tested the general stability of discounting rates. Additionally, participants were primed by affective visual cues of different contextual categories before the financial decision. We found that the obese group showed stronger discounting of future monetary rewards than the lean group, but groups did not differ in their general stability between sessions nor in their sensitivity towards changes in reward magnitude. In the obese group, a fast decrease of subjective value over time was directly related to a higher tendency for opportunistic eating. Obese in contrast to lean people were primed by the affective cues, showing a sex-specific pattern of priming direction. Our findings demonstrate that environments rich of cues, aiming at inducing unhealthy consumer decisions, can be highly detrimental for obese people. It also underscores that obesity is not merely a medical condition but has a strong cognitive component, meaning that current dietary and medical treatment strategies may fall too short.

  4. Factors influencing parental decision making about stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pediatric psychological condition commonly treated with stimulant medications. Negative media reports and stigmatizing societal attitudes surrounding the use of these medications make it difficult for parents of affected children to accept stimulant treatment, despite it being first line therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence parental decision making regarding stimulant treatment for ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies: 1) that employed qualitative methodology, 2) that highlighted treatment decision(s) about stimulant medication, 3) in which the decision(s) were made by the parent of a child with an official ADHD diagnosis, and 4) that examined the factors affecting the decision(s) made. Individual factors influencing parental treatment decision making, and the major themes encompassing these factors, were identified and followed by a thematic analysis. Eleven studies reporting on the experiences of 335 parents of children with ADHD were included. Four major themes encompassing influences on parents' decisions were derived from the thematic analysis performed: confronting the diagnosis, external influences, apprehension regarding therapy, and experience with the healthcare system. The findings of this systematic review reveal that there are multiple factors that influence parents' decisions about stimulant therapy. This information can assist clinicians in enhancing information delivery to parents of children with ADHD, and help reduce parental ambivalence surrounding stimulant medication use. Future work needs to address parental concerns about stimulants, and increase their involvement in shared decision making with clinicians to empower them to make the most appropriate treatment decision for their child.

  5. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modern levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the down side risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth, by providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand. The issues discussed in this paper illustrate how policies are being decided by populism and not by leaders on the basics of scientific evidence. 2 refs

  6. Cultural influences on the physician-patient encounter: The case of shared treatment decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Whelan, Tim; O'Brien, Mary Ann

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the influence of culture on the process of treatment decision-making, and in particular, shared treatment decision-making in the physician-patient encounter. We explore two key issues: (1) the meaning of culture and the ways that it can affect treatment decision-making; (2) cultural issues and assumptions underlying the development and use of treatment decision aids. This is a conceptual paper. Based on our knowledge and reading of the key literature in the treatment decision-making field, we looked for written examples where cultural influences were taken into account when discussing the physician-patient encounter and when designing instruments (decision aids) to help patients participate in making decisions. Our assessment of the situation is that to date, and with some recent exceptions, research in the above areas has not been culturally sensitive. We suggest that more research attention should be focused on exploring potential cultural variations in the meaning of and preferences for shared decision-making as well as on the applicability across cultural groups of decision aids developed to facilitate patient participation in treatment decision-making with physicians. Both patients and physicians need to be aware of the cultural assumptions underlying the development and use of decision aids and assess their cultural sensitivity to the needs and preferences of patients in diverse cultural groups.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF TOP MANAGEMENT DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON DECISION MAKING APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bulog

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organizational environment requires managers to be an excellent decision maker with the ability to make effective decisions which will shape business performance. Because of the role that managers have in today’s business settings, research interest in the relationship between individual characteristics and managerial decision making in all its aspects has increased over the last decade. This paper aims to provide an overview and discussion of how individuals make choices and decisions by examining the influence of top management demographic characteristics on decision making approaches. Findings suggest that demographic characteristics appear to be valuable for predicting which decision making approach managers prefer. The results of the study show that the average age and education level of decision makers is positively related to the rational decision making approach and negatively to the intuitive decision making approach. Tenure is positively related to the intuitive decision making approach, but the influence is not statistically significant. Also, a difference in the decision making approach was found with respect to gender. In light of the research findings, implications and limitations were discussed and some possibilities for future research are suggested.

  8. Making Informed Decisions: Management Issues Influencing Computers in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James

    A number of noninstructional factors appear to determine the extent to which computers make a difference in writing instruction. Once computers have been purchased and installed, it is generally school administrators who make management decisions, often from an uninformed pedagogical orientation. Issues such as what hardware and software to buy,…

  9. Influence of BDNF and COMT polymorphisms on emotional decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Ha, Ra Yeon; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Yang Tae; Kim, Se Joo

    2010-06-01

    Decision making is an important brain function. Although little is known about the genetic basis of decision making, it has been suggested that it is mediated by the modulation of neurotransmitter systems. We investigated how the BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms affect emotional decision making using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). One hundred sixty-eight healthy Korean college students (93 males, 75 females) with a complete dataset were included in the data analysis. The IGT and genotyping for the polymorphisms of BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met were performed. Both Met/Met and Val/Met of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were significantly associated with a lower mean score of blocks 3-5 of the IGT and with less improvement from block 1 to block 3-5 than the Val/Val. However, the BDNF was not significantly associated with the score of block 1, and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism produced no significant effect on IGT performance. No interaction effect was observed between the BDNF and the COMT for the IGT. These findings suggest the BDNF Val66Met may affect the emotional decision making performance. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors That Influence Students to Participate in Team Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of personality on participation in decision making in a sample of 225 business students. The Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness, agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Analysis indicated that personality dimensions, extroversion and…

  11. Influence of the Family in Career Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chope, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Two recently emerging factors are changing the role of family in career decision making: the revolutionary changes in family structure and increased emphasis on interpersonal relationships in work. Career counselors need new protocols in order to work with clients and family members. (SK)

  12. The Influence of Social Commerce on Consumer Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.H. Hettiarachchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, comprehending consumer behavior is becoming dynamically challenging with the emergence of social commerce. Business organizations are now striving to convince consumers by exploiting the advantage of social support empowered by online social networks. Importantly, social ties in such online social networks facilitate trust as the most compelling benefit while alleviating the perceived risk, which happened to be the major concerns with electronic commerce over the years. This research study is aimed at understanding the impact of social commerce on the consumer behavior, particularly consumer decision-making stages. Hence, this research was conducted as a quantitative study involving a cross-sectional survey and gathered valid responses from Facebook users. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to analyze data and test hypotheses. The findings exhibited significant positive effects from social commerce on all the consumer decision-making stages namely; need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of employing an appropriate social commerce strategy for business organizations.

  13. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  14. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  15. Rejection or selection: influence of framing in investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-02-01

    According to prospect theory, reflection effects result in preferences for risk-averse choices in gain situations and risk-seeking choices in loss situations. However, relevant literature in regard to decision making has suggested that positive information receives more weight in a selection task, whereas negative information receives more weight in a rejection task. The present study examined whether the nature of a decision task (selection vs rejection) would moderate the reflection effects. Undergraduates (47 men, 49 women; M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.1), selected according to specific screening criteria, participated in an experimental study. Typical reflection effects were observed in both selection and rejection task conditions. More importantly, negative information (i.e., the information about probable loss in risky choice of gain situations and the information about certain loss in cautious choice of loss situations) provided in the context of a rejection task received more weight and resulted in more frequent endorsements of the cautious choice in gain situations and of the risky choice in loss situations. Hence, the findings suggest that a decision context characterized by rejection may expand the reflection effects and thereby provide important information about situations in which investment decisions occur in a context characterized by rejection.

  16. Market research on factors influencing women's preferences in investment decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Abhishek.; Douglas, Tony.; Jaworski, Piotr.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to gain knowledge on the factors that influence the investment decision making of women in Singapore. The research explores the fact that investment decision is being affected by the demographic, psychographic factors of the individuals. The individuals may be equal in all aspects but their investment decision varies with their own perception towards various investment plans. The research was conducted among 200 respondents through a survey so as to get an empirical findings o...

  17. The influence of Facebook in the holiday decision making of Muslim women in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Muslim consumer segment now represents the Fourth ‘Billion’ segment after China, India, and women overall in all around the world. Muslim population is increasing faster than the other segments in the UK. Muslim women play a significant role in family decision-making. Yet, researchers have neglected this segment. On the other hand, internet plays a vital role in decision-making and likewise, social media is influencing the family decision-making. Furthermore, women have an influential role at...

  18. Pubertal Development and Peer Influence on Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…

  19. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  20. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information.

  1. How strategic considerations influence decision making on e-HRM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, R.; Timmerman, V.; van den Heuvel, S.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies indicate that the added value of human resource management is strongest when HRM decisions are linked to the organizational strategy, practical knowledge about how strategic considerations influence decision-making processes relating to e-HRM is limited. Therefore, the

  2. Mutual influence in shared decision making: a collaborative study of patients and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Beth A; Clark, William D; Hanson, Janice L

    2009-06-01

    To explore how patients and physicians describe attitudes and behaviours that facilitate shared decision making. Background Studies have described physician behaviours in shared decision making, explored decision aids for informing patients and queried whether patients and physicians want to share decisions. Little attention has been paid to patients' behaviors that facilitate shared decision making or to the influence of patients and physicians on each other during this process. Qualitative analysis of data from four research work groups, each composed of patients with chronic conditions and primary care physicians. Eighty-five patients and physicians identified six categories of paired physician/patient themes, including act in a relational way; explore/express patient's feelings and preferences; discuss information and options; seek information, support and advice; share control and negotiate a decision; and patients act on their own behalf and physicians act on behalf of the patient. Similar attitudes and behaviours were described for both patients and physicians. Participants described a dynamic process in which patients and physicians influence each other throughout shared decision making. This study is unique in that clinicians and patients collaboratively defined and described attitudes and behaviours that facilitate shared decision making and expand previous descriptions, particularly of patient attitudes and behaviours that facilitate shared decision making. Study participants described relational, contextual and affective behaviours and attitudes for both patients and physicians, and explicitly discussed sharing control and negotiation. The complementary, interactive behaviours described in the themes for both patients and physicians illustrate mutual influence of patients and physicians on each other.

  3. The Influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Langi, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    There are several important aspects that can influence brand awareness from the company to make their products have been known in the society, which are Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind. These three aspects play an important role to create Brand Awareness for Consumer Buying Decision. The research objective is to analyze the influence of Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, and Top of Mind to Consumer Buying Decision in aqua mineral water product on Manado. The population in this ...

  4. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, H.; Guido, B.; Heekeren, H.R.; Philiastides, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punis...

  5. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Michael D; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data.

  6. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dawson Nunez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reactiontime (RT and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have beenused to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures havebeen proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this studywe show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making taskcan be attributed to 1 differences in evidence accumulation rates, 2 differences in variability ofevidence accumulation within trials, and 3 differences in non-decision times across individuals.Using electroencephalography (EEG, we demonstrate that these differences in cognitivevariables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-lockingof steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP responses to the signal and noise componentsof the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model were obtained fromaccuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs of SSVEPs with asingle step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress theSSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correctevidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times,leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combinationof cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiologicalprocesses to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample participant’s neural data can predict that participant’s behavior more accurately thanmodels without physiological data.

  7. Information Dominance: Informations Role in Influencing Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    satisfying enough to ensure safety and completion of the task. For example, the USS GREENEVILLE, SSN 772, was conducting a routine emergency surfacing...was developed by David J. Bryant of Defense Research and Development, Canada . It is designed to model command and control (C2) processes in alignment...adapt (CECA): A new model for command decision making. ( No. DRDC Toronto TR 2003-150). Toronto, Canada : Minister of National Defense. Bryant, D. J

  8. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Schonberg, Mara A; McCarthy, Ellen P; York, Meghan; Davis, Roger B; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in ...

  9. EPP Energy Efficiency Calculation and Influencing Factor Analysis: Cases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency power plant (EPP promotes the use of energy efficiency power plant technology and energy efficient equipment, coupled with its low-input, zero pollution, zero emissions, and other advantages, having an important role in the control of energy consumption and energy saving. In order to carry out scientific EPP investment decisions, the level of energy efficiency is an important basis for investment decisions. This paper introduces total factor energy efficiency (TFEE in energy efficiency calculation of EPP, constructs energy efficiency calculation model considering environmental benefits, and takes the micro and macro cases in China for analysis; the results show that the TFEE of both single energy efficiency project and EPP are at a relatively high level (above 0.7, and there is a huge gap between calculation results considering and without considering the environmental benefit. In order to discuss energy efficiency influencing factors, the paper analyzes generalized technological advances variation feature of China typical provinces implementing EPP based on generalized technological advances decomposition model by Malmquist index, finding that the steady growth of M index in these provinces is derived from the management level of implementation of EPP and the large-scale production capacity of formation and management. We hope the models and conclusions could provide some references on EPP energy efficiency calculation and decision.

  10. Assessing the Atmospheric Pollution of Energy Facilities for Supporting Energy Policy Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Ruiz, E.; Alonso García, D.; Pérez Zayas, G.; Piñera Hernández, I.; Martinez Varona, M.; Molina Esquivel, E.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of different energy facilities on the environment and human health are a matter of interest and concern throughout the world. For example, fossil fuels are one of the energy sources of more undesirable effects on the environment, but this energy is still one of the most competitive at the market, especially for the developing countries. However, it is necessary to find out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost. With a view to solving the current deficit in energy production (mainly in electricity generation) in the light of major transformations in the energy sector, the Cuban Government is evaluating ways of incorporating new sources and technologies and the expansion of existing capabilities. In this context non-fossil energy sources will play an increasingly important role. The present work shows the results obtained in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project CUB7007. The project integrated several tools and methodologies in the field of air quality modelling and its assessment, emissions measurement and nuclear techniques. The main objective was to assess atmospheric pollution from various energy facilities for supporting energy policy decisions by incorporating nuclear techniques (proton-induced X–ray emission, neutron activation and X–ray fluorescence) for estimating the elementary composition of particulate matter. As results were consolidated national laboratories in the application of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques to support environmental studies, especially for the analysis of emissions in chimneys and ambient air sampling. Moreover, all energy technologies considered in the national strategy of development were assessed. (author)

  11. Slow down or race to halt: towards managing complexity of real-time energy management decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Petters, Stefan M.; Awan, Muhammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Existing work in the context of energy management for real-time systems often ignores the substantial cost of making DVFS and sleep state decisions in terms of time and energy and/or assume very simple models. Within this paper we attempt to explore the parameter space for such decisions and possible constraints faced.

  12. Test and Evaluation Metrics of Crew Decision-Making And Aircraft Attitude and Energy State Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Stephens, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has established a technical challenge, under the Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project, to improve crew decision-making and response in complex situations. The specific objective of this challenge is to develop data and technologies which may increase a pilot's (crew's) ability to avoid, detect, and recover from adverse events that could otherwise result in accidents/incidents. Within this technical challenge, a cooperative industry-government research program has been established to develop innovative flight deck-based counter-measures that can improve the crew's ability to avoid, detect, mitigate, and recover from unsafe loss-of-aircraft state awareness - specifically, the loss of attitude awareness (i.e., Spatial Disorientation, SD) or the loss-of-energy state awareness (LESA). A critical component of this research is to develop specific and quantifiable metrics which identify decision-making and the decision-making influences during simulation and flight testing. This paper reviews existing metrics and methods for SD testing and criteria for establishing visual dominance. The development of Crew State Monitoring technologies - eye tracking and other psychophysiological - are also discussed as well as emerging new metrics for identifying channelized attention and excessive pilot workload, both of which have been shown to contribute to SD/LESA accidents or incidents.

  13. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Babad, Yair M

    2011-04-19

    Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of all aspects of medical decision

  14. Appropriate and inappropriate influences on outpatient discharge decision making in dermatology: a prospective qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N A; Finlay, A Y; Salek, M S; Piguet, V

    2015-09-01

    Outpatient discharge decision making in dermatology is poorly understood. To identify the influences on clinicians' thought processes when making discharge decisions in dermatology outpatient clinics. Forty clinicians from 11 National Health Service Trusts in England were interviewed. The interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. The mean age of the clinicians was 48.8 years (range 33.0-67.0), 17 (43%) were men and 19 (48%) had > 20 years of clinical experience. One hundred and forty-eight influences were reported, with five main themes: (i) disease-based influences included type of diagnosis (100% of clinicians), guidelines (100%) and treatment needed (100%); (ii) clinician-based influences included the clinician's level of experience (100%), seniority (37%), emotional attitude (95%), 'gut feeling' (25%), personal attitude towards discharge (45%) and level of perception (100%); (iii) patient-based influences included patients' ability to cope with their disease (100%), wishes (70%), quality of life (32%), command of English (40%) and cultural background (25%); (iv) practice-based influences included good primary care (100%), secondary support structure (100%) and clinic capacity pressure (67%); (v) policy-based influences included pressure from hospital managers (57%) and an active discharge policy (7%). Fourteen (9%) influences were potentially inappropriate. This study has identified multiple factors influencing outpatient discharge decision making. This provides the basis for developing evidence-based training to improve discharge decision appropriateness. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Hajisafari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process and results investigated. By investigating research literature, the critical success factors of data mining plans was identified and the role of organizational decision makers in each step of data mining was investigated.‌ Then, the conceptual framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement was designed. By getting expert opinions, the proposed framework was analyzed and evantually designed the final framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement. Analysis of experts opinions showed that by knowledge sharing of data ming results with decision makers, "learning", "action or internalization" and "enforcing/unlearning" will become as critical success factors. Also, results of examining importance of decision makers' feedback on data mining steps showed that getting feedback from decision makers could have most influence on "knowledge extraction and representing model" step and least on "data cleaning and preprocessing" step.

  16. Relationship of external influence to parental distress in decision making regarding children with a life-threatening illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high. External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making.

  17. Dopaminergic influences on emotional decision making in euthymic bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Katherine E; Braga, Raphael J; Gopin, Chaya B; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole may have pro-cognitive effects in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BPD); however, the emergence of impulse-control disorders has been documented in Parkinson's disease (PD) after pramipexole treatment. Performance on reward-based tasks is altered in healthy subjects after a single dose of pramipexole, but its potential to induce abnormalities in BPD patients is unknown. We assessed reward-dependent decision making in euthymic BPD patients pre- and post 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole or placebo by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT requires subjects to choose among four card decks (two risky and two conservative) and is designed to promote learning to make advantageous (conservative) choices over time. Thirty-four BPD patients completed both assessments (18 placebo and 16 pramipexole). Baseline performance did not differ by treatment group (F=0.63; p=0.64); however, at week 8, BPD patients on pramipexole demonstrated a significantly greater tendency to make increasingly high-risk, high-reward choices across the five blocks, whereas the placebo group's pattern was similar to that reported in healthy individuals (treatment × time × block interaction, pinfluences risk-associated decision-making performance in euthymic BPD. The clinical implications remain unknown.

  18. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  19. Children's influence on family decision-making in food buying and consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates children's participation and influence in the family decision process during food buying and consumption. Danish 10 to 13-year-old children and their parents participated in the study. First, an ethnographic field study was carried out with 20 families. The field worker...... visited children at school and families at home during food buying, cooking and eating. Secondly, a survey was carried out with 451 families. The primary findings are that children participate and gain influence on several decision stages and areas during family food buying and that family everyday...... routines are an explaining factor of children's influence on family food decisions. When families buy and consume food, parents are not the only participants and decision-makers. Children and parents not always agree. Implications are that research should include parents as well as children; and that food...

  20. Dissecting "Peer Presence" and "Decisions" to Deepen Understanding of Peer Influence on Adolescent Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Haddara, Nadia; Sasse, Stephanie F; Skwara, Alea C; Moran, Joseph M; Figner, Bernd

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the aspects of complex decisions influenced by peers, and components of peer involvement influential to adolescents' risky decisions. Participants (N = 140) aged 13-25 completed the Columbia Card Task (CCT), a risky choice task, isolating deliberation-reliant and affect-reliant decisions while alone, while a friend monitors choices, and while a friend is merely present. There is no condition in which a nonfriend peer is present. Results demonstrated the risk-increasing peer effect occurred in the youngest participants in the cold CCT and middle-late adolescents in the hot CCT, whereas other ages and contexts showed a risk-decreasing peer effect. Mere presence was not sufficient to influence risky behavior. These boundaries in age, decision, and peer involvement constrain prevailing models of adolescent peer influence. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  1. Factors influencing students' physical science enrolment decision at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used a modified 'multiple worlds' model to investigate how the various worlds of the students influenced their science subject choice. ... Students also reported building enough self-confidence to enrol in physical science by the encouragement they received through informal contact with physics lecturers.

  2. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  3. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    improved transparency of all aspects of medical decision making, greater involvement of patients in shared medical decision making, greater oversight of guideline development and coverage decisions, limitations on direct to consumer advertising, and the need for an enhanced role of the government as the public advocate.

  4. A Computational Approach to Characterizing the Impact of Social Influence on Individuals’ Vaccination Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shang; Liu, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    In modeling individuals vaccination decision making, existing studies have typically used the payoff-based (e.g., game-theoretical) approaches that evaluate the risks and benefits of vaccination. In reality, whether an individual takes vaccine or not is also influenced by the decisions of others, i.e., due to the impact of social influence. In this regard, we present a dual-perspective view on individuals decision making that incorporates both the cost analysis of vaccination and the impact of social influence. In doing so, we consider a group of individuals making their vaccination decisions by both minimizing the associated costs and evaluating the decisions of others. We apply social impact theory (SIT) to characterize the impact of social influence with respect to individuals interaction relationships. By doing so, we propose a novel modeling framework that integrates an extended SIT-based characterization of social influence with a game-theoretical analysis of cost minimization. We consider the scenario of voluntary vaccination against an influenza-like disease through a series of simulations. We investigate the steady state of individuals’ decision making, and thus, assess the impact of social influence by evaluating the coverage of vaccination for infectious diseases control. Our simulation results suggest that individuals high conformity to social influence will increase the vaccination coverage if the cost of vaccination is low, and conversely, will decrease it if the cost is high. Interestingly, if individuals are social followers, the resulting vaccination coverage would converge to a certain level, depending on individuals’ initial level of vaccination willingness rather than the associated costs. We conclude that social influence will have an impact on the control of an infectious disease as they can affect the vaccination coverage. In this respect, our work can provide a means for modeling the impact of social influence as well as for estimating

  5. A computational approach to characterizing the impact of social influence on individuals' vaccination decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shang; Liu, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    In modeling individuals vaccination decision making, existing studies have typically used the payoff-based (e.g., game-theoretical) approaches that evaluate the risks and benefits of vaccination. In reality, whether an individual takes vaccine or not is also influenced by the decisions of others, i.e., due to the impact of social influence. In this regard, we present a dual-perspective view on individuals decision making that incorporates both the cost analysis of vaccination and the impact of social influence. In doing so, we consider a group of individuals making their vaccination decisions by both minimizing the associated costs and evaluating the decisions of others. We apply social impact theory (SIT) to characterize the impact of social influence with respect to individuals interaction relationships. By doing so, we propose a novel modeling framework that integrates an extended SIT-based characterization of social influence with a game-theoretical analysis of cost minimization. We consider the scenario of voluntary vaccination against an influenza-like disease through a series of simulations. We investigate the steady state of individuals' decision making, and thus, assess the impact of social influence by evaluating the coverage of vaccination for infectious diseases control. Our simulation results suggest that individuals high conformity to social influence will increase the vaccination coverage if the cost of vaccination is low, and conversely, will decrease it if the cost is high. Interestingly, if individuals are social followers, the resulting vaccination coverage would converge to a certain level, depending on individuals' initial level of vaccination willingness rather than the associated costs. We conclude that social influence will have an impact on the control of an infectious disease as they can affect the vaccination coverage. In this respect, our work can provide a means for modeling the impact of social influence as well as for estimating the

  6. Influence of Shading on Cooling Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczak, Sławomir; Bukowska, Maria; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Nowak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents an analysis of the building cooling load taking into account the variability of the factors affecting the size of the heat gains. In order to minimize the demand for cooling, the effect of shading elements installed on the outside on the windows and its effect on size of the cooling capacity of air conditioning system for the building has been estimated. Multivariate building cooling load calculations to determine the size of the reduction in cooling demand has derived. Determination of heat gain from the sun is laborious, but gives a result which reflects the influence of the surface transparent partitions, devices used as sunscreen and its location on the building envelope in relation to the world, as well as to the internal heat gains has great attention in obtained calculation. In this study, included in the balance sheet of solar heat gains are defined in three different shading of windows. Calculating the total demand cooling is made for variants assuming 0% shading baffles transparent, 50% shading baffles transparent external shutters at an angle of 45 °, 100% shading baffles transparent hours 12 from the N and E and from 12 from the S and W of the outer slat blinds. The calculation of the average hourly cooling load was taken into account the option assuming the hypothetical possibility of default by up to 10% of the time assumed the cooling season temperatures in the rooms. To reduce the consumption of electricity energy in the cooling system of the smallest variant identified the need for the power supply for the operation of the cooling system. Also assessed the financial benefits of the temporary default of comfort.

  7. The Influence of Family Factors on the Retention Decision Making Process of Military Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.

    Retention of military personnel has become a top priority to military leadership. Given the investment made in recruiting and training personnel, it is vital that military decision makers understand the factors that influence the career commitments of service members. Research has demonstrated an increased interest in the influence of family…

  8. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  9. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  10. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  11. Factors Which Influence The Fish Purchasing Decision: A study on Traditional Market in Riau Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswati, Latifa; Putri, Asgami

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of the research are to analyze and assess the factors which influence fish purchasing by the community at Tenayan Raya district Pekanbaru.Research methodology which used is survey method, especially interview and observation technique or direct supervision on the market which located at Tenayan Raya district. Determination technique of sampling location/region is done by purposive sampling. The sampling method is done by accidental sampling. Technique analysis of factors which used using the data that derived from the respondent opinion to various fish variable. The result of this research are the factors which influence fish purchasing decision done in a traditional market which located at Tenayan Raya district are product factor, price factors, social factor and individual factor. Product factor which influences fish purchasing decision as follows: the eyelets condition, the nutrition of fresh fish, the diversity of sold fish. Price factors influence the fish purchasing decision, such as: the price of fresh fish, the convincing price and the suitability price and benefits of the fresh fish. Individual factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as education and income levels. Social factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as family, colleagues and feeding habits of fish.

  12. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  13. Factors that influence producer decisions to implement management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Cow-calf enterprises in the USA are widely divergent in size, locale, resource availability, management skill, and market focus. Furthermore, variation exists in dependence on the cow-calf enterprise as a primary source of income, perception about the utility of a particular management practice or technology, and assessment of cost: benefit resulting from implementation impact decisions. Enterprises with larger cow inventories, greater dependence on income from the cattle enterprise, and that retain ownership further into the supply chain beyond the cow-calf operation are more likely to institute management protocols such as vaccination programs, defined calving seasons, and reproductive technologies. Successful cow-calf managers place the highest priority on herd nutrition, pasture and range management, herd health, financial management marketing, production management, and genetics. Management practices are more likely to be adopted when they align with a manager's perception of the utility, labor availability, favorable cost: benefit outcomes and profit motivation.

  14. When imagining future wealth influences risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Eric Greenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The body of literature on the relationship between risk aversion and wealth is extensive. However, little attention has been given to examining how future realizations of wealth might affect (current risk decisions. Using paired lottery choice experiments and exposing subjects experimentally to imagined future wealth frames, I find that individuals are more risk-seeking if they are asked to imagine that they will be wealthy in the future. Yet I find that individuals are not significantly more risk-averse if they are asked to imagine that they will be poor in the future. I discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings, including why savings rates are so low in the United States.

  15. Community ambulation: influences on therapists and clients reasoning and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Rosemary; McBurney, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Community ambulation is an important element of a rehabilitation training programme and its achievement is a goal shared by rehabilitation professionals and clients. The factors that influence a physiotherapist's or health professionals decision making around the preparation of a client for community ambulation and the factors that influence a client's decision to return to walking in their community are unclear. To review the available literature about the factors that have influenced the reasoning and decision making of rehabilitation therapists and clients around the topic of ambulation in the community. Three separate searches of the available literature were undertaken using Ovid, Cinahl, ProQuest, Medline and Ebscohost databases. Databases were searched from 1966 to October 2006.The first search explored the literature for factors that influence the clinical reasoning of rehabilitation therapists. The second search explored the literature for factors that influence client's decision to ambulate in the community. A third search was undertaken to explore the literature for the demands of community ambulation in rural communities. Very few studies were found that explored community ambulation in the context of clinical reasoning and decision making, the facilitators and barriers to a clients return to ambulation in their community or the demands of ambulation in a rural community. Consideration of the environment is key to the successful return to walking in the community of clients with mobility problems yet little literature has been found to guide physiotherapist's decision making about preparing a clients to return to walking in the community. An individual's participation in their society is also a result of the interaction between their personal characteristics and his or her environment. The influence of these characteristics may vary from one individual to another yet the factors that influence a person's decision to return to walking in their community

  16. Factors influencing the clinical decision-making of midwives: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemers, Darie O A; van Limbeek, Evelien B M; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J; de Vries, Raymond G

    2017-10-06

    Although midwives make clinical decisions that have an impact on the health and well-being of mothers and babies, little is known about how they make those decisions. Wide variation in intrapartum decisions to refer women to obstetrician-led care suggests that midwives' decisions are based on more than the evidence based medicine (EBM) model - i.e. clinical evidence, midwife's expertise, and woman's values - alone. With this study we aimed to explore the factors that influence clinical decision-making of midwives who work independently. We used a qualitative approach, conducting in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 11 Dutch primary care midwives. Data collection took place between May and September 2015. The interviews were semi-structured, using written vignettes to solicit midwives' clinical decision-making processes (Think Aloud method). We performed thematic analysis on the transcripts. We identified five themes that influenced clinical decision-making: the pregnant woman as a whole person, sources of knowledge, the midwife as a whole person, the collaboration between maternity care professionals, and the organisation of care. Regarding the midwife, her decisions were shaped not only by her experience, intuition, and personal circumstances, but also by her attitudes about physiology, woman-centredness, shared decision-making, and collaboration with other professionals. The nature of the local collaboration between maternity care professionals and locally-developed protocols dominated midwives' clinical decision-making. When midwives and obstetricians had different philosophies of care and different practice styles, their collaborative efforts were challenged. Midwives' clinical decision-making is a more varied and complex process than the EBM framework suggests. If midwives are to succeed in their role as promoters and protectors of physiological pregnancy and birth, they need to understand how clinical decisions in a multidisciplinary context are

  17. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND INFLUENCES ON IT ARCHITECTURE DECISIONS: A CASE STUDY IN A TELECOM COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wen Hsing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the IT architecture management practices associated with their degree of maturity and the influence of institutional and strategic factors on the decisions involved through a case study in a large telecom organization. The case study allowed us to identify practices that led the company to its current stage of maturity and identify practices that can lead the company to the next stage. The strategic influence was mentioned by most respondents and the institutional influence was present in decisions related to innovation and those dealing with a higher level of uncertainties.

  18. E-commerce factors influencing consumers‘ online shopping decision

    OpenAIRE

    Baubonienė, Živilė; Gulevičiūtė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the ben...

  19. Factors influencing and modifying the decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-05-01

    Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P < .001), followed by history of sun exposure (odds ratio 1.85, P < .01) and history of skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P < .0001). The decision to pursue hypothetical testing may differ from in-clinic decision-making. Self-selected, online participants may differ from the general population. Surveys may be subject to response bias. The decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How modifiable factors influence parental decision-making about organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberda, Kamila; Cleaver, Karen

    2017-11-07

    A global shortage of organs from children and adults available for transplantation is compounded by the failure of next of kin to consent for organs to be donated after death. Non-modifiable and modifiable factors influence decision-making in this area. Modifiable factors are of interest when examining families' decision-making about the donation of organs from their deceased child. A scoping review was undertaken to determine how modifiable factors influence parental decision-making about organ donation. Thematic analysis identified two themes: interactions with healthcare professionals and pre-disposition to organ donation. Satisfaction with experiences of hospital care, the information provided and the way it was communicated, as well as interactions pertaining to emotional support were all found to be modifiable factors that influenced decision making. Likewise, a predisposition to organ donation and knowing the deceased's wishes were associated with the consent decision. Nurses working in critical care environments need to be able to support parents during this difficult time. This article aims to raise awareness of modifiable factors that influence parental decision-making, highlighting their relevance for children's nursing practice. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  1. Influences on Decision Making Identified by Parents of Children Receiving Pediatric Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Aldridge, Sarah; Hexem, Kari R; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Parental decision making is a critical component in the provision of palliative and end-of-life care, yet factors that parents perceive as influencing this process, when they are making decisions for their children, have not been well characterized. As part of a mixed-methods cohort study, we interviewed 73 parents of 50 pediatric patients who were referred to the hospital's pediatric palliative care service. The semistructured interviews focused on "decision making for your child"; the interviews were recorded and transcribed. A random sample (n = 13) was first coded and analyzed for core themes, and these themes were then cross-validated with a second random sample (n = 3) of interviews. Four dominant interrelated themes permeated parents' discussions about the decisions they were making for their children and the process of decision making. First, Orientation and Direction (including the subthemes of Goals and Hopes, Spirituality and Meaning, and Purposeful Effort) connotes the parents' effort to establish and clarify the broad context of decision making. Second, Defining What Is Good for the Child (including the subthemes of Quality of Life and Suffering, and Normalcy and Normalization) conveys how the parents posed questions and pondered what decisions would be in the child's best interests. Third, the entwined theme of Relationships, Communication, and Support reflects how parents reported the social and interactive nature of decision making. Fourth, the theme of Feelings and Personal Accountability focuses inward as parents report efforts to deal with their emotional responses and self-judgments. Parents report grappling with several influences upon their decision-making processes that extend well beyond the standard discussions of medical information exchanges and the evaluation of risks and benefits. Decision support for these parents should account for these diverse influences.

  2. Social and Leadership Factors Influencing Moral Decision Making in Canadian Military Operations: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    et al.), Westerman et al. also hypothesized that cultures categorized as individualistic and lower power distance will be more influenced by peers...while collectivistic and high power distance cultures will be less influenced by peers. Westerman and colleagues point out that people from...Humansystems® Social and Leadership Factors influencing Ethical Decision Making Page 25 individualistic cultures (e.g., Germany and Italy) are concerned

  3. Uncertainty, Social Location and Influence in Decision Making: A Sociometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael L. Tushman; Elaine Romanelli

    1983-01-01

    This research investigates the relative impacts of formal status and informal communication roles on influence in administrative and technical decision making. While external information enters the organization via boundary spanning individuals, the exercise of influence at lower levels of the organization is dependent on mediating critical organizational contingencies. As the locus of task uncertainty shifts, so too does the relative influence of boundary spanning individuals and internal st...

  4. Social Network, Surgeon, and Media Influence on the Decision to Undergo Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Maria K; MacGeorge, Erina L; Baptiste, Dadrie F; Mouton, Ashton; Friley, Lorin B; Pastor, Rebekah; Hatten, Kristen; Lagoo, Janaka; Bowling, Monet W; Clare, Susan E

    2018-06-01

    The rate of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) has risen sharply in the past decade. The current study was designed to examine social network, surgeon, and media influence on patients' CPM decision-making, examining not only who influenced the decision, and to what extent, but also the type of influence exerted. Patients (N=113) who underwent CPM at 4 Indiana University-affiliated hospitals between 2008 and 2012 completed structured telephone interviews in 2013. Questions addressed the involvement and influence of the social network (family, friends, and nonsurgeon health professionals), surgeon, and media on the CPM decision. Spouses, children, family, friends, and health professionals were reported as exerting a meaningful degree of influence on patients' decisions, largely in ways that were positive or neutral toward CPM. Most surgeons were regarded as providing options rather than encouraging or discouraging CPM. Media influence was present, but limited. Patients who choose CPM do so with influence and support from members of their social networks. Reversing the increasing choice of CPM will require educating these influential others, which can be accomplished by encouraging patients to include them in clinical consultations, and by providing patients with educational materials that can be shared with their social networks. Surgeons need to be perceived as having an opinion, specifically that CPM should be reserved for those patients for whom it is medically indicated.

  5. Factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Rona; Alexander, Susan; Hatcher, Deborah; Mackey, Sandra; Shahid, Shaouli; Holden, Lynda; Kwok, Cannas

    2016-02-01

    We aim to systematically review studies that identify factors influencing cancer treatment decision-making among indigenous peoples. Following the outline suggested by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, a rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis were conducted of factors that influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous peoples. A total of 733 articles were retrieved from eight databases and a manual search. After screening the titles and abstracts, the full text of 26 articles were critically appraised, resulting in five articles that met inclusion criteria for the review. Because the five articles to be reviewed were qualitative studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program toolkit was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A thematic synthesis was employed to identify common themes across the studies. Multiple socio-economic and cultural factors were identified that all had the potential to influence cancer treatment decision-making by indigenous people. These factors were distilled into four themes: spiritual beliefs, cultural influences, communication and existing healthcare systems and structures. Although existing research identified multiple factors influencing decision-making, this review identified that quality studies in this domain are scarce. There is scope for further investigation, both into decision-making factors and into the subsequent design of culturally appropriate programmes and services that meet the needs of indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. INFLUENCE OF THE INVESTMENT DECISIONS ON THE RETURN OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Mugurel Gabriel Sorin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this study, to make an analysis of the influence of the investment decision on the return of the company. The goal of our research is the quantification of the influence of investment activity on profitability. Fulfilling such a goal has forced us to research the existing literature in this field, both in our country and abroad, ascertaining the existence of a unitary meaning of the criteria for investment projects’ evaluation. Of course, the realization of such research was possible only after close consideration of the opinions expressed in the relevant literature on this area. Our research aims to be a theoretical-applied one. It is based on comparisons we make between the two criteria for assessing investment projects namely: that of net present value (VAN and internal rate of return (RIR. By creating a suite of phase calculations, based on information from economic and financial documentation of corporate investments, we separated the influence of the policy investment decisions on profitability. We are convinced that the most accurate determination of the influence of policy investment decisions on profitability helps the financial management, facilitating the process of adopting the most appropriate policy decisions that ultimately leads to the objectives formulated by the financial policy. The result of our research is the quantification of the influence of investment policy decisions of the firm on profitability.

  7. Children's influence on and participation in the family decision process during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute to studies of family decision making during food buying. In particular a theoretical framework is proposed for structuring future studies of family decision making that include children's influence and participation at specific stages of the pr......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute to studies of family decision making during food buying. In particular a theoretical framework is proposed for structuring future studies of family decision making that include children's influence and participation at specific stages...... to 13 using questionnaires for both children and parents. Findings - Family food decision making is often a joint activity, and children's active participation, among other things, determines the influence they gain. Parents and children do not always agree on how much influence children have...... in the various stages of the process, indicating the importance of listening to both parties in research into the family dynamics and processes involved in everyday food buying. Research limitations/implications - Future research should further extend the knowledge about the areas where children have influence...

  8. Influences on Immunization Decision-Making among US Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yunmi; Schamel, Jay; Fisher, Allison; Frew, Paula M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study assessed influences on vaccination decisions among parents of young children and examined common vaccination information and advice sources. Methods Using panel samples of parents of children under 7 years, web-based surveys were conducted in 2012 (n = 2603) and 2014 (n = 2518). A vaccine decision-making typology (non-hesitant acceptors, hesitant acceptors, delayers, and refusers) was established and weighted population estimates of potential factors influencing parental vaccination decision (e.g., provider influence, source of information and advice) were computed by year and decision type. Results Delayers and refusers were more likely than acceptors to know someone whose child experienced a severe reaction to a vaccine or delayed/refused vaccine(s). High proportions of delayers (2012: 33.4%, 2014: 33.9%) and refusers (2012: 49.6%, 2014: 58.6%) reported selecting their healthcare provider based on whether the provider would allow them to delay/refuse vaccines. Providers were the most frequently reported trusted vaccine information source among all parents, though more often by acceptors than refusers (2012, 2014: p influences likely contribute to immunization decisions of parents. Vaccine hesitant parents often seek providers amenable to accommodating their vaccine beliefs. Providers may benefit from vaccine communication training as their recommendations may influence hesitant parents to immunize their children.

  9. Cost, price and profit: what influences students' decisions about fundraising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzki, Carly; Goos, Merrilyn

    2018-02-01

    This article examines some of the complexities associated with developing financially literate, enterprising young Australians through school education. We aimed to explore what seems to influence students in pricing goods for sale within their school community. Data were collected from more than 300 years 5 and 6 students (10-12 years of age) in four government primary schools in urban Darwin. Students were asked to respond to problem contexts involving fundraising as an example of an enterprise activity. The findings reveal that familiarity with fundraising initiatives, personal values, and language and literacy skills shaped the responses students gave. Students who gave loss-making and break-even responses were price conscious, but also tended to confuse terminology influencing mathematisation—i.e., "cost", "price" and "profit". Students who gave profit-making responses applied reasoning that was mathematical, financial and entrepreneurial, giving explanations that distinguished between these terms. We argue that these insights contribute to our understanding how upper primary school students interpret and respond to financial problems, with useful implications for schools and teachers.

  10. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  11. Enrolling adolescents in asthma research: adolescent, parent, and physician influence in the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L; Annett, Robert D; Scherer, David G; Turner, Charles; Dalen, Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    The factors influencing family decisions to participate in adolescent asthma research are not well understood. Legal and ethical imperatives require adolescent research participation to be voluntary. While parents and adolescents often agree about research decisions, disagreements may also occur with relative frequency. Physician recommendations are also known to influence research participation decisions. Little attention has been given to how these dynamics may affect adolescents' involvement in decisions to participate in research. To examine the influence of family and physician-investigator relationships and recommendations on adolescent asthma clinical research participation decisions. A statewide community sample of 111 adolescents 11 to 17 years of age, with a diagnosis of asthma, and their parents participated in this study. Adolescents received a medical evaluation from an asthma specialist and then the family was offered participation in a hypothetical asthma clinical trial. By random assignment, the research study was presented by either the same or an unknown asthma specialist, and half the families in each group also received affirmative recommendations from the asthma specialist to participate in the hypothetical asthma clinical trial. Parents and adolescents made initial private decisions about participating in the trial. Then, following a family discussion of the clinical trial, a final research participation decision was made. Thirty-three percent of parents and adolescents initially disagreed about the research participation decision. When disagreements occurred, final decisions followed the parents' initial views except when the physician-investigator was known and a recommendation was made. Families with initial disagreement about participating were less likely to enroll when the investigator was unknown or when no recommendation was made. Adolescents who initially disagreed with parents' views were less likely to concur with the final research

  12. Study on generation investment decision-making considering multi-agent benefit for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pai; Huang, Yuehui; Jia, Yanbing; Liu, Jichun; Niu, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . This article has studies on the generation investment decision in the background of global energy interconnection. Generation investment decision model considering the multiagent benefit is proposed. Under the back-ground of global energy Interconnection, generation investors in different clean energy base not only compete with other investors, but also facing being chosen by the power of the central area, therefor, constructing generation investment decision model considering multiagent benefit can be close to meet the interests demands. Using game theory, the complete information game model is adopted to solve the strategies of different subjects in equilibrium state.

  13. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  14. A study on the major influencing factors in decision-making in abnormal radiological situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B. W.; Kim, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the task of the technical advisers within the off-site emergency response organization in nuclear accident. They shall be collected and evaluated all influencing factors relevant in decision-making process. The major influencing objective factors are the results of radiological and economic consequence assessments. However, it is associated with uncertainties in predictions dependent of the phase of the accident. Important other factors emerge from subjective arguments between technical advisers in decision-making process. By theirs different opinions, the decision maker who is lack of experience and knowledge has a much more difficult to make and implement the emergency actions. Therefore, the practically considerations in a concrete emergency situation are timely implemented the emergency actions result from already existing plans. The actual process of decision-making consists in identifying in a iterative process implementing individual actions or a set of combined action

  15. Equilibration Influence on Jet Energy Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Luan; Wang Enke

    2010-01-01

    With the initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution. With considering the parton equilibration, we obtain the time dependence of the opacity when the jet propagates through the QGP medium. The parton equilibration affect the jet energy loss with detailed balance evidently. Both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss.

  16. An attentional theory of emotional influences on risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel S; Ramirez, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that choices between gambles can depend not only on the probabilities of gains or losses but also on the emotional richness of the items to be gained or lost. Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) demonstrated that overweighting of low probabilities is magnified if the possible events are emotionally rich, such as a kiss versus an amount of money. Ramirez (2010) showed that persistence in the face of comparable numerically presented losses is greater when the scenario involves taking care of a pet (emotionally richer) versus a business (emotionally poorer). Much of this phenomenon is captured in a neural network model of the Rottenstreich-Hsee data (Levine, 2012). The model is based on interactions among the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and premotor cortex that implement categorization of multiattribute vectors representing choice options, in a manner consistent with the gists of fuzzy trace theory. Before categorization, the vectors are weighted by selective attention to attributes that are either emotionally salient or task relevant, with increasing emotional arousal shifting the attentional weights away from numerical attributes such as precise probabilities. This interpretation is supported by the data of Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) showing that how much participants would pay to save endangered animals is not influenced by the number to be saved if they see pictures but is influenced by the number if they are given verbal descriptions. The theory suggests a few open questions. How are the selective attentional signals represented in the interactions between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas? Would the salience of numerical attributes still be reduced with high arousal in highly numerate participants? Would the differences between the pet and business scenarios be altered if the positive or negative feedback participants received were shown via pictures rather than numbers? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Thinking, feeling and deciding: the influence of emotions on the decision making and performance of traders

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; Soane, Emma; Nicholson, Nigel; Willman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We report on a qualitative investigation of the influence of emotions on the decision-making of traders in four City of London investment banks, a setting where work has been predominantly theorized as dominated by rational analysis. We conclude that emotions and their regulation play a central role in traders' decision-making. We find differences between high and low performing traders in how they engage with their intuitions, and that different strategies for emotion regulation have materia...

  18. Asheville, North Carolina: Reducing Electricity Demand through Building Programs & Policies (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Asheville, North Carolina: Reducing Electricity Demand through Building Programs & Policies" explains how the City of Asheville used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  19. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Amy R; Berrier, Kathryn L

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has identified twenty-six factors that may affect pregnancy management decisions following prenatal diagnosis of DS; however, there is no consensus about the relative importance or effects of these factors. In order to better understand patient decision-making, we conducted expansive cognitive interviews with nine former patients who received a prenatal diagnosis of DS. Our results suggest that patients attached unique meanings to factors influencing decision-making regardless of the pregnancy outcome. Nineteen of the twenty-six factors previously studied and four novel factors (rationale for testing, information quality, pregnancy experience, and perception of parenting abilities and goals) were found to be important to decision-making. We argue that qualitative studies can help characterize the complexity of decision-making following prenatal diagnosis of DS.

  1. A qualitative study of systemic influences on paramedic decision making: care transitions and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Rachel; Johnson, Maxine; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Shaw, Deborah; Mortimer, Peter; Newman, Chris; Hirst, Enid; Storey, Matthew; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Paramedics routinely make critical decisions about the most appropriate care to deliver in a complex system characterized by significant variation in patient case-mix, care pathways and linked service providers. There has been little research carried out in the ambulance service to identify areas of risk associated with decisions about patient care. The aim of this study was to explore systemic influences on decision making by paramedics relating to care transitions to identify potential risk factors. An exploratory multi-method qualitative study was conducted in three English National Health Service (NHS) Ambulance Service Trusts, focusing on decision making by paramedic and specialist paramedic staff. Researchers observed 57 staff across 34 shifts. Ten staff completed digital diaries and three focus groups were conducted with 21 staff. Nine types of decision were identified, ranging from emergency department conveyance and specialist emergency pathways to non-conveyance. Seven overarching systemic influences and risk factors potentially influencing decision making were identified: demand; performance priorities; access to care options; risk tolerance; training and development; communication and feedback and resources. Use of multiple methods provided a consistent picture of key systemic influences and potential risk factors. The study highlighted the increased complexity of paramedic decisions and multi-level system influences that may exacerbate risk. The findings have implications at the level of individual NHS Ambulance Service Trusts (e.g. ensuring an appropriately skilled workforce to manage diverse patient needs and reduce emergency department conveyance) and at the wider prehospital emergency care system level (e.g. ensuring access to appropriate patient care options as alternatives to the emergency department). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Decisions on the way to the future energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transition to new energy systems, and in this connection the obligatory restructuring of the energy market, will take at last 30 years, as completely new techniques will have to be developed. The energy demand is at present on the increase and will be saturated in about 80 years' time. Recommendations regarding the primary energies to be used in the FRG in the future came to the effect that the import of liquid fossil fuels should be decreased and the money thus saved be spent on further developing the use of nuclear energy combined with inland coal and on the creation of new jobs resulting from this. New en ergy systems which are to be considered: a) nuclear district heating in the form of chemically bound energy, b) coal gasification, c) short-distance supply with hot water, and d) the release of the secondary energy carrier hydrogen by means of the at present still hypothetical thermolysis of water. The real problems resulting from the use of nuclear energy are waste disposal, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fuel supply. Some energy centers located over the whole of the FRG could be in a position to solve these problems in an optimal way. The article ends by going into the question of when a new energy system will be introduced. (GG/LN) [de

  3. What factors influence the decisions of mental health professionals to release service users from seclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Haley; Baker, John; Berzins, Kathyrn

    2018-06-22

    Mental health policy stipulates seclusion should only be used as an intervention of last resort and for the minimum possible duration. Current evidence details which service users are more likely to be secluded, why they are secluded, and what influences the decision to seclude them. However, very little is known about the decision to release service users from seclusion. An integrative review was undertaken to explore the decision-making processes of mental health professionals which guide the ending of seclusion. The review used a systematic approach to gather and thematically analyse evidence within a framework approach. The twelve articles identified generated one overriding theme, maintaining safety. In addition, several subthemes emerged including the process of risk assessing which was dependent upon interaction and control, mediated by factors external to the service user such as the attitude and experience of staff and the acuity of the environment. Service users were expected to demonstrate compliance with the process ultimately ending in release and reflection. Little evidence exists regarding factors influencing mental health professionals in decisions to release service users from seclusion. There is no evidence-based risk assessment tool, and service users are not routinely involved in the decision to release them. Support from experienced professionals is vital to ensure timely release from seclusion. Greater insight into influences upon decisions to discontinue episodes may support initiatives aimed at reducing durations and use of seclusion. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. E-COMMERCE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS‘ ONLINE SHOPPING DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Baubonienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the benefits received by buyers making purchases online. Specifically, the research explores how online shopping can be affected by such factors as age, gender or occupation. Design/methodology/approach – The factors that affect the consumer online shopping have been disclosed through quantitative research by analysing data collected via a web‐based questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 183 Lithuanian consumers who were purchasing online. Findings –The empirical findings of this study indicate that the main factors influencing consumers to shop online are convenience, simplicity and better price. Analysis of socio-demographical characteristics such as gender has shown that men shop more often online because of the lower price. Respondents of the 25–35 year age group more often choose shopping online for such reasons as lack of time and a wide range of products. The most beneficial factor of shopping online was identified as a possibility to compare prices and buy at a lower price. Research limitations/implications – This study was done regarding only general conditions and the findings may not necessarily be applicable to a particular e-business. Therefore, in the future it would be highly encouraged to examine consumers’ attitudes towards specialized online shopping websites to look for differences by kind of products or services.Practical implications – Attributes identified by this study could help e-business developers to forme their

  5. The Influence of Emotion Regulation on Decision-making under Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura N.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive strategies typically involved in regulating negative emotions have recently been shown to also be effective with positive emotions associated with monetary rewards. However, it is less clear how these strategies influence behavior, such as preferences expressed during decision-making under risk, and the underlying neural circuitry. That is, can the effective use of emotion regulation strategies during presentation of a reward-conditioned stimulus influence decision-making under risk and neural structures involved in reward processing such as the striatum? To investigate this question, we asked participants to engage in imagery-focused regulation strategies during the presentation of a cue that preceded a financial decision-making phase. During the decision phase, participants then made a choice between a risky and a safe monetary lottery. Participants who successfully used cognitive regulation, as assessed by subjective ratings about perceived success and facility in implementation of strategies, made fewer risky choices in comparison to trials where decisions were made in the absence of cognitive regulation. Additionally, blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the striatum were attenuated during decision-making as a function of successful emotion regulation. These findings suggest that exerting cognitive control over emotional responses can modulate neural responses associated with reward processing (e.g., striatum), and promote more goal-directed decision-making (e.g., less risky choices), illustrating the potential importance of cognitive strategies in curbing risk-seeking behaviors before they become maladaptive (e.g., substance abuse). PMID:21254801

  6. The influence of emotion regulation on decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura N; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive strategies typically involved in regulating negative emotions have recently been shown to also be effective with positive emotions associated with monetary rewards. However, it is less clear how these strategies influence behavior, such as preferences expressed during decision-making under risk, and the underlying neural circuitry. That is, can the effective use of emotion regulation strategies during presentation of a reward-conditioned stimulus influence decision-making under risk and neural structures involved in reward processing such as the striatum? To investigate this question, we asked participants to engage in imagery-focused regulation strategies during the presentation of a cue that preceded a financial decision-making phase. During the decision phase, participants then made a choice between a risky and a safe monetary lottery. Participants who successfully used cognitive regulation, as assessed by subjective ratings about perceived success and facility in implementation of strategies, made fewer risky choices in comparison with trials where decisions were made in the absence of cognitive regulation. Additionally, BOLD responses in the striatum were attenuated during decision-making as a function of successful emotion regulation. These findings suggest that exerting cognitive control over emotional responses can modulate neural responses associated with reward processing (e.g., striatum) and promote more goal-directed decision-making (e.g., less risky choices), illustrating the potential importance of cognitive strategies in curbing risk-seeking behaviors before they become maladaptive (e.g., substance abuse).

  7. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  8. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  9. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  10. Sweden goes back on its decision to ban nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2009 the centre-right Swedish government has announced that the law on the progressive banning of nuclear energy and the law on the interdiction of building new nuclear power plants are going to be abolished. Moreover licenses will be given for the replacement of current operating reactors when they reach their time limit. The center party has not changed its mind concerning nuclear energy but is now deeply convinced that nuclear energy will be indispensable in the energy mix of tomorrow. A recent opinion poll has showed that almost half of the population favor the construction of new nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  11. Achieving informed decision-making for net zero energy buildings design using building performance simulation tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Gratia, E.; De Herde, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Building performance simulation (BPS) is the basis for informed decision-making of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) design. This paper aims to investigate the use of building performance simulation tools as a method of informing the design decision of NZEBs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the

  12. A tool for design decision making - zero energy residential buildings in hot humid climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development and evaluation of a simulation-based decision aid for Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) design, ZEBO, was explored. The thesis investigates the ability to achieve informed decision making for NZEB design, in hot climate. Four main questions were posed. Firstly, how to

  13. Clean Energy Financing Programs: A Decision Resource for States and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes financing-program options, key components of financing programs, and factors for states and communities to consider as they make decisions about getting started or updating their clean energy financing programs.

  14. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring (heuristic) when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established. Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed.

  15. Influence of perfusion and ventilation scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome in cases of possible embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercandetti, A.J.; Kipper, M.S.; Moser, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of perfusion (Q) and ventilation (V) scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome among 229 patients referred for lung scans because embolism was suggested and found that specific V/Q scan patterns strongly influenced postscan decisions regarding initiation, maintenance or cessation of heparin therapy. These therapeutic decisions bore a relationship to outcome (recurrences and death) and disclosed decision-making deficits that need remedy by future investigational and educational efforts. 25 references, 5 tables

  16. NASA Earth Observations Informing Energy Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Stackhouse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Sector is experiencing increasing impacts from severe weather and shifting climatic trends, as well as facing a changing political climate, adding uncertainty for stakeholders as they make short- and long-term planning investments. Climate changes such as prolonged extreme heat and drought (leading to wildfire spread, for example), sea level rise, and extreme storms are changing the ways that utilities operate. Energy infrastructure located in coastal or flood-prone areas faces inundation risks, such as damage to energy facilities. The use of renewable energy resources is increasing, requiring more information about their intermittency and spatial patterns. In light of these challenges, public and private stakeholders have collaborated to identify potential data sources, tools, and programmatic ideas. For example, utilities across the country are using cutting-edge technology and data to plan for and adapt to these changes. In the Federal Government, NASA has invested in preliminary work to identify needs and opportunities for satellite data in energy sector application, and the Department of Energy has similarly brought together stakeholders to understand the landscape of climate vulnerability and resilience for utilities and others. However, have these efforts improved community-scale resilience and adaptation efforts? Further, some communities are more vulnerable to climate change and infrastructure impacts than others. This session has two goals. First, panelists seek to share existing and ongoing efforts related to energy management. Second, the session seeks to engage with attendees via group knowledge exchange to connect national energy management efforts to local practice for increased community resilience.

  17. Using in-car feedback to influence travel decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, I T [WS Atkins plc, Dublin (Ireland); O' Mahony, M M; Broderick, B M [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    1999-11-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a need to reduce private car use, thereby alleviating congested urban areas and reducing fuel consumption and emissions from transport vehicles. This paper examines one approach to achieving this aim, based on the hypothesis that car owners do not correctly perceive the full cost of a car trip. The primary objective of the research was to assess the potential for correcting this misperception through the use of a digital car running-cost meter, installed on the dashboard of a car, which displays on a real-time basis the cost of each trip. Cost meter information on marginal trip cost, external cost and the effect of driving style was provided to a sample of drivers in a small pilot action in Dublin. The findings from the data (diaries and interviews) are presented and extrapolated by means of a transport network model to assess potential energy saving. The key findings from the work are as follows. (a) There was a significant reduction in off-peak-period trips observed as a result of the car meter but there was no significant reduction in time spent in the car, distance travelled by car and cost of driving. (b) A surprising finding from the project was that 40% of the subjects who happened to be changing their vehicle shortly after being involved in the project chose more fuel-efficient vehicles. They attributed their choice in part to their increased awareness of fuel costs as a result of their involvement in the project. (author)

  18. Application of a Resilience Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    align to a disruption or an associated downtime impacting mission performance. Reliability metrics and models were also used throughout the study to...Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven A.S...Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven Group 73 A.S. Castillo TBD

  19. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Liu

    Full Text Available Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes.

  20. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes.

  1. Energy life-cycle analysis modeling and decision support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoza, M.; White, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    As one of DOE`s five multi-program national laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develops and deploys technology for national missions in energy and the environment. The Energy Information Systems Group, within the Laboratory`s Computer Sciences Department, focuses on the development of the computational and data communications infrastructure and automated tools for the Transmission and Distribution energy sector and for advanced process engineering applications. The energy industry is being forced to operate in new ways and under new constraints. It is in a reactive mode, reacting to policies and politics, and to economics and environmental pressures. The transmission and distribution sectors are being forced to find new ways to maximize the use of their existing infrastructure, increase energy efficiency, and minimize environmental impacts, while continuing to meet the demands of an ever increasing population. The creation of a sustainable energy future will be a challenge for both the soft and hard sciences. It will require that we as creators of our future be bold in the way we think about our energy future and aggressive in its development. The development of tools to help bring about a sustainable future will not be simple either. The development of ELCAM, for example, represents a stretch for the computational sciences as well as for each of the domain sciences such as economics, which will have to be team members.

  2. Measuring and monitoring energy access: Decision-support tools for policymakers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailu, Yohannes G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of African States have adapted energy access targets. In evaluating progress towards these goals, measuring and monitoring energy access becomes relevant. This paper reviews energy access indicators and identifies their utility and challenges in their application. By focusing on Africa, a broader framework for energy access measurement and monitoring is discussed, along with implementation barriers and potential solutions. To demonstrate the utility of energy access decision-support tool in Africa, a scenario analysis in five regional energy pools is conducted using the Energy Spending Model tool. Institutionalizing monitoring and decision-support tools can provide valuable feedback to policymakers aiming to design and implement effective energy access programs serving a growing population in Africa. - Highlights: ► Most African countries have adapted energy access targets. ► To monitor and evaluate performance, monitoring and decision-support tools are required. ► Framework for tool development should consider data, cost, political and other factors. ► Implementation constraints include technical, data, resource and urban/rural issues. ► Electricity Spending Needs model is one decision support tool that ties access targets to investment needs. ► Monitoring tools provide crucial feedback on Africa's energy access progress.

  3. Making optimal investment decisions for energy service companies under uncertainty: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Qianli; Jiang, Xianglin; Zhang, Limao; Cui, Qingbin

    2015-01-01

    Varied initial energy efficiency investments would result in different annual energy savings achievements. In order to balance the savings revenue and the potential capital loss through EPC (Energy Performance Contracting), a cost-effective investment decision is needed when selecting energy efficiency technologies. In this research, an approach is developed for the ESCO (Energy Service Company) to evaluate the potential energy savings profit, and thus make the optimal investment decisions. The energy savings revenue under uncertainties, which are derived from energy efficiency performance variation and energy price fluctuation, are first modeled as stochastic processes. Then, the derived energy savings profit is shared by the owner and the ESCO according to the contract specification. A simulation-based model is thus built to maximize the owner's profit, and at the same time, satisfy the ESCO's expected rate of return. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach, the University of Maryland campus case is also presented. The proposed method could not only help the ESCO determine the optimal energy efficiency investments, but also assist the owner's decision in the bidding selection. - Highlights: • An optimization model is built for determining energy efficiency investment for ESCO. • Evolution of the energy savings revenue is modeled as a stochastic process. • Simulation is adopted to calculate investment balancing the owner and the ESCO's profit. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach

  4. Decisions of the atomic energy authority binding on penal law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, E.

    1988-01-01

    The essay analyses the acquittal of the accused persons by the Landgericht Hanau in the so-called Alkem process. The author criticizes the considerations of the court to disregard in case the justifying effect of valid administrative permissions because of the abuse of rights. A criminal judge cannot ignore valid acts given by authorities which he considers to be against the law. As long as he does not identify them as invalid, he has to accept the administrative act until authorities abolish their decision. (KW) [de

  5. Parliament's decision specified the energy policy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Finnish Parliament decided on Friday 24 May 2002, to ratify the favourable decision-in-principle on the fifth nuclear power plant unit made by the Government last January, with 107 votes in favour and 92 votes against. Thus Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), the Finnish privately owned electricity generation company responsible for the project, is authorised to continue the preparations for the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. The article handles the process in the coming years if TVO will go on with the process. The most important steps according to the nuclear legislation are to have construction and operating licenses in due time. (author)

  6. Promoting energy efficiency investments with risk management decision tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current capital budgeting practices and their impact on energy efficiency investments. The prevalent use of short payback 'rule-of-thumb' requirements to screen efficiency projects for risk is shown to bias investment choices towards 'sure bet' investments bypassing many profitable efficiency investment options. A risk management investment strategy is presented as an alternative to risk avoidance practices applied with payback thresholds. The financial industry risk management tool Value-at-Risk is described and extended to provide an Energy-Budgets-at-Risk or EBaR risk management analysis to convey more accurate energy efficiency investment risk information. The paper concludes with recommendations to expand the use of Value-at-Risk-type energy efficiency analysis.

  7. Trends in Fashion Marketing and their influence to consumer buying decision

    OpenAIRE

    Votočková, Pavlína

    2017-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with Trends in Fashion Marketing and their influence to consumer buying decision. The aim of the thesis is to analyse consumer's attitude to fashion marketing and it's current trends: Fast Fashion, online shopping, co-branding and influence of social sites. The thesis is devided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical part deals with consumer behavior, specification of current situation on the fashion market, locating of production and supply chain ...

  8. Management practices and influences on IT architecture decisions: a case study in a telecom company

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing, Chen Wen; Souza, Cesar Alexandre de

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the IT architecture management practices associated with their degree of maturity and the influence of institutional and strategic factors on the decisions involved through a case study in a large telecom organization. The case study allowed us to identify practices that led the company to its current stage of maturity and identify practices that can lead the company to the next stage. The strategic influence was mentioned by most respondents and the institutional in...

  9. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  10. The influence of fatigue on decision-making in athletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonroeder, Thomas Gus; Tighe, Sarah Marie; Miller, Taylor Matthew; Lanning, Christopher Ray

    2018-06-14

    A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search identified 183 unique articles. Five of these articles met our eligibility criteria. Two of the studies incorporated fatigue protocols where athletes progressed to exhaustion and found that the effects of decision-making on mechanics were more pronounced with fatigue. The nature of the results appears to indicate that fatigue may compromise an athlete's cognitive processing in a manner that diminishes their ability to control movement when rapid decision-making is required. However, three subsequent studies utilised fatigue protocols designed to mimic sports participation and found that fatigue did not influence the effects of decision-making on mechanics. In general, these findings appear to indicate that fatigue may only affect the cognitive processing associated with decision-making when athletes approach a state of exhaustion.

  11. Reported Influences on Restaurant-Type Food Selection Decision Making in a Grocery Store Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica Lynne; Arigo, Danielle

    2018-06-01

    To examine food decision-making priorities for restaurant-type foods at grocery stores and determine whether adding calorie information, as required by federal menu labeling laws, affected decision-making priorities. Natural experiment: intervention and control groups with baseline and follow-up. Regional grocery store chain with 9 locations. Participants (n = 393; mean age, 54.8 ± 15.1 years) were primarily women (71%) and Caucasian (95%). Data were collected before and after calorie information was added to restaurant-type foods at 4 intervention locations. Primary influencers of food selection decision making for restaurant-type foods and frequency of use of nutrition information. Quantitative analysis examined the top 3 influencers of food selections and chi-square goodness of fit test determined whether the calorie labeling intervention changed food decision-making priorities. Qualitative data were used to describe responses. Taste, cost, and convenience were the most frequently reported influencers of restaurant-type food selections; 20% of participants rated calories as influential. Calorie labeling did not affect food selection decision making; 16% of participants in intervention stores noticed calorie labels. Qualitative explanations confirmed these findings. Menu labeling laws increase access to calorie information; however, use of this information is limited. Additional interventions are needed to encourage healthier restaurant-type food selections in grocery stores. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strengthening forensic DNA decision making through a better understanding of the influence of cognitive bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguenat, Amy M; Budowle, Bruce; Dror, Itiel E

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive bias may influence process flows and decision making steps in forensic DNA analyses and interpretation. Currently, seven sources of bias have been identified that may affect forensic decision making with roots in human nature; environment, culture, and experience; and case specific information. Most of the literature and research on cognitive bias in forensic science has focused on patterned evidence; however, forensic DNA testing is not immune to bias, especially when subjective interpretation is involved. DNA testing can be strengthened by recognizing the existence of bias, evaluating where it influences decision making, and, when applicable, implementing practices to reduce or control its effects. Elements that may improve forensic decision making regarding bias include cognitively informed education and training, quality assurance procedures, review processes, analysis and interpretation, and context management of irrelevant information. Although bias exists, reliable results often can be (and have been) produced. However, at times bias can (and has) impacted the interpretation of DNA results negatively. Therefore, being aware of the dangers of bias and implementing measures to control its potential impact should be considered. Measures and procedures that handicap the workings of the crime laboratory or add little value to improving the operation are not advocated, but simple yet effective measures are suggested. This article is meant to raise awareness of cognitive bias contamination in forensic DNA testing and to give laboratories possible pathways to make sound decisions to address its influences. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Influencing Energy Quantisation | Adelabu | Global Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, College of Science & Agriculture, University of Abuja, P. M. B. 117, Abuja FCT, Nigeria. Investigations of energy quantisation in a range of multiple quantum well (MQW) systems using effective mass band structure calculations including non-parabolicity in both the well and barrier layers are reported.

  14. Influence of biases in numerical magnitude allocation on human prosocial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Franka, Mustafa; Mediratta, Saniya; Ramachandaran, Sanjeev; Lobo, Rhannon; Malhotra, Paresh A; Roberts, R E; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human prosocial decision making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e., ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition on decision making during task performance remains unknown. While performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor on a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i.e., number-pair bisection). Accordingly, we hypothesize that the decision-making process during the dictator game recruits overlapping cognitive processes to those known to be engaged during number-pair bisection. We observed that biases in numerical magnitude allocation correlated with the formulation of decisions during the dictator game. That is, intrinsic biases toward smaller numerical magnitudes were associated with the formulation of less favorable decisions, whereas biases toward larger magnitudes were associated with more favorable choices. We proceeded to corroborate this relationship by subliminally and systematically inducing biases in numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers using a visuo-vestibular stimulation paradigm. Such subliminal alterations in numerical magnitude allocation led to proportional and corresponding changes to an individual's decision making during the dictator game. Critically, no relationship was observed between neither intrinsic nor induced biases in numerical magnitude on decision making when assessed using a nonnumerical-based prosocial questionnaire. Our findings demonstrate numerical influences on decisions formulated during the dictator game and highlight the necessity to control for confounds associated with numerical cognition in human decision-making paradigms. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that intrinsic biases in numerical magnitude

  15. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  16. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  17. Frustration influences impact of history and disciplinary attitudes on physical discipline decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Mary B; Rodriguez, Christina M; Silvia, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Although intergenerational patterns of punitive physical punishment garner considerable research attention, the mechanisms by which historical, cognitive, and contextual factors interplay to influence disciplinary responding remains poorly understood. Disciplinary attitudes have been shown to mediate the association between disciplinary history and disciplinary responding. The present study investigated whether frustration influences these mediation effects. Half of a sample of 330 undergraduates was randomly assigned to frustration induction. Structural equation modeling confirmed that, for participants in the frustration condition, the relation between disciplinary history and physical discipline decision-making was fully mediated by attitudes approving physical discipline. In contrast, for respondents in the no-frustration condition, the pathway from disciplinary history to discipline decision-making was only partially mediated by attitudes. Under conditions of frustration, attitudes may become a more central means by which personal disciplinary history is associated with disciplinary decision-making. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIONS SUSTAINABLE IN DECISION PURCHASE OF INDUSTRIES THIRD GENERATION PETROCHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Madureira Domingues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to understand how sustainable innovation influences the decision of industrial purchases. Much has been said about the organizational buying behavior, but little is said about how the industrial buyers consider sustainable innovation in their purchasing procedures. This work aims to contribute to the constructs involving this type of purchase behavior. Therefore, a qualitative survey was conducted with non-probabilistic sample , composed of six companies of different sizes , which make up the chain of the petrochemical industry , more specifically , the third generation of this chain . Data were collected via semi-structured interview guide, and studied by means of categorization by content analysis. The analysis revealed that sustainable innovations not influence the purchasing decisions of the petrochemical industry , since the companies surveyed are strongly linked to criteria such as price , time and quality and do not realize sustainable innovation as an important factor in purchasing decisions .

  19. Assessing the preconditions for communication influence on decision making: the North American Quitline Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Joseph A; Ruppel, Erin K; Saul, Jessie E; Leischow, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The network of North American quitlines is a loose confederation of telephone-based smoking cessation professionals, including smoking cessation counseling providers, funders, researcher and policy advocates. Each quitline has some leeway in the types of services it provides, and the purpose of this article is to identify factors that explain such choices. Representatives from quitline organizations responded to a survey regarding the importance of several items that were hypothesized to influence general intentions to adopt and implement new cessation methods. Results indicate that internal (to the quitline) constraints are positively associated with consensus processes and that implementation of practices in general was more likely if consensus processes were used. Unilateral decision making (one person within an organization makes decisions for the quitline on his/her own) was unrelated to either internal or external constraints and was negatively associated with adoption of quitline practices. Discussion focuses on factors that influence consensus decision-making processes beyond those investigated in the article.

  20. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  2. Who and What Influences School Leaders' Decisions: An Institutional Analysis of the Implementation of Universal Prekindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Hope G.; Sipple, John W.

    2011-01-01

    School-community interactions facilitate connections between schools and their local surroundings; however, these relationships are subject not only to local political, economic, and social influences but also to broader political and institutional forces. Educational administrators' decisions about programming and partnering can be considered in…

  3. The Influence of Counterfactual Thinking and Regret on Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl; Oeding, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the influence of counterfactual thoughts in triggering the emotions of regret and disappointment in ethical decision making. Counterfactual thinking involves examining possible outcomes to events and is often explored in what-if scenarios. Findings support that subjects were able to transfer regret (but not disappointment)…

  4. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Jayakumar, Prakash; King, John D.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Secondarily, we

  5. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: factors that influence intensive care nurses' decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingsvik, Catarina; Johansson, Karin; Mårtensson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the factors that influence intensive care nurses' decision-making when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Patients with failing vital function may require respiratory support. Weaning from mechanical ventilation is a process in which the intensive care nurse participates in both planning and implementation. A qualitative approach was used. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 22 intensive care nurses. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. One theme emerged: 'A complex nursing situation where the patient receives attention and which is influenced by the current care culture'. There was consensus that the overall assessment of the patient made by the intensive care nurse was the main factor that influenced the decision-making process. This assessment was a continuous process consisting of three factors: the patient's perspective as well as her/his physical and mental state. On the other hand, there was a lack of consensus about what other factors influenced the decision-making process. These factors included the care culture constituted by the characteristics of the team, the intensive care nurses' professional skills, personalities and ability to be present. The individual overall assessment of the patient enabled nursing care from a holistic perspective. Furthermore, the weaning process can be more effective and potential suffering reduced by creating awareness of the care culture's impact on the decision-making process. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  6. 21 CFR 1404.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? 1404.860 Section 1404.860 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY... wrongdoing. (c) Whether there is a pattern or prior history of wrongdoing. For example, if you have been...

  7. Technology Familiarization to Preservice Teachers: Factors that Influence Teacher Educators' Technology Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonde, Gilbert; Mousa, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence teacher educators' technology decisions in methods courses. Research has shown various reasons why teachers use different types of technologies and not able to integrate certain technologies. However, this study focused on the source of teachers' instructional technology…

  8. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Decision Making Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Virginia Watson

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is a growing field, addressing the market need for access to computing resources to meet organizational computing requirements. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the factors that influence an organization in their decision whether to adopt cloud computing as a part of their strategic information technology planning.…

  9. Factors influencing the patient with rheumatoid arthritis in their decision to seek podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, A; Mandy, P J; Stew, G

    2013-12-01

    Despite the level of foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the literature to support early assessment of foot care needs, local referral of patients to podiatry has been occurring too late to instigate certain preventative interventions. Preliminary fieldwork has highlighted that the primary responsibility for the instigation of this lies with the patient. The present study describes the factors that influence the patient with RA in their decision to self-report foot problems. A case study research strategy was employed. Nine patients attending the outpatient rheumatology department participated in the study and data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. This information was analysed using a framework approach. The key themes derived from the data suggested that there are a variety of factors influencing the patient's decision to self-report foot concerns. Some will act to encourage the action and others will act to oppose it. Other factors can influence the decision either way, depending on the individual patient (psychological state, previous experience, body image changes). In addition, age, gender, and cultural and social aspects are also significant. Due to the multitude of factors influencing the individual's decision to seek help, the patient cannot be given sole responsibility for their foot health if we wish to achieve timely and appropriate podiatry, as recommended in the literature. Responsibility should be three-way; the patient, the members of the rheumatology team and, once in the podiatry service, the podiatrist should maintain this. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Sex, Attribution, and Severity Influence Intervention Decisions of Informal Helpers in Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…

  11. But I can’t pass that far! The influence of motor skill on decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, L.; Farrow, D.; Raynor, A.; Mann, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The influence of motor skill on perceptual-cognitive and perceptual-motor decision making has been theorised but not verified empirically. Method: Expert (n=19), developmental (n=20), and lesser-skilled netballers (n=19) completed tests designed to evaluate three different components of

  12. Are Leaders Influenced by Advocates in Decisions on Special Education Eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Erin K. B.; Bauer, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the opinions of private practitioners and educational advocates on instructional leaders' decision-making processes when making a recommendation for special education eligibility. School-based administrators (n = 56) with varying years of experience as special education administrators…

  13. Investigating GEAR-Up College Readiness Program's Influence on Postsecondary Decisions of Rural Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydstun, Kelli Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how the GEAR-Up college readiness program influenced the postsecondary decisions of Hispanic students who participated in the GEAR-Up program for the recommended six-year period in a rural school district in Texas. It was not known how long-term participation in the GEAR-Up program at a rural school…

  14. Factors influencing risky decision-making in patients with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Huang, Yonghua; Wu, Xinhuai

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that the framing effect is common in medical scenarios, but few studies have examined the influence of the framing effect upon thrombolytic therapy for cerebral infarction. In this study, 1040 inpatients and outpatients in the department of neurology were recruited to explore whether there is a framing effect in decision-making within thrombolytic therapy, and if so, which factors influence that effect. The findings from Study 1 indicate that the framing effect occurred in patients both with and without cerebral infarction (χ(2) = 7.90, p = .005; χ(2) = 5.16, p = .023, respectively), with both groups displaying risk-seeking behavior (thrombolytic therapy) in the positive frame and no risk aversion or risk seeking in the negative frame. The results of Study 2 show that the patients preferred risk seeking in both collaborative and individual decision-making. In the collaborative decision-making group, the patients in the senior group showed the framing effect (χ(2) = 5.35, p frame (G) showing more significant risk seeking than both those in the negative frame (H) and those in the other positive frame (A, C, and E). In summary, decision-making about thrombolytic therapy in patients with cerebral infarction is influenced by the framing effect, and some influencing factors should be attended in clinical practice. Further research is necessary to guide the treatment of cerebral infarction.

  15. The influence of proprietary disclosure costs on the decision to go public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis studies the influence of proprietary disclosure costs related to informing product market competitors on management communication with investors. In doing so it focuses on the firm's decision to go public. A firm that goes public not only experiences a change in its financial and

  16. Myopic Loss Aversion: Demystifying the Key Factors Influencing Decision Problem Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Andrew M.; Looney, Clayton Arlen

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of myopic loss aversion theory has been hamstrung by conflicting results, methodological inconsistencies, and a piecemeal approach toward understanding the key factors influencing decision problem framing. A series of controlled experiments provides a more holistic view of the variables promoting myopia. Extending the information…

  17. Comparing decision making between cancer patients and the general population: thoughts, emotions, or social influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Janet; McComas, Katherine A; Gay, Geri K; Leonard, John P; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Dillon, Hildy

    2012-01-01

    This study extends a risk information seeking and processing model to explore the relative effect of cognitive processing strategies, positive and negative emotions, and normative beliefs on individuals' decision making about potential health risks. Most previous research based on this theoretical framework has examined environmental risks. Applying this risk communication model to study health decision making presents an opportunity to explore theoretical boundaries of the model, while also bringing this research to bear on a pressing medical issue: low enrollment in clinical trials. Comparative analysis of data gathered from 2 telephone surveys of a representative national sample (n = 500) and a random sample of cancer patients (n = 411) indicated that emotions played a more substantive role in cancer patients' decisions to enroll in a potential trial, whereas cognitive processing strategies and normative beliefs had greater influences on the decisions of respondents from the national sample.

  18. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  19. Multi-criteria group decision support with linguistic variables in long-term scenarios for Belgian energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Da; Lu, Jie; Laes, Erik; Zhang, Guangquan; Ma, Jun; Meskens, Gaston

    2010-01-01

    Real world decisions often made in the presence of multiple, conflicting, and incommensurate criteria. Decision making requires multiple perspectives of different individuals as more decisions are made now in groups than ever before. This is particularly true when the decision environment becomes more complex such as sustainability policies study in environmental and energy sectors. Group decision making processes judgments or solutions for decision problems based on the input and feedback of...

  20. Energy Saving by Firms. Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on success conditions of policies is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors. 15 refs.

  1. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors.

  2. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors

  3. Carbon as Investment Risk—The Influence of Fossil Fuel Divestment on Decision Making at Germany’s Main Power Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kiyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available German electricity giants have recently taken high-level decisions to remove selected fossil fuel operations from their company portfolio. This new corporate strategy could be seen as a direct response to the growing global influence of the fossil fuel divestment campaign. In this paper we ask whether the divestment movement currently exerts significant influence on decision-making at the top four German energy giants—E.On, RWE, Vattenfall and EnBW. We find that this is not yet the case. After describing the trajectory of the global fossil fuel divestment campaign, we outline four alternative influences on corporate strategy that, currently, are having a greater impact than the divestment movement on Germany’s power sector. In time, however, clear political decisions and strong civil support may increase the significance of climate change concerns in the strategic management of the German electricity giants.

  4. Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    This report is one of the results from the project “Occupants influence on the energy consumption of Danish domestic buildings – Phase 1”, which is partly funded by EUDP (Journalnr.: 64009-0248, Programområde: Energieffektivisering) The report provides state-of-the-art reviews within the various...... disciplines represented in the project by the project members, which all represent areas that relate to the title on occupants influence on the energy consumption....

  5. Stakeholders’ influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies in Italian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The instability and fragmentation of the temporary aggregations of many stakeholders in construction processes are barriers to adopting new technologies. This paper investigates the influence of different stakeholders on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies in new residential buildings. Recent literature about the influence of different stakeholders on construction processes is reviewed focusing in their interest for energy saving technologies. To gain an insight into the specific roles played by stakeholders (general contractors, construction firms, architects, users and public governments) in different projects, a case study methodology was used. The influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies of stakeholders was assessed through semi-structured interviews. These interviews focused on the interest and power for the adoption of several energy-saving technologies. Having recognized that the interest in adoption is often expressed late in the construction processes, the time of introduction of this interest was assessed. This paper provides an empirical insight into significant barriers for the adoption of energy saving technologies which are the low influence of highly motivated stakeholders on the decision of adoption, and the delay at which the interest in energy-saving technologies emerges. Finally, policies to overcome these barriers are suggested. - Highlights: • Why energy saving technologies are rarely adopted in buildings? • Diffusion is slowed by the late participation of stakeholders with great interest for energy technologies. • The influence of construction stakeholders for the adoption of energy saving technologies is measured in Italian case studies. • More integrated relationships among stakeholders are required to help the adoption of energy saving technologies. • Process re-organizations and policies which increase final users’ power are needed

  6. Energy saving by firms: decision making, barriers and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the

  7. Primary care specialty career choice among Canadian medical students: Understanding the factors that influence their decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Heather Ann; Glicksman, Jordan T; Brandt, Michael G; Doyle, Philip C; Fung, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    To identify which factors influence medical students' decision to choose a career in family medicine and pediatrics, and which factors influence their decision to choose careers in non-front-line specialties. Survey that was created based on a comprehensive literature review to determine which factors are considered important when choosing practice specialty. Ontario medical school. An open cohort of medical students in the graduating classes of 2008 to 2011 (inclusive). The main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in primary care or pediatrics, and the main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. A total of 323 participants were included in this study. Factors that significantly influenced participants' career choice in family medicine or pediatrics involved work-life balance (acceptable hours of practice [ P = .005], acceptable on-call demands [ P = .012], and lifestyle flexibility [ P = .006]); a robust physician-patient relationship (ability to promote individual health promotion [ P = .014] and the opportunity to form long-term relationships [ P  < .001], provide comprehensive care [ P = .001], and treat patients and their families [ P = .006]); and duration of residency program ( P = .001). The career-related factors that significantly influenced participants' decision to choose a non-front-line specialty were as follows: becoming an expert ( P  < .001), maintaining a focused scope of practice ( P  < .001), having a procedure-focused practice ( P = .001), seeing immediate results from one's actions ( P  < .001), potentially earning a high income ( P  < .001), and having a perceived status among colleagues ( P  < .001). In this study, 8 factors were found to positively influence medical students' career choice in family medicine and pediatrics, and 6 factors influenced the decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. Medical students can be

  8. Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Peter; Soederstroem, Mats

    2003-01-01

    Global competition, commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and a deregulated, integrated European electricity market will in all probability increase the demand for energy efficiency on the part of companies in Sweden. Investment decisions are an important part of meeting the new demands, because they decide the future efficiency of industrial energy systems. The objective of this study is to investigate, from a managerial perspective, the need to improve decision support in some industries, which can help to facilitate and improve investment decisions concerning energy efficiency. This work has been conducted through in-depth interviews with representatives for a number of energy-intensive companies and non-energy-intensive companies from different sectors. One need that was identified was the improvement of working methods in order to support the decision-making process. Here, external players seem to be playing an increasingly important role. Access to correct information, better follow-up activities, and transparent, understandable calculations are also considered to be important. The study will form the foundation for subsequent work on decision support and energy efficiency in industry

  9. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  10. The impact of economic uncertainty on the energy decision making process: Nuclear energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargur, J.

    1984-01-01

    The study presented here is based on an analysis undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of establishing nuclear power plants in Israel. While the actual figures for the various sensitivity tests are somewhat disguised because of the sensitivity of the topic, the relative impact of moving from one assumption to another is presented and analysed. A matrix of qualitative results has been formulated for this analysis and, once these relationships have been established qualitatively, subjective weights have been applied to the various assumptions of the three most relevant parameters, the deviations from the most probable coal price, discount rate and level of investment. The analysis evaluates the impact of these weights on the decision as to whether the project prospects are most favourable, are of marginal value, or should be rejected. The significance of this analysis is its demonstration of the major role to be played by the economic planner within each country, and his responsibility to provide macro-economic guidelines for evaluating major infrastructural undertakings such as energy projects

  11. When your decisions are not (quite your own: action observation influences free choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff G Cole

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have begun to assess how the actions of one individual are represented in an observer. Using a variant of an action observation paradigm, four experiments examined whether one person's behaviour can influence the subjective decisions and judgements of another. In Experiment 1, two observers sat adjacent to each other and took turns to freely select and reach to one of two locations. Results showed that participants were less likely to make a response to the same location as their partner. In three further experiments observers were asked to decide which of two familiar products they preferred or which of two faces were most attractive. Results showed that participants were less likely to choose the product or face occupying the location of their partner's previous reaching response. These findings suggest that action observation can influence a range of free choice preferences and decisions. Possible mechanisms through which this influence occurs are discussed.

  12. Skin dose variation: influence of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This research aimed to quantitatively evaluate the differences in percentage dose of maximum for 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams within the first lcm of interactions. Thus provide quantitative information regarding the basal, dermal and subcutaneous dose differences achievable with these two types of high-energy x-ray beams. Percentage dose of maximum build up curves are measured for most clinical field sizes using 6MV and 18MV x-ray beams. Calculations are performed to produce quantitative results highlighting the percentage dose of maximum differences delivered to various depths within the skin and subcutaneous tissue region by these two beams Results have shown that basal cell layer doses are not significantly different for 6MV and 18Mv x-ray beams At depths beyond the surface and basal cell layer there is a measurable and significant difference in delivered dose. This variation increases to 20% of maximum and 22% of maximum at Imm and 1cm depths respectively. The percentage variations are larger for smaller field sizes where the photon in phantom component of the delivered dose is the most significant contributor to dose By producing graphs or tables of % dose differences in the build up region we can provide quantitative information to the oncologist for consideration (if skin and subcutaneous tissue doses are of importance) during the beam energy selection process for treatment. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Integrating climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making - Key challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  14. Some Major Issues Influencing Nuclear Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation analyses some issues which are of particular importance for future nuclear power application. These include duration of uranium reserves and high level radioactive waste decay period in function of uranium reserves (determined, assumed and speculative) and type of fuel cycle used. Public acceptance during essential historical milestones of nuclear power use, influence of safety and compatibility evaluations, quantified risk, externalities and nuclear accidents. Short review of major accidents, causes, consequences, impact of LNT and hormesis hypothesis. Particular problem for future of nuclear power is potential shortage of experienced personnel due to long period without plants construction. To address some of problems which may face future investors a brief review of specific events experienced during construction of NPP Krsko is presented. Such events could be of interest to countries planning to construct nuclear power plant.(author).

  15. Influence of communication on public opinion about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Everton de Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Public opinion on risks and benefits associated to nuclear energy is depending on psychological and social factors and mainly on the communication strategy used to transfer knowledge and facts about nuclear technology to the public. In this work, the individual and collective communication process and the influences on the public opinion on nuclear energy will be analyzed. (author)

  16. Treatment decision-making by men with localized prostate cancer: the influence of personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Ellis, William J; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Schwien, Christina; Mullen, Kristin H; Yang, Claire

    2003-01-01

    For many men with localized prostate cancer, there is no definite answer or unequivocal choice regarding treatment modality. This high-stakes treatment decision is made in the context of great uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to systematically document meaningful and relevant aspects of treatment decision-making reported by men with localized prostate cancer. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 44 men who were within 6 months of a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Using content analysis and grounded theory analytic techniques, major aspects and processes of men's treatment decision making are identified and described. The participants reported their experiences beginning with influential personal history factors, followed by detailed descriptions of information gathering and the important influence of expected treatment outcomes and other individuals' cancer histories and/or shared opinions. Twenty of the 44 (45%) participants relied heavily on the influence of another's opinion or history to finalize a decision, yet only 10 of the 44 (22.7%) reported this individual to be their physician. A common process, "making the best choice for me" was explicated. Clinicians assume that men are making rational treatment decisions based on reliable information, yet this study documents a different reality. Patient education about medical therapies and the patients' own medical factors is not enough. A clinic visit dialogue that brings personal factors to the conversation along with medical factors can guide a man to making his "best choice" for localized prostate cancer.

  17. A decision support model for reducing electric energy consumption in elementary school facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Decision support model is developed to reduce CO 2 emission in elementary schools. ► The model can select the school to be the most effective in energy savings. ► Decision tree improved the prediction accuracy by 1.83–3.88%. ► Using the model, decision-maker can save the electric-energy consumption by 16.58%. ► The model can make the educational-facility improvement program more effective. -- Abstract: The South Korean government has been actively promoting an educational-facility improvement program as part of its energy-saving efforts. This research seeks to develop a decision support model for selecting the facility expected to be effective in generating energy savings and making the facility improvement program more effective. In this research, project characteristics and electric-energy consumption data for the year 2009 were collected from 6282 elementary schools located in seven metropolitan cities in South Korea. In this research, the following were carried out: (i) a group of educational facilities was established based on electric-energy consumption, using a decision tree; (ii) a number of similar projects were retrieved from the same group of facilities, using case-based reasoning; and (iii) the accuracy of prediction was improved, using the combination of genetic algorithms, the artificial neural network, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this research can be useful for the following purposes: (i) preliminary research on the systematic and continuous management of educational facilities’ electric-energy consumption; (ii) basic research on electric-energy consumption prediction based on the project characteristics; and (iii) practical research for selecting an optimum facility that can more effectively apply an educational-facility improvement program as a decision support model.

  18. Tool box for decision making: To start the energy transition of your territory. ADeus' Expertise - Energy November 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Anne; Gendron, Yves; Isenmann, Jean; Masse, Camille; Berlet, Jessica; Estragnat, Christel; Cadenet, Pierre de; Gaugler, Karin; Jeanniard, Myriam; Kolmer, Timothe; Mallick, Amandine; Martin, Stephane; Meyer, Estelle; Muller, Lisa; Nguyen, Dong-Binh; Pous, Melanie; Ruff, Valentine

    2016-11-01

    This document presents the different steps of the decision support process for elected representatives and technicians to implement policies and actions for energy transition. It first addresses issues related to town planning where several contextual aspects must be taken into account (energy offer, energy demand, social values and individual abilities, governance level). It highlights different development options related to the development of local renewable energies, the development of energy-saving practices for households and firms, and to a contribution to energy transition competitiveness. It indicates how town and local planning tools and documents can be used to develop and implement an energy transition strategy. Three steps are thus identified: to inform local actors about their leeway, to develop a territory project which fits into energy transition, and to translate the transition strategy into a town planning document

  19. Bereaved donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation, and perceived influences on their decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda

    2018-06-01

    To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K K; Joshi, H C; Pant, T C [Kumaun University, Nainital (India). Department of Physics

    1989-01-01

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Emotional reactions in moral decision-making are influenced by empathy and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Korb, Sebastian; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Aiello, Marilena

    2018-04-01

    The role of emotional processes in driving moral choices remains debated. In particular, diminished emotional processing and reduced empathy have been associated with unusual high rates of utilitarian responses in moral judgments while, to date, the effects of diminished emotional processing and empathy on moral decision-making have been only partially considered. In this study, we investigated the influence of empathy and alexithymia on behavior and emotional responses while participants performed a moral decision task. Self-report (valence and arousal ratings) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures were collected during the task. Results showed that empathy and alexithymia shaped emotional reactions to moral decisions but did not bias moral choices. The more empathic the participants, the more dilemmas were perceived as unpleasant and arousing, and the greater the increase in skin conductance. Conversely, alexithymia was characterized by a reduced physiological activation during moral decisions, but normal self-report ratings. Heart rate was not modulated by empathy or alexithymia. These results add new evidence to the field of moral decision showing that empathy and alexithymia modulate emotional reactions to moral decision.

  2. The Influence of Store Atmosphere on Purchase Decision and IT's Impact on Customer's Satisfaction (Case Study on Indomaret Customers Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 37, Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Diawan, Nizar Satya; Kusumawati, Andriani; Mawardi, M. Kholid

    2016-01-01

    This research objectives are to: examine the influence of Store Atmosphere on Purchase Decision, examine the influence of Store Atmosphere on Customer Satisfaction, examine the influence of Purchase Decision on Customer Satisfaction. The result of path analysis showed that: Store Atmosphere has significant influence on Purchase Decision; Store Atmosphere has significant influence on Customer Satisfaction; Purchase Decision has significant influence on Customer Satisfaction. Therefore, the Man...

  3. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  4. A decision support system for planning biomass-based energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frombo, Francesco; Robba, Michela [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy); Renewable Energy Laboratory, Modelling and Optimization, Via A. Magliotto 2, 17100 Savona (Italy); Minciardi, Riccardo; Sacile, Roberto [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) are recognized as valuable tools for environmental planning and management. In this paper, a geographic information system (GIS)-based EDSS for the optimal planning of forest biomass use for energy production is presented. A user-friendly interface allows the creation of Scenarios and the running of the developed decision and environmental models. In particular, the optimization model regards decisions over a long-term period (e.g. years) and includes decision variables related to plant locations, conversion processes (pyrolisis, gasification, combustion), harvested biomass. Moreover, different energy products and different definitions of the harvesting and pre-treatment operations are taken into account. The correct management of the forest is considered through specific constraints, security factors, and procedures for parcel selection. The EDSS features and capabilities are described in detail, with specific reference to a case study. Discussion and further research are reported. (author)

  5. Sustainable energy planning decision using the intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process: choosing energy technology in Malaysia: necessary modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudaimi, Abdullah; Kumar, Amit

    2018-05-01

    Recently, Abdullah and Najib (International Journal of Sustainable Energy 35(4): 360-377, 2016) proposed an intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to deal with uncertainty in decision-making and applied it to establish preference in the sustainable energy planning decision-making of Malaysia. This work may attract the researchers of other countries to choose energy technology for their countries. However, after a deep study of the published paper (International Journal of Sustainable Energy 35(4): 362-377, 2016), it is noticed that the expression used by Abdullah and Najib in Step 6 of their proposed method for evaluating the intuitionistic fuzzy entropy of each aggregate of each row of intuitionistic fuzzy matrix is not valid. Therefore, it is not genuine to use the method proposed by Abdullah and Najib for solving real-life problems. The aim of this paper was to suggest the required necessary modifications for resolving the flaws of the Abdullah and Najib method.

  6. A qualitative systematic review of factors influencing parents’ vaccination decision-making in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice S. Forster

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High uptake of vaccinations is crucial for disease prevention. Although overall uptake of childhood immunisations is high in the United Kingdom (UK, pockets of lower uptake remain. Novel systematic methods have not been employed when reviewing the qualitative literature examining parents’ vaccination decisions. Aims: We aimed to conduct a qualitative systematic review of studies in the UK to understand factors influencing parental decisions to vaccinate a child. Methods: On 12/2/14 we searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL plus, Embase, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science for studies using qualitative methods and reporting reasons why parents in the UK had or had not immunised their child. Participant quotes and authors’ interpretations of qualitative data were extracted from the results of articles. Thematic synthesis was used to develop higher-order themes (conducted in 2015. Results: 34 papers were included. Two types of decision-making had been adopted: non-deliberative and deliberative. With non-deliberative decisions parents felt they had no choice, were happy to comply and/or relied on social norms. Deliberative decisions involved weighing up the risks and benefits, considering others’ advice/experiences and social judgement. Emotions affected deliberative decision-making. Trust in information and vaccine stakeholders was integral to all decision-making. Practical issues affected those who intended to vaccinate. Conclusions: Parents adopted two different approaches to decision-making about childhood vaccinations. By understanding more about the mechanisms underpinning parents’ vaccination behaviour, in collaboration with vaccine stakeholders, we can better design interventions to enhance informed uptake. Keywords: Thematic synthesis, Vaccination, Parents, Patient Acceptance of Health Care

  7. The Influence of Emotion on Fairness-Related Decision Making: A Critical Review of Theories and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Zheng; Zhong Yang; Zhong Yang; Chunlan Jin; Yue Qi; Yue Qi; Xun Liu; Xun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situatio...

  8. A multi-criteria decision approach to sorting actions for promoting energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires Neves, Luis; Gomes Martins, Antonio; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos; Candido Dias, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision approach for sorting energy-efficiency initiatives, promoted by electric utilities, with or without public funds authorized by a regulator, or promoted by an independent energy agency, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of cost-benefit analysis. The proposed approach is based on the ELECTRE-TRI multi-criteria method and allows the consideration of different kinds of impacts, although avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions. The decision is based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multi-criteria methods, provides to the decision maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision in a transparent way. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on cost-benefit analysis

  9. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  10. Gaps in tools assessing the energy implications of renovation versus rebuilding decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Herbøl, Mads; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate project level energy-related decisions than at larger scales. Information gaps identified within assessment tools lead to uncertainty for decision makers about which option improves energy efficiency. In the case of a number of large-scale EU building renovating/renewing projects these tools have......The state of building stocks changes over time. Owners and municipalities face the choice to renovate or rebuild buildings to improve energy efficiency. This review addresses how current sustainability assessment tools support these decisions. It finds that advanced tools are better tailored...... been scarcely used or merely suggested during planning. Recent advances in sustainability assessment tools can begin to close some of the existing knowledge gaps, while incentives and stricter legislation may improve their usage rates....

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NET PROFIT OVER THE INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela GADOIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing how the investment decision is influenced by the final result of the activity of an entity after paying the profit tax. Starting from the need to make investments in order to ensure the economic efficiency and subsequently the economic growth, we sought to capture both the advantages and the disadvantages of the various versions that must be considered for the selection of the investment project. From the perspective of the presentation of this topic, we have analysed, in addition to the aspects related to the notion of investment, the investment typology, the decision to invest in a certain environment, and a number of economic and financial indicators used in order to make an investment decision.

  12. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  13. THE OEM - OBM DEBATE: FACTORS INFLUENCING CHIN ESE FIRMS' BRANDING DECISIONS IN THEIR INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Wilson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A key international marketing decision for many Chinese (and firms from other emerging markets is whether to internationalise their own brands-labelled by the Chinese as OBM (Original or Own Brand Manufacturing-or to be international players by acting as contract manufacturers(labelled by the Chinese as OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturing for foreign brand owners(FBOs. The paper discusses some of the extant research on the advantages and disadvantages of each business model and then focuses on primary research conducted amongst 8 Chinese firms in electronics and textiles and the OEM-OBM decisions they face. In so doing, it discusses some of thefactors influencing such decisions and proposes a framework for reviewing them as firm and environmental circumstances change.

  14. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSSs are computer-based information systems for providing necessary supports for business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs often serve the management, operations, and planning levels of all organizations and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily achieved in advance. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing DSSs. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 36 questions, distributes it among 213 employees who work for different offices in municipality of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.872. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.782 and 1014.521, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived three factors including system, analysis and transaction.

  15. Factors influencing a nurse's decision to question medication administration in a neonatal clinical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Zimmer, Margo; Murdoch, Jamee

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence nurse's decisions to question concerning aspects of medication administration within the context of a neonatal clinical care unit. Medication error in the neonatal setting can be high with this particularly vulnerable population. As the care giver responsible for medication administration, nurses are deemed accountable for most errors. However, they are recognised as the forefront of prevention. Minimal evidence is available around reasoning, decision making and questioning around medication administration. Therefore, this study focuses upon addressing the gap in knowledge around what nurses believe influences their decision to question. A critical incident design was employed where nurses were asked to describe clinical incidents around their decision to question a medication issue. Nurses were recruited from a neonatal clinical care unit and participated in an individual digitally recorded interview. One hundred and three nurses participated between December 2013-August 2014. Use of the constant comparative method revealed commonalities within transcripts. Thirty-six categories were grouped into three major themes: 'Working environment', 'Doing the right thing' and 'Knowledge about medications'. Findings highlight factors that influence nurses' decision to question issues around medication administration. Nurses feel it is their responsibility to do the right thing and speak up for their vulnerable patients to enhance patient safety. Negative dimensions within the themes will inform planning of educational strategies to improve patient safety, whereas positive dimensions must be reinforced within the multidisciplinary team. The working environment must support nurses to question and ultimately provide safe patient care. Clear and up to date policies, formal and informal education, role modelling by senior nurses, effective use of communication skills and a team approach can facilitate nurses to

  16. Factors influencing parents' decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Linda A; Pearce, Margaret M

    2014-11-01

    To examine factors that influence a parent's decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research. Grounded theory, using semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 postpartum mother or mother-father dyads in an urban teaching hospital. Data were collected from July 2011 to January 2012. Audiorecorded semistructured interviews were conducted in private rooms with mothers or mother-father dyads 24 to 48 hr after the birth of their healthy, full-term infant. Data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Parents' willingness to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk pediatric genetic research emerged as a process involving three interacting components: the parents, the scientist, and the comfort of the child embedded within the context of benefit to the child. The purpose of the study and parents' perception of their commitment of time and resources determined their willingness to participate. The scientist's ability to communicate trust in the research process influenced parents' decisions. Physical discomfort of the child shaped parents' decision to donate DNA. Parental perception of a direct benefit to their child affected their willingness to discuss genetic research and its outcomes. Significant gaps and misunderstandings in parental knowledge of pediatric genetic research may affect parental willingness to donate their healthy child's DNA. Nurses knowledgeable about the decision-making process parents utilize to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research and the factors influencing that decision are well positioned to educate parents about the role of genetics in health and illness and reassure potential research participants of the value and safeguards in pediatric genetic research. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Process of making decisions on loan currency: Influence of representativeness on information processing and coherence with consumption motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationality of decision maker is often reduced by heuristics and biases, and also by different types of external stimuli. In decision-making process individuals simplify phases of information selection and information processing by using heuristics, simple rules which are focused on one aspect of complex problem and ignore other aspects, and in that way 'speed up' decision-making process. This method of making decisions, although efficient in making simple decisions, can lead to mistakes in probability assessment and diminish rationality of decision maker. In that way it can influence drastically on transaction outcome for which decision is being made. The subject of this study is influence of representativeness heuristic on making financial decisions by individuals, and influence of consumption motives on stereotypical elements in information processing phase. Study was conducted by determining attitudes of respondents toward currencies, and then by conducting experiments with aim of analyzing method of making decisions on loan currency. Aim of study was determining whether and to what extent representativeness influence choice of currency in process of making loan decisions. Results of conducted behavioral experiments show that respondents, opposite to rational model, do not asses probability by processing available information and in accordance with their preferences, but by comparing decision objects with other objects which have same attributes, showing in that way moderate positive correlation between stereotypical attitudes and choice of loan currency. Experiments have shown that instrumental motive significantly influence representativeness heuristics, that is, individuals are prone to process information with diminished influence of stereotypical attitudes caused by external stimuli, in situations where there is no so called 'hedonistic decision-making'. Respondents have been making more efficient decisions if they had motive which does

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  19. Factors Influencing Pricing Decision: Evidence from Non-Financial Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Olawale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the significant factors influencing pricing decision in Nigeria. The study is based on the appraisal of the factors that influence pricing decision using 100 non-financial companies listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE in 2013. The cross sectional data was obtained from annual reports of the sampled firms which were analyzed based on OrdinaryRegression model. The results revealed that cost of sales has an insignificant positive effect on pricing policy, while company’s objective and consumer perception has significant positive relationship on pricing policy. On the external determinants, market demand and availability of close substitute has a significant negative effect on pricing policy while macroeconomic trend and market segment has insignificant negative effect on pricing policy. This study therefore suggests among others that, effort should be made on reducing cost of production in order to maximize profit.

  20. The influence of emotion regulation on social interactive decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Wout, Mascha; Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G

    2010-12-01

    Although adequate emotion regulation is considered to be essential in every day life, it is especially important in social interactions. However, the question as to what extent two different regulation strategies are effective in changing decision-making in a consequential socially interactive context remains unanswered. We investigated the effect of expressive suppression and emotional reappraisal on strategic decision-making in a social interactive task, that is, the Ultimatum Game. As hypothesized, participants in the emotional reappraisal condition accepted unfair offers more often than participants in the suppression and no-regulation condition. Additionally, the effect of emotional reappraisal influenced the amount of money participants proposed during a second interaction with partners that had treated them unfairly in a previous interaction. These results support and extend previous findings that emotional reappraisal as compared to expressive suppression, is a powerful regulation strategy that influences and changes how we interact with others even in the face of inequity.

  1. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Parents' communication decision for children with hearing loss: sources of information and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B; Vallotton, Claire D; Johnson, Harold A

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a method of communication for a child with hearing loss is a complex process that must occur early to prevent developmental consequences. Research shows that parents' decisions are influenced by professionals; parental attitudes and knowledge also may be influential. The present study investigated additional influences on parents' choices; data were collected via an online survey (N = 36). Results indicated no effects of parents' knowledge of development on their communication choices, but did indicate an effect of parents' values and priorities for their children. Further, parents who chose speech only received information from education or speech/audiology professionals more often. However, there were no group differences in sources parents cited as influential; all parents relied on their own judgment. Results suggest that parents internalize the opinions of professionals. Thus, accurate information from professionals is necessary for parents to make informed decisions about their children's communication.

  3. The influence of emotion regulation on social interactive decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    van ’t Wout, Mascha; Chang, Luke J.; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    Although adequate emotion regulation is considered to be essential in every day life, it is especially important in social interactions. However, the question as to what extent two different regulation strategies are effective in changing decision-making in a consequential socially interactive context remains unanswered. We investigated the effect of expressive suppression and emotional reappraisal on strategic decision-making in a social interactive task, i.e. the Ultimatum Game. As hypothesized, participants in the emotional reappraisal condition accepted unfair offers more often than participants in the suppression and no-regulation condition. Additionally, the effect of emotional reappraisal influenced the amount of money participants proposed during a second interaction with partners that had treated them unfairly in a previous interaction. These results support and extend previous findings that emotional reappraisal as compared to expressive suppression, is a powerful regulation strategy that influences and changes how we interact with others even in the face of inequity. PMID:21171756

  4. Influences on decision-making for undergoing plastic surgery: a mental models and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darisi, Tanya; Thorne, Sarah; Iacobelli, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Research was conducted to gain insight into potential clients' decisions to undergo plastic surgery, their perception of benefits and risks, their judgment of outcomes, and their selection of a plastic surgeon. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 60 people who expressed interest in plastic surgery. Qualitative analysis revealed their "mental models" regarding influences on their decision to undergo plastic surgery and their choice of a surgeon. Interview results were used to design a Web-based survey in which 644 individuals considering plastic surgery responded. The desire for change was the most direct motivator to undergo plastic surgery. Improvements to physical well-being were related to emotional and social benefits. When prompted about risks, participants mentioned physical, emotional, and social risks. Surgeon selection was a critical influence on decisions to undergo plastic surgery. Participants gave considerable weight to personal consultation and believed that finding the "right" plastic surgeon would minimize potential risks. Findings from the Web-based survey were similar to the mental models interviews in terms of benefit ratings but differed in risk ratings and surgeon selection criteria. The mental models interviews revealed that interview participants were thoughtful about their decision to undergo plastic surgery and focused on finding the right plastic surgeon.

  5. The influence of number line estimation precision and numeracy on risky financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inkyung; Cho, Soohyun

    2018-01-10

    This study examined whether different aspects of mathematical proficiency influence one's ability to make adaptive financial decisions. "Numeracy" refers to the ability to process numerical and probabilistic information and is commonly reported as an important factor which contributes to financial decision-making ability. The precision of mental number representation (MNR), measured with the number line estimation (NLE) task has been reported to be another critical factor. This study aimed to examine the contribution of these mathematical proficiencies while controlling for the influence of fluid intelligence, math anxiety and personality factors. In our decision-making task, participants chose between two options offering probabilistic monetary gain or loss. Sensitivity to expected value was measured as an index for the ability to discriminate between optimal versus suboptimal options. Partial correlation and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that NLE precision better explained EV sensitivity compared to numeracy, after controlling for all covariates. These results suggest that individuals with more precise MNR are capable of making more rational financial decisions. We also propose that the measurement of "numeracy," which is commonly used interchangeably with general mathematical proficiency, should include more diverse aspects of mathematical cognition including basic understanding of number magnitude. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Helen; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Philiastides, Marios G

    2013-02-27

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punishment level for incorrect responses was parametrically manipulated across blocks of trials. Behaviorally, we observed improved accuracy for high relative to low punishment levels. Using multivariate linear discriminant analysis of the EEG, we identified multiple punishment-induced discriminating components with spatially distinct scalp topographies. Compared with components related to sensory evidence, components discriminating punishment levels appeared later in the trial, suggesting that punishment affects primarily late postsensory, decision-related processing. Crucially, the amplitude of these punishment components across participants was predictive of the size of the behavioral improvements induced by punishment. Finally, trial-by-trial changes in prestimulus oscillatory activity in the alpha and gamma bands were good predictors of the amplitude of these components. We discuss these findings in the context of increased motivation/attention, resulting from increases in punishment, which in turn yields improved decision-related processing.

  7. Influence of prior information on pain involves biased perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Zaman, Jonas; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Tracey, Irene

    2014-08-04

    Prior information about features of a stimulus is a strong modulator of perception. For instance, the prospect of more intense pain leads to an increased perception of pain, whereas the expectation of analgesia reduces pain, as shown in placebo analgesia and expectancy modulations during drug administration. This influence is commonly assumed to be rooted in altered sensory processing and expectancy-related modulations in the spinal cord, are often taken as evidence for this notion. Contemporary models of perception, however, suggest that prior information can also modulate perception by biasing perceptual decision-making - the inferential process underlying perception in which prior information is used to interpret sensory information. In this type of bias, the information is already present in the system before the stimulus is observed. Computational models can distinguish between changes in sensory processing and altered decision-making as they result in different response times for incorrect choices in a perceptual decision-making task (Figure S1A,B). Using a drift-diffusion model, we investigated the influence of both processes in two independent experiments. The results of both experiments strongly suggest that these changes in pain perception are predominantly based on altered perceptual decision-making. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE DECISION OF XIAOMI SMART PHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Gireesan E M

    2017-01-01

    Consumer Behaviour is a branch which deals with the various stages a consumer goes through before purchasing products or services for his end use. Consumer behavior can be broadly classified as the decisions and actions that influence the purchasing behavior of a consumer. What drives consumers to choose a particular product with respect to others is a question which is often analyzed and studied by marketers. Most of the selection process involved in purchasing is based on emotions and reaso...

  9. Cultural influences, decision making process and consumer behaviour of the Middle Class Chinese Outbound Tourist.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the consumer behaviour of the emerging “Middle Class Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourist”. With the Chinese outbound tourism market being one of the fastest growing worldwide and poised for exponential growth in years to come, tourism industry professionals would benefit from a deeper understanding. The focus of the thesis considers which cultural influences are important in the decision making process of the Chinese middle class consumer, what are the pre-cons...

  10. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hanieh Hajisafari; Shaaban Elahi

    2012-01-01

    Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM) results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision mak...

  11. The Influence Of Consumer Behavior On Purchase Decision Xiaomi Cellphone In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Rambi, Widya

    2015-01-01

    The growing need and rapid development of technology in the era of globalization, free markets, and increasingly fierce competition made €‹€‹the company create products to meet the diverse needs of consumers especially in mobile phone industry. The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of culture, social, personal, and psychological factors towards consumer purchase decision on Xiaomi cellphone in Manado partially and simultaneously. Sample determined for 80 consumers. Tools of...

  12. The influence of science funding agencies in support of effective decision-maker scientist partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Lemos, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence supports the idea that collaboration between scientists and decision-makers is an influential factor in generating actionable knowledge. Nevertheless, persistent obstacles across the research-policy-practice interface limit the amount of engagement that may be necessary to satisfy demands for information to support decisions. Funding agencies have been identified as one possible driver of change, but few multi-year studies have been conducted to trace the influence of program designs on research practices or other outcomes. To fill this gap, we examine a body of applied science projects (n=120) funded through NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve System from 1998-2014. Periodic innovation in the structure of this funding program, including requirements for end user engagement and the inclusion of collaboration specialists, offers a natural experiment from which to test hypotheses about the how funding program design influences research practice, utilization, and broader impacts. Using content analysis of project reports and interviews of project team members, end users, and program managers (n=40), we produce a data that can be analyzed through both statistical and qualitative methods. We find that funder mandates significantly influence the intensity of interaction between researchers and practitioners as well as affect long-term change in research cultures. When interaction intensifies, corresponding gains appear in the readiness of research to support decision-making and the readiness of user groups to incorporate findings into their work. While collaborative methods transform research practice and positively influence the applied contexts in which partnerships occur, it remains less clear whether this actually increases the direct use of scientific to inform decisions. For example, collaboration may lead to outcomes other than new knowledge or knowledge application, yielding many positive outcomes that are distinct from knowledge use

  13. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. To push or not to push? Affective influences on moral judgment depend on decision frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Gleixner, Sabine; Neuhauser, Theresa; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-03-01

    People's moods can influence moral judgment. Such influences may arise because moods affect moral emotion, or because moods affect moral thought. The present study provides evidence that, at least in the footbridge dilemma, moods affect moral thought. The results of two experiments are reported in which, after induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods and presentation of the footbridge scenario, participants were asked one of two differentially framed closing questions. In the active frame, participants were asked whether they would be active and push the man, making thoughts about pushing accessible; in the passive frame, they were asked whether they would be passive and not push the man, making thoughts about not pushing accessible. The results show that affective influences on moral judgment depended on participants' decision frame. Compared to neutral moods, positive moods induced utilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to push - in the active decision frame, but induced nonutilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to not push - in the passive decision frame; in negative moods, exactly the opposite picture arose. The results suggest that people's moods affect moral judgment by conferring value on moral thought. Positive moods promote and negative moods inhibit accessible thoughts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mothers of young children cluster into 4 groups based on psychographic food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-08-01

    This study explored how mothers grouped into clusters according to multiple psychographic food decision influencers and how the clusters differed in nutrient intake and nutrient content of their household food supply. Mothers (n = 201) completed a survey assessing basic demographic characteristics, food shopping and meal preparation activities, self and spouse employment, exposure to formal food or nutrition education, education level and occupation, weight status, nutrition and food preparation knowledge and skill, family member health and nutrition status, food decision influencer constructs, and dietary intake. In addition, an in-home inventory of 100 participants' household food supplies was conducted. Four distinct clusters presented when 26 psychographic food choice influencers were evaluated. These clusters appear to be valid and robust classifications of mothers in that they discriminated well on the psychographic variables used to construct the clusters as well as numerous other variables not used in the cluster analysis. In addition, the clusters appear to transcend demographic variables that often segment audiences (eg, race, mother's age, socioeconomic status), thereby adding a new dimension to the way in which this audience can be characterized. Furthermore, psychographically defined clusters predicted dietary quality. This study demonstrates that mothers are not a homogenous group and need to have their unique characteristics taken into consideration when designing strategies to promote health. These results can help health practitioners better understand factors affecting food decisions and tailor interventions to better meet the needs of mothers.

  17. The influence of clinician emotion on decisions in child and adolescent eating disorder treatment: a survey of self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance Robinson, Adele; Kosmerly, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorder clinicians from various disciplines participated in one of two surveys: the "self" group (n = 143) completed a survey assessing the negative influence of emotions on their own clinical decisions, while the "other" group (n = 145) completed a parallel version of the survey that assessed their perceptions of the negative influence of emotion in their colleagues. Both groups endorsed this phenomenon to some degree, although differences in reporting were noted between groups. The perceived negative influence of emotion with regards to specific treatment decisions fell within three categories: decisions regarding food and weight, decisions regarding the involvement of the family in treatment, and decisions related to autonomy and control. Decisions regarding the involvement of the family were perceived to be the most emotionally charged, in particular the involvement of a critical or dismissive parent.

  18. 76 FR 80961 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...;AZA34187] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona... Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Sonoran Solar Energy... view the final EIS at the following Web site: http://www.blm.gov/az/st/en/prog/energy/solar/sonoran...

  19. Integrated Model-Based Decisions for Water, Energy and Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy, water and food are critical resources for sustaining social development and human lives; human beings cannot survive without any one of them. Energy crises, water shortages and food security are crucial worldwide problems. The nexus of energy, water and food has received more and more attention in the past decade. Energy, water and food are closely interrelated; water is required in energy development such as electricity generation; energy is indispensable for collecting, treating, and transporting water; both energy and water are crucial inputs for food production. Changes of either of them can lead to substantial impacts on other two resources, and vice versa. Effective decisions should be based on thorough research efforts for better understanding of their complex nexus. Rapid increase of population has significantly intensified the pressures on energy, water and food. Addressing and quantifying their interactive relationships are important for making robust and cost-effective strategies for managing the three resources simultaneously. In addition, greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted in energy, water, food production, consequently making contributions to growing climate change. Reflecting environmental impacts of GHGs is also desired (especially, on the quality and quantity of fresh water resources). Thus, a socio-economic model is developed in this study to quantitatively address the complex connections among energy, water and food production. A synthetic problem is proposed to demonstrate the model's applicability and feasibility. Preliminary results related to integrated decisions on energy supply management, water use planning, electricity generation planning, energy facility capacity expansion, food production, and associated GHG emission control are generated for providing cost-effective supports for decision makers.

  20. Analysis of variables that influence electric energy consumption in commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.M.Q. [Technical Drawing Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, A.C.M. [Program for Graduate Studies in Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Air conditioning systems in commercial buildings in Brazil are responsible for about 70% share of their energy consumption. According to BEN 2009 (The Brazilian Energy Balance), energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectors, where most buildings are found, represents 9.3% of the final energy consumption in Brazil. This paper aims to examine design factors that could contribute to greater reductions of electric energy consumption in commercial buildings, with emphasis on air conditioning. Simulations were carried out using shades and different types of glass, walls, flooring and roofing. The VisualDOE 2.61 was used as a simulation tool for calculating energy consumption of the analyzed building. This paper shows that the energy performance of the building is considerably influenced by the facade protection and shows, through tables, the impact that decisions related to the top-level and facades have on the energy consumption of the building. The authors concluded that the results confirm the importance of taking energy use into account in the very first design stages of the project, since appropriate choices of types of glass, external shading and envelope materials have a significant impact on energy consumption. (author)

  1. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  2. Building energy retrofit index for policy making and decision support at regional and national scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayatian, Fazel; Sarto, Luca; Dall'O', Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Machine learning is used for pre-processing, fine-tuning and post-processing data. •A new indicator is introduced to support building energy retrofit policies. •The presented indicator is evaluated by a case study of 4767 buildings. •Current energy indicators can misrepresent the building energy retrofit potential. -- Abstract: The vast data collected since the enforcement of building energy labelling in Italy has provided valuable information that is useful for planning the future of building energy efficiency. However, the indicators provided through energy certificates are not suitable to support decisions, which target building energy retrofit in a regional scale. Considering the bias of the energy performance index toward a building’s shape, decisions based on this index will favor buildings with a specific geometric characteristics. This study tends to overcome this issue by introducing a new indicator, tailored to rank buildings based on retrofitable characteristics. The proposed framework is validated by a case study, in which a large dataset of office buildings are assigned with the new index. Results indicate that the proposed indicator succeeds to extract a single index, which is representative of all building characteristics subject to energy retrofit. A new labeling procedure is also compared with the conventional classification of buildings. It is observed that the proposed labels properly partitions the dataset, according to buildings’ potential to undergo energy retrofit.

  3. Relationship of External Influence to Parental Distress in Decision Making Regarding Children with a Life-Threatening Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Methods Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. Results More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and confusion. Decision-making preference and coping style moderated the relationship between external influence and distress: More external influence was associated with more distress when decision-making preference was low and task-focused coping was high. Conclusions External influence appears to be related to distress in parents making research and treatment decisions for children with life-threatening illnesses. However, it is important to consider parent characteristics, such as decision-making preference and coping style, when examining the effects of contextual factors on distress during decision making. PMID:21693541

  4. What factors influence health professionals to use decision aids for Down syndrome prenatal screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Johanie; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Esther; Delanoë, Agathe; Robitaille, Hubert; Lévesque, Isabelle; Rousseau, François; Wilson, Brenda J; Giguère, Anik M C; Légaré, France

    2016-09-05

    Health professionals are expected to engage pregnant women in shared decision making to help them make informed values-based decisions about prenatal screening. Patient decision aids (PtDAs) foster shared decision-making, but are rarely used in this context. Our objective was to identify factors that could influence health professionals to use a PtDA for decisions about prenatal screening for Down syndrome during a clinical pregnancy follow-up. We planned to recruit a purposive sample of 45 health professionals (obstetrician-gynecologists, family physicians and midwives) involved in the care of pregnant women in three clinical sites (15 per site). Participating health professionals first watched a video showing two simulated consecutive prenatal follow-up consultations during which a pregnant woman, her partner and a health professional used a PtDA about Down syndrome prenatal screening. Participants were then interviewed about factors that would influence their use of the PtDA. Questions were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. We performed content analyses of transcribed verbatim interviews. Out of 42 eligible health professionals approached, 36 agreed to be interviewed (86 % response rate). Of these, 27 were female (75 %), nine were obstetrician-gynecologists (25 %), 15 were family physicians (42 %), and 12 were midwives (33 %), with a mean age of 42.1 ± 11.6 years old. We identified 35 distinct factors reported by 20 % or more participants that were mapped onto 10 of the 12 of the Theoretical Domains Framework domains. The six most frequently mentioned factors influencing use of the PtDA were: 1) a positive appraisal (n = 29, 81 %, beliefs about consequences domain); 2) its availability in the office (n = 27, 75 %, environmental context and resources domain); 3) colleagues' approval (n = 27, 75 %, social influences domain); 4) time constraints (n = 26, 72 %, environmental context and resources domain); 5) finding it a

  5. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  6. Factors which influence Texas biology teachers' decisions to emphasize fundamental concepts of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilica, Kimberly Lynn

    The teaching of biological evolution in public science classrooms has been mitigated by a lingering and historic climate of controversy (Skoog, 1984; Skoog, 1979). This controversy has successfully stalled attempts to bring authentic science literacy to the American public (Bybee, 1997). The first encouraging signs of the abatement of this controversy occurred during the early 1990s when several prominent science organizations promoted evolution to its appropriate status as a central and unifying concept in biology (National Science Teachers Association, 1992; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990, 1993). The organizations acknowledged that not only should biological evolution be taught, evolution should stand as one of a select group of essential concepts upon which biology curricula should be built. Bandura's Social Learning theory (Bandura, 1997; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 2000) and Helms' Model of Identity (Helms, 1998) provide the theoretical basis for this study. Both Bandura and Helms explain the actions of teachers by examining the beliefs and values that influence their decisions. The models distinguish between two types of belief systems: capacity beliefs and context beliefs (Lumpe, et al, 2000; Helms, 1998). Both belief types influence and are influenced by individual actions. In this study, the action to be described is the decision that teachers make about the degree of emphasis on evolution in the classroom. The capacity beliefs that will be examined are teachers' beliefs about their capability to teach evolution. The contextual beliefs in this study are perceptions about students' capabilities to learn evolution, the status of evolution in science, the place of evolution in the biology classroom, the influence of textbooks, time, and community/school values. This study contributes to and extends the knowledge base established by studies of evolution education by exploring the relative amount of

  7. A decision science approach for integrating social science in climate and energy solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2016-06-01

    The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.

  8. Factors influencing the surgical decision for the treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis in a preference-based shared decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Jae-Young; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-02-01

    In a preference-based shared decision-making system, several subjective and/or objective factors such as pain severity, degree of disability, and the radiological severity of canal stenosis may influence the final surgical decision for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, our understanding of the shared decision-making process and the significance of each factor remain primitive. In the present study, we aimed to investigate which factors influence the surgical decision for the treatment of LSS when using a preference-based, shared decision-making process. We included 555 patients, aged 45-80 years, who used a preference-based shared decision-making process and were treated conservatively or surgically for chronic leg and/or back pain caused by LSS from April 2012 to December 2012. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of surgical decision making with age, sex, body mass index, symptom duration, radiologic stenotic grade, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) subscales, and motor weakness. In univariate analysis, the following variables were associated with a higher odds of a surgical decision for LSS: male sex; the VAS score for leg pain; ODI; morphological stenotic grades B, C, and D; motor weakness; and the physical function, physical role, bodily pain, social function, and emotional role of the SF-36 subscales. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, ODI, morphological stenotic grades C and D, and motor weakness were significantly associated with a higher possibility of a surgical decision. Motor weakness, male sex, morphological stenotic grade, and the amount of disability are critical factors leading to a surgical decision for LSS when using a preference-based shared decision-making process.

  9. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  10. The influence of perceived uncertainty on entrepreneurial action in emerging renewable energy technology; biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Ineke S.M.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Koppenjan, Joop F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging renewable energy technologies cannot break through without the involvement of entrepreneurs who dare to take action amidst uncertainty. The uncertainties that the entrepreneurs involved perceive will greatly affect their innovation decisions and can prevent them from engaging in innovation projects aimed at developing and implementing emerging renewable energy technologies. This article analyzes how perceived uncertainties and motivation influence an entrepreneur's decision to act, using empirical data on biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands. Our empirical results show that technological, political and resource uncertainty are the most dominant sources of perceived uncertainty influencing entrepreneurial decision-making. By performing a dynamic analysis, we furthermore demonstrate that perceived uncertainties and motivation are not stable, but evolve over time. We identify critical factors in the project's internal and external environment which influence these changes in perceived uncertainties and motivation, and describe how various interactions between the different variables in the conceptual model (internal and external factors, perceived uncertainty, motivation and previous actions of the entrepreneurs) positively or negatively influence the decision of entrepreneurs to continue entrepreneurial action. We discuss how policymakers can use these insights for stimulating the development and diffusion of emerging renewable energy technologies

  11. Does fertility status influence impulsivity and risk taking in human females? Adaptive influences on intertemporal choice and risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-18

    Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males), become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted--i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  12. Does Fertility Status Influence Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Human Females? Adaptive Influences on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kaighobadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted—i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  13. Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohekar, S.D.; Ramachandram, M. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India)

    2004-08-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are gaining popularity in sustainable energy management. The techniques provide solutions to the problems involving conflicting and multiple objectives. Several methods based on weighted averages, priority setting, outranking, fuzzy principles and their combinations are employed for energy planning decisions. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of various methods discussed. A classification on application areas and the year of application is presented to highlight the trends. It is observed that Analytical Hierarchy Process is the most popular technique followed by outranking techniques PROMETHEE and ELECTRE. Validation of results with multiple methods, development of interactive decision support systems and application of fuzzy methods to tackle uncertainties in the data is observed in the published literature. (author)

  14. Forecasting and decision-making in electricity markets with focus on wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi

    This thesis deals with analysis, forecasting and decision making in liberalised electricity markets. Particular focus is on wind power, its interaction with the market and the daily decision making of wind power generators. Among recently emerged renewable energy generation technologies, wind power...... derivation of practically applicable tools for decision making highly relevant. The main characteristics of wind power differ fundamentally from those of conventional thermal power. Its effective generation capacity varies over time and is directly dependent on the weather. This dependency makes future...... has become the global leader in terms of installed capacity and advancement. This makes wind power an ideal candidate to analyse the impact of growing renewable energy generation capacity on the electricity markets. Furthermore, its present status of a significant supplier of electricity makes...

  15. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ''a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end

  16. Barriers to radiotherapy utilization: Consumer perceptions of issues influencing radiotherapy-related decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Puma; King, Madeleine; Stockler, Martin; Costa, Daniel; Milross, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential and cost-effective cancer treatment, but it is underutilized in Australia. We aimed to quantify consumers' perceptions of factors that influence RT decisions. A cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted in March-August 2012. Potential participants were invited to complete an electronic survey disseminated through multiple patient support and advocacy groups throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Study invitations were also placed in local newspapers across NSW with hard copy surveys mailed to respondents. Current or past cancer patients (and carers) who had been offered RT were eligible to participate regardless of their RT decision. Of the 1191 participants (electronic, n = 1153; hard copy, n = 38), 91% were female, most (88%) were current or past patients, and 78% had accepted RT. Issues commonly perceived to be moderate to strong influencers of RT decisions were: concern about acute and long-term side effects; management of side effects; fear and anxiety regarding RT; lack of awareness of RT; lack of local availability of RT; and lack of RT information resources. Those who declined RT were significantly more likely to highlight practical difficulties with receiving RT. Although availability of RT is well recognized, other issues such as fear and anxiety about RT and perceived side effects appear to feature prominently in consumers' decisions. Perceived practical difficulties with receiving RT may have influenced those who declined RT. There may be a need for information resources, support services and interventions to increase awareness of RT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Energy Innovation Clusters and their Influence on Manufacturing: A Case Study Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Derek [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Innovation clusters have been important for recent development of clean energy technologies and their emergence as mature, globally competitive industries. However, the factors that influence the co-location of manufacturing activities with innovation clusters are less clear. A central question for government agencies seeking to grow manufacturing as part of economic development in their location is how innovation clusters influence manufacturing. Thus, this paper examines case studies of innovation clusters for three different clean energy technologies that have developed in at least two locations: solar PV clusters in California and the province of Jiangsu in China, wind turbine clusters in Germany and the U.S. Great Lakes region, and ethanol clusters in the U.S. Midwest and the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. These case studies provide initial insight into factors and conditions that contribute to technology manufacturing facility location decisions.

  18. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems.

  19. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  20. Planning woody biomass logistics for energy production: A strategic decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frombo, F.; Robba, M.; Minciardi, R.; Sacile, R.; Rosso, F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the key factors on which the sustainable development of modern society should be based is the possibility to take advantage of renewable energies. Biomass resources are one of the most common and widespread resources in the world. Their use to produce energy has many advantages, such as the reduction of greenhouse emissions. This paper describes a GIS-based Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to define planning and management strategies for the optimal logistics for energy production from woody biomass, such as forest biomass, agricultural scraps and industrial and urban untreated wood residues. The EDSS is characterized by three main levels: the GIS, the database, and the optimization. The optimization module is divided in three sub-modules to face different kinds of decision problems: strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational management. The aim of this article is to describe the strategic planning level in detail. The decision variables are represented by plant capacity and harvested biomass in a specific forest parcel for each slope class, while the objective function is the sum of the costs related to plant installation and maintenance, biomass transportation and collection, minus the benefits coming from the energy sales at the current market price, including the renewable energy certificates. Moreover, the optimization problem is structured through a set of parameters and equations that are able to encompass different energy conversion technologies (pyrolysis, gasification or combustion) in the system. A case study on the Liguria Region (Savona Province) is presented and results are discussed. (author)

  1. Influences on women's decision making about intrauterine device use in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottert, Ann; Jacquin, Karin; Rahaivondrafahitra, Bakoly; Moracco, Kathryn; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    We explored influences on decision making about intrauterine device (IUD) use among women in the Women's Health Project (WHP), managed by Population Services International in Madagascar. We conducted six small group photonarrative discussions (n=18 individuals) and 12 individual in-depth interviews with women who were IUD users and nonusers. All participants had had contact with WHP counselors in three sites in Madagascar. Data analysis involved creating summaries of each transcript, coding in Atlas.ti and then synthesizing findings in a conceptual model. We identified three stages of women's decision making about IUD use, and specific forms of social support that seemed helpful at each stage. During the first stage, receiving correct information from a trusted source such as a counselor conveys IUD benefits and corrects misinformation, but lingering fears about the method often appeared to delay method adoption among interested women. During the second stage, hearing testimony from satisfied users and receiving ongoing emotional support appeared to help alleviate these fears. During the third stage, accompaniment by a counselor or peer seemed to help some women gain confidence to go to the clinic to receive the IUD. Identifying and supplying the types of social support women find helpful at different stages of the decision-making process could help program managers better respond to women's staged decision-making process about IUD use. This qualitative study suggests that women in Madagascar perceive multiple IUD benefits but also fear the method even after misinformation is corrected, leading to a staged decision-making process about IUD use. Programs should identify and supply the types of social support that women find helpful at each stage of decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Family and physician influence on asthma research participation decisions for adolescents: the effects of adolescent gender and research risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L; Scherer, David G; Annett, Robert D; Turner, Charles; Dalen, Jeanne

    2006-08-01

    There is considerable ethical and legal ambiguity surrounding the role of adolescents in the decision-making process for research participation. Depending on the nature of the study and the regulations involved, adolescents may have independent responsibility for providing informed consent, they may be asked to provide their assent, or they may be completely excluded from the decision-making process. This study examined parent and adolescent perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on adolescent research participation decisions, and examined whether perceptions of influence differed based on adolescent gender and level of research risk. Adolescents (n = 36) with asthma and their parents reviewed 9 pediatric research protocols, decided whether they would choose to participate, rated the extent they would be responsible for the actual decision, and indicated the ability of family and physician to influence their decisions. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences in perceptions of decision-making authority and sources of influence on the decisions. Adolescents were less willing to cede decision making authority to parents than parents anticipated. Parents and adolescents acknowledged a greater openness to influence from physicians than from family for above minimal risk studies. Parents were more willing to consider opinions from male adolescents. Adolescents desire responsibility for research participation decisions, though parents may not share these views. Physicians' views on research participation are important to families, especially for above minimal risk studies. Parents may grant more decision-making autonomy to adolescent males than to females. Researchers, physicians, and institutions play a key role in facilitating the ethical enrollment of adolescents into biomedical research. Educational, policy, and oversight processes that support both adolescent autonomy and parental responsibility for research

  3. Influence of physicians' life stances on attitudes to end-of-life decisions and actual end-of-life decision-making in six countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, J; van Delden, J; Mortier, F

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine how physicians' life stances affect their attitudes to end-of-life decisions and their actual end-of-life decision-making. METHODS: Practising physicians from various specialties involved in the care of dying patients in Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland......) and Protestants (up to 20.4% in The Netherlands) reported ever having made such a decision. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that religious teachings influence to some extent end-of-life decision-making, but are certainly not blankly accepted by physicians, especially when dealing with real patients...... large life-stance groups in each country. RESULTS: Only small differences in life stance were found in all countries in general attitudes and intended and actual behaviour with regard to various end-of-life decisions. However, with regard to the administration of drugs explicitly intended to hasten...

  4. Influences Energy Consumption has on Green GDP Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxian, Xie

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between China’s total energy consumption growth and GGDP growth based on the data of 1997-2016. With path analysis employed, the direct and indirect influence on GGDP growth rate exerted by several energy consumption ratios as well as the relationship among them is explored. Furtherly, the author determines how much each of these ratios contributes to GGDP. This research suggests that proportion of natural gas consumption and that of other energy consumption are the two major drivers of GGDP growth, while coal and oil consumption proportion inhibits GGDP Growth. Specifically, increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption contributes the most to GGDP growth.

  5. Factors influencing efficient structure of fuel and energy complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, N. G.; Novikova, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The development of the Russian fuel-energy complex is a priority for the national economic policy, and the Far East is a link between Russia and the Asia-Pacific region. Large-scale engineering of numerous resources of the Far East will force industrial development, increase living standard and strengthen Russia’s position in the global energy market. So, revealing the factors which influence rational structure of the fuel-energy complex is very urgent nowadays. With the use of depth analysis of development tendencies of the complex and its problems the authors show ways of its efficiency improvement.

  6. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  7. Influence of Food Packaging on Children's Energy-dense Snack ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Childhood obesity is a major global public health concern. Rates of obese and overweight children have increased in low- and middle-income countries such as Guatemala. This research will study the influence of food packaging on Guatemalan preschool and school-aged children's energy-dense snack (EDS) food ...

  8. The influence of a bystander agent's beliefs on children's and adults' decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Buttelmann, David

    2017-01-01

    The ability to attribute and represent others' mental states (e.g., beliefs; so-called "theory of mind") is essential for participation in human social interaction. Despite a considerable body of research using tasks in which protagonists in the participants' attentional focus held false or true beliefs, the question of automatic belief attribution to bystander agents has received little attention. In the current study, we presented adults and 6-year-olds (N=92) with an implicit computer-based avoidance false-belief task in which participants were asked to place an object into one of three boxes. While doing so, we manipulated the beliefs of an irrelevant human-like or non-human-like bystander agent who was visible on the screen. Importantly, the bystander agent's beliefs were irrelevant for solving the task. Still, children's decision making was significantly influenced by the bystander agent's beliefs even if this was a non-human-like self-propelled object. Such an influence did not become obvious in adults' deliberate decisions but occurred only in their reaction times, which suggests that they also processed the bystander agent's beliefs but were able to suppress the influence of such beliefs on their behavior regulation. The results of a control study (N=53) ruled out low-level explanations and confirmed that self-propelledness of agents is a necessary factor for belief attribution to occur. Thus, not only do humans spontaneously ascribe beliefs to self-propelled bystander agents, but those beliefs even influence meaningful decisions in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Ameli, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ► Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ► The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ► When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ► The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

  10. Influence of uncertainty on framed decision-making with moral dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlhiot, Gaëtan; Mermillod, Martial; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Dutheil, Frédéric; Mondillon, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    In cases of impending natural disasters, most events are uncertain and emotionally relevant, both critical factors for decision-making. Moreover, for exposed individuals, the sensitivity to the framing of the consequences (gain or loss) and the moral judgments they have to perform (e.g., evacuate or help an injured person) constitute two central effects that have never been examined in the same context of decision-making. In a framed decision-making task with moral dilemma, we investigated whether uncertainty (i.e., unpredictably of events) and a threatening context would influence the framing effect (actions framed in loss are avoided in comparison to the ones framed in gain) and the personal intention effect (unintentional actions are more morally acceptable in comparison to intentional actions) on the perceived moral acceptability of taking action. Considering the impact of uncertainty and fear on the processes underlying these effects, we assumed that these emotions would lead to the negation of the two effects. Our results indicate that the exposure to uncertain events leads to the negation of the framing effect, but does not influence the moral acceptability and the effect of personal intention. We discuss our results in the light of dual-process models (i.e. systematic vs. heuristic), appraisal theories, and neurocognitive aspects. These elements highlight the importance of providing solutions to cope with uncertainty, both for scientists and local populations exposed to natural hazards.

  11. Studying abroad: Exploring factors influencing nursing students' decisions to apply for clinical placements in international settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Luimes, Janet; Ferguson, Linda; Murray, Lee

    2015-08-01

    For over 15 years the College of Nursing at the University of Saskatchewan has facilitated study abroad clinical placements in a number of countries to enhance student learning. Nursing students often find their study abroad experience to be a defining moment in their educational program, and in their personal and professional growth. The main objective of this research was to explore factors influencing nursing students' decisions to study abroad. A descriptive longitudinal design study was conducted using an online survey. The Study Abroad Survey was distributed to all undergraduate and graduate nursing students, in all years of all programs, at all sites of the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan in Saskatchewan, Canada. A total of 1058 nursing students registered in the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed. The data were collected using an online survey administered by Campus Labs™ (2014). Students indicated that their interest in study abroad international experiences was high (84%), with many perceived benefits, but barriers to participation were also high for these students. Financial barriers topped the list (71%), followed by family responsibilities (30%) and job obligations (23%). The research highlights the factors behind student decision making related to international placements, and provides the basis for improvements to the College of Nursing's International Study Abroad Program (ISAP). Previous travel and international service learning, resulting in increased perceived value of a study abroad experience may prove to be the more significant factor influencing decision making, rather than financial barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influences of packaging attributes on consumer purchase decisions for fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsimanis, Georgios; Getter, Kristin; Behe, Bridget; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Packaging attributes are considered to have an influence on consumer purchase decisions for food and, as a consequence, also on its consumption. To improve the current minimal understanding of these influences for fresh produce, a survey instrument in the form of an online questionnaire has been developed and launched in the US. The first part of the questionnaire covers consumers' preferences for packaging convenience features, characteristics, materials, disposal method, and others for fresh produces in general, and the second focuses on attributes like price, container size, produce shelf life for a specific fresh produce, sweet cherries, to allow us to supply specific values for these factors to the participants. Cluster and conjoint analyses of responses from 292 participants reveal that specific packaging and produce attributes affect consumer purchase decisions of fresh produce in general and of sweet cherries in particular (P ≤ 0.05) and that some are population segment dependent (P ≤ 0.05). For produce packaging in general, 'extend the "best by" date' was ranked as the top convenience feature, the type of packaging material was considered to affect the food product quality (92.7%) and containers made from bio-based materials were highly appealing (3.52 out of 5.00). The most important attributes that affect the purchasing decisions of consumers regarding a specific fresh produce like sweet cherries are price (25%), shelf life (19%) and container size (17.2%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Uncertain Information on Service Capacity Influences the Intermodal Routing Decision: A Fuzzy Programming Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity uncertainty is a common issue in the transportation planning field. However, few studies discuss the intermodal routing problem with service capacity uncertainty. Based on our previous study on the intermodal routing under deterministic capacity consideration, we systematically explore how service capacity uncertainty influences the intermodal routing decision. First of all, we adopt trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to describe the uncertain information of the service capacity, and further transform the deterministic capacity constraint into a fuzzy chance constraint based on fuzzy credibility measure. We then integrate such fuzzy chance constraint into the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model proposed in our previous study to develop a fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. To enable the improved model to be effectively programmed in the standard mathematical programming software and solved by exact solution algorithms, a crisp equivalent linear reformulation of the fuzzy chance constraint is generated. Finally, we modify the empirical case presented in our previous study by replacing the deterministic service capacities with trapezoidal fuzzy ones. Using the modified empirical case, we utilize sensitivity analysis and fuzzy simulation to analyze the influence of service capacity uncertainty on the intermodal routing decision, and summarize some interesting insights that are helpful for decision makers.

  14. Influence of uncertainty on framed decision-making with moral dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod, Martial; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Dutheil, Frédéric; Mondillon, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    In cases of impending natural disasters, most events are uncertain and emotionally relevant, both critical factors for decision-making. Moreover, for exposed individuals, the sensitivity to the framing of the consequences (gain or loss) and the moral judgments they have to perform (e.g., evacuate or help an injured person) constitute two central effects that have never been examined in the same context of decision-making. In a framed decision-making task with moral dilemma, we investigated whether uncertainty (i.e., unpredictably of events) and a threatening context would influence the framing effect (actions framed in loss are avoided in comparison to the ones framed in gain) and the personal intention effect (unintentional actions are more morally acceptable in comparison to intentional actions) on the perceived moral acceptability of taking action. Considering the impact of uncertainty and fear on the processes underlying these effects, we assumed that these emotions would lead to the negation of the two effects. Our results indicate that the exposure to uncertain events leads to the negation of the framing effect, but does not influence the moral acceptability and the effect of personal intention. We discuss our results in the light of dual-process models (i.e. systematic vs. heuristic), appraisal theories, and neurocognitive aspects. These elements highlight the importance of providing solutions to cope with uncertainty, both for scientists and local populations exposed to natural hazards. PMID:29847589

  15. Intra-annual wave resource characterization for energy exploitation: A new decision-aid tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, R.; Sánchez, M.; Ramos, V.; Fraguela, J.A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decision-aid tool is developed for computing the monthly performance of WECs. • It allows the generation of high-resolution monthly characterization matrices. • The decision-aid tool is implemented to the Death Coast (N Spain). • The monthly matrices can be obtained at any coastal location within the Death Coast. • The tool is applied to a coastal location of a proposed wave farm. - Abstract: The wave energy resource is usually characterized by a significant variability throughout the year. In estimating the power performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) it is fundamental to take into account this variability; indeed, an estimate based on mean annual values may well result in a wrong decision making. In this work, a novel decision-aid tool, iWEDGE (intra-annual Wave Energy Diagram GEnerator) is developed and implemented to a coastal region of interest, the Death Coast (Spain), one of the regions in Europe with the largest wave resource. Following a comprehensive procedure, and based on deep water wave data and high-resolution numerical modelling, this tool provides the monthly high-resolution characterization matrices (or energy diagrams) for any location of interest. In other words, the information required for the accurate computation of the intra-annual performance of any WEC at any location within the region covered is made available. Finally, an application of iWEDGE to the site of a proposed wave farm is presented. The results obtained highlight the importance of the decision-aid tool herein provided for wave energy exploitation

  16. The influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angie, Amanda D; Connelly, Shane; Waples, Ethan P; Kligyte, Vykinta

    2011-12-01

    During the past three decades, researchers interested in emotions and cognition have attempted to understand the relationship that affect and emotions have with cognitive outcomes such as judgement and decision-making. Recent research has revealed the importance of examining more discrete emotions, showing that same-valence emotions (e.g., anger and fear) differentially impact judgement and decision-making outcomes. Narrative reviews of the literature (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006 ; Pham, 2007 ) have identified some under-researched topics, but provide a limited synthesis of findings. The purpose of this study was to review the research examining the influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making outcomes and provide an assessment of the observed effects using a meta-analytic approach. Results, overall, show that discrete emotions have moderate to large effects on judgement and decision-making outcomes. However, moderator analyses revealed differential effects for study-design characteristics and emotion-manipulation characteristics by emotion type. Implications are discussed.

  17. Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Schwindt, Wolfram; Kugel, Harald; Plassmann, Hilke; Kenning, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individual economic decisions are influenced by implicit memory contributions. Twenty-two participants were asked to make binary decisions between different brands of sensorily nearly undistinguishable consumer goods. Changes of brain activity comparing decisions in the presence or absence of a specific target brand were detected by fMRI. Only when the tar get brand was the participant's favorite one did the authors find reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices and the left premotor area (Brodmann areas [BA] 9, 46, 7/19, and 6). Simultaneously, activity was increased in the inferior precuneus and posterior cingulate (BA 7), right superior frontal gyrus (BA 10), right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40), and, most pronounced, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10). For products mainly distinguishable by brand information, the authors revealed a nonlinear winner-take-all effect for a participant's favorite brand characterized, on one hand, by reduced activation in brain areas associated with working memory and reasoning and, on the other hand, increased activation in areas involved in processing of emotions and self-reflections during decision making.

  18. Decision-making in people who relapsed to driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Muzaffer; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Keskinkilic, Cahit; Tabo, Abdulkadir; Manes, Facundo F

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol use has been previously associated with neurocognitive impairments, especially in decision-making cognition. However, some studies have shown little to no decision-making deficits in relation to different characteristics of people with drinking problems. Relapsing to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is an important issue with legal and psychosocial aspects. We evaluated decision-making performance in second-time DUI offenders by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Thirty-four male second-time DUI offenders who had been selected for an official psychoeducational rehabilitation program and 31 healthy controls that were matched for age, education, and alcohol use were included. Along with psychiatric assessment, we applied conventional neuropsychological testing comprising cognitive set-shifting, response inhibition, attention, and visuospatial abilities. Also, we used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to assess personality patterns. A computerized version of IGT was used. No significant differences were found between the groups in regard to sociodemographics and conventional neuropsychological testing. DUI participants had significantly higher scores only in "self-transcendence" subdomain of TCI. On the fifth block of the IGT, DUI participants had significantly lower net scores than controls (U = 380.0, p decision-making deficits in DUI participants, which goes undetected on conventional neuropsychological testing and which is not correlated with TCI subdomains related with impulsivity patterns. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. The Sustained Influence of an Error on Future Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffler, Björn C; Bengtsson, Sara L; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is consistently observed in decision-making tasks after negative feedback. Yet, findings are inconclusive as to whether PES supports performance accuracy. We addressed the role of PES by employing drift diffusion modeling which enabled us to investigate latent processes of reaction times and accuracy on a large-scale dataset (>5,800 participants) of a visual search experiment with emotional face stimuli. In our experiment, post-error trials were characterized by both adaptive and non-adaptive decision processes. An adaptive increase in participants' response threshold was sustained over several trials post-error. Contrarily, an initial decrease in evidence accumulation rate, followed by an increase on the subsequent trials, indicates a momentary distraction of task-relevant attention and resulted in an initial accuracy drop. Higher values of decision threshold and evidence accumulation on the post-error trial were associated with higher accuracy on subsequent trials which further gives credence to these parameters' role in post-error adaptation. Finally, the evidence accumulation rate post-error decreased when the error trial presented angry faces, a finding suggesting that the post-error decision can be influenced by the error context. In conclusion, we demonstrate that error-related response adaptations are multi-component processes that change dynamically over several trials post-error.

  20. The Sustained Influence of an Error on Future Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn C. Schiffler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing (PES is consistently observed in decision-making tasks after negative feedback. Yet, findings are inconclusive as to whether PES supports performance accuracy. We addressed the role of PES by employing drift diffusion modeling which enabled us to investigate latent processes of reaction times and accuracy on a large-scale dataset (>5,800 participants of a visual search experiment with emotional face stimuli. In our experiment, post-error trials were characterized by both adaptive and non-adaptive decision processes. An adaptive increase in participants’ response threshold was sustained over several trials post-error. Contrarily, an initial decrease in evidence accumulation rate, followed by an increase on the subsequent trials, indicates a momentary distraction of task-relevant attention and resulted in an initial accuracy drop. Higher values of decision threshold and evidence accumulation on the post-error trial were associated with higher accuracy on subsequent trials which further gives credence to these parameters’ role in post-error adaptation. Finally, the evidence accumulation rate post-error decreased when the error trial presented angry faces, a finding suggesting that the post-error decision can be influenced by the error context. In conclusion, we demonstrate that error-related response adaptations are multi-component processes that change dynamically over several trials post-error.

  1. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  2. Energy Harvesting with a Liquid-Metal Microfluidic Influence Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher; de Visser, Tim; Loessberg, Joshua; Sherman, Sam; Smith, Andrew; Ma, Shuo; Napoli, Maria Teresa; Pennathur, Sumita; Weld, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe and demonstrate an alternative energy-harvesting technology based on a microfluidic realization of a Wimshurst influence machine. The prototype device converts the mechanical energy of a pressure-driven flow into electrical energy, using a multiphase system composed of droplets of liquid mercury surrounded by insulating oil. Electrostatic induction between adjacent metal droplets drives charge through external electrode paths, resulting in continuous charge amplification and collection. We demonstrate a power output of 4 nW from the initial prototype and present calculations suggesting that straightforward device optimization could increase the power output by more than 3 orders of magnitude. At that level, the power efficiency of this energy-harvesting mechanism, limited by viscous dissipation, could exceed 90%. The microfluidic context enables straightforward scaling and parallelization, as well as hydraulic matching to a variety of ambient mechanical energy sources, such as human locomotion.

  3. Evaluating clean energy alternatives for Jiangsu, China: An improved multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Peng; Newton, Sidney; Fang, Jian-xin; Zhou, De-qun; Zhang, Lu-ping

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the utilization of clean energy has been identified as one potential solution to addressing environmental pollution and achieving sustainable development in many countries around the world. Evaluating clean energy alternatives includes a requirement to balance multiple conflict criteria, including technology, environment, economy and society, all of which are incommensurate and interdependent. Traditional MCDM (multi-criteria decision making) methods, such as the weighted average method, often fail to aggregate such criteria consistently. In this paper, an improved MCDM method based on fuzzy measure and integral is developed and applied to evaluate four primary clean energy options for Jiangsu Province, China. The results confirm that the preferred clean energy option for Jiangsu is solar photovoltaic, followed by wind, biomass and finally nuclear. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to evaluate the values of clean energy resources for Jiangsu. The ordered weighted average method is also applied to compare the method mentioned above in our empirical study. The results show that the improved MCDM method provides higher discrimination between alternative clean energy alternatives. - Highlights: • Interactions among evaluation criteria of clean energy resources are taken into account. • An improved multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is proposed based on entropy weight method, fuzzy measure and integral. • Clean energy resources of Jiangsu are evaluated with the improved MCDM method, and their ranks are identified.

  4. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  5. A cognitive decision agent architecture for optimal energy management of microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velik, Rosemarie; Nicolay, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an optimization approach for energy management in microgrids. • The optimizer emulates processes involved in human decision making. • Optimization objectives are energy self-consumption and financial gain maximization. • We gain improved optimization results in significantly reduced computation time. - Abstract: Via the integration of renewable energy and storage technologies, buildings have started to change from passive (electricity) consumers to active prosumer microgrids. Along with this development come a shift from centralized to distributed production and consumption models as well as discussions about the introduction of variable demand–supply-driven grid electricity prices. Together with upcoming ICT and automation technologies, these developments open space to a wide range of novel energy management and energy trading possibilities to optimally use available energy resources. However, what is considered as an optimal energy management and trading strategy heavily depends on the individual objectives and needs of a microgrid operator. Accordingly, elaborating the most suitable strategy for each particular system configuration and operator need can become quite a complex and time-consuming task, which can massively benefit from computational support. In this article, we introduce a bio-inspired cognitive decision agent architecture for optimized, goal-specific energy management in (interconnected) microgrids, which are additionally connected to the main electricity grid. For evaluating the performance of the architecture, a number of test cases are specified targeting objectives like local photovoltaic energy consumption maximization and financial gain maximization. Obtained outcomes are compared against a modified simulating annealing optimization approach in terms of objective achievement and computational effort. Results demonstrate that the cognitive decision agent architecture yields improved optimization results in

  6. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  7. Service providers' perception of affective influences on decision-making about treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A

    2004-01-07

    Service providers working with people who have complex health problems like chronic pain are considered at particular risk from the heavy emotional content of these interactions (frustration, guilt, hostility). For the good of service users and in the interests of healthcare workers' own health it is important for them to employ reflective practice acknowledging these issues. Service providers are inculcated to negate the affective domain of their practice despite the growing awareness that wellbeing can no longer be envisioned as a linear (cause and effect) process divorced from socio-cultural influences and attendant values and beliefs. The aim of this report is to examine to what degree service users (SU) and service providers (SP) believe their decisions about treatment importance are influenced by self-image and emotion. These results are extrapolated from a larger study based on a postal questionnaire that went to members of the Pain Society (UK Chapter of IASP) and service users belonging to chronic pain support groups in the North-West of England. The question of interest in this report asked participants to identify their level of agreement with statements about how four themes influence their decision-making about whether a treatment is important. The themes (coherence, purposiveness, self-image and affect) arise from Chapman's model of consciousness and pain. Only 20.5% of service providers rated the influence of self-image (what someone like me would think) as 3 (mostly) or 4 (completely). Service provider rating for the influence of affect (how this treatment makes me feel) were similarly low with only 19.4% of respondents selecting a rating of 3 or 4. In marked contrast, 73.3% of the service users selected self-image and 92.9% selected affect as a strong influence. Service providers felt that affect and self-image had little influence on their decision-making. However, there is growing evidence in the literature to suggest that it is not possible, nor

  8. Innovation in globally distributed teams: the role of LMX, communication frequency, and member influence on team decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Ravi S; Joshi, Aparna

    2012-11-01

    For globally distributed teams charged with innovation, member contributions to the team are crucial for effective performance. Prior research, however, suggests that members of globally distributed teams often feel isolated and excluded from their team's activities and decisions. How can leaders of such teams foster member inclusion in team decisions? Drawing on leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, we propose that for distributed teams, LMX and communication frequency jointly shape member influence on team decisions. Findings from a test of our hypotheses using data from 40 globally distributed teams suggest that LMX can enhance member influence on team decisions when it is sustained through frequent leader-member communication. This joint effect is strengthened as team dispersion increases. At the team level, member influence on team decisions has a positive effect on team innovation. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Building Energy Consumption Pattern Analysis of Detached Housing for the Policy Decision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiyoun; Lee, Seung-Eon

    2018-03-01

    The Korean government announced its plan to raise the previous reduction goal of greenhouse gas emission from buildings by 26.9% until 2020 on July 2015. Therefore, policies regarding efficiency in the building energy are implemented fast, but the level of building owners and market understanding is low in general, and the government service system which supports decision making for implementing low-energy buildings has not been provided yet. The purpose of this study is to present the design direction for establishing user customized building energy database to perform a role to provide autonomous ecosystem of low-energy buildings. In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, it is necessary to carry out the energy performance analysis based on the characteristics of target building. By analysing about 20-thousand cases of the amount of housing energy consumption in Korea, this study suggested the real energy consumption pattern by building types. Also, the energy performance of a building could be determined by energy consumption, but previous building energy consumption analysis programs required expert knowledge and experience in program usage, so it was difficult for normal building users to use such programs. Therefore, a measure to provide proper default using the level of data which general users with no expert knowledge regarding building energy could enter easily was suggested in this study.

  10. Factors influencing women's decision to have a home birth in rural Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Oncel, Selma

    2009-02-01

    to ascertain the reasons why mothers choose to have a home birth and the factors that influence these reasons. this cross-sectional study involved 392 women and was conducted between June and September 2003 in a rural setting in Turkey. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the authors. The questionnaire included demographic information, obstetric background, the reasons for deciding to give birth at home as well as questions on who encouraged the decision to give birth at home and who assisted in the home births. the decision to have a home birth is related to economic difficulties and the desire to benefit from the assistance of neighbours. Women who had experienced both planned and unplanned home births reported that home birth was unsafe. preliminary information is provided about women having home births that may inform practitioners' educational efforts and future research.

  11. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  12. Intrinsic Factors Influencing Decision making of Arbitrators in Dispute Resolution of variation Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, K. C.; Chaphalkar, N. B.; Patil, Smita K.

    2018-06-01

    Occurrence of disputes is a common feature in construction contracts. Adjudication of disputes through the arbitration process involves detailed and through analysis of facts and evidences related to the case before arriving at the final decision. These facts and evidences have been explored by researchers to develop dispute resolution mechanisms. As a part of the research, the present work identifies the factors which influence the decision making of arbitrators in resolving disputes through a case study of 72 arbitration awards and settled court cases related to Indian construction contracts. This work further seeks consensus for the identified factors from experts and also ranks the factors based on their importance with the help of the responses obtained through a questionnaire survey and statistical tests.

  13. Value-based attentional capture influences context-dependent decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Cha, Kexin; Rangsipat, Napat; Serences, John T

    2015-07-01

    Normative theories posit that value-based decision-making is context independent. However, decisions between two high-value options can be suboptimally biased by the introduction of a third low-value option. This context-dependent modulation is consistent with the divisive normalization of the value of each stimulus by the total value of all stimuli. In addition, an independent line of research demonstrates that pairing a stimulus with a high-value outcome can lead to attentional capture that can mediate the efficiency of visual information processing. Here we tested the hypothesis that value-based attentional capture interacts with value-based normalization to influence the optimality of decision-making. We used a binary-choice paradigm in which observers selected between two targets and the color of each target indicated the magnitude of their reward potential. Observers also had to simultaneously ignore a task-irrelevant distractor rendered in a color that was previously associated with a specific reward magnitude. When the color of the task-irrelevant distractor was previously associated with a high reward, observers responded more slowly and less optimally. Moreover, as the learned value of the distractor increased, electrophysiological data revealed an attenuation of the lateralized N1 and N2Pc responses evoked by the relevant choice stimuli and an attenuation of the late positive deflection (LPD). Collectively, these behavioral and electrophysiological data suggest that value-based attentional capture and value-based normalization jointly mediate the influence of context on free-choice decision-making. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Value-based attentional capture influences context-dependent decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kexin; Rangsipat, Napat; Serences, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Normative theories posit that value-based decision-making is context independent. However, decisions between two high-value options can be suboptimally biased by the introduction of a third low-value option. This context-dependent modulation is consistent with the divisive normalization of the value of each stimulus by the total value of all stimuli. In addition, an independent line of research demonstrates that pairing a stimulus with a high-value outcome can lead to attentional capture that can mediate the efficiency of visual information processing. Here we tested the hypothesis that value-based attentional capture interacts with value-based normalization to influence the optimality of decision-making. We used a binary-choice paradigm in which observers selected between two targets and the color of each target indicated the magnitude of their reward potential. Observers also had to simultaneously ignore a task-irrelevant distractor rendered in a color that was previously associated with a specific reward magnitude. When the color of the task-irrelevant distractor was previously associated with a high reward, observers responded more slowly and less optimally. Moreover, as the learned value of the distractor increased, electrophysiological data revealed an attenuation of the lateralized N1 and N2Pc responses evoked by the relevant choice stimuli and an attenuation of the late positive deflection (LPD). Collectively, these behavioral and electrophysiological data suggest that value-based attentional capture and value-based normalization jointly mediate the influence of context on free-choice decision-making. PMID:25995350

  15. Prestimulus influences on auditory perception from sensory representations and decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Stephanie J; McNair, Steven W; Kayser, Christoph

    2016-04-26

    The qualities of perception depend not only on the sensory inputs but also on the brain state before stimulus presentation. Although the collective evidence from neuroimaging studies for a relation between prestimulus state and perception is strong, the interpretation in the context of sensory computations or decision processes has remained difficult. In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. Using single-trial decoding, we quantified the relation between prestimulus activity, relevant sensory evidence, and choice in different task-relevant EEG components. Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. Within later-activated frontoparietal regions, theta and alpha phase had a direct influence on choice, without involving sensory evidence. These results delineate two consistent mechanisms by which prestimulus activity shapes perception. However, the timescales of the relevant neural activity depend on the specific brain regions engaged by the respective task.

  16. Renewable energy projects: structuring a multi-criteria group decision making framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralambopoulos, D.A.; Polatiidis, H. [UnIversity of the Aegean, Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes an applicable group decision-making framework for assisting with multi-criteria analysis in renewable energy projects, utilizing the PROMETHEE II outranking method. The proposed framework is tested in a case study concerning the exploitation of a geothermal resource, located in the island of Chios, Greece. The presented structure provides a serial, decomposed agenda and enhances overall process transparency. Additional, innovatory elements are the incorporation of differing levels of resource exploitation within the decision framework and the direct determination of the PROMETHEE preference thresholds. The developed methodology provides a user-friendly approach, promotes the synergy between different actors, and could pave a way towards consensus. (Author)

  17. Influence of Energy and Temperature in Cluster Coalescence Induced by Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jiménez-Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence induced by deposition of different Cu clusters on an epitaxial Co cluster supported on a Cu(001 substrate is studied by constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The degree of epitaxy of the final system increases with increasing separation between the centres of mass of the projectile and target clusters during the collision. Structure, roughness, and epitaxial order of the supported cluster also influence the degree of epitaxy. The effect of energy and temperature is determinant on the epitaxial condition of the coalesced cluster, especially both factors modify the generation, growth and interaction among grains. A higher temperature favours the epitaxial growth for low impact parameters. A higher energy contributes to the epitaxial coalescence for any initial separation between the projectile and target clusters. The influence of projectile energy is notably greater than the influence of temperature since higher energies allow greater and instantaneous atomic reorganizations, so that the number of arisen grains just after the collision becomes smaller. The appearance of grain boundary dislocations is, therefore, a decisive factor in the epitaxial growth of the coalesced cluster.

  18. The Influence of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Social Factors on Caregivers' Decisions on the Use of OTC Medications in Preschool Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ecklund, Connie

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to determine the extent that social factors, health beliefs, and attitudes influenced caregiver's decisions in home management with over-the-counter (OTC) medications...

  19. Food ordering for children in restaurants: multiple sources of influence on decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iana A; Williams, Christine B; Madanat, Hala; Pickrel, Julie L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle; Gahagan, Sheila; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-01-01

    Objective Restaurants are playing an increasingly important role in children’s dietary intake. Interventions to promote healthy ordering in restaurants have primarily targeted adults. Much remains unknown about how to influence ordering for and by children. Using an ecological lens, the present study sought to identify sources of influence on ordering behaviour for and by children in restaurants. Design A mixed-methods study was conducted using unobtrusive observations of dining parties with children and post-order interviews. Observational data included: child’s gender, person ordering for the child and server interactions with the dining party. Interview data included: child’s age, restaurant visit frequency, timing of child’s decision making, and factors influencing decision making. Setting Ten independent, table-service restaurants in San Diego, CA, USA participated. Subjects Complete observational and interview data were obtained from 102 dining parties with 150 children (aged 3–14 years). Results Taste preferences, family influences and menus impacted ordering. However, most children knew what they intended to order before arriving at the restaurant, especially if they dined there at least monthly. Furthermore, about one-third of children shared their meals with others and all shared meals were ordered from adult (v. children’s) menus. Parents placed most orders, although parental involvement in ordering was less frequent with older children. Servers interacted frequently with children but generally did not recommend menu items or prompt use of the children’s menu. Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy ordering should consider the multiple sources of influence that are operating when ordering for and by children in restaurants. PMID:27334904

  20. How ecosystem services knowledge and values influence farmers' decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénélope Lamarque

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land

  1. How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management

  2. Decision support for energy conservation promotion: an analytic hierarchy process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kablan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    An effective energy conservation program in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, equipment, and materials. Governments use different mechanisms or policy instruments such as pricing policy (PP), regulation and legislation (RL), training and education, fiscal and financial incentives (FFI), and R and D to promote energy conservation. Effective implementation of energy conservation policies requires prioritization of the different available policy instruments. This paper presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based modeling framework for the prioritization of energy conservation policy instruments. The use of AHP to support management in the prioritization process of policy instruments for promoting energy conservation is illustrated in this research using the case study of Jordan. The research provided a comprehensive framework for performing the prioritization in a scientific and systematic manner. The four most promising policy instruments for promoting energy conservation in Jordan are RL (37.4%), followed by FFI (22.2%), PP (18.0%), and Training, education and qualification (14.5%). One of the major advantages of the use of the AHP approach is that it breaks a large problem into smaller problems which enables the decision-maker (DM) to have a better concentration and to make more sound decisions. In addition, AHP employs a consistency test that can screen out inconsistent judgements. The presented methodology of the research might be beneficial to DMs in other countries

  3. Assessment of decision making models in sensitive technology: the nuclear energy case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Ramos Ferreira da

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a bibliographic review is proceeded on the decision making processes approaching the sensitive technologies (the military and civilian uses as well), and the nuclear technology herself. It is made a correlation among the development of the nuclear technology and the decision making processes, showing that from 70 decade on, such processes are connected to the national security doctrines influenced by the Brazilian War College. So, every time that the national security is altered, so is the master line of the decision making process altered. In the Brazil case, the alteration appeared from the World War II up to the new proposals coming out from the Ministry of Defense are shown related to the nuclear technology. The existent models are analysed with a conclusion that such models are unveiling at the present situation of the moment, concerning to the nuclear technology

  4. Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaş, Efe; Çubukçu, H. Evren; Artuner, Harun

    2014-05-01

    Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks. Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc.) and the incident electron beam (accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size etc.) control the produced characteristic X-ray, which in turn affect the elemental analyses. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data. Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets. A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz), comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected. Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of 240 reference and 200 test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions. The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using

  5. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  6. Understanding Risky Behavior: The Influence of Cognitive, Emotional and Hormonal Factors on Decision-Making under Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kusev, Petko; Purser, Harry; Heilman, Renata; Cooke, Alex J.; Van Schaik, Paul; Baranova, Victoria; Martin, Rose; Ayton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behav...

  7. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjaj, FM; Salek, MS; Basra, MKA; Finlay, AY

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional co...

  8. The Influence of Product Quality and Consumer Perception to Purchase Decision on Canon Dslr Camera in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadi, Nikita Prisilia

    2015-01-01

    Marketing is very important to the success of the company, marketing is used by employers as a tool to influence consumers, especially in making a purchase of a product. Consumer purchasing decision is a very important activity for the company, as one goal obtaining profits to the company. This study aimed to determine the influence of product quality, and consumer perception to purchase decision on canon DSLR camera in Manado. Quality has a direct impact on the performance products and servi...

  9. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  10. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Nurses' Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Yang, Jinqiu; Liu, Lingying; Ye, Benlan

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the influencing factors on nurses' clinical decision-making (CDM) skills. A cross-sectional nonexperimental research design was conducted in the medical, surgical, and emergency departments of two university hospitals, between May and June 2014. We used a quantile regression method to identify the influencing factors across different quantiles of the CDM skills distribution and compared the results with the corresponding ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. Our findings revealed that nurses were best at the skills of managing oneself. Educational level, experience, and the total structural empowerment had significant positive impacts on nurses' CDM skills, while the nurse-patient relationship, patient care and interaction, formal empowerment, and information empowerment were negatively correlated with nurses' CDM skills. These variables explained no more than 30% of the variance in nurses' CDM skills and mainly explained the lower quantiles of nurses' CDM skills distribution. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  12. The tale of hearts and reason: the influence of mood on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Raab, Markus

    2013-08-01

    In decision-making research, one important aspect of real-life decisions has so far been neglected: the mood of the decision maker when generating options. The authors tested the use of the take-the-first (TTF) heuristic and extended the TTF model to understand how mood influences the option-generation process of individuals in two studies, the first using a between-subjects design (30 nonexperts, 30 near-experts, and 30 experts) and the second conceptually replicating the first using a within-subject design (30 nonexperts). Participants took part in an experimental option-generation task, with 31 three-dimensional videos of choices in team handball. Three moods were elicited: positive, neutral, and negative. The findings (a) replicate previous results concerning TTF and (b) show that the option-generation process was associated with the physiological component of mood, supporting the neurovisceral integration model. The extension of TTF to processing emotional factors is an important step forward in explaining fast choices in real-life situations.

  13. The Influence of Institutional Decision Making Mechanism in Russia on the Relations with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chernyshev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of internal factors (such as decision-making processes, political culture, and the connection between government and society on Russia’s foreign policy toward the European Union in the context of neoclassical realism. Excessive personalization and a closed decision-making structure do not encourage effective reactions to emerging challenges and affect the possibility of cooperation in the post-Soviet space. Institutional mechanisms and their impact on a country’s foreign policy are extremely important in the theory of neoclassical realism. This article also analyses EU-Russia relations over major periods and the role of internal factors in Russian policy. Despite an orientation toward long-term cooperation between the EU and Russia, a contradiction remains between Russia’s over-centralized decision-making structure and the EU’s decentralized system. In addition, political leaders and elites play less of a role in the EU, where there is a real separation of powers and competencies. These factors hamper EU-Russia cooperation because Russia prefers to establish bilateral relations with each state. As a result of all these factors, long-term relations may be at risk. However, the decentralization of power, increased efficiency of political institutions and the active participation of civil society will improve the level of mutual trust and overcome the current issues in EU-Russia relations.

  14. Contributions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Social Influence in Economic Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, M A J; Ramnani, N

    2017-09-01

    Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. The dorsomedial and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (dmPFC/vmPFC) are putatively key regions for processing social and economic information respectively. However, the contribution of these regions to economic decisions guided by social norms is unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational modeling we examine the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of SVs and NVs. Subjects (n = 15) indicated either their own economic preferences or made similar choices based on a social norm-learnt during a training session. We found that that the vmPFC and dmPFC make dissociable contributions to the processing of SV and NV. Regions of the dmPFC processed "only" the value of rewards when making normative choices. In contrast, we identify a novel mechanism in the vmPFC for the coding of value. This region signaled both subjective and normative valuations, but activity was scaled positively for SV and negatively for NV. These results highlight some of the key mechanisms that underpin conformity and social influence in economic decision-making. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Physicians' impression on the elders' functionality influences decision making for emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; López-Diéguez, María; Tabuenca, Ana I; de la Cruz, Juan J; Banegas, José R

    2010-09-01

    This study analyzes the elements that compose the emergency physicians' criterion for selecting elderly patients for intensive care treatment. This issue has not been studied in-depth. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 university teaching hospitals, covering 101 randomly selected elderly patients admitted to emergency department and their respective physicians. Physicians were asked to forecast their plans for treatment or therapeutic abstention, in the event that patients might require aggressive measures (cardiopulmonary resuscitation or admission to critical care units). Data were collected on physicians' reasons for taking such decisions and their patients' functional capacity and cognitive status (Katz index and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly). A logistic regression model was constructed taking physicians' decisions as the dependent variables and adjusting for patient factors and physician impressions. The functional status reported by reliable informants and the mental status measured by validated instruments were not coincident with the physicians' perception (functional status κ, 0.47; mental status κ, 0.26). A multivariate analysis showed that the age and the functional and mental status of patients, as perceived by the physicians, were the variables that better explained the physicians' decisions. Physicians' impressions on the functional and mental status of their patients significantly influenced their selection of patients for high-intensity treatments despite the fact that some of these impressions were not correct. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF RETAIL STORE IMAGE AND INDIVIDUAL FACTORS ON CONSUMER BUYING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article is examined the relationship between store image, individual factors and consumer purchase behavior. First link is made between consumer attitudes and his buying decisions. Second, the relationship between store image and consumer purchase behavior is mediated by attributes of retailer that include merchandising, store atmosphere, in-store service, accessibility, reputation, promotion, facilities and post-transaction service. This article is a theoretical approach on what is known about how people decide whether or not to buy something and then how they decide which item or items to buy and what retailer is the best choice. In the process of doing this, we will discover that the process of making a buying decision is not nearly as simply as it may seem. A good understanding about how consumers make buying decisions is very important in developing effective marketing plans. Marketers can change the design of the store interior, aisle layout, carpet and wall textures, scents, colors, shapes, and sounds experienced by the customers. Thus store image is a result of many variables which can be manipulated by the retailer to influence consumer mood and, subsequently, the buyer's behavior.

  17. Who influences white working-class boys’ higher education decision-making process? the role of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The study illuminates the influence of social networks on the HE decision-making process of white working-class boys. The impact of gender, race and social class social characteristics on white working-class boys HE decision-making is assessed. In addition, how white working-class boys define and discuss the membership of their social network, together with the phenomenon of social network influence on white working-class boys’ decision-making about HE at Key Stage 4.The expansive literature ...

  18. Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  19. Factors that influence parental decisions to participate in clinical research: consenters vs nonconsenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Shaikh, Nader; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kienholz, Michelle L; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Keren, Ron; Carpenter, Myra A; Greenfield, Saul P; Pohl, Hans G; Mathews, Ranjiv; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Chesney, Russell W

    2013-06-01

    A child's health, positive perceptions of the research team and consent process, and altruistic motives play significant roles in the decision-making process for parents who consent for their child to enroll in clinical research. This study identified that nonconsenting parents were better educated, had private insurance, showed lower levels of altruism, and less understanding of study design. To determine the factors associated with parental consent for their child's participation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Cross-sectional survey conducted from July 2008 to May 2011. The survey was an ancillary study to the Randomized Intervention for Children with VesicoUreteral Reflux Study. Seven children's hospitals participating in a randomized trial evaluating management of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Parents asked to provide consent for their child's participation in the randomized trial were invited to complete an anonymous online survey about factors influencing their decision. A total of 120 of the 271 (44%) invited completed the survey; 58 of 125 (46%) who had provided consent and 62 of 144 (43%) who had declined consent completed the survey. A 60-question survey examining child, parent, and study characteristics; parental perception of the study; understanding of the design; external influences; and decision-making process. RESULTS Having graduated from college and private health insurance were associated with a lower likelihood of providing consent. Parents who perceived the trial as having a low degree of risk, resulting in greater benefit to their child and other children, causing little interference with standard care, or exhibiting potential for enhanced care, or who perceived the researcher as professional were significantly more likely to consent to participate. Higher levels of understanding of the randomization process, blinding, and right to withdraw were significantly positively associated with consent to participate. CONCLUSIONS AND

  20. 78 FR 34403 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...; AZA34666] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, AZ... Solar Energy Project (QSEP). The Acting Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management approved...: http://www.blm.gov/az/st/en/prog/energy/solar/quartzsite_solar_energy.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. 78 FR 17718 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Record of Decision (ROD) for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project. The Department of the Interior... internet at http://www.blm.gov/nv/st/en/fo/lvfo/blm_programs/energy/searchlight_wind_energy.html . FOR...

  2. The importance of modelling in European decisions concerning energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, D.

    2012-01-01

    Under pressure as much from the economic crisis as from a desire to improve governance, political decision makers seek to evaluate economic and social impacts of their choices. Quantification of trend projections and alternative scenarios - developed with the aid of economic and energy models - provide a base on which to make these choices. Attempts to put figures on and to clarify contrasting options provoke animated debates, both about the quantitative tools used (a scientific question) and on their use (a political question). This article aims to show the importance of the modellers in providing answers to these questions, by analysing the process of European policy decisions on energy and the environment over the period 1995-2005. (authors)

  3. Sustainability assessment tool for the decision making in selection of energy system-Bosnian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begic, Fajik; Afgan, Naim H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of various options of the energy power system of the JP Elektroprivreda of Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed. The rehabilitation of a 110 MW Thermal Power Unit is compared with other options, such as: a thermal power unit with a coal-fueled boiler with combustion in fluidized bed; combined cycle gas turbine plants; hydropower plant, power plants based on solar energy (photovoltaic [PV] systems); wind turbines; and biomass power plants. The assessment methodology comprise a system of stochastic models of uncertainty, enabling decision makers to perform the assessment of various systems, as well as to obtain normalization indexes by using non-numeric (ordinal), non-exact (interval) and non-complete information (NNN-information). Through the analysis of multi-criteria assessment of potential options, the decision-makers are able to evaluate options and select the optimal new power plant capacity

  4. Influence of Science, Technology, and Engineering Curriculum on Rural Midwestern High School Student Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John

    Low degree completion in technical and engineering degrees is a growing concern for policymakers and educators in the United States. This study was an examination of the behaviors of adolescents specific to career decisions related to technology and engineering. The central research question for this study was: do rural, Midwestern high school technical and engineering curricula serve to engage students sufficiently to encourage them to persist through high school while sustaining their interests in technology and engineering careers? Engaging students in technology and engineering fields is the challenge for educators throughout the country and the Midwest. Rural schools have the additional challenge of meeting those issues because of resource limitations. Students in three Midwestern schools were surveyed to determine the level of interest in technology and engineering. The generalized likelihood ratio test was used to overcome concerns for small sample sizes. Accounting for dependent variables, multiple independent variables are examined using descriptive statistics to determine which have greater influence on career decisions, specifically those related to technology and engineering. A typical science curriculum is defined for rural Midwestern high schools. This study concludes that such curriculum achieves the goal of maintaining or increasing student interest and engagement in STEM careers. Furthermore, those schools that incorporate contextual and experiential learning activities into the curriculum demonstrate increased results in influencing student career choices toward technology and engineering careers. Implications for parents, educators, and industry professionals are discussed.

  5. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh—an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories—Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries. PMID:27494334

  6. How attitude strength and information influence moral decision making: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, Manuela; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-05-01

    Moral judgments are based on complex processing. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of moral decisions. Participants (N = 32) were asked to express their opinion on various moral issues while ERPs were recorded. After reading texts containing either confirming or contradicting arguments regarding the issues, participants were asked to express their opinion again. A higher N400 amplitude and a higher amplitude of the late positive potential for value-incongruent words compared to value-congruent words could be observed. Furthermore, after participants had read conflicting arguments, slower responses and larger N400 differences (value-incongruent minus value-congruent) were observed. These results showed that language processing for a moral context is influenced by the subjective value system, and it can be assumed that a demanding cognitive elaboration contributed to the observed RT and N400 priming effects. This is the first ERP study comparing moral judgments before and after reading confirming or conflicting information; it revealed that evaluative reasoning can influence neural processing for moral decisions. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Are clinical decisions in endodontics influenced by the patient's fee-paying status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, I; Gilbert, D; Asimakopoulou, K

    2015-12-01

    We explored whether the fee status of a UK patient influences clinical decision-making in endodontics. In a randomised-controlled vignette study describing either an 'NHS-funded', 'Privately-funded' or undisclosed fee-status patient, we examined the importance vocational trainer dentists placed on a series of factors normally considered when deciding whether to offer patients endodontic treatment as opposed to extracting the tooth. N = 119 experienced (M years post qualification = 20.01) dentists participated. Having read a vignette describing a hypothetical patient who could potentially be treated either endodontically or through an extraction, dentists rated a series of factors they would normally consider (for example, poor oral hygiene, the rest of their mouth is unfilled and caries-free), before recommending either endodontic treatment or an extraction. The patient's funding status had no influence on these dentists' clinical decision-making when considering endodontic treatment as an option (p >0.05) with the exception of a single item relating to infrequent attendance where the NHS patient was more likely than the 'undisclosed-fee' patient, to be offered extractions (F (2, 116) 3.43, p endodontic treatment by experienced dentists.

  8. How do sex ratios in China influence marriage decisions and intra-household resource allocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This article examines how imbalanced sex ratios influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. Using data from the 1982 Chinese census, the traditional "availability ratio" is modified to reflect the degree to which men tend to marry women from different cohorts. This ratio reflects the average tendency of men to prefer women who are close in age to women who are several years younger than them by weighting cohort sizes using the proportion of people in the population who marry someone born in a different cohort. Given that men generally marry younger women, this ratio varies independently of the size of one's own birth cohort. Yet, the ratio fluctuates considerably across individuals, as the sizes of birth cohorts in China vary across time and regions. This enables us to examine how variability in such ratios may influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. The findings suggest that women exercise greater bargaining power once married. Results indicate that as women become scarcer in the marriage market, they have healthier sons. Men also delay marriage, and consume less tobacco and alcohol. This paper also highlights how sensitive findings may be to using this modified weighted availability ratio rather than a traditional unweighted availability ratio.

  9. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS in Hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Rabiul Alam

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS in the hospital industry of Bangladesh-an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories-Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries.

  10. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh-an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories-Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries.

  11. Factors influencing resource allocation decisions and equity in the health system of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, A D; Zwi, A B

    2009-05-01

    Allocation of financial resources in the health sector is often seen as a formula-driven activity. However, the decision to allocate a certain amount of resources to a particular health jurisdiction or facility may be based on a broader range of factors, sometimes not reflected in the existing resource allocation formula. This study explores the 'other' factors that influence the equity of resource allocation in the health system of Ghana. The extent to which these factors are, or can be, accounted for in the resource allocation process is analysed. An exploratory design focusing on different levels of the health system and diverse stakeholders. Data were gathered through semi-structured qualitative interviews with health authorities at national, regional and district levels, and with donor representatives and local government officials in 2003 and 2004. The availability of human resources for health, local capacity to utilize funds, donor involvement in the health sector, and commitment to promote equity have considerable influence on resource allocation decisions and affect the equity of funding allocations. However, these factors are not accounted for adequately in the resource allocation process. This study highlights the need for a more transparent resource allocation system in Ghana based on needs, and takes into account key issues such as capacity constraints, the inequitable human resource distribution and donor-earmarked funding.

  12. Effect of patient decision aid was influenced by presurgical evaluation among patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Taljaard, Monica; Dervin, Geoffrey; Trenaman, Logan; Tugwell, Peter; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Stacey, Dawn

    2018-02-01

    Decision aids help patients make total joint arthroplasty decisions, but presurgical evaluation might influence the effects of a decision aid. We compared the effects of a decision aid among patients considering total knee arthroplasty at 2 surgical screening clinics with different evaluation processes. We performed a subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited from 2 surgical screening clinics: an academic clinic providing 20-minute physician consultations and a community clinic providing 45-minute physiotherapist/nurse consultations with education. We compared the effects of decision quality, decisional conflict and surgery rate using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ 2 tests and the Breslow-Day test. We evaluated 242 patients: 123 from the academic clinic (61 who used the decision aid and 62 controls) and 119 from the community clinic (59 who used the decision aid and 60 controls). Results suggested a between-site difference in the effect of the decision aid on the patients' decision quality ( p = 0.09): at the academic site, patients who used the decision aid were more likely to make better-quality decisions than controls (54% v. 35%, p = 0.044), but not at the community site (47% v. 51%, p = 0.71). Fewer patients who used decision aids at the academic site than at the community site experienced decisional conflict ( p = 0.007) (33% v. 52%, p = 0.05 at the academic site and 40% v. 24%, p = 0.08 at the community site). The effect of the decision aid on surgery rates did not differ between sites ( p = 0.65). The decision aid had a greater effect at the academic site than at the community site, which provided longer consultations with more verbal education. Hence, decision aids might be of greater value when more extensive total knee arthroplasty presurgical assessment and counselling are either impractical or unavailable.

  13. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  14. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  15. The influence of the Energy Performance Certificate: The Dutch case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    All European Union Member States require an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when buildings are constructed, sold and rented. At its introduction the EPC was considered a pioneering instrument, one that would help overcome an information deficit hindering consumer interest in energy efficient dwellings. Now that the EPC has been implemented for several years it is possible to examine its impact. This research draws on data from ex-ante and ex-post assessments of the EPC in a number of countries and presents the results of a survey of Dutch private dwelling purchasers. This survey was based on two sample populations, one received an EPC during property transaction and another did not. Differences were sought between the two samples in a number of areas relating to the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Results show that many projections about the impact of the EPC have fallen short. The EPC was found to have a weak influence, especially pre-purchase. The potential of the EPC in driving energy efficiency improvement in the existing stock is doubted especially if it continues to act independent from a mix of instruments designed to tackle multiple barriers. It is argued that the energy saving potential of existing dwellings, applauded in climate change policy, will remain unexploited if it continues to be assessed subjectively by householders. - Highlights: • Results of a survey of EPC recipients and non-recipients are presented. • The influence of the EPC is analysed descriptively and statistically. • EPC is found to have a weak influence pre and post-purchase. • More sophisticated mechanisms are needed to enhance the EPC

  16. The development of energy and its influences on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunhua; Wang DeLi; Zhu Jiaheng.

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is increasing substantially as the world economy rapidly develops. The influences of energy development on the environment will become more conspicuous. Among them, pollution caused by burning fossil fuels draws the greatest attention from all nations. Some experts hold that, since the early eighties, a second upsurge of environmental concern has occurred because of the increasing environmental pollution and damage to the ecological balance on a large scale. The first environmental movement occurred between the fifties and the sixties. At that time, environmental pollution in industrialized countries was so serious that it threatened directly the life and security of people, exerted a tremendous influence on economic development, and caused serious social disturbances. Despite all these disadvantages, however, it appeared only in some factories and districts in those countries. Comparatively, both the pollution sources and their range were more limited. The United Nations held the Conference of Human Environment at Stockholm in Sweden at this time. It was a milestone for mankind to recognize the importance of and make efforts for environmental improvement. In the recent environmental movement, people are more concerned about problems that have an extremely harmful impact on large areas, including the problems of acid rain, ozonosphere destruction, greenhouse effects, etc. These problems attract a great deal of attention in countries all over the world. Concerned authorities in China have also begun to attach importance to these problems. This is especially true of energy consumption in China, as the main fuels in cities and large industrial bases coal and other fossil fuels, whereas 75 percent of the energy in the countryside is dependent on biomass energy. Such a pattern undoubtedly exerts a big influence on environmental pollution and undermines the ecological balance

  17. Moderating Effects of Social Value Orientation on the Effect of Social Influence in Prosocial Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behaviors are susceptible to individuals' preferences regarding payoffs and social context. In the present study, we combined individual differences with social influence and attempted to discover the effect of social value orientation (SVO) and social influence on prosocial behavior in a trust game and a dictator game. Prosocial behavior in the trust game could be motivated by strategic considerations whereas individuals' decisions in the dictator game could be associated with their social preference. In the trust game, prosocials were less likely than proselfs to conform to the behavior of other group members when the majority of group members distrusted the trustee. In the dictator game, the results of the three-way ANOVA indicated that, irrespective of the type of offer, in contrast to proselfs, prosocials were influenced more by others' generous choices than their selfish choices, even if the selfish choices were beneficial to themselves. The overall results demonstrated that the effect of social influence appears to depend on individuals' SVO: that is, prosocials tend to conform to prosocial rather than proself behaviors.

  18. Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the rapid development of economy and the support of government policy, the development of the logistics industry has become a new economic growth engine. As we all know, the reasonable price of logistics service is the most critical factor for logistics enterprises to win market share and make profit. At the same time, the service level is one of the most important factors which will influence the size of the market share. Therefore, this paper constructs a pricing model considering a situation that the logistics service level affects the market demand. This model helps the enterprises to make scientific decisions.Methodology: To achieve this objective, this paper constructs the TPL service and the pricing decision models based on the game theory.Findings: The conclusion shows that under the situation of independent decision-making, the enterprise which has strong ability of logistics service does not necessarily have a competitive advantage, while pricing equilibrium under the situation of joint decision-making, not only make both sides get more income, but also be conducive to improve the level of service.Research limitations: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy the model such as there are only two TPL enterprises to participate in, and considerations are taken under the condition of complete information environment. These assumptions can be relaxed in the future work.Originality: In this research, logistics service level is taken account into the areas of logistics service pricing, which makes the models more practical and more perfect. And this paper constructs game models based on game theory to make up the limitations of traditional pricing theories in logistics service pricing.

  19. Supporting better decisions across the nexus of water, energy and food through earth observation data: case of the Zambezi basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Gomo, Fortune; Macleod, Christopher; Rowan, John; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Topp, Kairsty

    2018-02-01

    The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has been promoted in recent years as an intersectional concept designed to improve planning and regulatory decision-making across the three sectors. The production and consumption of water, energy and food resources are inextricably linked across multiple spatial scales (from the global to the local), but a common feature is competition for land which through different land management practices mediates provisioning ecosystem services. The nexus perspective seeks to understand the interlinkages and use systems-based thinking to frame management options for the present and the future. It aims to highlight advantage and minimise damaging and unsustainable outcomes through informed decisions regarding trade-offs inclusive of economic, ecological and equity considerations. Operationalizing the WEF approach is difficult because of the lack of complete data, knowledge and observability - and the nature of the challenge also depends on the scale of the investigation. Transboundary river basins are particularly challenging because whilst the basin unit defines the hydrological system this is not necessarily coincident with flows of food and energy. There are multiple national jurisdictions and geopolitical relations to consider. Land use changes have a profound influence on hydrological, agricultural, energy provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Future policy decisions in the water, energy and food sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land and water resources, intensifying competition for these resources in the future. In this study, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE) to analyse the land cover changes in the Zambezi river basin (1.4 million km2) from 1992 to 2015 using the European Space Agency annual global land cover dataset. Early results indicate transformative processes are underway with significant shifts from tree cover to cropland, with a 4.6 % loss in tree cover and a 16 % gain in cropland

  20. Multifactor-influenced energy consumption forecasting using enhanced back-propagation neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-Rong; Zeng, Yi; Choi, Beomjin; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Reliable energy consumption forecasting can provide effective decision-making support for planning development strategies to energy enterprises and for establishing national energy policies. Accordingly, the present study aims to apply a hybrid intelligent approach named ADE–BPNN, the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model supported by an adaptive differential evolution algorithm, to estimate energy consumption. Most often, energy consumption is influenced by socioeconomic factors. The proposed hybrid model incorporates gross domestic product, population, import, and export data as inputs. An improved differential evolution with adaptive mutation and crossover is utilized to find appropriate global initial connection weights and thresholds to enhance the forecasting performance of the BPNN. A comparative example and two extended examples are utilized to validate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed ADE–BPNN model. Errors of the test data sets indicate that the ADE–BPNN model can effectively predict energy consumption compared with the traditional back-propagation neural network model and other popular existing models. Moreover, mean impact value based analysis is conducted for electrical energy consumption in U.S. and total energy consumption forecasting in China to quantitatively explore the relative importance of each input variable for the improvement of effective energy consumption prediction. - Highlights: • Enhanced back-propagation neural network (ADE-BPNN) for energy consumption forecasting. • ADE-BPNN outperforms the current best models for two comparative cases. • Mean impact value approach explores socio-economic factors' relative importance. • ADE-BPNN's adjusted goodness-of-fit is 99.2% for China's energy consumption forecasting.

  1. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaj, F M; Salek, M S; Basra, M K A; Finlay, A Y

    2010-05-01

    This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  2. The influence of time of day on decision fatigue in online food choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2017-01-01

    is linked with knowledge from a food sociology survey on typical meal times as well as biophysical research linking food intake to blood sugar and mental energy in order to generate a proxy variable for each respondent’s level of mental energy when answering the food choice tasks in the questionnaire......Purpose: Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue related to the time of day when respondents answer questionnaires has been largely overlooked in this literature even...... though time of day related fatigue effects are well known in the psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that variations in the time of day when respondents answer an online food choice experiment will translate into observable fatigue effects in the food choices. Design...

  3. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  4. Risks and financing decisions in the energy sector: An empirical investigation using firm-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 102 UK energy firms over the period 1981–2009, this paper empirically examines the effects of uncertainty on firms' leverage decisions. The results indicate that both firms-specific and macroeconomic uncertainty have negative, sizeable, and statistically significant impacts on the UK energy sector firms' target leverage. The results also indicate that the profitability of energy firms plays an important role in uncertainty–leverage relationship by changing the (total) effect of uncertainty on leverage. While more profitable firms appear to reduce their leverage by a relatively large amount in response to increased macroeconomic uncertainty, they are less likely to be affected by firm-specific uncertainty. These results suggest that stability in macroeconomic conditions and business activity is important to the stability of the capital structure of firms in the energy sector which would in turn be conducive to stability in their investments and production. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of uncertainty on the UK energy firms' leverage decisions. • Both firm-specific and macroeconomic uncertainty have negative effects on leverage. • Firm profitability plays an important role in uncertainty–leverage relationships. • The total effect of uncertainty on leverage varies with changes in profitability

  5. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W

    2013-12-17

    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  6. Ultra Low Energy Binary Decision Diagram Circuits Using Few Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Vinay; Narayanan, Vijay; Datta, Suman

    Novel medical applications involving embedded sensors, require ultra low energy dissipation with low-to-moderate performance (10kHz-100MHz) driving the conventional MOSFETs into sub-threshold operation regime. In this paper, we present an alternate ultra-low power computing architecture using Binary Decision Diagram based logic circuits implemented using Single Electron Transistors (SETs) operating in the Coulomb blockade regime with very low supply voltages. We evaluate the energy - performance tradeoff metrics of such BDD circuits using time domain Monte Carlo simulations and compare them with the energy-optimized CMOS logic circuits. Simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves better energy-delay characteristics than CMOS realizations.

  7. Choosing between staying at home or moving: A systematic review of factors influencing housing decisions among frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Noémie; Dubé, Roxanne; Després, Carole; Freitas, Adriana; Légaré, France

    2018-01-01

    Most older adults wish to stay at home during their late life years, but physical disabilities and cognitive impairment may force them to face a housing decision. However, they lack relevant information to make informed value-based housing decisions. Consequently, we sought to identify the sets of factors influencing the housing decision-making of older adults. We performed a systematic literature search for studies evaluating any factors influencing the housing decisions among older adults over 65 years old without cognitive disabilities. Primary research from any study design reported after 1990 in a peer-reviewed journal, a book chapter or an evaluated doctoral thesis and written in English, French or Spanish were eligible. We extracted the main study characteristics, the participant characteristics and any factors reported as associated with the housing decision. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis from the perspective of the meaning and experience of home. The search resulted in 660 titles (after duplicate removal) from which 86 studies were kept for analysis. One study out of five reported exclusively on frail older adults (n = 17) and two on adults over 75 years old. Overall, a total of 88 factors were identified, of which 71 seem to have an influence on the housing decision-making of older adults, although the influence of 19 of them remains uncertain due to discrepancies between research methodologies. No conclusion was made regarding 12 additional factors due to lack of evidence. A wealth of factors were found to influence housing decisions among older adults. However, very few of them have been studied extensively. Our results highlight the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork to study the influence of a broader range of factors as a whole. These results will help older adults make the best possible housing decision based on their unique situation and values.

  8. Choosing between staying at home or moving: A systematic review of factors influencing housing decisions among frail older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Noémie; Dubé, Roxanne; Després, Carole; Freitas, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Background Most older adults wish to stay at home during their late life years, but physical disabilities and cognitive impairment may force them to face a housing decision. However, they lack relevant information to make informed value-based housing decisions. Consequently, we sought to identify the sets of factors influencing the housing decision-making of older adults. Methods We performed a systematic literature search for studies evaluating any factors influencing the housing decisions among older adults over 65 years old without cognitive disabilities. Primary research from any study design reported after 1990 in a peer-reviewed journal, a book chapter or an evaluated doctoral thesis and written in English, French or Spanish were eligible. We extracted the main study characteristics, the participant characteristics and any factors reported as associated with the housing decision. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis from the perspective of the meaning and experience of home. Results The search resulted in 660 titles (after duplicate removal) from which 86 studies were kept for analysis. One study out of five reported exclusively on frail older adults (n = 17) and two on adults over 75 years old. Overall, a total of 88 factors were identified, of which 71 seem to have an influence on the housing decision-making of older adults, although the influence of 19 of them remains uncertain due to discrepancies between research methodologies. No conclusion was made regarding 12 additional factors due to lack of evidence. Conclusion A wealth of factors were found to influence housing decisions among older adults. However, very few of them have been studied extensively. Our results highlight the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork to study the influence of a broader range of factors as a whole. These results will help older adults make the best possible housing decision based on their unique situation and values. PMID:29293511

  9. Energy renovation practices in Danish homes. The influence of energy labels on home renovation practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Dr. Neergaards Vej 15, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Adjei, Afi [Building Research Establishment Ltd. BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Garston, WD25 9XX Watford (United Kingdom); De Best-Waldhober, Marjolein [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Heating of dwellings represents a major policy challenge for the transition to a low carbon society. In Denmark, heating of dwellings represents about 25% of the total Danish final energy consumption and about 13% of the total CO2 emission. The majority of this is related to heating of older dwellings, and as the rate of replacement is low, the main potential for energy saving is to improve the energy efficiency of the existing dwelling stock through energy renovation. This paper provides an analysis of Danish experiences with energy labels (also known as the Energy Performance Certificate, EPC), which indicate the energy efficiency of buildings and include recommendations for improvements. The aim of the EPC is to motivate homeowners to do energy improvements. In Denmark, energy audit schemes date back to the early 1980s and energy rating of houses (energy labelling) was introduced in 1997. The long history of energy audit schemes and energy labelling makes Denmark an interesting case for the study of the experiences with and impact of this kind of policy measure. With the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) from 2002, an energy labelling scheme similar to the Danish scheme introduced in 1997 is now in use in all EU member states. The focus of this paper is on the homeowners' experience and use of the EPC and the key research questions are: How do the homeowners understand and use the EPC? Does the EPC have an influence on home energy renovation practices? The analysis is based on results from a survey of Danish homeowners who have purchased a home with an EPC within recent years. The Danish survey is part of the European project IDEAL EPBD, which was funded by the European Commission under the Intelligent Energy Europe programme and run from 2008 to 2011. The results indicate a rather limited influence of the EPC on Danish homeowners' home energy renovation practices. Also, the results show that even though most homeowners find the label

  10. Non-technical factors impacting on the decision making processes in environmental remediation. Influences on the decision making process such as cost, planned land use and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including the legacy of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation: factors important for formulating a strategy for environmental remediation; site characterisation techniques and strategies; assessment of remediation technologies; assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; post-restoration compliance monitoring; assessment of the costs of remediation measures; remediation of low-level disperse radioactive contaminations in the environment. While this project mainly focus on technological aspects, non-technical factors will be influencing the decision making process in remediation decisively. Often their influence is only tacitly accepted and not explicitly acknowledged by the responsible decision makers. This makes it difficult to trace the decision making process in the event that it has to be revisited. The present publication attempts to make these factors explicit and to present methods to include them consciously into the decision making process

  11. Simulation based decision support for strategic communication and marketing management concerning the consumer introduction of smart energy meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen STRAGIER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication and marketing professionals make strategic decisions in highly complex and dynamic contexts. These decisions are highly uncertain on the outcome and process level when, for example, consumer behaviour is at stake. Decision support systems can provide insights in these levels of uncertainty and the professional process of decision making. However, literature describing decision support tools for strategic communication and marketing management that provide clear insights in uncertainty levels is lacking. This study therefore aims at developing a consumer behaviour simulation module as an important element of such a future decision support tool. The consumer behaviour simulation we propose in this paper is based on data collected from a survey among 386 households with which a behavioural change model was calibrated. We show how various decision scenarios for strategic communication and marketing challenges can be explored and how such a simulation based decision support system can facilitate strategic communication and marketing management concerning the introduction of a smart energy meter.

  12. Influence of the cortical midline structures on moral emotion and motivation in moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Chen, Jingyuan; Jeong, Changwoo; Glover, Gary H

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions-i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  14. The utility of environmental exergy analysis for decision making in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Adam P.; Edwards, Chris F.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis framework discussed and employed in this paper utilizes the recent recognition that exergy is a form of environmental free energy to provide a fundamental basis for valuing environmental interactions independent from their secondary impacts. The framework is comprised of two separate components: (1) environmental exergy analysis and (2) anthropocentric sensitivity analysis. Environmental exergy analysis is based on fundamental thermodynamic principles and analysis techniques. It extends the principles of technical exergy analysis to the environment in order to quantify the location, magnitudes, and types of environmental impact—state change, alteration of natural transfers, and destruction change. Anthropocentric sensitivity analysis is based on the concepts of anthropocentric value and anthropocentric sensitivity. It enables the results of environmental exergy analysis to be interpreted for decision making, but at the expense of introducing some subjectivity into the framework. A key attribute of the framework is its ability to evaluate the environmental performance of energy systems on a level playing field, regardless of the specifics of the systems—i.e., resources consumed, products and by-products produced, or system size and time scale. The utility of the analysis framework for decision making is demonstrated in this paper through application to three example energy systems. - Highlights: ► Utilizes the recognition that exergy is a form of environmental free energy. ► Combines environmental exergy analysis and anthropocentric sensitivity analysis. ► Evaluates/compares environmental performance of systems on a level playing field. ► Independence from the system specifics—resources, by-products, sizes, time scales. ► Utility for decision making is demonstrated using real and notional energy systems

  15. The appeal of the green deal: Empirical evidence for the influence of energy efficiency policy on renovating homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettifor, H.; Wilson, C.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Green Deal is a major new energy policy designed to support the diffusion of energy efficiency measures in UK homes. This paper provides one of the first empirical examinations of the Green Deal′s success in influencing homeowners’ renovation decisions. Using a repeated measures design in which households were questioned before and after the Green Deal′s launch in January 2013, we assess the policy′s success in raising awareness of energy efficiency. In particular, we test the effectiveness of the Green Deal′s positioning to overcome barriers to renovation among homeowners already interested in or considering energy efficiency measures. Using the innovation decision process (Rogers, 2003) as a conceptual framing of the renovation decision process, we examine whether new information on energy efficiency provided by the Green Deal strengthened intentions and its antecedents. We find that (1) energy efficiency is of potential appeal to all renovators regardless of their attitudes about energy efficiency, (2) energy efficiency opportunities need to be identified in the early stages of renovation when homeowners are thinking about ways to improve their home, and (3) homeowners’ intentions towards energy efficiency are weakened by uncertainty about financial benefits, helping to explain the relatively slow uptake of the Green Deal to-date. - Highlights: • Examines the impact of a major new energy policy, the Green Deal, on intentions towards energy efficiency. • 502 households questioned four months prior to, and seven months after the launch. • Renovating itself is mechanism through which households engage with the Green Deal. • Strengthening beliefs in energy savings accelerates intentions to renovate energy efficiently

  16. Waste-to-energy in the United States: Socioeconomic factors and the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.; Kelsay, M.P.; Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion with energy recovery, commonly called waste-to-energy (WTE), was adopted by many US communities during the 1980s to manage their growing quantities of MSW. Although less than one percent of all US MSW was burned to retrieve its heat energy in 1970, WTE grew to account for 16 percent of MSW in 1990, and many experts forecasted that WTE would be used to manage as much as half of all garbage by the turn of the century. However, the growth of WTE has been reduced in recent years by project cancellations. This study takes an in-depth look at the socioeconomic factors that have played a role in the decisions of communities that have considered WTE as a component of their solid waste management strategies. More specifically, a three-pronged approach is adopted to investigate (1) the relationships between a municipality`s decision to consider and accept/reject WTE and key socioeconomic parameters, (2) the potential impacts of recent changes in financial markets on the viability of WTE, and (3) the WTE decision-making process and the socioeconomic parameters that are most important in the municipality`s decision. The first two objectives are met by the collection and analysis of aggregate data on all US WTE initiatives during the 1982 to 1990 time frame. The latter objective is met by way of four in-depth case studies -- two directed at communities that have accepted WTE and two that have cancelled WTE projects.

  17. Supporting better decisions across the nexus of water, energy and food through earth observation data: case of the Zambezi basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Gomo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The water–energy–food (WEF nexus has been promoted in recent years as an intersectional concept designed to improve planning and regulatory decision-making across the three sectors. The production and consumption of water, energy and food resources are inextricably linked across multiple spatial scales (from the global to the local, but a common feature is competition for land which through different land management practices mediates provisioning ecosystem services. The nexus perspective seeks to understand the interlinkages and use systems-based thinking to frame management options for the present and the future. It aims to highlight advantage and minimise damaging and unsustainable outcomes through informed decisions regarding trade-offs inclusive of economic, ecological and equity considerations. Operationalizing the WEF approach is difficult because of the lack of complete data, knowledge and observability – and the nature of the challenge also depends on the scale of the investigation. Transboundary river basins are particularly challenging because whilst the basin unit defines the hydrological system this is not necessarily coincident with flows of food and energy. There are multiple national jurisdictions and geopolitical relations to consider. Land use changes have a profound influence on hydrological, agricultural, energy provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Future policy decisions in the water, energy and food sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land and water resources, intensifying competition for these resources in the future. In this study, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE to analyse the land cover changes in the Zambezi river basin (1.4 million km2 from 1992 to 2015 using the European Space Agency annual global land cover dataset. Early results indicate transformative processes are underway with significant shifts from tree cover to cropland, with a 4.6 % loss in tree cover and a

  18. The influence of patient portals on users' decision making is insufficiently investigated: A systematic methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Vigo, Markel; Balatsoukas, Panagiotis; Buchan, Iain E; Peek, Niels; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2018-03-01

    Patient portals are considered valuable conduits for supporting patients' self-management. However, it is unknown why they often fail to impact on health care processes and outcomes. This may be due to a scarcity of robust studies focusing on the steps that are required to induce improvement: users need to effectively interact with the portal (step 1) in order to receive information (step 2), which might influence their decision-making (step 3). We aimed to explore this potential knowledge gap by investigating to what extent each step has been investigated for patient portals, and explore the methodological approaches used. We performed a systematic literature review using Coiera's information value chain as a guiding theoretical framework. We searched MEDLINE and Scopus by combining terms related to patient portals and evaluation methodologies. Two reviewers selected relevant papers through duplicate screening, and one extracted data from the included papers. We included 115 articles. The large majority (n = 104) evaluated aspects related to interaction with patient portals (step 1). Usage was most often assessed (n = 61), mainly by analysing system interaction data (n = 50), with most authors considering participants as active users if they logged in at least once. Overall usability (n = 57) was commonly assessed through non-validated questionnaires (n = 44). Step 2 (information received) was investigated in 58 studies, primarily by analysing interaction data to evaluate usage of specific system functionalities (n = 34). Eleven studies explicitly assessed the influence of patient portals on patients' and clinicians' decisions (step 3). Whereas interaction with patient portals has been extensively studied, their influence on users' decision-making remains under-investigated. Methodological approaches to evaluating usage and usability of portals showed room for improvement. To unlock the potential of patient portals, more (robust) research

  19. The need for a better approach to business energy management: engaging decision makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutsen, Jonathan [EnVinta Corporation, Chicago, IL (United States); Feldman, Shel [Shel Feldman Management Consulting, Middleton, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Many programs have achieved success in stimulating companies to increase their purchase, installation, and use of energy-efficient equipment (e.g., fluorescent lighting, premium efficient motors). However, few can claim having moved companies to manage energy efficiency as an ongoing part of their practices, procedures, and culture. Recently, a program has been developed and implemented in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the U.S. that is aimed specifically at educating and motivating corporate decision-makers in this direction. This program targets senior management; it not only engages their interest and concern with energy-related issues, but also guides them to set priorities based on a structured gap analysis, and to establish and commit to a plan of action. By focusing on the business needs of the target companies and gaining executive commitment to a structured, systematic implementation plan, it motivates these companies both to seek immediate savings and to a process for continuous improvement that includes sustainable long-term energy efficiency. This paper illustrates specific aspects of the program, the way it helps drive outcomes in participating companies, and its implementation by government and utilities. In addition, the paper discusses needed changes in program evaluation methods to systematically monitor and value the cost-efficiency of this type of intervention which a) does not focus on equipment efficiencies, b) directs clients to other providers of energy efficiency services, c) helps build the infrastructure for such services, and d) motivates long-term energy reductions through the adoption of a sustainable energy-savings ethic in ongoing corporate planning and decisions.

  20. The need for a better approach to business energy management: engaging decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutsen, Jonathan; Feldman, Shel

    2003-01-01

    Many programs have achieved success in stimulating companies to increase their purchase, installation, and use of energy-efficient equipment (e.g., fluorescent lighting, premium efficient motors). However, few can claim having moved companies to manage energy efficiency as an ongoing part of their practices, procedures, and culture. Recently, a program has been developed and implemented in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the U.S. that is aimed specifically at educating and motivating corporate decision-makers in this direction. This program targets senior management; it not only engages their interest and concern with energy-related issues, but also guides them to set priorities based on a structured gap analysis, and to establish and commit to a plan of action. By focusing on the business needs of the target companies and gaining executive commitment to a structured, systematic implementation plan, it motivates these companies both to seek immediate savings and to a process for continuous improvement that includes sustainable long-term energy efficiency. This paper illustrates specific aspects of the program, the way it helps drive outcomes in participating companies, and its implementation by government and utilities. In addition, the paper discusses needed changes in program evaluation methods to systematically monitor and value the cost-efficiency of this type of intervention