WorldWideScience

Sample records for influence co2 flux

  1. Do plant species influence soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in a diverse tropical forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L.M. van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira; N. Restrepo-Coupe; L. Hutyra; P. B. de Camargo; Michael Keller; S.R. Saleska

    2010-01-01

    [1] To test whether plant species influence greenhouse gas production in diverse ecosystems, we measured wet season soil CO2 and N2O fluxes close to 300 large (>35 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH)) trees of 15 species at three clay‐rich forest sites in central Amazonia. We found that soil CO2 fluxes were 38% higher near large trees than at control sites >10...

  2. How a hurricane disturbance influences extreme CO2 fluxes and variance in a tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A current challenge is to understand what are the legacies left by disturbances on ecosystems for predicting response patterns and trajectories. This work focuses on the ecological implications of a major hurricane and analyzes its influence on forest gross primary productivity (GPP; derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, MODIS) and soil CO 2 efflux. Following the hurricane, there was a reduction of nearly 0.5 kgC m −2 yr −1 , equivalent to ∼15% of the long-term mean GPP (∼3.0 ± 0.2 kgC m −2 yr −1 ; years 2003–8). Annual soil CO 2 emissions for the year following the hurricane were > 3.9 ± 0.5 kgC m −2 yr −1 , whereas for the second year emissions were 1.7 ± 0.4 kgC m −2 yr −1 . Higher annual emissions were associated with higher probabilities of days with extreme soil CO 2 efflux rates ( > 9.7 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 ). The variance of GPP was highly variable across years and was substantially increased following the hurricane. Extreme soil CO 2 efflux after the hurricane was associated with deposition of nitrogen-rich fresh organic matter, higher basal soil CO 2 efflux rates and changes in variance of the soil temperature. These results show that CO 2 dynamics are highly variable following hurricanes, but also demonstrate the strong resilience of tropical forests following these events. (letter)

  3. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  4. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  5. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  6. Application of biochar and nitrogen influences fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Iain; Johnson, Mark S; Jassal, Rachhpal S; Black, T Andrew; Grant, Nicholas J; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of forests for increasing carbon sequestration and wood volume is expected to influence soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially to increase N 2 O emissions. As biochar application is known to affect soil GHG emissions, we investigated the effect of biochar application, with and without N fertilization, to a forest soil on GHG emissions in a controlled laboratory study. We found that biochar application at high (10%) application rates increased CO 2 and N 2 O emissions when applied without urea-N fertilizer. At both low (1%) and high biochar (10%) application rates CH 4 consumption was reduced when applied without urea-N fertilizer. Biochar application with urea-N fertilization did not increase CO 2 emissions compared to biochar amended soil without fertilizer. In terms of CO 2 -eq, the net change in GHG emissions was mainly controlled by CO 2 emissions, regardless of treatment, with CH 4 and N 2 O together accounting for less than 1.5% of the total emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Predicting CO2 Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.; Frankel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial neural networks have been employed to calculate surface flux measurements from station data because they are able to fit highly nonlinear relations between input and output variables without knowing the detail relationships between the variables. However, the accuracy in performing neural net estimates of CO2 flux from observations of CO2 and other atmospheric variables is influenced by the architecture of the neural model, the availability, and complexity of interactions between physical variables such as wind, temperature, and indirect variables like latent heat, and sensible heat, etc. We evaluate two deep learning models, feed forward and recurrent neural network models to learn how they each respond to the physical measurements, time dependency of the measurements of CO2 concentration, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed etc. for predicting the CO2 flux. In this paper, we focus on a) building neural network models for estimating CO2 flux based on DOE data from tower Atmospheric Radiation Measurement data; b) evaluating the impact of choosing the surface variables and model hyper-parameters on the accuracy and predictions of surface flux; c) assessing the applicability of the neural network models on estimate CO2 flux by using OCO-2 satellite data; d) studying the efficiency of using GPU-acceleration for neural network performance using IBM Power AI deep learning software and packages on IBM Minsky system.

  8. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  9. Air-sea flux of CO2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Annual air–sea exchange ofCO2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using pCO2 surface-water measurements during summer (2006–2009) and during an ice-covered winter 2008. All surface pCO2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO2. During sea ice formation...... and thereby efficiently blocked air–sea CO2 exchange. During sea ice melt, dissolution of CaCO3 combined with primary production and strong stratification of the water column acted to lower surface-water pCO2 levels in the fjord. Also, a large input of glacial melt water containing geochemically reactive...... year-to-year variation in annual gas exchange....

  10. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled

  11. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.

    2013-10-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  12. Soil surface CO2 fluxes on the Konza Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, Shoshi B.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of a soil chamber to measure fluxes of soil-surface CO2 fluxes is described in terms of equipment, analytical methods, and estimate quality. A soil chamber attached to a gas-exchange system measures the fluxes every 5-15 min, and the data are compared to measurements of the CO2 fluxes from the canopy and from the soil + canopy. The soil chamber yields good measurements when operated in a closed system that is ported to the free atmosphere, and the CO2 flux is found to have a diurnal component.

  13. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved by the SRON-KIT RemoTeC algorithm from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land–sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source–sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  14. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings......A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio...

  15. Atmosphere–Surface Fluxes of CO2 using Spectral Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2010-01-01

    Different flux estimation techniques are compared here in order to evaluate air–sea exchange measurement methods used on moving platforms. Techniques using power spectra and cospectra to estimate fluxes are presented and applied to measurements of wind speed and sensible heat, latent heat and CO2...... fluxes. Momentum and scalar fluxes are calculated from the dissipation technique utilizing the inertial subrange of the power spectra and from estimation of the cospectral amplitude, and both flux estimates are compared to covariance derived fluxes. It is shown how even data having a poor signal......-to-noise ratio can be used for flux estimations....

  16. Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean CO2 fluxes: A serious conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Ledwell, J.R.; Takahashi, T.; Weiss, R.; Merlivat, L.; Memery, L.; Tsung-Hung Peng; Jahne, B.; Otto Munnich, K.

    1986-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements over the ocean give CO 2 fluxes an order of magnitude or more larger than expected from mass balance or more larger than expected from mass balance measurements using radiocarbon and radon 222. In particular, Smith and Jones (1985) reported large upward and downward fluxes in a surf zone at supersaturations of 15% and attributed them to the equilibration of bubbles at elevated pressures. They argue that even on the open ocean such bubble injection may create steady state CO 2 supersaturations and that inferences of fluxes based on air-sea pCO 2 differences and radon exchange velocities must be made with caution. We defend the global average CO 2 exchange rate determined by three independent radioisotopic means: prebomb radiocarbon inventories; global surveys of mixed layer radon deficits; and oceanic uptake of bomb-produced radiocarbon. We argue that laboratory and lake data do not lead one to expect fluxes as large as reported from the eddy correlation technique; that the radon method of determining exchange velocities is indeed useful for estimating CO 2 fluxes; that supersaturations of CO 2 due to bubble injection on the open ocean are negligible; that the hypothesis that Smith and Jones advance cannot account for the fluxes that they report; and that the pCO 2 values reported by Smith and Jones are likely to be systematically much too high. The CO 2 fluxes for the ocean measured to data by the micrometeorological method can be reconciled with neither the observed concentrations of radioisotopes of radon and carbon in the oceans nor the tracer experiments carried out in lakes and in wind/wave tunnels

  17. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  18. Diurnal variability of CO2 flux at coastal zone of Taiwan based on eddy covariance observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hwa; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Yang, Kang-Hung; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we employed shore-based eddy covariance systems for a continuous measurement of the coastal CO2 flux near the northwestern coast of Taiwan from 2011 to 2015. To ensure the validity of the analysis, the data was selected and filtered with a footprint model and an empirical mode decomposition method. The results indicate that the nearshore air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes exhibited a significant diurnal variability and a substantial day-night difference. The net air-sea CO2 flux was -1.75 ± 0.98 μmol-C m-2 s-1, whereas the net air-land CO2 flux was 0.54 ± 7.35 μmol-C m-2 s-1, which indicated that in northwestern Taiwan, the coastal water acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 but the coastal land acts as a source. The Random Forest Method was applied to hierarchize the influence of Chl-a, SST, DO, pH and U10 on air-sea CO2 fluxes. The result suggests that the strength of the diurnal air-sea CO2 flux is strongly influenced by the local wind speed.

  19. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results.

  20. Ecosystem Warming Affects CO2 Flux in an Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global warming seems likely based on present-day climate predictions. Our objective was to characterize and quantify the interactive effects of ecosystem warming (i.e., canopy temperature, TS), soil moisture content ('S) and microbial biomass (BM: bacteria, fungi) on the intra-row soil CO2 flux (FS)...

  1. Nitrous oxide flux under changing temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are investigating nitrous oxide flux seasonal trends and response to temperature and CO2 increases in a boreal peatland. Peatlands located in boreal regions make up a third of global wetland area and are expected to have the highest temperature increases in response to climat...

  2. Recent global CO2 flux inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations and its regional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The net surface exchange of CO2 for the years 2002–2007 is inferred from 12 181 atmospheric CO2 concentration data with a time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion scheme. Monthly CO2 fluxes are optimized for 30 regions of the North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Although there have been many previous multiyear inversion studies, the reliability of atmospheric inversion techniques has not yet been systematically evaluated for quantifying regional interannual variability in the carbon cycle. In this study, the global interannual variability of the CO2 flux is found to be dominated by terrestrial ecosystems, particularly by tropical land, and the variations of regional terrestrial carbon fluxes are closely related to climate variations. These interannual variations are mostly caused by abnormal meteorological conditions in a few months in the year or part of a growing season and cannot be well represented using annual means, suggesting that we should pay attention to finer temporal climate variations in ecosystem modeling. We find that, excluding fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans absorb an average of 3.63 ± 0.49 and 1.94 ± 0.41 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The terrestrial uptake is mainly in northern land while the tropical and southern lands contribute 0.62 ± 0.47, and 0.67 ± 0.34 Pg C yr−1 to the sink, respectively. In North America, terrestrial ecosystems absorb 0.89 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1 on average with a strong flux density found in the south-east of the continent.

  3. Grain Yield Observations Constrain Cropland CO2 Fluxes Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, M.; de Wit, A. J. W.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; van der Molen, M. K.; Magliulo, V.; Peters, W.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily to seasonal time scales. A better description of this exchange in terrestrial biosphere models—most of which currently treat crops as unmanaged grasslands—is needed to improve atmospheric CO2 simulations. In the framework we present here, we model gross European cropland CO2 fluxes with a crop growth model constrained by grain yield observations. Our approach follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we calculate day-to-day crop carbon fluxes and pools with the WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) model. A scaling factor of crop growth is optimized regionally by minimizing the final grain carbon pool difference to crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union. In a second step, we re-run our WOFOST model for the full European 25 × 25 km gridded domain using the optimized scaling factors. We combine our optimized crop CO2 fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the net cropland CO2 exchange. We assess our model's ability to represent cropland CO2 exchange using 40 years of observations at seven European FluxNet sites and compare it with carbon fluxes produced by a typical terrestrial biosphere model. We conclude that our new model framework provides a more realistic and strongly observation-driven estimate of carbon exchange over European croplands. Its products will be made available to the scientific community through the ICOS Carbon Portal and serve as a new cropland component in the CarbonTracker Europe inverse model.

  4. CO2 fluxes from a tropical neighborhood: sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.

    2011-12-01

    Cities are the main contributors to the CO2 rise in the atmosphere. The CO2 released from the various emission sources is typically quantified by a bottom-up aggregation process that accounts for emission factors and fossil fuel consumption data. This approach does not consider the heterogeneity and variability of the urban emission sources, and error propagation can result in large uncertainties. In this context, direct measurements of CO2 fluxes that include all major and minor anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks from a specific district can be used to evaluate emission inventories. This study reports and compares CO2 fluxes measured directly using the eddy covariance method with emissions estimated by emissions factors and activity data for a residential neighborhood of Singapore, a highly populated and urbanized tropical city. The flux measurements were conducted during one year. No seasonal variability was found as a consequence of the constant climate conditions of tropical places; but a clear diurnal pattern with morning and late afternoon peaks in phase with the rush-hour traffic was observed. The magnitude of the fluxes throughout daylight hours is modulated by the urban vegetation, which is abundant in terms of biomass but not of land-cover (15%). Even though the carbon uptake by vegetation is significant, it does not exceed the anthropogenic emissions and the monitored district is a net CO2 source of 20.3 ton km-2 day-1 on average. The carbon uptake by vegetation is investigated as the difference between the estimated emissions and the measured fluxes during daytime.

  5. Soil CO2 flux baseline in an urban monogenetic volcanic field: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazot, Agnès; Smid, Elaine R.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Lindsay, Jan

    2013-11-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a dormant monogenetic basaltic field located in Auckland, New Zealand. Though soil gas CO2 fluxes are routinely used to monitor volcanic regions, there have been no published studies of soil CO2 flux or soil gas CO2 concentrations in the AVF to date or many other monogenetic fields worldwide. We measured soil gas CO2 fluxes and soil gas CO2 concentrations in 2010 and 2012 in varying settings, seasons, and times of day to establish a baseline soil CO2 flux and to determine the major sources of and controlling influences on Auckland's soil CO2 flux. Soil CO2 flux measurements varied from 0 to 203 g m-2 day-1, with an average of 27.1 g m-2 day-1. Higher fluxes were attributed to varying land use properties (e.g., landfill). Using a graphical statistical approach, two populations of CO2 fluxes were identified. Isotope analyses of δ13CO2 confirmed that the source of CO2 in the AVF is biogenic with no volcanic component. These data may be used to assist with eruption forecasting in the event of precursory activity in the AVF, and highlight the importance of knowing land use history when assessing soil gas CO2 fluxes in urban environments.

  6. Increasing CO2 flux at Pisciarelli, Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Queißer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Campi Flegrei caldera is located in the metropolitan area of Naples (Italy and has been undergoing different stages of unrest since 1950, evidenced by episodes of significant ground uplift followed by minor subsidence, increasing and fluctuating emission strengths of water vapor and CO2 from fumaroles, and periodic seismic crises. We deployed a scanning laser remote-sensing spectrometer (LARSS that measured path-integrated CO2 concentrations in the Pisciarelli area in May 2017. The resulting mean CO2 flux is 578 ± 246 t d−1. Our data suggest a significant increase in CO2 flux at this site since 2015. Together with recent geophysical observations, this suggests a greater contribution of the magmatic source to the degassing and/or an increase in permeability at shallow levels. Thanks to the integrated path soundings, LARSS may help to give representative measurements from large regions containing different CO2 sources, including fumaroles, low-temperature vents, and degassing soils, helping to constrain the contribution of deep gases and their migration mechanisms towards the surface.

  7. Seasonal variability of soil CO2 flux and its carbon isotope composition in Krakow urban area, Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Smula, Ewa; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2014-06-01

    As urban atmosphere is depleted of (13)CO2, its imprint should be detectable in the local vegetation and therefore in its CO2 respiratory emissions. This work was aimed at characterising strength and isotope signature of CO2 fluxes from soil in urban areas with varying distances from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The soil CO2 flux and its δ(13)C isotope signature were measured using a chamber method on a monthly basis from July 2009 to May 2012 within the metropolitan area of Krakow, Southern Poland, at two locations representing different levels of anthropogenic influence: a lawn adjacent to a busy street (A) and an urban meadow (B). The small-scale spatial variability of the soil CO2 flux was also investigated at site B. Site B revealed significantly higher summer CO2 fluxes (by approximately 46 %) than site A, but no significant differences were found between their δ(13)CO2 signatures.

  8. Influence of UV-B radiation on developmental changes, ethylene, CO2 flux and polyamines in cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear shoots grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predieri, S.; Krizek, D.T.; Wang, C.Y.; Mirecki, R.M.; Zimmerman, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro shoots of cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear (Pyrus communis L.) were irradiated under controlled environments for 6 h per day at 5 different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). UV-B exposure caused a progressive increase in apical necrosis above background levels and stimulated leaf abscission. Shoots grown for 2 weeks at 7. 8 mol m −2 day −1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and treated with 8. 4 or 12. 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE produced up to 4 times more ethylene than those given 2. 2 or 5. 1 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE or untreated controls. Exposure of shoots to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-BBE caused an increase in free putreseine content after 4 to 14 days of irradiation. Shoots showed a decrease in CO2 uptake after 3 days of UV-B: thereafter, they appeared to recover their photosynthetic capacity. Under typical PPF conditions used in micropropagation (90 μmol m −2 s −1 ). 8. 4 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-B radiation was injurious to realatively tender tissues of in vitro pear shoots: increasing the level of UV-B BE to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 produced even more adverse effects. (author)

  9. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  10. [CO2 flux characteristics and their influence on the carbon budget of a larch plantation in Maoershan region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ling; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Sun, Wei; Su, Dong-Xue; Zheng, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    From January to December 2008, the CO2 flux in a larch plantation (Larix gmeilinii) in Maoershan region of Shangzhi County, Heilongliang Province was measured by eddy covanance method, and the diurnal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate were measured in growth season (from May to October). There existed differences in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the plantation in different time periods under the effects of environmental factors. In the afternoon (12:00-24:00), the NEE changed more slowly with the variation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in the morning (0:00-12:00); and in the morning, tbe light use efficiency was 0.6284 mol x mol(-1), 14% more than that in afternoon. The NEE increased with increasing temperature, and the increment in the morning was 50% higher than that in the afternoon (air temperature > 15 degrees C). These differences in responding to environmental changes led to 88% NEE implemented in the morning, and only 12% NEE implemented in the afternoon. The annual gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in the morning took a percentage of 60%, and that in afternoon took 40%. These findings were supported by the observation at leaf level, i.e., on average of whole growth season, the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the morning was over 2-fold higher than that in afternoon. Generally, the annual NEE, ecosystem respiration (Re), and GEP of the plantation in 2008 were 263-264 g C x m(-2), 718-725 g C x m(-2), and 981-989 g C x m(-2), respectively.

  11. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  12. Preliminary estimation of Vulcano of CO2 budget and continuous monitoring of summit soil CO2 flux

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rouwet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eru...

  13. The Effect of Breaking Waves on CO_2 Air-Sea Fluxes in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; García-Nava, Héctor

    2018-03-01

    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO_2 fluxes through the air-sea interface is investigated in a coastal region. A full year of high-quality data of direct estimates of air-sea CO_2 fluxes based on eddy-covariance measurements is presented. The study area located in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, is a net sink of CO_2 with a mean flux of -1.3 μmol m^{-2}s^{-1} (-41.6 mol m^{-2}yr^{-1} ). The results of a quantile-regression analysis computed between the CO_2 flux and, (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness, and (4) water temperature, suggest that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with the magnitude of the flux but the behaviour of the relation varies along the probability distribution function, with the slopes of the regression lines presenting both positive and negative values. These results imply that the presence of surface waves in coastal areas is the key factor that promotes the increase of the flux from and into the ocean. Further analysis suggests that the local characteristics of the aqueous and atmospheric layers might determine the direction of the flux.

  14. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  15. How can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Mallia, Derek V.; Wu, Dien; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the need for researchers to understand terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of these fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where complex meteorology and lack of observations lead to large uncertainties in carbon fluxes. Yet mountainous regions are often where significant forest cover and biomass are found - i.e., areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. As CO2 observations are carried out in mountainous areas, it is imperative that they are properly interpreted to yield information about carbon fluxes. In this paper, we present CO2 observations at three sites in the mountains of the western US, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes from the CO2 observations, with emphasis on the observed and simulated diurnal cycles of CO2. We show that atmospheric models can systematically simulate the wrong diurnal cycle and significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, due to erroneous atmospheric flows as a result of terrain that is misrepresented in the model. This problem depends on the selected vertical level in the model and is exacerbated as the spatial resolution is degraded, and our results indicate that a fine grid spacing of ˜ 4 km or less may be needed to simulate a realistic diurnal cycle of CO2 for sites on top of the steep mountains examined here in the American Rockies. In the absence of higher resolution models, we recommend coarse-scale models to focus on assimilating afternoon CO2 observations on mountaintop sites over the continent to avoid misrepresentations of nocturnal transport and influence.

  16. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth surface at its maximum seasonal extent. For decades sea ice was assumed to be an impermeable and inert barrier for air - sea exchange of CO2 so that global climate models do not include CO2 exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere in the polar regions. However, uptake of atmospheric CO2 by sea ice cover was recently reported raising the need to further investigate pCO2 dynamics in the marine cryosphere realm and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. In addition, budget of CO2 fluxes are poorly constrained in high latitudes continental shelves [Borges et al., 2006]. We report measurements of air-ice CO2 fluxes above the Canadian continental shelf and compare them to previous measurements carried out in Antarctica. We carried out measurements of pCO2 within brines and bulk ice, and related air-ice CO2 fluxes (chamber method) in Antarctic first year pack ice ("Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica -SIMBA" drifting station experiment September - October 2007) and in Arctic first year land fast ice ("Circumpolar Flaw Lead" - CFL, April - June 2008). These 2 experiments were carried out in contrasted sites. SIMBA was carried out on sea ice in early spring while CFL was carried out in from the middle of the winter to the late spring while sea ice was melting. Both in Arctic and Antarctic, no air-ice CO2 fluxes were detected when sea ice interface was below -10°C. Slightly above -10°C, fluxes toward the atmosphere were observed. In contrast, at -7°C fluxes from the atmosphere to the ice were significant. The pCO2 of the brine exhibits a same trend in both hemispheres with a strong decrease of the pCO2 anti-correlated with the increase of sea ice temperature. The pCO2 shifted from a large over-saturation at low temperature to a marked under-saturation at high temperature. These air-ice CO2 fluxes are partly controlled by the permeability of the air-ice interface, which depends of the temperature of this one. Moreover, air-ice CO2 fluxes are

  17. Evaluation of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Pilot: Terrestrial CO2 Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. B.; Polhamus, A.; Bowman, K. W.; Collatz, G. J.; Potter, C. S.; Lee, M.; Liu, J.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) flux pilot project combines NASA's Earth System models in land, ocean and atmosphere to track surface CO2 fluxes. The system is constrained by atmospheric measurements of XCO2 from the Japanese GOSAT satellite, giving a "big picture" view of total CO2 in Earth's atmosphere. Combining two land models (CASA-Ames and CASA-GFED), two ocean models (ECCO2 and NOBM) and two atmospheric chemistry and inversion models (GEOS-5 and GEOS-Chem), the system brings together the stand-alone component models of the Earth System, all of which are run diagnostically constrained by a multitude of other remotely sensed data. Here, we evaluate the biospheric land surface CO2 fluxes (i.e., net ecosystem exchange, NEE) as estimated from the atmospheric flux inversion. We compare against the prior bottom-up estimates (e.g., the CASA models) as well. Our evaluation dataset is the independently derived global wall-to-wall MPI-BGC product, which uses a machine learning algorithm and model tree ensemble to "scale-up" a network of in situ CO2 flux measurements from 253 globally-distributed sites in the FLUXNET network. The measurements are based on the eddy covariance method, which uses observations of co-varying fluxes of CO2 (and water and energy) from instruments on towers extending above ecosystem canopies; the towers integrate fluxes over large spatial areas (~1 km2). We present global maps of CO2 fluxes and differences between products, summaries of fluxes by TRANSCOM region, country, latitude, and biome type, and assess the time series, including timing of minimum and maximum fluxes. This evaluation shows both where the CMS is performing well, and where improvements should be directed in further work.

  18. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  19. Evaluating Humidity and Sea Salt Disturbances on CO2 Flux Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Erik; Bergström, Hans; Rutgersson, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Global oceans are an important sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, understanding the air–sea flux of CO2 is a vital part in describing the global carbon balance. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements are often used to study CO2 fluxes from both land and ocean. Values of CO2 are usual...

  20. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  1. Annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes from Russian southern taiga soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurganova, I.; Lopes De Gerenyu, V.; Rozanova, L.; Sapronov, D.; Myakshina, T.; Kudeyarov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Annual and seasonal characteristics of CO 2 emission from five different ecosystems were studied in situ (Russia, Moscow Region) from November 1997 through October 2000. The annual behaviour of the soil respiration rate is influenced by weather conditions during a particular year. Annual CO 2 fluxes from the soils depend on land use of the soils and averaged 684 and 906 g C/m 2 from sandy Albeluvisols (sod-podzolic soils) under forest and grassland, respectively. Annual emission from clay Phaeozems (grey forest soils) was lower and ranged from 422 to 660 g C/m 2 ; the order of precedence was arable 2 fluxes caused by weather conditions ranged from 18% (forest ecosystem on Phaeozems) to 31% (agro-ecosystem). The contribution from the cold period (with snow, November-April) to the annual CO 2 flux was substantial and averaged 21% and 14% for natural and agricultural ecosystems, respectively. The CO 2 fluxes comprised approximately 48-51% in summer, 23-24% in autumn, 18-20% in spring and 7-10% in winter of the total annual carbon dioxide flux

  2. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A.; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An ‘anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems. PMID:23778238

  3. Diffuse CO2 fluxes from Santiago and Congro volcanic lakes (São Miguel, Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Cruz, José; Viveiros, Fátima; Branco, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    November 2013 to February 2016. The CO2 flux output was estimated as ranging between 0.06 t d-1 and 0.31 t d-1; the lower CO2 emission occurred in July 2015 and should reflect the stratification of the water column that prevents the CO2 flux release at the lake surface. Considering both volcanic lakes, the mean CO2 emissions, standardized per area, in the cold season were ˜14.9 t km-2 d-1 and ˜7.1 t km-2 d-1, respectively, for Santiago and Congro lakes. During summer period, CO2 emissions were lower in both lakes (˜1.9 t km-2 d-1 and ˜4.1 t km-2 d-1 for Santiago and Congro, correspondingly), what is explained by the lake stratification. Due to the organic processes that occur in the lakes, the CO2 emission is mostly associated to a biogenic origin, but a volcanic influence cannot be excluded and further research using carbon isotopic data is crucial to discriminate the CO2 sources. Key words: volcanic lakes, CO2 flux, maars, São Miguel Island

  4. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  5. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-05-16

    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  6. Potentials and challenges associated with automated closed dynamic chamber measurements of soil CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration fluxes are influenced by natural factors such as climate and soil type, but also by anthropogenic activities in managed ecosystems. As a result, soil CO2 fluxes show a large intra- and interannual as well as intra- and intersite variability. Most of the available soil CO2 flux data giving insights into this variability have been measured with manually closed static chambers, but technological advances in the past 15 years have also led to an increased use of automated closed chamber systems. The great advantage of automated chambers in comparison to manually operated chambers is the higher temporal resolution of the flux data. This is especially important if we want to better understand the effects of short-term events, e.g. fertilization or heavy rainfall, on soil CO2 flux variability. However, the chamber method is an invasive measurement method which can potentially alter soil CO2 fluxes and lead to biased measurement results. In the peer-reviewed literature, many papers compare the field performance and results of different closed static chamber designs, or compare manual chambers with automated chamber systems, to identify potential biases in CO2 flux measurements, and thus help to reduce uncertainties in the flux data. However, inter-comparisons of different automated closed dynamic chamber systems are still lacking. Here we are going to present a field comparison of the most-cited automated chamber system, the LI-8100A Automated Soil Flux System, with the also commercially available Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System AGPS. Both measurement systems were installed side by side at a recently harvested poplar bioenergy plantation (POPFULL, http://uahost.uantwerpen.be/popfull/) from April 2014 until August 2014. The plantation provided optimal comparison conditions with a bare field situation after the harvest and a regrowing canopy resulting in a broad variety of microclimates. Furthermore, the plantation was planted in a double-row system with

  7. Influence of CO2 on the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.

    1989-01-01

    The earth's climate is subject to long and short term fluctuations. The recent ones are being caused by mankind. The most important result is the increase in the CO 2 -content of the atmosphere, caused by burning of fossil fuels. This leads to the so-called greenhouse effect. It is judged that the average temperature of the earth's surface will rise by 2 o C between the years 2030 and 2050

  8. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    operation and soil moisture has stronger influence on the seasonal dynamics of soil and agroecosystem CO2 emissions. Obtained unique for Russian agriculture data are very useful for land-use practices environmental assessment, for soil organic carbon dynamics analysis and agroecological evaluation, and for food C-footprint calculation. Their system analysis together with the nearest forest eddy covariance stations helps us to understand better the land-use change impact on the GHG fluxes dynamics and ecosystem services.

  9. CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a Spartina salt marsh and brackish Phragmites marsh in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, F.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon cycling. Tidally restricted marshes reduce salinity and provide a habitat suitable for Phragmites invasion. We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and CH4) continuously with the eddy covariance method and biweekly with the static chamber method in a Spartina salt marsh and a Phragmites marsh on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. We did not find significant difference in CO2 fluxes between the two sites, but the CH4 fluxes were much higher in the Phragmites site than the Spartina marsh. Temporally, tidal cycles influence the CO2 and CH4 fluxes in both sites. We found that the salt marsh was a significant carbon sink when CO2 and CH4 fluxes were combined. Restoring tidally restricted marshes will significantly reduce CH4 emissions and provide a strong ecosystem carbon service.

  10. [Periodic characteristics of soil CO2 flux in mangrove wetland of Quanzhou Bay, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Lin; Wu, Yan-You; Xing, De-Ke; Liu, Rong-Cheng; Zhou Gui-Yao; Zhao, Kuan

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove wetland ecosystem in Quanzhou Bay in Fujian Province is newly restored with a regular semidiurnal tide. Soil CO2 concentration in the mangrove soil was determined by Li-840 portable gas analyzer, and periodic characteristics of soil CO2 emission was investigated. The soil CO2 flux in the wetland soil was relatively small because the mangrove was young. The change trends of soil CO2 concentration and flux with time were consistent in Kandelia obovate and Aegiceras corniculatum communities in the intertidal periods. The CO2 concentration and flux in the wetland soil were 557.08-2211.50 μmol · mol(-1) and -0.21-0.40 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1), respectively. The average CO2 flux in the wetland soil was 0.26 μmol · mol(-1) · s(-1) in the intertidal of morning and evening tides (early intertidal) and -0.01 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) in the intertidal of evening and morning tides (late intertidal), respectively. At the same time after the tide, the concentration and flux of CO2 in the mangrove soil in early intertidal was higher than that in late intertidal. In early intertidal, the relationship between the flux and instantaneous concentration of CO2 in the wetland soil was expressed as a bell-shaped curve, and CO2 flux increased first and then decreased with the increasing CO2 concentration, which was in conformity with Gaussian distribution.

  11. Comparing inversion techniques for constraining CO2 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin with aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, V. Y.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, M.; Koch, F.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ceballos, J. C.; Longo, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    aircraft mixing ratios are applied as a top down constraint in Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Bayesian inversion frameworks that solves for parameters controlling the flux. Posterior parameter estimates are used to estimate the carbon budget of the BAB. Preliminary results show that the STILT-VPRM model simulates the net emission of CO2 during both transition periods reasonably well. There is significant enhancement from biomass burning during the November 2008 profiles and some from fossil fuel combustion during the May 2009 flights. ΔCO/ΔCO2 emission ratios are used in combination with continuous observations of CO to remove the CO2 contributions from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion from the observed CO2 measurements resulting in better agreement of observed and modeled aircraft data. Comparing column calculations for each of the vertical profiles shows our model represents the variability in the diurnal cycle. The high altitude CO2 values from above 3500m are similar to the lateral boundary conditions from CarbonTracker 2010 and GEOS-Chem indicating little influence from surface fluxes at these levels. The MLE inversion provides scaling factors for GEE and R for each of the 8 vegetation types and a Bayesian inversion is being conducted. Our initial inversion results suggest the BAB represents a small net source of CO2 during both of the BARCA intensives.

  12. On the use of satellite-derived CH4 : CO2 columns in a joint inversion of CH4 and CO2 fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for assimilating total column CH4 : CO2 ratio measurements from satellites for inverse modeling of CH4 and CO2 fluxes using the variational approach. Unlike conventional approaches, in which retrieved CH4 : CO2 are multiplied by model-derived total column CO2 and only the

  13. Soil CO2 flux in response to wheel traffic in a no-till system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of soil CO2 flux in the absence of living plants can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of soil management practices for C sequestration, but field CO2 flux is spatially variable and may be affected by soil compaction and percentage of total pore space filled with water (%WFPS). The ...

  14. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  15. Seasonal soil CO2 flux under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Cheryl L. Mackowiak

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah,...

  16. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri

    2007-05-01

    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  17. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  19. Variation in salt marsh CO2 fluxes across a latitudinal gradient along the US Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Nahrawi, H. B.; Leclerc, M.; O'Connell, J. L.; Mishra, D. R.; Fogarty, M. C.; Edson, J. B.; Lule, A. V.; Vargas, R.; Giblin, A. E.; Alber, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes occur at the dynamic interface of land and ocean, where they play an important role as sink and source of nutrients, carbon (C) and sediment. They often are strong carbon sinks, because they continuously accumulate soil organic matter and sediment to keep their position relative to sea level. Decadal average C sequestration rates can be inferred from soil carbon density and mass accumulation rates, but little information about biological and climatic controls on C cycling and storage in these systems exists. In this study, we report measurements of atmospheric CO2 exchange from salt marshes along the US Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. These measurements were made over periods from one to five years. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant vegetation at all sites. At the northern most site, Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER, and the southern most site, Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER, flux measurements over several years have shown variations in the net CO2 flux influenced by the local climate. For example, annual net C uptake at the PIE LTER over 5 years (2013-2017) depends on rainfall in the growing season (June-August) which modulates soil salinity levels. This pattern is not as evident at the GCE LTER (2014-2015). Furthermore, the growing season length differs between both sites. Based on the CO2 flux measurements, a temperature threshold of 15o C limits the net C uptake at both sites and daily rates of net C uptake are generally smaller during the longer growing season in Georgia. Nevertheless, gross primary production (GPP) is similar for both sites. We will extend this analysis to include sites from Delaware and North Carolina to assess controls (e.g. leaf area using MODIS vegetation indices, temperature, photoperiod) on Spartina phenology and CO2 exchange.

  20. Year-round Regional CO2 Fluxes from Boreal and Tundra Ecosystems in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; Benmergui, J. S.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Daube, B. C.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Henderson, J.; Karion, A.; Miller, J. B.; Miller, S. M.; Parazoo, N.; Randerson, J. T.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Thoning, K. W.; Veraverbeke, S.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    High-latitude ecosystems could release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in a warmer climate. We derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO2 fluxes in Alaska from a synthesis of airborne and tower CO2 observations in 2012-2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were net sources of atmospheric CO2. We discuss these flux estimates in the context of long-term CO2 measurements at Barrow, AK, to asses the long term trend in carbon fluxes in the Arctic. Many Earth System Models incorrectly simulate net carbon uptake in Alaska presently. Our results imply that annual net emission of CO2 to the atmosphere may have increased markedly in this region of the Arctic in response to warming climate, supporting the view that climate-carbon feedback is strongly positive in the high Arctic.

  1. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  2. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Matthew; Oliver, Kevin; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul; Achterberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  4. BOREAS TF-3 Automated Chamber CO2 Flux Data from the NSA-OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, Michael L.; Crill, Patrick M.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-3) and Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (TGB-1) teams collected automated CO2 chamber flux data in their efforts to fully describe the CO2 flux at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) site. This data set contains fluxes of CO2 at the NSA-OBS site measured using automated chambers. In addition to reporting the CO2 flux, it reports chamber air temperature, moss temperature, and light levels during each measurement. The data set covers the period from 23-Sep-1995 through 26-Oct-1995 and from 28-May-1996 through 21-Oct-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  5. The role of metabolism in modulating CO2 fluxes in boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Matthew J.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Lake CO2 emissions are increasingly recognized as an important component of the global CO2 cycle, yet the origin of these emissions is not clear, as specific contributions from metabolism and in-lake cycling, versus external inputs, are not well defined. To assess the coupling of lake metabolism with CO2 concentrations and fluxes, we estimated steady state ratios of gross primary production to respiration (GPP:R) and rates of net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP-R) from surface water O2 dynamics (concentration and stable isotopes) in 187 boreal lakes spanning long environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that internal metabolism plays a dominant role in regulating CO2 fluxes in most lakes, but this pattern only emerges when examined at a resolution that accounts for the vastly differing relationships between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes. Fluxes of CO2 exceeded those from NEP in over half the lakes, but unexpectedly, these effects were most common and typically largest in a subset ( 30% of total) of net autotrophic lakes that nevertheless emitted CO2. Equally surprising, we found no environmental characteristics that distinguished this category from the more common net heterotrophic, CO2 outgassing lakes. Excess CO2 fluxes relative to NEP were best predicted by catchment structure and hydrologic properties, and we infer from a combination of methods that both catchment inputs and internal anaerobic processes may have contributed this excess CO2. Together, our findings show that the link between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes is often strong but can vary widely across the boreal biome, having important implications for catchment-wide C budgets.

  6. Central Russia agroecosystem monitoring with CO2 fluxes analysis by eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulia Meshalkina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance (EC technique as a powerful statistics-based method of measurement and calculation the vertical turbulent fluxes of greenhouses gases within atmospheric boundary layers provides the continuous, long-term flux information integrated at the ecosystem scale. An attractive way to compare the agricultural practices influences on GHG fluxes is to divide a crop area into subplots managed in different ways. The research has been carried out in the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (RTSAU, Moscow in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant # 11.G34.31.0079, EU grant # 603542 LUС4С (7FP and RF Ministry of education and science grant # 14-120-14-4266-ScSh. Arable Umbric Albeluvisols have around 1% of SOC, 5.4 pH (KCl and NPK medium-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The CO2 flux seasonal monitoring has been done by two eddy covariance stations located at the distance of 108 m. The LI-COR instrumental equipment was the same for the both stations. The stations differ only by current crop version: barley or vetch and oats. At both sites, diurnal patterns of NEE among different months were very similar in shape but varied slightly in amplitude. NEE values were about zero during spring time. CO2 fluxes have been intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 µmol/s∙m2 for emission, and from 5 to 20 µmol/s∙m2 for sink. Stabilization of the fluxes has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. Average NEE was negative only in June and July. Maximum uptake was observed in June with average values about 8 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Although different kind of crops were planted on the fields A and B, GPP dynamics was quite similar for both sites: after reaching the peak values at the mid of June, GPP decreased from 4 to 0.5 g C CO2 m-2 d-1 at the end of July. The difference in crops harvesting time that was equal two weeks did not significantly influence the daily

  7. Assessing the Importance of Prior Biospheric Fluxes on Inverse Model Estimates of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, S.; Johnson, M. S.; Potter, C. S.; Genovese, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric sources/sinks. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Currently, atmospheric chemical transport models (CTM) and global climate models (GCM) use multiple different biospheric CO2 flux models resulting in large differences in simulating the global carbon cycle. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission was designed to allow for the improved understanding of the processes involved in the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and therefore allowing for more accurate assessment of the seasonal/inter-annual variability of CO2. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions allowing for the evaluation of model simulations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and facilitating global/regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes. We conduct a 4-D Variation (4D-Var) data assimilation with the GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observation System-Chemistry) CTM using 1) OCO-2 land nadir and land glint retrievals and 2) global in situ surface flask observations to constrain biospheric CO2 fluxes. We apply different state-of-the-science year-specific CO2 flux models (e.g., NASA-CASA (NASA-Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach), CASA-GFED (Global Fire Emissions Database), Simple Biosphere Model version 4 (SiB-4), and LPJ (Lund-Postdam-Jena)) to assess the impact of "a priori" flux predictions to "a posteriori" estimates. We will present the "top-down" CO2 flux estimates for the year 2015 using OCO-2 and in situ observations, and a complete indirect evaluation of the a priori and a posteriori flux estimates using independent in situ observations. We will also present our assessment of the variability of "top-down" CO2 flux estimates when using different

  8. Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T.

    2003-02-01

    Understanding the effects of wildfire on the carbon (C) cycle of boreal forests is essential to quantifying the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle. Soil surface CO2 flux (Rs), the second largest C flux in boreal forests, is directly and indirectly affected by fire and is hypothesized to change during forest succession following fire. The overall objective of this study was to measure and model Rs for a black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) postfire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. The experiment design was a nested factorial that included two soil drainage classes (well and poorly drained) × seven postfire aged stands. Specific objectives were (1) to quantify the relationship between Rs and soil temperature for different aged boreal black spruce forests in well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions, (2) to examine Rs dynamics along postfire successional stands, and (3) to estimate annual soil surface CO2 flux for these ecosystems. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly affected by soil drainage class (p = 0.014) and stand age (p = 0.006). Soil surface CO2 flux was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2 = 0.78, p aged stand combination. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly greater at the well-drained than the poorly drained stands (p = 0.007) during growing season. Annual soil surface CO2 flux for the 1998, 1995, 1989, 1981, 1964, 1930, and 1870 burned stands averaged 226, 412, 357, 413, 350, 274, and 244 g C m-2 yr-1 in the well-drained stands and 146, 380, 300, 303, 256, 233, and 264 g C m-2 yr-1 in the poorly drained stands. Soil surface CO2 flux during the winter (from 1 November to 30 April) comprised from 5 to 19% of the total annual Rs. We speculate that the smaller soil surface CO2 flux in the recently burned than the older stands is mainly caused by decreased root respiration.

  9. Innovative CO2 Analyzer Technology for the Eddy Covariance Flux Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and evaluate NDIR Analyzers that can observe eddy covariance flux of CO2 from unmanned airborne platforms. For both phases, a total of four...

  10. Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    ecosystem respiration (RECO), (ii) GPP depended mainly on the amount of incident photosynthetically active radiation and the amount of green plant matter, the scale of influence of these two factors varying fourfold between the sites, and not so much on the available water, (iii) RECO was mainly affected by the soil temperature, but some evidence for priming effects was also found, (iv) the NEE was mainly influenced by GPP and to a lower extent by RECO. Taken together our results indicate that even within the same ecosystem type exposed to similar climate and land use, site selection may strongly affect the resulting NEE estimates. References: [1] D.D. Baldocchi, "Breathing of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems", Australian Journal of Botany vol.56 (2008) pp. 1-26. [2] A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, G. Wohlfahrt, "Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland", Biogeosciences vol.5 (2008) pp. 421 431. [3] G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, M. Bahn, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of weather and management", Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008) D08110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009286.

  11. The Impact of Prior Biosphere Models in the Inversion of Global Terrestrial CO2 Fluxes by Assimilating OCO-2 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric fluxes. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in terrestrial biospheric models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Atmospheric transport models assimilating measured (in situ or space-borne) CO2 concentrations to estimate "top-down" fluxes, generally use these biospheric CO2 fluxes as a priori information. Most of the flux inversion estimates result in substantially different spatio-temporal posteriori estimates of regional and global biospheric CO2 fluxes. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission dedicated to accurately measure column CO2 (XCO2) allows for an improved understanding of global biospheric CO2 fluxes. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions facilitating better global and regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes through inversion model simulations. The specific objectives of our research are to: 1) conduct GEOS-Chem 4D-Var assimilation of OCO-2 observations, using several state-of-the-science biospheric CO2 flux models as a priori information, to better constrain terrestrial CO2 fluxes, and 2) quantify the impact of different biospheric model prior fluxes on OCO-2-assimilated a posteriori CO2 flux estimates. Here we present our assessment of the importance of these a priori fluxes by conducting Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) using simulated OCO-2 observations with known "true" fluxes.

  12. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth's surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies.

  13. Human Effects and Soil Surface CO2 fluxes in Tropical Urban Green Areas, Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bernard; Gandois, Laure; Kai, Fuu Ming; Chua, Amy; Cobb, Alex; Harvey, Charles; Hutyra, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Urban green spaces are appreciated for their amenity value, with increasing interest in the ecosystem services they could provide (e.g. climate amelioration and increasingly as possible sites for carbon sequestration). In Singapore, turfgrass occupies approximately 20% of the total land area and is readily found on both planned and residual spaces. This project aims at understanding carbon fluxes in tropical urban green areas, including controls of soil environmental factors and the effect of urban management techniques. Given the large pool of potentially labile carbon, management regimes are recognised to have an influence on soil environmental factors (temperature and moisture), this would affect soil respiration and feedbacks to the greenhouse effect. A modified closed dynamic chamber method was employed to measure total soil respiration fluxes. In addition to soil respiration rates, environmental factors such as soil moisture and temperature, and ambient air temperature were monitored for the site in an attempt to evaluate their control on the observed fluxes. Measurements of soil-atmosphere CO2 exchanges are reported for four experimental plots within the Singtel-Kranji Radio Transmission Station (103o43'49E, 1o25'53N), an area dominated by Axonopus compressus. Different treatments such as the removal of turf, and application of clippings were effected as a means to determine the fluxes from the various components (respiration of soil and turf, and decomposition of clippings), and to explore the effects of human intervention on observed effluxes. The soil surface CO2 fluxes observed during the daylight hours ranges from 2.835 + 0.772 umol m-2 s-1 for the bare plot as compared to 6.654 + 1.134 umol m-2 s-1 for the turfed plot; this could be attributed to both autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Strong controls of both soil temperature and soil moisture are observed on measured soil fluxes. On the base soils, fluxes were positively correlated to soil

  14. Influence of plankton metabolism and mixing depth on CO2 dynamics in an Amazon floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, João Henrique F; Borges, Alberto V; Melack, John M; Sarmento, Hugo; Barbosa, Pedro M; Kasper, Daniele; de Melo, Michaela L; De Fex-Wolf, Daniela; da Silva, Jonismar S; Forsberg, Bruce R

    2018-07-15

    We investigated plankton metabolism and its influence on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) dynamics in a central Amazon floodplain lake (Janauacá, 3°23' S, 60°18' W) from September 2015 to May 2016, including a period with exceptional drought. We made diel measurements of CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere with floating chambers and depth profiles of temperature and CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) at two sites with differing wind exposure and proximity to vegetated habitats. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were monitored continuously during day and night in clear and dark chambers with autonomous optical sensors to evaluate plankton metabolism. Overnight community respiration (CR), and gross primary production (GPP) rates were higher in clear chambers and positively correlated with chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). CO 2 air-water fluxes varied over 24-h periods with changes in thermal structure and metabolism. Most net daily CO 2 fluxes during low water and mid-rising water at the wind exposed site were into the lake as a result of high rates of photosynthesis. All other measurements indicated net daily release to the atmosphere. Average GPP rates (6.8gCm -2 d -1 ) were high compared with other studies in Amazon floodplain lakes. The growth of herbaceous plants on exposed sediment during an exceptional drought led to large carbon inputs when these areas were flooded, enhancing CR, pCO 2 , and CO 2 fluxes. During the period when the submerged herbaceous vegetation decayed phytoplankton abundance increased and photosynthetic uptake of CO 2 occurred. While planktonic metabolism was often autotrophic (GPP:CR>1), CO 2 out-gassing occurred during most periods investigated indicating other inputs of carbon such as sediments or soils and wetland plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2005-01-01

    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  16. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-03-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. Negative daytime CO2 fluxes, for example have been observed during the growing season at suburban sites characterized by abundant vegetation and low population density. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the biogenic flux. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation captures 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. A net uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1 ) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 ton km-2 ) and release by respiration (2.55 ton km-2). The study shows the importance of urban vegetation at the local scale for climate change mitigation in the tropics.

  17. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  18. CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses: the impact of champagne ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2010-02-15

    It was demonstrated that CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a young champagne (elaborated in 2007) are much higher than those outgassing from the same flute poured with an older champagne (elaborated in the early 1990s). The difference in dissolved-CO(2) concentrations between the two types of champagne samples was found to be a crucial parameter responsible for differences in CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from one champagne to another. Nevertheless, it was shown that, for a given identical dissolved-CO(2) concentration in both champagne types, the CO(2) volume flux outgassing from the flute poured with the old champagne is, in average, significantly lower than that outgassing from the flute poured with the young one. Therefore, CO(2) seems to "escape" more easily from the young champagne than from the older one. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) in both champagne types was pointed as a key parameter to thoroughly determine in the future, in order to unravel our experimental observation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conditional CO2 flux analysis of a managed grassland with the aid of stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, M. J.; Tuzson, B.; Emmenegger, L.; Knohl, A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2009-04-01

    Short statured managed ecosystems, such as agricultural grasslands, exhibit high temporal changes in carbon dioxide assimilation and respiration fluxes for which measurements of the net CO2 flux, e.g. by using the eddy covariance (EC) method, give only limited insight. We have therefore adopted a recently proposed concept for conditional EC flux analysis of forest to grasslands, in order to identify and quantify daytime sub-canopy respiration fluxes. To validate the concept, high frequency (≈5 Hz) stable carbon isotope analyis of CO2 was used. We made eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and its isotopologues during four days in August 2007, using a novel quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer, capable of high time resolution stable isotope analysis. The effects of a grass cut during the measurement period could be detected and resulted in a sub-canopy source conditional flux classification, for which the isotope composition of the CO2 could be confirmed to be of a respiration source. However, the conditional flux method did not work for an undisturbed grassland canopy. We attribute this to the flux measurement height that was chosen well above the roughness sublayer, where the natural isotopic tracer (δ13C) of respiration was too well mixed with background air.

  20. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  1. Gully hotspot contribution to landscape methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in a northern peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, N.P.; Plant, T.; Oakley, S.; Ward, S.; Wood, C.; Ostle, N.

    2008-01-01

    Peatlands are long term carbon catchments that sink atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and source methane (CH 4 ). In the uplands of the United Kingdom ombrotrophic blanket peatlands commonly exist within Calluna vulgaris (L.) dominated moorland ecosystems. These landscapes contain a range of topographical features that influence local hydrology, climate and plant community composition. In this study we examined the variation in ecosystem CO 2 respiration and net CH 4 fluxes from typical plant-soil systems in dendritic drainage gullies and adjacent blanket peat during the growing season. Typically, Eriophorum spp., Sphagnum spp. and mixed grasses occupied gullies while C. vulgaris dominated in adjacent blanket peat. Gross CO 2 respiration was highest in the areas of Eriophorum spp. (650 ± 140 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ) compared to those with Sphagnum spp. (338 ± 49 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ), mixed grasses (342 ± 91 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ) and C. vulgaris (174 ± 63 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ). Measurements of the net CH 4 flux showed higher fluxes from the Eriophorum spp (2.2 ± 0.6 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) locations compared to the Sphagnum spp. (0.6 ± 0.4 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ), mixed grasses (0.1 ±0.1 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) and a negligible flux detected from C. vulgaris (0.0 ± 0.0 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) locations. A GIS approach was applied to calculate the contribution of gullies to landscape scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Findings from the Moor House National Nature Reserve in the UK showed that although gullies occupied only 9.3% of the total land surface, gullies accounted for 95.8% and 21.6% of the peatland net CH 4 and CO 2 respiratory fluxes, respectively. The implication of these findings is that the relative contribution of characteristic gully systems need to be considered in estimates of landscape scale peatland greenhouse gas fluxes

  2. Evaluating the Capacity of Global CO2 Flux and Atmospheric Transport Models to Incorporate New Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced modeling and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these models are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the model can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its

  3. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  4. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M; Pegoraro, Elaine; Salmon, Verity G; Schädel, Christina; Webb, Elizabeth E; Schuur, Edward A G

    2017-09-01

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO 2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (R eco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO 2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years R eco , GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambient plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, R eco , GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed R eco , GPP, and NEE. However R eco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher R eco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO 2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO 2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO 2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer R eco models estimated that the area was an annual CO 2 source during all years of observation. Nonsummer CO 2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO 2 source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldrey, Matthew P.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature- and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual) timescales. Previous work shows that in the North Atlantic, ΔpCO2 and k both contribute significantly to interannual F variability but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. On some timescale between interannual and multidecadal, gas transfer velocity variability and its associated uncertainty become negligible. Here we quantify this critical timescale for the first time. Using an ocean model, we determine the importance of k, ΔpCO2, and α on a range of timescales. On interannual and shorter timescales, both ΔpCO2 and k are important controls on F. In contrast, pentadal to multidecadal North Atlantic flux variability is driven almost entirely by ΔpCO2; k contributes less than 25%. Finally, we explore how accurately one can estimate North Atlantic F without a knowledge of nonseasonal k variability, finding it possible for interannual and longer timescales. These findings suggest that continued efforts to better constrain gas transfer velocities are necessary to quantify interannual variability in the North Atlantic carbon sink. However, uncertainty in k variability is unlikely to limit the accuracy of estimates of longer-term flux variability.

  6. Influence of trade on national CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Minx, Jan; Lenzen, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO 2 emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO 2 reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in internationally traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national 'greenhouse gas responsibility'. By using input-output modelling, we analyse the influence from international trade on national CO 2 emissions. The aim is to show that trade is the key to define CO 2 responsibility on a macroeconomic level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. Finally, the paper concludes on the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating reduction targets and base line scenarios. (Author)

  7. Influence of soil erosion on CO2 exchange within the CarboZALF manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of the time limited land cover and the vigorous crop growth. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore we established the interdisciplinary project 'CarboZALF' in 2009. In our field experiment CarboZALF-D we are monitoring CO2 fluxes for soil-plant systems, which cover all landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Albic Cutanic Luvisol, Calcic Cutanic Luvisol, Calcaric Regosol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Furthermore, we induced erosion / deposition in a manipulation experiment. Automated chamber systems (2.5 m, basal area 1 m2, transparent) are placed at the manipulated sites as well as at one site neither influenced by erosion, nor by deposition. CO2 flux modelling of high temporal resolution includes ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Modelling includes gap filling which is needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. In our presentation we would like to show results of the CO2 exchange measurements for one year. Differences are most pronounced between the non-eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco and NEE compared to the Albic Cutanic Luvisol. The eroded soil (Calcic Cutanic Luvisol) demonstrated CO2fluxes intermediate between the non-affected and depositional site. Site-specific consequences for the soil C stocks will be also discussed in the presentation.

  8. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Michalak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  9. Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake: an improved multiyear estimate of the air-sea CO2 flux incorporating chlorophyll a concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Sayaka; Siswanto, Eko; Olsen, Are; Hoppema, Mario; Watanabe, Eiji; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Murata, Akihiko; Lauvset, Siv K.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Takahashi, Taro; Kosugi, Naohiro; Omar, Abdirahman M.; van Heuven, Steven; Mathis, Jeremy T.

    2018-03-01

    We estimated monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas north of 60° N from 1997 to 2014. This was done by mapping partial pressure of CO2 in the surface water (pCO2w) using a self-organizing map (SOM) technique incorporating chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea ice concentration, atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio, and geographical position. We applied new algorithms for extracting Chl a from satellite remote sensing reflectance with close examination of uncertainty of the obtained Chl a values. The overall relationship between pCO2w and Chl a was negative, whereas the relationship varied among seasons and regions. The addition of Chl a as a parameter in the SOM process enabled us to improve the estimate of pCO2w, particularly via better representation of its decline in spring, which resulted from biologically mediated pCO2w reduction. As a result of the inclusion of Chl a, the uncertainty in the CO2 flux estimate was reduced, with a net annual Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake of 180 ± 130 Tg C yr-1. Seasonal to interannual variation in the CO2 influx was also calculated.

  10. CO2 consumption and bicarbonate fluxes by chemical weathering in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Cations released by chemical weathering are mainly counterbalanced by atmospheric/soil CO2 dissolved in water. Existing approaches to quantify CO2 consumption by chemical weathering are mostly based on the parameters runoff and lithology. Land cover is not implemented as predictor in existing regional or global scale models for atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption. Here, bicarbonate fluxes in North American rivers are quantified by an empirical forward model using the predictors runoff, lithology and land cover. The model was calibrated on chemical data from 338 river monitoring stations throughout North America. It was extrapolated to the entire North American continent by applying the model equation spatially explicitly to the geodata used for model calibration. Because silicate mineral weathering derived bicarbonate in rivers originates entirely from atmospheric/soil CO2, but carbonate mineral weathering additionally releases lithogenic bicarbonate, those source minerals are distinguished to quantify the CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Extrapolation of the model results in a total bicarbonate flux of 51 Mt C a-1 in North America; 70% of which originate from atmospheric/soil CO2. On average, chemical weathering consumes 2.64 t atmospheric/soil C km-2 a-1 (~ 30%-40% above published world average values). For a given runoff and land cover, carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks export the most bicarbonate. However, half of this is assumed to be of lithogenic origin. Thus, the most atmospheric/soil CO2 per runoff is modeled to be consumed by basic plutonics. The least bicarbonate is exported and the least CO2 is consumed per runoff by weathering of metamorphic rocks. Of the distinguished different land cover classes of which urban areas export the most bicarbonate for a given lithology and runoff, followed by shrubs, grasslands and managed lands. For a given runoff and lithology, the least bicarbonate is exported from areas with forested land cover. The model shows 1

  11. Concurrent CO2 and COS fluxes across major biomes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Felix M.; Kitz, Florian; Hammerle, Albin; Gerdel, Katharina; Ibrom, Andreas; Kolle, Olaf; Migliavacca, Mirco; Moreno, Gerardo; Noe, Steffen M.; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer for canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance of plant canopies in the last few years. COS enters the plant leaf through the stomata and diffuses through the intercellular space, the cell wall, the plasma membrane and the cytosol like carbon dioxide (CO2). It is then catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in a one-way reaction to hydrogen sulfide and CO2. This one-way flux into the leaf makes COS a promising tracer for the GPP. However, this approach assumes that the ratio of the deposition velocities between COS and CO2 is constant, which must be determined in field experiments covering a wide variety of ecosystems. The overarching objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between the ecosystem-scale exchange of COS and CO2 and thus, to test for the potential of COS to be used as a universal tracer for the plant canopy CO2 exchange. Between spring 2015 and summer 2016 we set up our quantum cascade laser at different field sites across Europe. These sites included a managed temperate mountain grassland (AUT), a savanna (ESP), a temperate beech forest (DEN) and a hemiboreal forest (EST). On each of these sites, we conducted ecosystem scale eddy covariance and soil chamber measurements. Since the soil COS flux contribution, especially in grass dominated ecosystems, could not be neglected, we had to derive the actual canopy COS fluxes for all the measurement sites. Using these fluxes we compared the ecosystem relative uptake (ERU) of the sites and searched for factors affecting its variability. We then used the influential factors to scale the ERU to be comparable under different field sites and conditions. Furthermore we also calculated the GPP using conventional CO2 flux partitioning and compared the results with the approach of using the leaf relative uptake.

  12. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  13. A Spatial-Temporal Comparison of Lake Mendota CO2 Fluxes and Collection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, A. K.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.; Loken, L. C.; Schramm, P.; Stanley, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of carbon fluxes at the lake/atmosphere interface can help us determine baselines from which to understand responses in both space and time that may result from our warming climate or increasing nutrient inputs. Since recent research has shown lakes to be hotspots of global carbon cycling, it is important to quantify carbon sink and source dynamics as well as to verify observations between multiple methods in the context of long-term data collection efforts. Here we evaluate a new method for measuring space and time variation in CO2 fluxes based on novel speedboat-based collection method of aquatic greenhouse gas concentrations and a flux computation and interpolation algorithm. Two-hundred and forty-nine consecutive days of spatial flux maps over the 2016 open ice period were compared to ongoing eddy covariance tower flux measurements on the shore of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin US using a flux footprint analysis. Spatial and temporal alignments of the fluxes from these two observational datasets revealed both similar trends from daily to seasonal timescales as well as biases between methods. For example, throughout the Spring carbon fluxes showed strong correlation although off by an order of magnitude. Isolating physical patterns of agreement between the two methods of the lake/atmosphere CO2 fluxes allows us to pinpoint where biology and physical drivers contribute to the global carbon cycle and help improve modelling of lakes and utilize lakes as leading indicators of climate change.

  14. Prediction of soil CO2 flux in sugarcane management systems using the Random Forest approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luiza Moraes Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Random Forest algorithm is a data mining technique used for classifying attributes in order of importance to explain the variation in an attribute-target, as soil CO2 flux. This study aimed to identify prediction of soil CO2 flux variables in management systems of sugarcane through the machine-learning algorithm called Random Forest. Two different management areas of sugarcane in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected: burned and green. In each area, we assembled a sampling grid with 81 georeferenced points to assess soil CO2 flux through automated portable soil gas chamber with measuring spectroscopy in the infrared during the dry season of 2011 and the rainy season of 2012. In addition, we sampled the soil to evaluate physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes. For data interpretation, we used the Random Forest algorithm, based on the combination of predicted decision trees (machine learning algorithms in which every tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently with the same distribution to all the trees of the forest. The results indicated that clay content in the soil was the most important attribute to explain the CO2 flux in the areas studied during the evaluated period. The use of the Random Forest algorithm originated a model with a good fit (R2 = 0.80 for predicted and observed values.

  15. Human impact on the historical change of CO2 degassing flux in River Changjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of water quality changes in River Changjiang (formally known as the Yangtze River on dissolved CO2 and silicate concentrations and seasonal carbon flux in the past several decades (1960s–2000 was evaluated, based on monitoring data from hydrographic gauge. It was found that dissolved CO2 and silicate in Changjiang decreased dramatically during this decades, as opposed to a marked increase in nutrient (e.g. NO3- concentrations. Our analyses revealed that dissolved CO2 in Changjiang was over-saturated with the atmosphere CO2, and its concentration had showed a declining trend since the 1960s, despite that fluvial DIC flux had maintained stable. Analysis results also suggested that the decrease in dissolved CO2 concentration was attributed to changes on the riverine trophic level and river damming activities in the Changjiang drainage basin. Due to the economic innovation (e.g. agriculture and industry development across the Changjiang watershed, fertilizers application and river regulations have significantly altered the original state of the river. Its ecosystem and hydrological condition have been evolving toward the "lacustrine/reservoir" autotrophic type prevailing with plankton. Accordingly, average CO2 diffusing flux to the atmosphere from the river had been reduced by three-fourth from the 1960s to 1990s, with the flux value being down to 14.2 mol.m-2.yr-1 in the 1990s. For a rough estimate, approximately 15.3 Mt of carbon was degassed annually into the atmosphere from the entire Changjiang drainage basin in the 1990s.

  16. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei

    2013-09-01

    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  17. Estimates of CO2 fluxes over the city of Cape Town, South Africa, through Bayesian inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Alecia; Rayner, Peter J.; Engelbrecht, Francois; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Erni, Birgit; Scholes, Robert J.

    2018-04-01

    measurements would be a beneficial component of an atmospheric monitoring programme aimed at MRV of CO2 for any city which has significant biogenic influence, allowing improved separation of contributions from NEE and fossil fuel fluxes to the observed CO2 concentration.

  18. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100–1000 km. CO2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt, a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE, and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE. The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1 in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2 LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3 CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic

  19. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Bousquet, P.; Rivier, L.; Ciais, P.; Carouge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO 2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100-1000 km). CO 2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO 2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO 2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO 2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO 2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt), a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE), and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE). The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1) in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2) LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3) CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO 2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO 2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic scale) with

  20. Rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Chu, Guowei; Han, Xi; Zhang, Quanfa

    2017-07-17

    Rain-induced soil CO 2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO 2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO 2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO 2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO 2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains. Direct releases of CO 2 from litter layer only accounted for ~19% increases in soil CO 2 flux, suggesting that the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from litter layer to the topsoil is the major cause of rain-induced soil CO 2 pulse. In addition, rain-induced changes in soil CO 2 flux and microbial PLFA biomass decreased with increasing rain sizes, but they were positively correlated with litter-leached DOC concentration rather than total DOC flux. Our findings reveal an important role of litter-leached DOC input in regulating rain-induced soil CO 2 pulses and microbial community composition, and may have significant implications for CO 2 losses from tropical forest soils under future rainfall changes.

  1. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  2. Effect of recent observations on Asian CO2 flux estimates by transport model inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Patra, Prabir K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Inoue, Gen

    2003-01-01

    We use an inverse model to evaluate the effects of the recent CO 2 observations over Asia on estimates of regional CO 2 sources and sinks. Global CO 2 flux distribution is evaluated using several atmospheric transport models, atmospheric CO 2 observations and a 'time-independent' inversion procedure adopted in the basic synthesis inversion by the Transcom-3 inverse model intercomparison project. In our analysis we include airborne and tower observations in Siberia, continuous monitoring and airborne observations over Japan, and airborne monitoring on regular flights on Tokyo-Sydney route. The inclusion of the new data reduces the uncertainty of the estimated regional CO 2 fluxes for Boreal Asia (Siberia), Temperate Asia and South-East Asia. The largest effect is observed for the emission/sink estimate for the Boreal Asia region, where introducing the observations in Siberia reduces the source uncertainty by almost half. It also produces an uncertainty reduction for Boreal North America. Addition of the Siberian airborne observations leads to projecting extra sinks in Boreal Asia of 0.2 Pg C/yr, and a smaller change for Europe. The Tokyo-Sydney observations reduce and constrain the Southeast Asian source

  3. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  4. Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements. Reliability of the uncertainty estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Breon, F.M.; Yver, C.; Ciais, P.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR8212, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alemanno, M. [Servizio Meteorologico dell' Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Centro Aeronautica Militare di Montagna, Monte Cimone/Sestola (Italy); Apadula, F. [Research on Energy Systems, RSE, Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milano (Italy); Hammer, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest (Hungary); Meinhardt, F. [Federal Environmental Agency, Kirchzarten (Germany); Necki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Piacentino, S. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Palermo (Italy); Thompson, R.L. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Vermeulen, A.T. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, EEE-EA, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The Bayesian framework of CO2 flux inversions permits estimates of the retrieved flux uncertainties. Here, the reliability of these theoretical estimates is studied through a comparison against the misfits between the inverted fluxes and independent measurements of the CO2 Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) made by the eddy covariance technique at local (few hectares) scale. Regional inversions at 0.5{sup 0} resolution are applied for the western European domain where {approx}50 eddy covariance sites are operated. These inversions are conducted for the period 2002-2007. They use a mesoscale atmospheric transport model, a prior estimate of the NEE from a terrestrial ecosystem model and rely on the variational assimilation of in situ continuous measurements of CO2 atmospheric mole fractions. Averaged over monthly periods and over the whole domain, the misfits are in good agreement with the theoretical uncertainties for prior and inverted NEE, and pass the chi-square test for the variance at the 30% and 5% significance levels respectively, despite the scale mismatch and the independence between the prior (respectively inverted) NEE and the flux measurements. The theoretical uncertainty reduction for the monthly NEE at the measurement sites is 53% while the inversion decreases the standard deviation of the misfits by 38 %. These results build confidence in the NEE estimates at the European/monthly scales and in their theoretical uncertainty from the regional inverse modelling system. However, the uncertainties at the monthly (respectively annual) scale remain larger than the amplitude of the inter-annual variability of monthly (respectively annual) fluxes, so that this study does not engender confidence in the inter-annual variations. The uncertainties at the monthly scale are significantly smaller than the seasonal variations. The seasonal cycle of the inverted fluxes is thus reliable. In particular, the CO2 sink period over the European continent likely ends later than

  5. Climatic sensitivity of dryland soil CO2 fluxes differs dramatically with biological soil crust successional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.

    2018-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems make up approximately 41% of Earth’s terrestrial surface and are suggested to regulate the trend and interannual variability of the global terrestrial carbon (C) sink. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common dryland soil surface communities of bryophytes, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria that bind the soil surface together and that may play an important role in regulating the climatic sensitivity of the dryland C cycle. Major uncertainties exist in our understanding of the interacting effects of changing temperature and moisture on CO2 uptake (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration) from biocrust and sub-crust soil, particularly as related to biocrust successional state. Here, we used a mesocosm approach to assess how biocrust successional states related to climate treatments. We subjected bare soil (Bare), early successional lightly pigmented cyanobacterial biocrust (Early), and late successional darkly pigmented moss-lichen biocrust (Late) to either ambient or + 5°C above ambient soil temperature for 84 days. Under ambient temperatures, Late biocrust mesocosms showed frequent net uptake of CO2, whereas Bare soil, Early biocrust, and warmed Late biocrust mesocosms mostly lost CO2 to the atmosphere. The inhibiting effect of warming on CO2 exchange was a result of accelerated drying of biocrust and soil. We used these data to parameterize, via Bayesian methods, a model of ecosystem CO2 fluxes, and evaluated the model with data from an autochamber CO2 system at our field site on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah. In the context of the field experiment, the data underscore the negative effect of warming on fluxes both biocrust CO2 uptake and loss—which, because biocrusts are a dominant land cover type in this ecosystem, may extend to ecosystem-scale C cycling.

  6. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen effects on soil CO2 flux from a pasture upon return to cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil CO2 efflux patterns associated with converting pastures back to row crop production remain understudied in the Southeastern U.S. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was conducted using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous,...

  7. [Characteristics of CO2 flux before and in the heating period at urban complex underlying surface area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qing-yu; Zhou, Guang-sheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-mei

    2010-04-01

    Urban areas were significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions. The eddy covariance (EC) was used to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and flux data at urban area in Shenyang. This research analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in October 2008 to November 2008 period before and in the heating period. The results showed that the daily variation of CO2 concentration was two-peak curve. The first peak time appeared as same as sunrise time, while the second peak time impacted by vehicles and heating. The result of CO2 flux showed that urban atmospheric CO2 was net emissions, vegetation photosynthesis absorbed CO2 of traffic, the CO2 flux peak appeared at 17:15-18:15 in the heating period, CO2 emission increased 29.37 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the heating period than that before the heating period; there was corresponding relationship between CO2 flux and the time when temperature peak and sensible heating flux (Hc) turn positive. The results also indicated that atmospheric CO2 concentration and its flux were affected seriously by both wind direction and carbon sources.

  8. Effects of forest regeneration practices on the flux of soil CO2 after clear-cutting in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Zhu, Xudan; Bai, Shangbin; Zhu, Tingting; Qiu, Wanting; You, Yujie; Wu, Minjuan; Berninger, Frank; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2018-04-15

    Reforestation after clear-cutting is used to facilitate rapid establishment of new stands. However, reforestation may cause additional soil disturbance by affecting soil temperature and moisture, thus potentially influencing soil respiration. Our aim was to compare the effects of different reforestation methods on soil CO 2 flux after clear-cutting in a Chinese fir plantation in subtropical China: uncut (UC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration without soil preparation (CC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with soil preparation, tending in pits and replanting (CCR P ), and clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with overall soil preparation, tending and replanting (CCR O ). Clear-cutting significantly increased the mean soil temperature and decreased the mean soil moisture. Compared to UC, CO 2 fluxes were 19.19, 37.49 and 55.93 mg m -2 h -1 higher in CC, CCR P and CCR O , respectively (P soil temperature, litter mass and the mixing of organic matter with mineral soil. The results suggest that, when compared to coppicing regeneration, reforestation practices result in additional CO 2 released, and that regarding the CO 2 emissions, soil preparation and tending in pits is a better choice than overall soil preparation and tending. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.-H.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Blake, D. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Kiley, C. M.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Streets, D. G.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nolf, S. R.

    2003-10-01

    We report here airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific during the March-April 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The CO2 spatial distributions were notably influenced by cyclogenesis-triggered transport of regionally polluted continental air masses. Examination of the CO2 to C2H2/CO ratio indicated rapid outflow of combustion-related emissions in the free troposphere below 8 km. Although the highest CO2 mixing ratios were measured within the Pacific Rim region, enhancements were also observed further east over the open ocean at locations far removed from surface sources. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered within the planetary boundary layer contained up to 393 ppmv of CO2. Coincident enhancements in the mixing ratios of C2Cl4, C2H2, and C2H4 measured concurrently revealed combustion and industrial sources. To elucidate the source distributions of CO2, an emissions database for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5-day backward trajectories that revealed the WNW/W sector of northeast Asia was a major contributor to these pollution events. Comparisons of NOAA/CMDL and JMA surface data with measurements obtained aloft showed a strong latitudinal gradient that peaked between 35° and 40°N. We estimated a net CO2 flux from the Asian continent of approximately 13.93 Tg C day-1 for late winter/early spring with the majority of the export (79%) occurring in the lower free troposphere (2-8 km). The apportionment of the flux between anthropogenic and biospheric sources was estimated at 6.37 Tg C day-1 and 7.56 Tg C day-1, respectively.

  10. CO2 and CH4 fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, J.

    1997-01-01

    Release of CO 2 from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO 2 efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO 2 under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH 4 release was studied. The Holocene history of CO 2 sequestration and CH 4 emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO 2 release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m 2 net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO 2 release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m -2 a -1 in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m -2 a -1 for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants contributed to the total peat CO 2 efflux by 10-40 % as root respiration

  11. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Wehr, Richdard [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    1. Objectives This project combines automated in situ observations of the isotopologues of CO2 with root observations, novel experimental manipulations of belowground processes, and isotope-enabled ecosystem modeling to investigate mechanisms of below- vs. aboveground carbon sequestration at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurements Site (EMS). The proposed objectives, which have now been largely accomplished, include: A. Partitioning of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) into photosynthesis and respiration using long-term continuous observations of the isotopic composition of NEE, and analysis of their dynamics ; B. Investigation of the influence of vegetation phenology on the timing and magnitude of carbon allocated belowground using measurements of root growth and indices of belowground autotrophic vs. heterotrophic respiration (via trenched plots and isotope measurements); C. Testing whether plant allocation of carbon belowground stimulates the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter, using in situ rhizosphere simulation experiments wherein realistic quantities of artificial isotopically-labeled exudates are released into the soil; and D. Synthesis and interpretation of the above data using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2 (ED2). 2. Highlights Accomplishments: • Our isotopic eddy flux record has completed its 5th full year and has been used to independently estimate ecosystem-scale respiration and photosynthesis. • Soil surface chamber isotopic flux measurements were carried out during three growing seasons, in conjunction with a trenching manipulation. Key findings to date (listed by objective): A. Partitioning of Net Ecosystem Exchange: 1. Ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (the “Kok effect”) at the ecosystem scale. 2. Because it neglects the Kok effect, the standard NEE partitioning approach overestimates ecosystem photosynthesis (by ~25%) and

  12. The Martian hydrologic cycle - Effects of CO2 mass flux on global water distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian CO2 cycle, which includes the seasonal condensation and subsequent sublimation of up to 30 percent of the planet's atmosphere, produces meridional winds due to the consequent mass flux of CO2. These winds currently display strong seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries due to the large asymmetries in the distribution of insolation on Mars. It is proposed that asymmetric meridional advection of water vapor on the planet due to these CO2 condensation winds is capable of explaining the observed dessication of Mars' south polar region at the current time. A simple model for water vapor transport is used to verify this hypothesis and to speculate on the effects of changes in orbital parameters on the seasonal water cycle.

  13. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, L.F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled

  14. Tactile communication using a CO(2) flux stimulation for blind or deafblind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Jose Carlos; Bordignon, Luiz Alberto; Nohama, Percy

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a tactile stimulation system for producing nonvisual image patterns to blind or deafblind people. The stimulator yields a CO(2) pulsatile flux directed to the user's skin throughout a needle that is coupled to a 2-D tactile plotter. The fluxtactile plotter operates with two step motor mounted on a wood structure, controlled by a program developed to produce alphanumerical characters and geometric figures of different size and speed, which will be used to investigate the psychophysical properties of this kind of tactile communication. CO(2) is provided by a cylinder that delivers a stable flux, which is converted to a pulsatile mode through a high frequency solenoid valve that can chop it up to 1 kHz. Also, system temperature is controlled by a Peltier based device. Tests on the prototype indicate that the system is a valuable tool to investigate the psychophysical properties of the skin in response to stimulation by CO(2) jet, allowing a quantitative and qualitative analysis as a function of stimulation parameters. With the system developed, it was possible to plot the geometric figures proposed: triangles, rectangles and octagons, in different sizes and speeds, and verify the control of the frequency of CO(2) jet stimuli.

  15. BOREAS TGB-1 NSA CH4 and CO2 Chamber Flux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth K.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-1 team made methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) dark chamber flux measurements at the NSA-OJP, NSA-OBS, NSA-BP, and NSA-YJP sites from 16-May-1994 through 13-Sep-1994. Gas samples were extracted approximately every 7 days from dark chambers and analyzed at the NSA lab facility. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  16. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h−1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m−2 d−1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  17. Elevated CO2 effects on canopy and soil water flux parameters measured using a large chamber in crops grown with free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, S; Manderscheid, R; Wittich, K-P; Löpmeier, F J; Weigel, H-J

    2011-03-01

    An arable crop rotation (winter barley-sugar beet-winter wheat) was exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2) ]) using a FACE facility (Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment) during two rotation periods. The atmospheric [CO(2) ] of the treatment plots was elevated to 550 ppm during daylight hours (T>5°C). Canopy transpiration (E(C) ) and conductance (G(C) ) were measured at selected intervals (>10% of total growing season) using a dynamic CO(2) /H(2) O chamber measuring system. Plant available soil water content (gravimetry and TDR probes) and canopy microclimate conditions were recorded in parallel. Averaged across both growing seasons, elevated [CO(2) ] reduced E(C) by 9%, 18% and 12%, and G(C) by 9%, 17% and 12% in barley, sugar beet and wheat, respectively. Both global radiation (Rg) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main driving forces of E(C) , whereas G(C) was mostly related to Rg. The responses of E(C) and especially G(C) to [CO(2) ] enrichment were insensitive to weather conditions and leaf area index. However, differences in LAI between plots counteracted the [CO(2) ] impact on E(C) and thus, at least in part, explained the variability of seasonal [CO(2) ] responses between crops and years. As a consequence of lower transpirational canopy water loss, [CO(2) ] enrichment increased plant available soil water content in the course of the season by ca. 15 mm. This was true for all crops and years. Lower transpirational cooling due to a [CO(2) ]-induced reduction of E(C) increased canopy surface and air temperature by up to 2 °C and 0.5 °C, respectively. This is the first study to address effects of FACE on both water fluxes at canopy scale and water status of a European crop rotation. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Effects of a holiday week on urban soil CO2 flux: an intensive study in Xiamen, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H.; Wang, K.; Chen, F.

    2012-12-01

    To study the effects of a holiday period on urban soil CO2 flux, CO2 efflux from grassland soil in a traditional park in the city of Xiamen was measured hourly from 28th Sep to 11th Oct, a period that included China's National Day holiday week in 2009. The results of this study revealed that: a) The urban soil CO2 emissions were higher before and after the holiday week and lower during the National Day holiday reflecting changes in the traffic cycles; b) A diurnal cycle where the soil CO2 flux decreased from early morning to noon was associated with CO2 uptake by vegetation which strongly offset vehicle CO2 emissions. The soil CO2 flux increased from night to early morning, associated with reduced CO2 uptake by vegetation; c) During the National Day holiday week in 2009, lower rates of soil respiration were measured after Mid-Autumn Day than earlier in the week, and this was related to a reduced level of human activities and vehicle traffic, reducing the CO2 concentration in the air. Urban holidays have a clear effect on soil CO2 flux through the interactions between vehicle, visitor and vegetation CO2 emissions which indirectly control the use of carbon by plant roots, the rhizosphere and soil microorganisms. Consequently, appropriate traffic controls and tourism travel plans can have positive effects on the soil carbon store and may improve local air quality.

  19. Environmental controls of temporal and spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a neotropical peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emma L; Black, Colin R; Turner, Benjamin L; Sjögersten, Sofie

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global storage and cycling of carbon (C) but information on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from these systems is sparse, particularly in the Neotropics. We quantified short and long-term temporal and small scale spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from three contrasting vegetation communities in a domed ombrotrophic peatland in Panama. There was significant variation in CO2 fluxes among vegetation communities in the order Campnosperma panamensis > Raphia taedigera > Cyperus. There was no consistent variation among sites and no discernible seasonal pattern of CH4 flux despite the considerable range of values recorded (e.g. -1.0 to 12.6 mg m(-2) h(-1) in 2007). CO2 fluxes varied seasonally in 2007, being greatest in drier periods (300-400 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and lowest during the wet period (60-132 mg m(-2) h(-1)) while very high emissions were found during the 2009 wet period, suggesting that peak CO2 fluxes may occur following both low and high rainfall. In contrast, only weak relationships between CH4 flux and rainfall (positive at the C. panamensis site) and solar radiation (negative at the C. panamensis and Cyperus sites) was found. CO2 fluxes showed a diurnal pattern across sites and at the Cyperus sp. site CO2 and CH4 fluxes were positively correlated. The amount of dissolved carbon and nutrients were strong predictors of small scale within-site variability in gas release but the effect was site-specific. We conclude that (i) temporal variability in CO2 was greater than variation among vegetation communities; (ii) rainfall may be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from tropical peatlands but temporal variation in CH4 does not follow seasonal rainfall patterns; and (iii) diurnal variation in CO2 fluxes across different vegetation communities can be described by a Fourier model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; D.W. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y-1...

  1. Millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 levels linked to the Southern Ocean carbon isotope gradient and dust flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Diz, Paula; Hall, Ian R.; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations observed at the end of glacial periods has, at least in part, been attributed to the upwelling of carbon-rich deep water in the Southern Ocean. The magnitude of outgassing of dissolved CO2, however, is influenced by the biological fixation of upwelled inorganic carbon and its transfer back to the deep sea as organic carbon. The efficiency of this biological pump is controlled by the extent of nutrient utilization, which can be stimulated by the delivery of iron by atmospheric dust particles. Changes in nutrient utilization should be reflected in the δ13C gradient between intermediate and deep waters. Here we use the δ13C values of intermediate- and bottom-dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the carbon isotope gradient between thermocline and abyssal water in the subantarctic zone of the South Atlantic Ocean over the past 360,000 years. We find millennial-scale oscillations of the carbon isotope gradient that correspond to changes in dust flux and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as reported from Antarctic ice cores. We interpret this correlation as a relationship between the efficiency of the biological pump and fertilization by dust-borne iron. As the correlation is exponential, we suggest that the sensitivity of the biological pump to dust-borne iron fertilization may be increased when the background dust flux is low.

  2. Tracing the link between plant volatile organic compound emissions and CO2 fluxes and by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation exerts a large influence on the atmosphere through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the emission and uptake of the greenhouse gas CO2. Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. Moreover, vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange is associated with a large isotopic imprint due to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and 13C-fractionation during respiratory CO2 release1. The latter has been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate the linkage between VOC emissions, CO2 fluxes and associated isotope effects based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS). We utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding experiments in the mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs versus CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. These observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high carbon flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and

  3. Detectability of CO2 Flux Signals by a Space-Based Lidar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for improving our quantitative understanding of the carbon cycle. Prospective observations include those from space-based lidar such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Here we explore the ability of such a mission to detect regional changes in CO2 fluxes. We investigate these using three prototypical case studies, namely the thawing of permafrost in the Northern High Latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China, and changes in the source-sink characteristics of the Southern Ocean. These three scenarios were used to design signal detection studies to investigate the ability to detect the unfolding of these scenarios compared to a baseline scenario. Results indicate that the ASCENDS mission could detect the types of signals investigated in this study, with the caveat that the study is based on some simplifying assumptions. The permafrost thawing flux perturbation is readily detectable at a high level of significance. The fossil fuel emission detectability is directly related to the strength of the signal and the level of measurement noise. For a nominal (lower) fossil fuel emission signal, only the idealized noise-free instrument test case produces a clearly detectable signal, while experiments with more realistic noise levels capture the signal only in the higher (exaggerated) signal case. For the Southern Ocean scenario, differences due to the natural variability in the ENSO climatic mode are primarily detectable as a zonal increase.

  4. When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from 80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone. This observation was

  5. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes in the Atlantic as measured during boreal spring and autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Ríos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The underway measurements were processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2 in the covered sector of the Atlantic Ocean. The data has been grouped into different biogeochemical oceanographic provinces based on thermohaline characteristics. The spatial and temporal distributions of FCO2 followed expected distributions and annual trends reproducing the recent climatological ΔfCO2 estimations with a mean difference of −3 ± 18 μatm (Takahashi et al., 2009. The reduction in the CO2 saturation along the meridional FICARAM cruises represented an increase of 0.02 ± 0.14 mol m−2 yr−1 in the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. The subtropical waters in both Hemispheres acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the successive spring seasons and as a source in autumn. The coarse reduction of the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 observed in the North Atlantic Ocean was linked to conditions of negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation that prevailed during the FICARAM period. Surface waters in the North Equatorial Counter Current revealed a significant long-term decrease of sea surface salinity of −0.16 ± 0.01 yr−1 coinciding with a declination of −3.5 ± 0.9 μatm yr−1 in the air–sea disequilibrium of CO2 fugacity and a rise of oceanic CO2 uptake of −0.09 ± 0.03 mol m−2 yr−1. The largest CO2 source was located in the equatorial upwelling system. These tropical waters that reached emissions of 0.7 ± 0.5 and 1.0 ± 0.7 mol m−2 y−1 in spring and autumn, respectively, showed an interannual warming of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C yr−1 and a wind speed decrease of −0.58 ± 0.14 m s−1 yr−1 in spring cruises which suggest the weakening of upwelling events associated with warm El Niño – Southern

  6. [Effects of biological soil crust at different succession stages in hilly region of Loess Plateau on soil CO2 flux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Ming, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a compact complex layer of soil, which has photosynthetic activity and is one of the factors affecting the CO2flux of soil-atmosphere interface. In this paper, the soil CO, flux under the effects of biocrust at different succession stages on the re-vegetated grassland in the hilly region of Loess Plateau was measured by a modified LI-8100 automated CO, flux system. Under light condition, the soil CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust was significantly decreased by 92% and 305%, respectively, as compared with the flux without the effects of the biocrusts. The decrement of the soil CO, flux by the biocrusts was related to the biocrusts components and their biomass. Under the effects of dark colored cyanobacteria crust and moss crust, the soil CO2 flux was decreased by 141% and 484%, respectively, as compared with that in bare land. The diurnal curve of soil CO2 flux under effects of biocrusts presented a trend of 'drop-rise-drop' , with the maximum carbon uptake under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust being 0.13 and -1.02 micromol CO2.m-2.s-1 and occurred at about 8:00 and 9:00 am, respectively, while that in bare land was unimodal. In a day (24 h) , the total CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust was increased by 7.7% , while that under effects of moss crust was decreased by 29.6%, as compared with the total CO2 flux in bare land. This study suggested that in the hilly region of Loess Plateau, biocrust had significant effects on soil CO2 flux, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the carbon budget of the 'Grain for Green' eco-project.

  7. Estimates of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes in a biofiltration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Niculescu, A.; Beringer, J.; Deletic, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biofiltration systems (or biofilters, bioretention systems or rain gardens) have been adopted to improve the quality of urban aquatic ecosystems and to reduce volumes and peaks of stormwater runoff. Given their good performances, it is likely that the implementation of such systems in urban areas will greatly increase in the future. As an example, the city of Melbourne (Australia) is planning to install 10,000 biofiltration systems within its area by 2013. Because biofiltration systems are commonly installed in urban areas, along roads and highways, their vegetation is often under atmospheric CO2 concentrations higher than average ambient conditions (i.e., above 380 ppm). Additionally, since these systems are designed to receive runoff from large catchment areas (typically around 50-100 times the area of the biofilter), their vegetation rarely experiences water and nitrogen limitations. These surrounding environmental conditions suggest that biofilters might experience high evapotranspiration (ET) rates and CO2 assimilation via photosynthesis, which could potentially provide benefits to the local microclimate in terms of temperature reduction (cooling due to enhanced ET) and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, in addition to the benefit related to stormwater treatment. These hypotheses have been strengthen by preliminary tests based on laboratory experiments with soil columns vegetated with C.appressa, in which ET has been estimated to be as high as 0.7-0.8 cm per day. To further study these processes, several measurements are being performed in a biofiltration system installed at Monash University, Clayton Campus (Melbourne, VIC). This biofilter receives runoff diverted from a 100% impervious car park and discharges the treated stormwater to an adjacent pond. A chamber that encloses part of the vegetation in the biofilter has been constructed to monitor water and greenhouse gas fluxes. Preliminary results on daily patterns of water and CO2 fluxes within the system in

  8. Effect of Wildfire on Sequoiadendron giganteum Growth and CO2 Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwegen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Due to global warming, parts of the United States are becoming drier than ever before. In 2015, we surpassed 9 million acres burned by wildfires nationally (Rice 2015). Wildfires are most common in the Western United States due to drought, and the fact that the summer months are drier than other areas such as the East Coast, so there is a higher risk for wildland fires (Donegan 2016). These high-growth forests that are more frequently burned by wildfires each year are located near mountain ranges on the west side of the United States. They are important to tourism, contain many endangered species, and need to maintain the natural cycle of fire and regrowth for the continued success of the native plant life. This project investigated the effect of burnt soil on Sequoiadendron giganteum trees. Three were grown in burnt potting soil that had been roasted over a grill for 45 minutes (which is the average destructive fire time), and the other three were the control group in unburned potting soil. We assessed growth by measuring height, color, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and CO2 flux to evaluate the health of the trees in the two soil conditions. We noted that after two weeks the trunks of the trees growing in burnt soil began to brown in color, and they lost leaves. Over the course of the experiment, the trees growing in burnt soil had reduced levels of photosynthesis as compared to the unburned soil (as measured by the net change in CO2 concentration in a sealed chamber over the course of fifteen minutes intervals). On average, the trees growing in burnt soil had flux rates that were 19.59 ppm CO2 /min. more than those growing in unburned soil. In the dark reactions, the burnt soil flux was 54.5 ppm CO2/min., while the unburned soil averaged 40.5 ppm CO2/min. Our results help quantify the impact of fire on delicate ecosystems that are experiencing an increase in fire activity caused by global warming.

  9. Comparative CO2 flux measurements by eddy covariance technique using open- and closed-path gas analysers over the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiyoshi Kondo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct comparison of air–sea CO2 fluxes by open-path eddy covariance (OPEC and closed-path eddy covariance (CPEC techniques was carried out over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Previous studies over oceans have shown that the CO2 flux by OPEC was larger than the bulk CO2 flux using the gas transfer velocity estimated by the mass balance technique, while the CO2 flux by CPEC agreed with the bulk CO2 flux. We investigated a traditional conflict between the CO2 flux by the eddy covariance technique and the bulk CO2 flux, and whether the CO2 fluctuation attenuated using the closed-path analyser can be measured with sufficient time responses to resolve small CO2 flux over oceans. Our results showed that the closed-path analyser using a short sampling tube and a high volume air pump can be used to measure the small CO2 fluctuation over the ocean. Further, the underestimated CO2 flux by CPEC due to the attenuated fluctuation can be corrected by the bandpass covariance method; its contribution was almost identical to that of H2O flux. The CO2 flux by CPEC agreed with the total CO2 flux by OPEC with density correction; however, both of them are one order of magnitude larger than the bulk CO2 flux.

  10. BOREAS TGB-3 CH4 and CO2 Chamber Flux Data over NSA Upland Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kathleen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Moore, Tim R.

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-3) team collected methane and carbon dioxide (CH4, CO2) chamber flux measurements at the Northern Study Area (NSA) Fen, Old Black Spruce (OBS), Young Jack Pine (YJP), and auxiliary sites along Gillam Road and the 1989 burn site. Gas samples were extracted from chambers and analyzed at the NSA lab facility approximately every 7 days during May to September 1994 and June to October 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  11. Influence of travel behavior on global CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Vries, B. de

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand is rising steeply and its contribution to global CO2 emissions is increasing. Different studies have shown possible mitigation through technological options, but so far few studies have evaluated the implications of changing travel behavior on global travel demand, energy use and CO2

  12. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expanding Spatial and Temporal Coverage of Arctic CH4 and CO2 Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.; Oechel, W. C.; Moreaux, V.; Losacco, S.; Zona, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon storage and exchange in Arctic ecosystems is the subject of intensive study focused on determining rates, controls, and mechanisms of CH4 and CO2 fluxes. The Arctic contains more than 1 Gt of Carbon in the upper meter of soil, both in the active layer and permafrost (Schuur et al., 2008; Tarnocai et al., 2009). However, the annual pattern and controls on the release of CH4 is inadequately understood in Arctic tundra ecosystems. Annual methane budgets are poorly understood, and very few studies measure fluxes through the freeze-up cycle during autumn months (Mastepanov et al., 2008; Mastepanov et al., 2010; Sturtevant et al., 2012). There is no known, relatively continuous, CH4 flux record for the Arctic. Clearly, the datasets that currently exist for budget calculations and model parameterization and verification are inadequate. This is likely due to the difficult nature of flux measurements in the Arctic. In September 2012, we initiated a research project towards continuous methane flux measurements along a latitudinal transect in Northern Alaska. The eddy-covariance (EC) technique is challenging in such extreme weather conditions due to the effects of ice formation and precipitation on instrumentation, including gas analyzers and sonic anemometers. The challenge is greater in remote areas of the Arctic, when low power availability and limited communication can lead to delays in data retrieval or data loss. For these reasons, a combination of open- and closed-path gas analyzers, and several sonic anemometers (including one with heating), have been installed on EC towers to allow for cross-comparison and cross-referencing of calculated fluxes. Newer instruments for fast CH4 flux determination include: the Los Gatos Research Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer and the Li-Cor LI-7700. We also included the self-heated Metek Class-A uSonic-3 Anemometer as a new instrument. Previously existing instruments used for comparison include the Li-Cor LI-7500; Li-Cor LI-7200

  14. BOREAS TGB-5 CO2, CH4 and CO Chamber Flux Data Over the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Roger; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Zepp, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-5) team collected a variety of trace gas concentration and flux measurements at several NSA sites. This data set contains carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) chamber flux measurements conducted in 1994 at upland forest sites that experienced stand-replacement fires. These measurements were acquired to understand the impact of fires on soil biogeochemistry and related changes in trace gas exchange in boreal forest soils. Relevant ancillary data, including data concerning the soil temperature, solar irradiance, and information from nearby un-burned control sites, are included to provide a basis for modeling the regional impacts of fire and climate changes on trace gas biogeochemistry. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  15. Sensitivity of spectral indices to CO2 fluxes for several plant communities in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letendre, J.; Poulin, M.; Rochefort, L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the relationship between spectral indices and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fluxes was tested for different communities in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland. This paper focused on the remote sensing approach that was used to directly link spectral indices to CO 2 fluxes to highlight the potential of remote sensing for mapping the spatial distribution of CO 2 fluxes. Carbon exchange in these ecosystems has become an environmental concern since peatlands play a key role in the global carbon cycle. A portable climate-controlled chamber was used to measure fluxes while simultaneously recording reflectance with a hand-held spectroradiometer. A laboratory experiment was also conducted to find a water-related index that most correlated with Sphagnum water content in order to regulate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values obtained in the field. The laboratory experiment showed a strong correlation between Sphagnum water content and all spectral indices, notably the water index (WI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), and relative depth index (RDI). The water index was chosen to regulate NDVI values. This paper described the indices that were tested in the field for CO 2 flux estimations. NDVI alone was found to be a poor predictor of net ecosystem exchange. The relationship between CO 2 fluxes and narrow band chlorophyll indices was reasonably well adjusted. It was concluded that the chlorophyll indices may be the most promising for mapping the spatial distribution of CO 2 fluxes in the future. 62 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Effects of climate factors and vegetation on the CO2 fluxes and δ13C from re-established grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyk, Yaroslav; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Sówka, Izabela

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C -CO2) of soil CO2 flux, vegetation cover and weather conditions was investigated in a short-term campaign at a temperate re-established grassland in Germany. During August-September 2016, we measured surface CO2 flux with a closed-chamber method at high and low soil moisture content (`wet', `dry'), with and without above ground vegetation (`planted', `clear-cut') and estimated the effects of treatments on respective δ13C -CO2 values. The concentration and stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 were determined using the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The δ13C -CO2 of the soil fluxes decreased over sampling time for the `dry-warm' conditions and canopy manipulation. The ecosystem-derived δ13C -CO2 values (corrected for the atmospheric δ13C -CO2) which included predominately soil-and rhizosphere respiration were -26.2 ± 0.8‰ for the `dry-warm' conditions and decreased down to -28.1 ± 1.4‰ over a period of 28 days from late August to the end of September. The decrease coincided with the lowering of CO2 flux and could be attributed to changes in plant physiological processes at the end of the vegetation season. Though the removal of shoots did not significantly affect the δ13C -CO2 values as compared with the control, the pattern of further δ13C -CO2 decrease (down to -28.8 ± 0.8‰) supported the role of living vegetation in a contribution of 13C-enriched CO2 to the ecosystem respiration.

  17. Responses of soil CO2 fluxes to short-term experimental warming in alpine steppe ecosystem, Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuyang; Fan, Jihui; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Therefore small changes in the size of this flux can have a large effect on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and potentially constitute a powerful positive feedback to the climate system. Soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and their responses to short-term experimental warming were investigated during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that the total soil CO2 emission fluxes during the entire growing season were 55.82 and 104.31 g C m(-2) for the control and warming plots, respectively. Thus, the soil CO2 emission fluxes increased 86.86% with the air temperature increasing 3.74°C. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q 10) of the control and warming plots were 2.10 and 1.41, respectively. The soil temperature and soil moisture could partially explain the temporal variations of soil CO2 fluxes. The relationship between the temporal variation of soil CO2 fluxes and the soil temperature can be described by exponential equation. These results suggest that warming significantly promoted soil CO2 emission in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and indicate that this alpine ecosystem is very vulnerable to climate change. In addition, soil temperature and soil moisture are the key factors that controls soil organic matter decomposition and soil CO2 emission, but temperature sensitivity significantly decreases due to the rise in temperature.

  18. Transpiration and CO2 fluxes of a pine forest: modelling the undergrowth effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rivalland

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study is performed in order to quantify the relative effect of allowing for the physiological properties of an undergrowth grass sward on total canopy water and carbon fluxes of the Le-Bray forest (Les-Landes, South-western France. The Le-Bray forest consists of maritime pine and an herbaceous undergrowth (purple moor-grass, which is characterised by a low stomatal control of transpiration, in contrast to maritime pine. A CO2-responsive land surface model is used that includes responses of woody and herbaceous species to water stress. An attempt is made to represent the properties of the undergrowth vegetation in the land surface model Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere, CO2-responsive, ISBA-A-gs. The new adjustment allows for a fairly different environmental response between the forest canopy and the understory in a simple manner. The model's simulations are compared with long term (1997 and 1998 micro-meteorological measurements over the Le-Bray site. The fluxes of energy, water and CO2, are simulated with and without the improved representation of the undergrowth vegetation, and the two simulations are compared with the observations. Accounting for the undergrowth permits one to improve the model's scores. A simple sensitivity experiment shows the behaviour of the model in response to climate change conditions, and the understory effect on the water balance and carbon storage of the forest. Accounting for the distinct characteristics of the undergrowth has a substantial and positive effect on the model accuracy and leads to a different response to climate change scenarios.

  19. Global monthly CO2 flux inversion with a focus over North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Deng; Chen, Jing M.; Ishizawa, Misa; Chiu-Wai Yuen; Gang Mo; Higuchi, Kaz; Chan, Douglas; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2007-01-01

    A nested inverse modelling system was developed for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Monthly inverse modelling was conducted using CO 2 concentration measurements of 3 yr (2001-2003) at 88 sites. Inversion results show that in 2003 the global carbon sink is -2.76 ± 0.55 Pg C. Oceans and lands are responsible for 88.5% and 11.5% of the sink, respectively. Northern lands are the largest sinks with North America contributing a sink of -0.97 ± 0.21 Pg C in 2003, of which Canada's sink is -0.34 ± 0.14 Pg C. For Canada, the inverse results show a spatial pattern in agreement, for the most part, with a carbon source and sink distribution map previously derived through ecosystem modelling. However, discrepancies in the spatial pattern and in flux magnitude between these two estimates exist in certain regions. Numerical experiments with a full covariance matrix, with the consideration of the error structure of the a priori flux field based on meteorological variables among the 30 North America regions, resulted in a small but meaningful improvement in the inverted fluxes. Uncertainty reduction analysis suggests that new observation sites are still needed to further improve the inversion for these 30 regions in North America

  20. LBA-ECO TG-07 Soil CO2 Flux by Automated Chamber, Para, Brazil: 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.K. Varner; M.M. Keller

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the soil-atmosphere flux of CO2 were made at the km 67 flux tower site in the Tapajos National Forest, Santarem, Para, Brazil. Eight chambers were set up to measure trace gas exchange between the soil and atmosphere about 5 times a day (during daylight and night) at this undisturbed forest site from April 2001 to April 2003. CO2 soil efflux data are...

  1. Comparisons of a Quantum Annealing and Classical Computer Neural Net Approach for Inferring Global Annual CO2 Fluxes over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Radov, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show growing amplitudes in seasonal variations over the past several decades. Recent high-resolution satellite measurements of CO2 concentration are now available for three years from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of DOE has been making long-term CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and an array of other meteorological quantities) at several towers and mobile sites located around the globe at half-hour frequencies. Recent papers have shown CO2 fluxes inferred by assimilating CO2 observations into ecosystem models are largely inconsistent with station observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. Thus, new approaches for calculating CO2-flux for assimilation into land surface models are necessary for improving the prediction of annual carbon uptake. In this study, we calculate and compare the predicted CO2 fluxes results employing a Feed Forward Backward Propagation Neural Network model on two architectures, (i) an IBM Minsky Computer node and (ii) a hybrid version of the ARC D-Wave quantum annealing computer. We compare the neural net results of predictions of CO2 flux from ARM station data for three different DOE ecosystem sites; an arid plains near Oklahoma City, a northern arctic site at Barrows AL, and a tropical rainforest site in the Amazon. Training times and predictive results for the calculating annual CO2 flux for the two architectures for each of the three sites are presented. Comparative results of predictions as measured by RMSE and MAE are discussed. Plots and correlations of observed vs predicted CO2 flux are also presented for all three sites. We show the estimated training times for quantum and classical calculations when extended to calculating global annual Carbon Uptake over land. We also

  2. Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Volcanic CO2 Fluxes at Solfatara (Italy—Direct Versus Inverse Bayesian Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Queißer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is the second most abundant volatile species of degassing magma. CO2 fluxes carry information of incredible value, such as periods of volcanic unrest. Ground-based laser remote sensing is a powerful technique to measure CO2 fluxes in a spatially integrated manner, quickly and from a safe distance, but it needs accurate knowledge of the plume speed. The latter is often difficult to estimate, particularly for complex topographies. So, a supplementary or even alternative way of retrieving fluxes would be beneficial. Here, we assess Bayesian inversion as a potential technique for the case of the volcanic crater of Solfatara (Italy, a complex terrain hosting two major CO2 degassing fumarolic vents close to a steep slope. Direct integration of remotely sensed CO2 concentrations of these vents using plume speed derived from optical flow analysis yielded a flux of 717 ± 121 t day−1, in agreement with independent measurements. The flux from Bayesian inversion based on a simple Gaussian plume model was in excellent agreement under certain conditions. In conclusion, Bayesian inversion is a promising retrieval tool for CO2 fluxes, especially in situations where plume speed estimation methods fail, e.g., optical flow for transparent plumes. The results have implications beyond volcanology, including ground-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases and verification of satellite soundings.

  3. Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: Association with Biochemical and Physical Factors during Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Burgos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W during spring 2011. Additional biogeochemical and physical variables measured to identify factors controlling the surface pCO2 were analyzed in discrete samples collected at 16 sites along the transect at the surface and to a depth of 200 m. Sea surface pCO2 varied between 309 and 662 μatm, and showed differences between the western and eastern subtropical gyre. The subtropical gyre acted as a net CO2 sink, with a mean flux of −5.5 ± 2.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The eastern part of the transect, close to the North Atlantic Iberian upwelling off the Galician coast, was a CO2 source with an average flux of 33.5 ± 9.0 mmol m−2 day−1. Our results highlight the importance of making more surface pCO2 observations in the area located east of the Azores Islands since air-sea CO2 fluxes there are poorly studied.

  4. The seasonal cycle of pCO2 and CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean: diagnosing anomalies in CMIP5 Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious Mongwe, N.; Vichi, Marcello; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The Southern Ocean forms an important component of the Earth system as a major sink of CO2 and heat. Recent studies based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) Earth system models (ESMs) show that CMIP5 models disagree on the phasing of the seasonal cycle of the CO2 flux (FCO2) and compare poorly with available observation products for the Southern Ocean. Because the seasonal cycle is the dominant mode of CO2 variability in the Southern Ocean, its simulation is a rigorous test for models and their long-term projections. Here we examine the competing roles of temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as drivers of the seasonal cycle of pCO2 in the Southern Ocean to explain the mechanistic basis for the seasonal biases in CMIP5 models. We find that despite significant differences in the spatial characteristics of the mean annual fluxes, the intra-model homogeneity in the seasonal cycle of FCO2 is greater than observational products. FCO2 biases in CMIP5 models can be grouped into two main categories, i.e., group-SST and group-DIC. Group-SST models show an exaggeration of the seasonal rates of change of sea surface temperature (SST) in autumn and spring during the cooling and warming peaks. These higher-than-observed rates of change of SST tip the control of the seasonal cycle of pCO2 and FCO2 towards SST and result in a divergence between the observed and modeled seasonal cycles, particularly in the Sub-Antarctic Zone. While almost all analyzed models (9 out of 10) show these SST-driven biases, 3 out of 10 (namely NorESM1-ME, HadGEM-ES and MPI-ESM, collectively the group-DIC models) compensate for the solubility bias because of their overly exaggerated primary production, such that biologically driven DIC changes mainly regulate the seasonal cycle of FCO2.

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhu, Tingcheng; Ni, Hongwei; Zhong, Haixiu; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER), leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE) in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER, leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  7. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  8. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  9. Measurements and models of CO2 and CH4 Flux in the Baltimore/Washington area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Ren, X.; Salawitch, R. J.; Ahn, D.; Karion, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.; Martin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Direct measurements of concentrations of pollutants such as CO2 and CH4 can be combined with wind fields to determine the flux of these species and to evaluate emissions inventories or models. The mass balance approach, assumng linear flow into and out of a volume set over a city, works best where wind fields are simplest. Over typical American east coast cities, upwind sources and complex circulation (e.g., the sea breeze) complicate such analyses. We will present findings from a coupled measurement and modeling project involving a network of surface-based tower measurements, aircraft observations, and remote sensing that constrain model calculations. Summer and winter scenarios are contrasted, and results help evaluate the emissions of short-lived pollutants. Determinations are compared to several emissions inventories and are being used to help States evaluate evaluate plans for pollution control.

  10. Influence of repeated canopy scorching on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    DP Aubrey; B Martazavi; Joseph O' Brien; JD McGee; JJ Hendricks; KA Kuehn; RJ Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems experience various disturbances that can affect belowground carbon cycling to different degrees. Here, we investigate if successive annual foliar scorching events will result in a large and rapid decline in soil CO2 efflux, similar to that observed in girdling studies. Using the fire-adapted longleaf pine (Pinus...

  11. Factors influencing the amount of CO2 sorbed on coal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibyl, Oldřich; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Kolář, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2009), s. 52-57 ISSN 1210-9606. [Coal Geology Conference. Praha, 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sorption of CO2 * carbon dioxide * coal sorption capacity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Productivity and CO2 exchange of Great Plains ecoregions. I. Shortgrass steppe: Flux tower estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Morgan, Jack A.; Hanan, Niall P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rajan, Nithya; Smith, David P.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The shortgrass steppe (SGS) occupies the southwestern part of the Great Plains. Half of the land is cultivated, but significant areas remain under natural vegetation. Despite previous studies of the SGS carbon cycle, not all aspects have been completely addressed, including gross productivity, ecosystem respiration, and ecophysiological parameters. Our analysis of 1998 − 2007 flux tower measurements at five Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) and three eddy covariance (EC) sites characterized seasonal and interannual variability of gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation for the diurnal CO2 exchange, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation and exponential temperature response, quantified quantum yield α, photosynthetic capacity Amax, and respiration rate rd with variation ranges (19 \\production from − 900 to + 700 g CO2 m− 2 yr− 1, indicating that SGS may switch from a sink to a source depending on weather. Comparison of the 2004 − 2006 measurements at two BREB and two parallel EC flux towers located at comparable SGS sites showed moderately higher photosynthesis, lower respiration, and higher net production at the BREB than EC sites. However, the difference was not related only to methodologies, as the normalized difference vegetation index at the BREB sites was higher than at the EC sites. Overall magnitudes and seasonal patterns at the BREB and the EC sites during the 3-yr period were similar, with trajectories within the ± 1.5 standard deviation around the mean of the four sites and mostly reflecting the effects of meteorology.

  13. [Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes from rhizosphere soil mineralization and root decomposition in Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Yuan, Ping-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    Rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils and the absorption, transition, and storage roots were sampled from the mid-subtropical Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests to study the CO2 fluxes from soil mineralization and root decomposition in the forests. The samples were incubated in closed jars at 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 45 degrees C, respectively, and alkali absorption method was applied to measure the CO2 fluxes during 53 days incubation. For the two forests, the rhizospheric effect (ratio of rhizospheric to non-rhizospheric soil) on the CO2 flux from soil mineralization across all incubation temperature ranged from 1.12 to 3.09, with a decreasing trend along incubation days. There was no significant difference in the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests at 15 degrees C, but the CO2 flux was significantly higher in P. massoniana forest than in C. sclerophylla forest at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and in an opposite pattern at 45 degrees C. At all incubation temperature, the CO2 release from the absorption root decomposition was higher than that from the transition and storage roots decomposition, and was smaller in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest for all the root functional types. The Q10 values of the CO2 fluxes from the two forests were higher for soils (1.21-1.83) than for roots (0.96-1.36). No significant differences were observed in the Q10 values of the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests, but the Q10 value of the CO2 flux from root decomposition was significantly higher in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest. It was suggested that the increment of CO2 flux from soil mineralization under global warming was far higher than that from root decomposition, and for P. massoniana than for C. sclerophylla forest. In subtropics of China, the adaptability of zonal climax community to global warming would be stronger than that of pioneer community.

  14. Coastal upwelling fluxes of O2, N2O, and CO2 assessed from continuous atmospheric observations at Trinidad, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lueker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous atmospheric records of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O obtained at Trinidad, California document the effects of air-sea exchange during coastal upwelling and plankton bloom events. The atmospheric records provide continuous observations of air-sea fluxes related to synoptic scale upwelling events over several upwelling seasons. Combined with satellite, buoy and local meteorology data, calculated anomalies in O2/N2 and N2O were utilized in a simple atmospheric transport model to compute air-sea fluxes during coastal upwelling. CO2 fluxes were linked to the oceanic component of the O2 fluxes through local hydrographic data and estimated as a function of upwelling intensity (surface ocean temperature and wind speed. Regional air-sea fluxes of O2/N2, N2O, and CO2 during coastal upwelling were estimated with the aid of satellite wind and SST data. Upwelling CO2 fluxes were found to represent ~10% of export production along the northwest coast of North America. Synoptic scale upwelling events impact the net exchange of atmospheric CO2 along the coastal margin, and will vary in response to the frequency and duration of alongshore winds that are subject to climate change.

  15. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  16. Searching Sinks and Sources: CO2 Fluxes Before and After Partial Deforestation of a Spruce Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P.; Graf, A.; Druee, C.; Esser, O.; Klosterhalfen, A.; Valler, V.; Pick, K.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the northern mid-latitudes act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and hence play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Disturbances of these landscapes may have a significant impact on their ecosystem carbon budget. We present seven years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements (September 2013 to September 2017) over a 70 year old spruce stock, including three years prior to and four years after partial deforestation. We analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual changes of carbon fluxes as affected mainly by the forest transition. The measurements were carried out in a small headwater catchment (38.5 ha) within the TERENO (TERrestrial Environmental Observatories) network in the Eifel National Park Germany (50°30'N, 06°19'E, 595-629 m a.s.l.). An EC system, mounted on the top of a 38 m high tower, continuously samples fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat and CO2. In August and September 2013, more than 20% of the catchment was deforested and planned for regeneration towards natural deciduous vegetation, and a second EC station (2.5 m height) was installed in the middle of this clearcut. Flux partitioning and gap filling methods were used to calculate full time series and annual carbon budgets of the measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components gross primary production (GPP) and total ecosystem respiration (Reco). Additionally, soil respiration was measured with manual chambers on a monthly to bi-monthly basis at 25 transect points in the forest and deforested area. Annual sums of NEE represent the forest as a carbon sink with small inter-annual variability. In contrast, the deforested area showed a clear trend. In the first year after partial deforestation, regrowth on the deforested area consisted mainly of grasses and red foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.), while since the second year also growth of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) increased. The regrowth of biomass is

  17. Toward an estimation of daily european CO2 fluxes at high spatial resolution by inversion of atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, C.

    2006-04-01

    Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO 2 . This is possible because CO 2 concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO 2 inversions have used monthly mean CO 2 atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO 2 measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO 2 fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO 2 concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on distance between pixels, climate and vegetation

  18. Hybrid inversions of CO2 fluxes at regional scale applied to network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; -Thomas Koch, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Long term observations of atmospheric greenhouse gas measuring stations, located at representative regions over the continent, improve our understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. These mixing ratio measurements can be linked to surface fluxes by atmospheric transport inversions. Within the upcoming years new stations are to be deployed, which requires decision making tools with respect to the location and the density of the network. We are developing a method to assess potential greenhouse gas observing networks in terms of their ability to recover specific target quantities. As target quantities we use CO2 fluxes aggregated to specific spatial and temporal scales. We introduce a high resolution inverse modeling framework, which attempts to combine advantages from pixel based inversions with those of a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). The hybrid inversion system consists of the Lagrangian transport model STILT, the diagnostic biosphere model VPRM and a Bayesian inversion scheme. We aim to retrieve the spatiotemporal distribution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a high spatial resolution (10 km x 10 km) by inverting for spatially and temporally varying scaling factors for gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) and respiration (R) rather than solving for the fluxes themselves. Thus the state space includes parameters for controlling photosynthesis and respiration, but unlike in a CCDAS it allows for spatial and temporal variations, which can be expressed as NEE(x,y,t) = λG(x,y,t) GEE(x,y,t) + λR(x,y,t) R(x,y,t) . We apply spatially and temporally correlated uncertainties by using error covariance matrices with non-zero off-diagonal elements. Synthetic experiments will test our system and select the optimal a priori error covariance by using different spatial and temporal correlation lengths on the error statistics of the a priori covariance and comparing the optimized fluxes against the 'known truth'. As 'known truth' we use independent fluxes

  19. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the dynamics of CO2 emissions from chernozems soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syabruk, Olesia

    2017-04-01

    5 to 15 % of the average level. The influence of the crop on the allocation dynamics of CO2 was also investigates during the research. Due to root respiration, total CO2 flux from soil increases by an average of 12-32 % when growing grain crops. The mathematical models of dependency between the CO2 emissions intensity and hydrothermal conditions were developed. These models will allow to predict the volume of CO2 emissions from automorphic chernozems under different scenarios of weather conditions during warm period, based on generalizing models with the corrections depending on the method of cultivation, fertilization system and agricultural culture. As a result of the research, it was proved that there is a necessity to conduct periodic direct measurements of CO2 emission losses from the soil surface and to summarize the results in an annual cycle, which allows estimating the probable emission losses of carbon already in the first years of the introduction of new agricultural technologies.

  20. Changes in ecosystem carbon pool and soil CO2 flux following post-mine reclamation in dry tropical environment, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwal, Jitendra; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Open strip mining of coal results in loss of natural carbon (C) sink and increased emission of CO 2 into the atmosphere. A field study was carried out at five revegetated coal mine lands (7, 8, 9, 10 and 11years) to assess the impact of the reclamation on soil properties, accretion of soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) stock, changes in ecosystem C pool and soil CO 2 flux. We estimated the presence of C in the tree biomass, soils, litter and microbial biomass to determine the total C sequestration potential of the post mining reclaimed land. To determine the C sequestration of the reclaimed ecosystem, soil CO 2 flux was measured along with the CO 2 sequestration. Reclaimed mine soil (RMS) fertility increased along the age of reclamation and decreases with the soil depths that may be attributed to the change in mine soils characteristics and plant growth. After 7 to 11years of reclamation, SOC and N stocks increased two times. SOC sequestration (1.71MgCha -1 year -1 ) and total ecosystem C pool (3.72MgCha -1 year -1 ) increased with the age of reclamation (CO 2 equivalent: 13.63MgCO 2 ha -1 year -1 ). After 11years of reclamation, soil CO 2 flux (2.36±0.95μmolm -2 s -1 ) was found four times higher than the natural forest soils (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F). The study shows that reclaimed mine land can act as a source/sink of CO 2 in the terrestrial ecosystem and plays an important role to offset increased emission of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method to estimate CO2 and CH4 surface fluxes in the city of Krakow, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Pieniazek, Katarzyna; Jasek, Alina; Chmura, Lukasz; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the recent years in studies aimed at quantifying carbon cycling in urban centres. Worldwide migration of human population from rural to urban areas and corresponding growth of extensive urban agglomerations and megacities leads to intensification of anthropogenic emissions of carbon and strong disruption of natural carbon cycle on these areas. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the carbon "metabolism" of such regions is required. Apart of better quantification of surface carbon fluxes, also a thorough understanding of the functioning of biosphere under strong anthropogenic influence is needed. Nowadays, covariance methods are widely applied for studying gas exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation method (REA), combined with the CO2 and CH4 CRDS analyser allows simultaneous measurements of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane within the chosen footprint of the detection system, thus making possible thorough characterisation of the overall exchange of those gases between the atmosphere and the urban surface across diverse spatial and temporal scales. Here we present preliminary results of the study aimed at quantifying surface fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in Krakow, southern Poland. The REA system for CO2 and CH4 flux measurements has been installed on top of a 20m high tower mounted on the roof of the faculty building, close to the city centre of Krakow. The sensors were installed ca 42 m above the local ground. Gill Windmaster-Pro sonic anemometer was coupled with self-made system, designed by the Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland, for collecting air samples in two pairs of 10-liter Tedlar bags, and with Picarro G2101-i CRDS analyser. The air was collected in 30-min intervals. The CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios in these cumulative downdraft and updraft air samples were determined by the CRDS analyser after each sampling interval. Based on the measured mixing ratios difference and the

  2. Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifang; Fu, Shenglei; Zhao, Hongting; Xia, Hanping

    2011-01-01

    We report on the effects of forest management practices of understory removal and N-fixing species (Cassia alata) addition on soil CO2 fluxes in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation (EUp), Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp), 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp), and 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) using the static chamber method in southern China. Four forest management treatments, including (1) understory removal (UR); (2) C. alata addition (CA); (3) understory removal and replacement with C. alata (UR+CA); and (4) control without any disturbances (CK), were applied in the above four forest plantations with three replications for each treatment. The results showed that soil CO2 fluxes rates remained at a high level during the rainy season (from April to September), followed by a rapid decrease after October reaching a minimum in February. Soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P plantations under various management practices.

  3. Quantifying the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of aquatic CO2 fluxes in a sub-tropical karst catchment, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Waldron, Susan; Newton, Jason; Garnett, Mark H.

    2017-04-01

    The role played by rivers in regional and global C budgets is receiving increasing attention. A large portion of the carbon transported via inland waters is returned to the atmosphere by carbon dioxide evasion from rivers and lakes. Karst landscapes represent an important C store on land, and are also considered to play an important role in climate regulation by consuming atmospheric CO2 during chemical weathering. However, we cannot be certain how effective this sink is if we do not know how efficiently the rivers draining karst landscapes remobilise weathered C to the atmosphere as CO2. pCO2 in karst waters is generally greater than atmospheric equilibrium, indicating that there can be a net CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. However, measurement confirming this and quantifying flux rates has been rarely conducted. Using a floating chamber method, in 2016 we directly measured CO2 fluxes from spatially distributed freshwaters (springs, sinkholes, streams and reservoirs/ponds) in the Houzhai Catchment, a karst region in SW China. Fluxes ranged from -0.5 to +267.4 μmol CO2 m-2s-1, and most sites showed seasonal variations with higher CO2 efflux rates in the wet (April - September) than dry season (October - March). There was a significant positive relationship between CO2 efflux and flow velocity, indicating that hydraulic controls on CO2 efflux from flowing water are important, while for water with little movement (sinkholes and reservoirs/ponds), pCO2 appears a more important control on efflux rates. Conditions similar to this study area may exist in many sub-tropical rivers that drain karst landscapes in South China. These waters are rich in DIC which can be an order of magnitude greater than some non-karst catchments. The large DIC pool has the potential to be a considerable source of free CO2 to the atmosphere. Considering that carbonate lithology covers a significant part of the Earth's surface, CO2 evasion in fluvial water from these regions is expected to

  4. APO observations in Southern Greenland: evaluation of modelled air-sea O2 and CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Bopp, Laurent; Delmotte, Marc; Cadule, Patricia; Resplandy, Laure; Nevison, Cynthia; Manizza, Manfredi; Valentin Lavric, Jost; Manning, Andrew C.; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    Since September 2007, the atmospheric CO2 mole fraction and O2/N2 ratio (a proxy for O2 concentration) have been monitored continuously at the coastal site of Ivittuut, southern Greenland (61.21° N, 48.17° W). From 2007 to 2013, our measurements show multi-annual trends of +2.0 ppm/year and -20 per meg/year respectively for CO2 and O2/N2, with annual average peak-to-peak seasonal amplitudes of 14+/-1 ppm and 130+/-15 per meg. We investigate the implications of our data set in terms of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen). This tracer, obtained by a linear combination of CO2 and O2/N2 data, is invariant to CO2 and O2 exchanges in the land biota, but sensitive to the oceanic component of the O2 cycle. It is used as a bridge to evaluate air-sea CO2 and O2 fluxes from atmospheric variations of CO2 and O2/N2. Global ocean biogeochemical models produce estimates of CO2 and O2 air-sea fluxes. Atmospheric APO variations can be simulated through transportation of these fluxes in the atmosphere by Eulerian transport models. Thus, model values of atmospheric APO can be extracted at the station location. This study is based on air-sea flux outputs from CMIP5 simulations. After atmospheric transportation, they give access to atmospheric APO climatologies which can be compared, in terms of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability, to the in situ observations. A preliminary study is based on the CCSM ocean model air-sea fluxes transported in the atmosphere with the MATCH transport model, over the period 1979-2004. The amplitude of the APO seasonal cycle is correctly captured, but year to year variations on this seasonal cycle appears to be underestimated compared to observations. The LMDZ atmospheric transport model is also used to transport the ocean fluxes from five CMIP5 models, over the period 1979-2005, showing different amplitudes and timings of APO seasonal cycles. This methodology is a first step to evaluate the origin of observed APO variations at our site and then

  5. Can we distinguish autotrophic respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a field site using high temporal resolution CO2 flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Beatrice; Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The processes behind C-cycling in peatlands are important to understand for assessing the vulnerability of peatlands as carbon sinks under changing climate conditions. Especially boreal peatlands are likely to underlie strong alterations in the future. It is expected that C-pools that are directly influenced by vegetation and water table fluctuations can be easily destabilized. The CO2 efflux through respiration underlies autotrophic and heterotrophic processes that show different feedbacks on changing environmental conditions. In order to understand the respiration fluxes better for more accurate modelling and prognoses, the determination of the relative importance of different respiration sources is necessary. Earlier studies used e.g. exfoliation experiments, incubation experiments or modelling approaches to estimate the different respiration sources for the total ecosystem respiration (Reco). To further the understanding in this topic, I want to distinguish autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using high temporal resolution measurements. The study site was selected along a hydrological gradient in a peatland in southern Ontario (Canada) and measurements were conducted from May to September 2015 once per month. Environmental controls (water table, soil temperature and soil moisture) that effect the respiration sources were recorded. In my study I used a Li-COR 6400XT and a Los Gatos greenhouse gas analyzer (GGA). Reco was determined by chamber flux measurements with the GGA, while simultaneously CO2 respiration measurements on different vegetation compartments like roots, leaves and mosses were conducted using the Li-COR 6400XT. The difference between Reco and autotrophic respiration equals heterotrophic respiration. After the measurements, the vegetation plots were harvested and separated for all compartments (leaves, roots, mosses, soil organic matter), dried and weighed. The weighted respiration rates from all vegetation compartments sum up to

  6. Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: quantification of the European terrestrial CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; Rödenbeck, Christian; Karstens, Ute; Koch, Thomas F.; Heimann, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Optimized biogenic carbon fluxes for Europe were estimated from high-resolution regional-scale inversions, utilizing atmospheric CO2 measurements at 16 stations for the year 2007. Additional sensitivity tests with different data-driven error structures were performed. As the atmospheric network is rather sparse and consequently contains large spatial gaps, we use a priori biospheric fluxes to further constrain the inversions. The biospheric fluxes were simulated by the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM) at a resolution of 0.1° and optimized against eddy covariance data. Overall we estimate an a priori uncertainty of 0.54 GtC yr-1 related to the poor spatial representation between the biospheric model and the ecosystem sites. The sink estimated from the atmospheric inversions for the area of Europe (as represented in the model domain) ranges between 0.23 and 0.38 GtC yr-1 (0.39 and 0.71 GtC yr-1 up-scaled to geographical Europe). This is within the range of posterior flux uncertainty estimates of previous studies using ground-based observations.

  7. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to change below-ground nutrient cycling and thereby alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases. We measured fluxes of CH4 and N2O in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands grown in open-top chambers under ambient and twice......-ambient CO2 concentrations crossed with `high' and low soil-N conditions. Flux measurements with small static chambers indicated net CH4 oxidation in the open-top chambers. Across dates, CH4 oxidation activity was significantly (P CO2 (8.7 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) than...... with elevated CO2 (6.5 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) in the low N soil. Likewise, across dates and soil N treatments CH4 was oxidized more rapidly (P CO2 (9.5 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) than in chambers with elevated CO2 (8.8 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)). Methane oxidation in soils incubated...

  8. Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 μatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 μatm) than Heron Island (471 μatm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 μatm) than in Rarotonga (507 μatm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

  9. Controlling mechanisms of surface partial pressure of CO2 in Jiaozhou Bay during summer and the influence of heavy rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunxiao; Yang, Xufeng; Han, Ping; Xue, Liang; Zhang, Longjun

    2017-09-01

    Due to the combined effects of natural processes and human activities, carbon source/sink processes and mechanisms in the coastal ocean are becoming more and more important in current ocean carbon cycle research. Based on differences in the ratio of total alkalinity (TA) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) associated with terrestrial input, biological process (production and respiration), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) process (precipitation and dissolution) and CO2 evasion/invasion, we discuss the mechanisms controlling the surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) during summer and the influence of heavy rain, via three cruises performed in mid-June, early July and late July of 2014. In mid-June and in early July, without heavy rain or obvious river input, sea surface pCO2 ranged from 521 to 1080 μatm and from 547 to 998 μatm, respectively. The direct input of DIC from sewage and the intense respiration produced large DIC additions and the highest pCO2 values in the northeast of the bay near the downtown of Qingdao. However, in the west of the bay, significant CaCO3 precipitation led to DIC removal but no obvious increase in pCO2, which was just close to that in the central area. Due to the shallow depth and longer water residence time in this region, this pattern may be related to the sustained release of CO2 into the atmosphere. In late July, heavy rain promoted river input in the western and eastern portions of JZB. Strong primary production led to a significant decrease in pCO2 in the western area, with the lowest pCO2 value of 252 μatm. However, in the northeastern area, the intense respiration remained, and the highest pCO2 value was 1149 μatm. The average air-sea CO2 flux in mid-June and early July was 20.23 mmol m- 2 d- 1 and 23.56 mmol m- 2 d- 1, respectively. In contrast, in late July, sources became sinks for atmospheric CO2 in the western and central areas of the bay, halving the average air-sea CO2 flux to a value of 10.58 mmol m- 2

  10. Responses of CO2 Fluxes to Arctic Browning Events in a Range of High Latitude, Shrub-Dominated Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, G. K.; Treharne, R.; Emberson, L.; Tømmervik, H. A.; Bjerke, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic and biotic extreme events can result in considerable damage to arctic vegetation, often at landscape and larger scale. These acute events therefore contribute to the browning observed in some arctic regions. It is of considerable concern, therefore, that such extreme events are increasing in frequency as part of climate change. However, despite the increasing importance of browning events, and the considerable impact they can have on ecosystems, to date there is little understanding of their impacts on ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, the impacts of a number of different, commonly occurring, extreme events and their subsequent browning (vegetation damage) on key ecosystem CO2 fluxes were assessed during the growing season at a range of event damaged sites of shrub dominated vegetation. Sites were located from the boreal to High Arctic (64˚N-79˚N) and had been previously been damaged by events of frost-drought, extreme winter warming, ground icing and caterpillar (Epirrita autumnata) outbreaks. Plot-level CO2 fluxes of Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) were assessed using vegetation chambers. At a sub-set of sites, NDVI (greenness) in flux plots was also assessed by hand-held proximal sensor, allowing the relationship between NDVI of damage plots to CO2 flux to be calculated. Despite the contrasting sites and drivers, damage had consistent, major impacts on all fluxes. All sites showed reductions in GPP and NEE with increasing damage, despite efflux from Reco also declining with damage. When scaled to site-level, reductions of up to 81% of NEE, 51% of GPP and 37% of Reco were observed. In the plot-level NDVI-flux relationship, NDVI was shown to explain up to 91% of variation in GPP, and therefore supports the use of NDVI for estimating changes in ecosystem CO2 flux at larger scales in regions where browning has been driven by extreme events. This work is the first attempt to quantify the

  11. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A 13C labelling study on carbon fluxes in Arctic plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Kluijver

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CO2 on carbon fluxes (production, consumption, and export in Arctic plankton communities was investigated during the 2010 EPOCA (European project on Ocean Acidification mesocosm study off Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to nine mesocosms with a range in pCO2 (185 to 1420 μatm to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC into phytoplankton, bacterial and zooplankton consumers, and export. A nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus model amended with 13C dynamics was constructed and fitted to the data to quantify uptake rates and carbon fluxes in the plankton community. The plankton community structure was characteristic for a post-bloom situation and retention food web and showed high bacterial production (∼31% of primary production, high abundance of mixotrophic phytoplankton, low mesozooplankton grazing (∼6% of primary production and low export (∼7% of primary production. Zooplankton grazing and export of detritus were sensitive to CO2: grazing decreased and export increased with increasing pCO2. Nutrient addition halfway through the experiment increased the export, but not the production rates. Although mixotrophs showed initially higher production rates with increasing CO2, the overall production of POC (particulate organic carbon after nutrient addition decreased with increasing CO2. Interestingly, and contrary to the low nutrient situation, much more material settled down in the sediment traps at low CO2. The observed CO2 related effects potentially alter future organic carbon flows and export, with possible consequences for the efficiency of the biological pump.

  13. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan

    2011-01-01

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  14. The influence of risk mitigation measures on the risks, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364248149; Raben, I. M E; Ramírez, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Spruijt, M. P N; Faaij, A. P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether, and if so, in what way risks would influence the design, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines. This article assesses locational and societal risks of CO2 pipeline transport and analyses whether rerouting or implementing additional risk mitigation measures

  15. The influence of risk mitigation measures on the risks, costs and routing of CO 2pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Raben. I.M.E.; Ramírez, A.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether, and if so, in what way risks would influence the design,costs and routing of CO2pipelines. This article assesses locational and societal risks of CO2pipelinetransport and analyses whether rerouting or implementing additional risk mitigation measures is

  16. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    More than 40% of China's total CO 2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO 2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO 2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO 2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO 2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO 2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO 2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ► We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO 2 emissions. ► The average annual growth rate of CO 2 emission from power industry is calculated. ► Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO 2 emission. ► The Granger causality between CO 2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  17. Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Anichkin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    wet season, the CO2 emission rate was considerably higher and reached 266±40 and 520 ± 39 mg C/m2/h in SurAr and TerPl, respectively. The highest rates of CO2 fluxes (730-880 mg C/m2/h) were observed in the wet season in some of the chambers installed on TerPl. In the tropical forest, termites are the factor of the significant spatial variability in the CO2 fluxes from the soils. On the plots populated by termites, the coefficient of variation of CO2 emission rates reached 79%, while it rarely exceeded 45% on the surrounding area. The termite mounds occupy about 4% of the area of tropical forest ecosystems. However, the overall effect of termites on the carbon budget was more significant and, according to our estimates, it reached up to 10% of the total annual CO2 flux from the soils. Thus, underestimation of the influence of termites may lead to significant errors in the assessment of the organic carbon budget in the semi-deciduous tropical forests.

  18. Soil CO2 dynamics and fluxes as affected by tree harvest in an experimental sand ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.K. Keller; T.M. White; R. O' Brien; J.L. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Soil CO2 production is a key process in ecosystem C exchange, and global change predictions require understanding of how ecosystem disturbance affects this process. We monitored CO2 levels in soil gas and as bicarbonate in drainage from an experimental red pine ecosystem, for 1 year before and 3 years after its aboveground...

  19. Estimation of air-sea CO2 flux in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, T.P.; Rao, K.H.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Seetaram, P.; Choudhury, S.B.; Nagamani, P.V.; Dutt, B.S.; Dhadwal, V.K.; Manna, S.

    radiation, humidity, wind speed, direction and gust were measured using AWS (Watch Dog, 2000 series) instrument which was mounted on the top of the boat. The atmospheric CO2 was measured using Li-COR 840A. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2...

  20. Methane and CO2 fluxes of moving point sources - Beyond or within the limits of eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Münger, Andreas; Ammann, Christof

    2014-05-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used for CO2 and energy exchange measurements over different ecosystems. For some years, it has been also becoming widely used to investigate CH4 and N2O exchange over ecosystems including grazing systems. EC measurements represent a spatially integrated flux over an upwind area (footprint). Whereas for extended homogenous areas EC measurements work well, the animals in a grazing system are a challenge as they represent moving point sources that create inhomogeneous conditions in space and time. The main issues which have to be taken into account when applying EC flux measurements over a grazed system are: i) In the presence of animals the high time resolution concentration measurements show large spikes in the signal. These spikes may be filtered/reduced by standard quality control software in order to avoid wrong measurements. ii) Data on the position of the animals relative to the flux footprint is needed to quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the measured flux. For one grazing season we investigated the ability of EC flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the CH4 and CO2 exchange over pasture systems. For this purpose, a field experiment with a herd of twenty dairy cows in a full-day rotational grazing system was carried out on the Swiss central plateau. Net CH4 and CO2 exchange of the pasture system was measured continuously by the eddy covariance technique (Sonic Anemometer HS-50, Gill Instruments Ltd; FGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.). To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux, the position of the individual cows was recorded using GPS (5 s time resolution) on each animal. An existing footprint calculation tool (ART footprint tool) was adapted and CH4 emissions of the cows were calculated. CH4 emissions from cows could be used as a tracer to investigate the quality of the evaluation of the EC data, since the background exchange of

  1. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  2. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, David F.; Ott, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3 x 3.75 weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in

  3. Influence of CO2 on electrophysiology and ionic permeability of the basolateral membrane of frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    When short-circuited epithelia of frog skin bathed in an alkaline Ringer solution equilibrated with room air, are exposed to a Ringer solution equilibrated with 5% CO 2 , inhibition of transepithelial Na + transport is observed accompanied by a marked depolarization of the basolateral membrane voltage as measured with intracellular microelectrodes. To study further the mechanisms involved, basolateral membrane influxes and effluxes of 24 Na, 42 K, and 36 Cl were measured in control and CO 2 -treated isolated epithelia. In control epithelia, studies of the bidirectional 24 Na fluxes confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na + . In control epithelia, the apical membranes of the cells were found to be virtually impermeable to Cl - , while basolateral membranes were highly permeable to Cl - . Although CO 2 caused a partial inhibition of pump activity as assessed from decreases of pump-mediated Na + efflux and K + influx, CO 2 caused little or no change of the leak influx of Na + or K + . K + efflux was increased markedly with CO 2 resulting in a net loss of K + from the cells. Cl - influx was increased and Cl - efflux was decreased by CO 2 leading to a net influx of Cl - . Analysis of the data according to criteria involving changes of flux, ionic equilibrium potentials, mass and charge balance restrictions indicated that the principle changes involve a transient decrease in electrical conductance to K + with a concurrent increase in electrical conductance to HCO 3 - (OH - or H + ) of the basolateral membranes of the cells

  4. Temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at three differently managed grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Imer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A profound understanding of temporal and spatial variabilities of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is needed to reliably quantify these fluxes and to develop future mitigation strategies. For managed grassland ecosystems, temporal and spatial variabilities of these three soil greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes occur due to changes in environmental drivers as well as fertilizer applications, harvests and grazing. To assess how such changes affect soil GHG fluxes at Swiss grassland sites, we studied three sites along an altitudinal gradient that corresponds to a management gradient: from 400 m a.s.l. (intensively managed to 1000 m a.s.l. (moderately intensive managed to 2000 m a.s.l. (extensively managed. The alpine grassland was included to study both effects of extensive management on CH4 and N2O fluxes and the different climate regime occurring at this altitude. Temporal and spatial variabilities of soil GHG fluxes and environmental drivers on various timescales were determined along transects of 16 static soil chambers at each site. All three grasslands were N2O sources, with mean annual soil fluxes ranging from 0.15 to 1.28 nmol m−2 s−1. Contrastingly, all sites were weak CH4 sinks, with soil uptake rates ranging from −0.56 to −0.15 nmol m−2 s−1. Mean annual soil and plant respiration losses of CO2, measured with opaque chambers, ranged from 5.2 to 6.5 μmol m−2 s−1. While the environmental drivers and their respective explanatory power for soil N2O emissions differed considerably among the three grasslands (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.19 to 0.42, CH4 and CO2 soil fluxes were much better constrained (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.80 by soil water content and air temperature, respectively. Throughout the year, spatial heterogeneity was particularly high for soil N2O and CH4 fluxes. We found permanent hot spots for soil N2O emissions as well as

  5. Global CO2 flux inversions from remote-sensing data with systematic errors using hierarchical statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Stavert, Ann; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita; Rayner, Peter; Cressie, Noel

    2017-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite was launched on 2 July 2014, and it has been a source of atmospheric CO2 data since September 2014. The OCO-2 dataset contains a number of variables, but the one of most interest for flux inversion has been the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction (in units of ppm). These global level-2 data offer the possibility of inferring CO2 fluxes at Earth's surface and tracking those fluxes over time. However, as well as having a component of random error, the OCO-2 data have a component of systematic error that is dependent on the instrument's mode, namely land nadir, land glint, and ocean glint. Our statistical approach to CO2-flux inversion starts with constructing a statistical model for the random and systematic errors with parameters that can be estimated from the OCO-2 data and possibly in situ sources from flasks, towers, and the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). Dimension reduction of the flux field is achieved through the use of physical basis functions, while temporal evolution of the flux is captured by modelling the basis-function coefficients as a vector autoregressive process. For computational efficiency, flux inversion uses only three months of sensitivities of mole fraction to changes in flux, computed using MOZART; any residual variation is captured through the modelling of a stochastic process that varies smoothly as a function of latitude. The second stage of our statistical approach is to simulate from the posterior distribution of the basis-function coefficients and all unknown parameters given the data using a fully Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Estimates and posterior variances of the flux field can then be obtained straightforwardly from this distribution. Our statistical approach is different than others, as it simultaneously makes inference (and quantifies uncertainty) on both the error components' parameters and the CO2 fluxes. We compare it to more classical

  6. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land−atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land−atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt C⋅y−1 of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt C⋅y−1, equivalent to 8–37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the “hotspots,” largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g C⋅m−2⋅y−1), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty. PMID:27247397

  7. Lateral transport of soil carbon and land-atmosphere CO2 flux induced by water erosion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yao; Ni, Jinren; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Li, Tianhong; Wang, Yichu; Chappell, Adrian; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-06-14

    Soil erosion by water impacts soil organic carbon stocks and alters CO2 fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere. The role of erosion as a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2 remains highly debated, and little information is available at scales larger than small catchments or regions. This study attempts to quantify the lateral transport of soil carbon and consequent land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at the scale of China, where severe erosion has occurred for several decades. Based on the distribution of soil erosion rates derived from detailed national surveys and soil carbon inventories, here we show that water erosion in China displaced 180 ± 80 Mt C⋅y(-1) of soil organic carbon during the last two decades, and this resulted a net land sink for atmospheric CO2 of 45 ± 25 Mt C⋅y(-1), equivalent to 8-37% of the terrestrial carbon sink previously assessed in China. Interestingly, the "hotspots," largely distributed in mountainous regions in the most intensive sink areas (>40 g C⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)), occupy only 1.5% of the total area suffering water erosion, but contribute 19.3% to the national erosion-induced CO2 sink. The erosion-induced CO2 sink underwent a remarkable reduction of about 16% from the middle 1990s to the early 2010s, due to diminishing erosion after the implementation of large-scale soil conservation programs. These findings demonstrate the necessity of including erosion-induced CO2 in the terrestrial budget, hence reducing the level of uncertainty.

  8. Scaling-up of CO2 fluxes to assess carbon sequestration in rangelands of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Wylie; Tagir G. Gilmanov; Douglas A. Johnson; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; Larry L. Tieszen; Ruth Anne F. Doyle; Emilio A. Laca

    2006-01-01

    Flux towers provide temporal quantification of local carbon dynamics at specific sites. The number and distribution of flux towers, however, are generally inadequate to quantify carbon fluxes across a landscape or ecoregion. Thus, scaling up of flux tower measurements through use of algorithms developed from remote sensing and GIS data is needed for spatial...

  9. Diffuse CO2 flux emissions from the soil in Las Cañadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter; Liuzzo, Marco; Longo, Manfredi; Pecoraino, Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Starting in April 2004, unusual seismic activity was observed in the interior of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) with much evidence pointing to a reawakening of volcanic activity. During this seismic crisis, several events were felt by the population. Since then, a dense multiparametric monitoring network has been deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). In the framework of this volcanic surveillance project, several geochemical studies have been accomplished. Measurements of diffuse CO2 flux from the soil have been carried out in some zones inside Las Cañadas caldera. This study has been performed during three different field campaigns in November 2012 and June and November 2013. The studied area includes two different zones known as Roques de García and Los Azulejos. Since several authors have reported the existence of fractures and faults all along both structures, the objectives of this work were to find anomalous CO2 fluxes from the soil and preferential degassing areas, identify possible hidden faults and study the origin of gas emanations in order to detect the presence of magmatic sources. More than 600 sampling sites have been measured with the accumulation chamber method in an area of about 1 km2. Soil gas has been sampled in points where high CO2 fluxes were detected for the determination of chemical and isotopic composition. The results of the gas prospection confirm the existence of CO2 degassing in the area. Some anomalous fluxes have been measured along previously inferred volcano-tectonic structures. The highest anomalies were found in Los Azulejos with values up to 1774 g/m2.d. Chemical analysis did not reveal significant concentrations of magmatic or geothermal gases except CO2. The latter showed concentrations at 50 cm depth within the soils up to 48% and a C-isotopic composition between -4.72 and -3.67 o indicating a prevailing magmatic origin.

  10. Influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO2 uptake in a mature jack pine forest in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasmer, L.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is often used to measure the movement and direction of energy and trace gas concentrations in ecosystems. Data from EC networks are often combined with remote sensing data and ecosystem models in order to assess the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchanges within specific areas of interest. This study presented a new method of determining changes in the structural characteristics of biomass and elevation. Lidar was used within the contours of half-hourly flux footprint areas to characterize vegetation structure and elevation. The influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO 2 concentrations were measured by EC and Lidar measurements for 3 mature growing periods at a mature jack pine site in Saskatchewan. Mensuration data were collected over 2 periods. Meteorological, CO 2 , and H2O flux measurements were collected for 30 minute periods each day. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the influence of meteorological variables on vegetation structure. Footprint contour lines were then layered onto the canopy height models derived by the lidar data. Multiple regression equations were used to determine net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) using meteorological variables, canopy fractional cover; and elevation, as well as the results obtained from a Landsberg equation. The study showed that differences in NEP variability were influenced by differences in canopy and ground surface characteristics within the site. EC measurements underestimated gross CO 2 fluxes by 5 per cent as the biomass was lower within the immediate vicinity of the EC network. It was concluded that canopy structures and elevation are important factors for determining annual carbon balances. 36 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  11. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil of a burned grassland in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Valentini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a tropical grassland in Congo Brazzaville during two field campaigns in 2007–2008. The first campaign was conducted in the middle of the dry season and the second at the end of the growing season, respectively one and eight months after burning. Gas fluxes and several soil parameters were measured in each campaign from burned plots and from a close-by control area preserved from fire. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate the magnitude and duration of the generated gas flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, soil samples from field plots were analysed for microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions under different water and temperature soil regimes. One month after burning, field CO2 emissions were significantly lower in burned plots than in the control plots, the average daily CH4 flux shifted from net emission in the unburned area to net consumption in burned plots, no significant effect of fire was observed on soil N2O fluxes. Eight months after burning, the average daily fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O measured in control and burned plots were not significantly different. In laboratory, N2O fluxes from soil of burned plots were significantly higher than fluxes from soil of unburned plots only above 70% of maximum soil water holding capacity; this was never attained in the field even after rain simulation. Higher NO emissions were measured in the lab in soil from burned plots at both 10% and 50% of maximum soil water holding capacity. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 °C to 37 °C negatively affected microbial growth, mineralization and nitrification activities but enhanced N2O and CO2 production. Results indicate that fire did not increase post-burning soil GHG emissions in this tropical grasslands characterized by acidic, well drained and nutrient-poor soil.

  12. CMS: CO2 Signals Estimated for Fossil Fuel Emissions and Biosphere Flux, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated CO2 emission signals for 16 regions (air quality basins) in California, USA, during the individual months of November 2010 and May...

  13. Influence of methane in CO2 transport and storage for CCS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2012-12-04

    CO(2) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a good strategy to mitigate levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. The type and quantity of impurities influence the properties and behavior of the anthropogenic CO(2), and so must be considered in the design and operation of CCS technology facilities. Their study is necessary for CO(2) transport and storage, and to develop theoretical models for specific engineering applications to CCS technology. In this work we determined the influence of CH(4), an important impurity of anthropogenic CO(2), within different steps of CCS technology: transport, injection, and geological storage. For this, we obtained new pressure-density-temperature (PρT) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental data for six CO(2) + CH(4) mixtures at compositions which represent emissions from the main sources in the European Union and United States. The P and T ranges studied are within those estimated for CO(2) pipelines and geological storage sites. From these data we evaluated the minimal pressures for transport, regarding the density and pipeline's capacity requirements, and values for the solubility parameter of the mixtures, a factor which governs the solubility of substances present in the reservoir before injection. We concluded that the presence of CH(4) reduces the storage capacity and increases the buoyancy of the CO(2) plume, which diminishes the efficiency of solubility and residual trapping of CO(2), and reduces the injectivity into geological formations.

  14. A NEW DEVICE FOR CONTINUOUS CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENT IN FOREST STAND

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2004), s. 88-100 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : CO2 efflux * woody tissue CO2 efflux * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004

  15. Spatiotemporal variations in CO2 flux in a fringing reef simulated using a novel carbonate system dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nadaoka, K.; Maeda, Y.; Miyajima, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Blanco, A. C.

    2013-03-01

    A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air-sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce temporal variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity in coral zones, but not in seagrass meadows. The poor reproduction in seagrass meadows can be attributed to significant contributions of submarine groundwater discharge as well as misclassification of remotely sensed megabenthos in this area. In comparison with offshore areas, the reef acted as a CO2 sink during the observation period when it was averaged over 24 h. The CSD model also indicated large spatiotemporal differences in the carbon dioxide (CO2) sink/source, possibly related to hydrodynamic features such as effective offshore seawater exchange and neap/spring tidal variation. This suggests that the data obtained from a single point observation may lead to misinterpretation of the overall trend and thus should be carefully considered. The model analysis also showed that the advective flux of DIC from neighboring grids is several times greater than local biological flux of DIC and is three orders of magnitude greater than the air-sea gas flux at the coral zone. Sensitivity tests in which coral or seagrass covers were altered revealed that the CO2 sink potential was much more sensitive to changes in coral cover than seagrass cover.

  16. Interannual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and its component fluxes in a subalpine Mediterranean ecosystem (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Domingo, Francisco; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades under climate change have seen increasing interest in quantifying the carbon (C) balance of different terrestrial ecosystems, and their behavior as sources or sinks of C. Both CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and identification of its drivers are key to understanding land-surface feedbacks to climate change. The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows measurements of net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) from short to long time scales. In addition, flux partitioning models can extract the components of net CO2 fluxes, including both biological processes of photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (Reco), and also abiotic drivers like subsoil CO2 ventilation (VE), which is of particular relevance in semiarid environments. The importance of abiotic processes together with the strong interannual variability of precipitation, which strongly affects CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate characterization of the C balance in semiarid landscapes. In this study, we examine 10 years of interannual variability of NEE and its components at a subalpine karstic plateau, El Llano de los Juanes, in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Results show annual NEE ranging from 55 g C m-2 (net emission) to -54 g C m-2 (net uptake). Among C flux components, GPP was the greatest contributing 42-57% of summed component magnitudes, while contributions by Reco and VE ranged from 27 to 46% and from 3 to 18%, respectively. Annual precipitation during the studied period exhibited high interannual variability, ranging from 210 mm to 1374 mm. Annual precipitation explained 50% of the variance in Reco, 59% of that in GPP, and 56% for VE. While Reco and GPP were positively correlated with annual precipitation (correlation coefficient, R, of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively), VE showed negative correlation with this driver (R = -0.74). During the driest year (2004-2005), annual GPP and Reco reached their lowest values, while contribution of

  17. Soil CO 2 Flux in Hövsgöl National Park, Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avirmed Otgonsuren

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration in grasslands that are located at the southern edge of the Siberian boreal forest in Northern Mongolia. The study area has warmed by almost 1.8 o C over the last 40 years, and the soil and vegetation covers have been changed due to intense nomadic grazing pressure. Bare soil respiration is decreased with increasing grazing pressure, but there was no consistent pattern of total soil CO 2 fl ux under three distinct grazing levels. Bare soil respiration and soil CO 2 fl ux were higher on north-facing slopes than on south-facing slopes, due to high organic matter accumulation and the presence of permafrost. Both bare soil respiration and soil CO 2 fl ux were signi fi cantly higher in riparian areas compared with the lower and upper portions of the south-facing slope. Topography has a stronger effect on variability of soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration than variability induced by grazing. Inter-annual variability in soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration was very high, because of high variability in climate conditions.

  18. Estimation of mesophyll conductance to CO2 flux by three different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreto, F.; Harley, P.C.; Di Marco, G.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the intercellular airspaces within the leaf through the mesophyll to the sites of carboxylation during photosynthesis was measured using three different techniques, The three techniques include a method based on discrimination against the heavy stable isotope of carbon, 13C, and two modeling methods. The methods rely upon different assumptions, but the estimates of mesophyll conductance were similar with all three methods. The mesophyll conductance of leaves from a number of species was about 1.4 times the stomatal conductance for CO2 diffusion determined in unstressed plants at high light. The relatively low CO2 partial pressure inside chloroplasts of plants with a low mesophyll conductance did not lead to enhanced O2 sensitivity of photosynthesis because the low conductance caused a significant drop in the chloroplast CO2 Partial pressure upon switching to low O2. We found no correlation between mesophyll conductance and the ratio of internal leaf area to leaf surface area and only a weak correlation between mesophyll conductance and the proportion of leaf volume occupied by air. Mesophyll conductance was independent of CO2 and O2 partial pressure during the measurement, indicating that a true physical parameter, independent of biochemical effects, was being measured. No evidence for accumulating mechanisms was found. Some plants, notably Citrus aurantium and Simmondsia chinensis, had very low conductances that limit the rate of photosynthesis these plants can attain at atmospheric CO2 level

  19. The relative influence of H2O and CO2 on the primitive surface conditions of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A.; Massol, H.; Davaille, A.; Marcq, E.; Sarda, P.; Chassefiere, E.

    2017-12-01

    How the volatile content influences the primordial surface conditions of terrestrial planets and, thus, their future geodynamic evolution is an important question to answer. We simulate the secular convective cooling of a 1-D magma ocean (MO) in interaction with its outgassed atmosphere. A first rapid cooling stage, where efficient MO cooling and degassing take place, producing the atmosphere, is followed by a second quasi steady state where the heat flux balance is dominated by the solar flux. The end ofthe rapid cooling stage (ERCS) is reached when the mantle heat flux becomes negligible compared tothe absorbed solar flux. Varying the initial CO2 and H2O contents and the solar distance, we showed that the resulting surface conditions at ERCS strongly depend on these parameters and that water ocean's formation obeys simple scaling laws.Although today's Venus is located beyond the inner edge of the habitable zone due to its high albedo, its high CO2/H2O ratio prevents any water ocean formation.We already showed that depending on the formation time of its cloudcover and resulting albedo, only 0.3 Earth ocean mass might be sufficient to form a water ocean onearly Venus. Here we investigate more precisely these results by taking into account the effect of shortwave radiation on the radiative budget by computing the feedbacks between atmospheric composition and incident stellar flux instead of using a prescribed albedo value.

  20. Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J; McGuire, A David; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Tweedie, Craig E; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Skurikhin, Alexei N; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Grosse, Guido; Bolton, W Robert; Genet, Helene

    2015-04-01

    The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006-2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between -438.3 and -1366 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux at 28.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2 uptake (-166.9 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux (2.8 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)) with geomorphic change from low

  1. Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Skurikhin, Alexei N.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Grosse, Guido; Bolton, W. Robert; Genet, Helene

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006–2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 106gC-CO2 day−1(uncertainty using 95% CI is between −438.3 and −1366 106gC-CO2 day−1) and CH4 flux at 28.9 106gC-CH4 day−1(uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 106gC-CH4 day−1), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2uptake (−166.9 106gC-CO2 day−1) and CH4 flux (2.8 106gC-CH4 day−1) with geomorphic change from

  2. BOREAS TF-04 CO2 and CH4 Chamber Flux Data from the SSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane across the soil-air interface in four ages of jack pine forest at the Southern Study Area. Gross and net flux...

  3. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  4. Estimation of fractional contribution of root respiration to a forest-floor CO2 flux using carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Masashi; Moriizumi, Jun; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    Efflux of soil respired carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) is very important component for the global carbon cycle and dynamics of 14 C in environment, and to predict the global climate changes caused by increasing CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere. There are two components that generate CO 2 in soil, soil organic matter decomposition and root respiration. Although the former is relatively well understood, the root-derived CO 2 efflux has not been evaluated sufficiently. The objective of our research is to estimate depth profile of the root respiration rate. Thus we developed a box model which calculates the depth profile. In this paper, we discussed about (1) the adequacy of calculated result by comparing it to the to observed soil respired CO 2 flux with trenching method and (2) sensitivity of the box model to uncertainty in the input data. The result showed that the depth profile of root respiration rate decreased with soil depth. This is attributed to the distribution of fine roots which dominate root respiration. The model results reasonable agreed with the measurement results and characteristics of root respiration. The output of the model was robust to the variation of the input data. (author)

  5. Day and Night Variability of CO2 Fluxes and Priming Effects under zea Mays Measured in High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Pausch, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Plant induced increase of soil organic matter turnover rates contribute to carbon emissions in agricultural land use systems. In order to better understand these rhizosphere priming effects, we conducted an experiment which enabled us to monitor CO2 fluxes under Zea mays plants in high resolution. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber where the plants were grown in tightly sealed boxes for 40 days and CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a day. Continuous 13C-CO2 label was used to allow differentiation between plant- and soil-derived CO2.This enabled us to monitor root respiration and soil organic matter turnover in the early stages of plant growth and to highlight changes in soil CO2 emissions and priming effects between day and night. The measurements were conducted with a PICARRO G2131-I C high-precision isotopic CO2 Analyzer (PICARRO INC.) utilizing an automated valve system governed by a CR1000 data logger (Campbell Scientific). After harvest roots and shoots were analyzed for 13C content. Microbial biomass, root length density and enzymatic activities in soil were measured and linked to soil organic matter turnover rates. Results show an increased soil CO2 efflux at day time periods and an overall increase with increasing plant biomass. No difference in chloroform fumigation extractable microbial biomass has been found but a strong negative priming effect was measured in the short experimental period, suggesting that the microbes shifted to the utilization of plant exudates without actual microbial growth triggered by the new labile C input. This is coherent with the observed shift in enzyme kinetics. With this experimental setup we show that measurement of priming effects in high resolution can be achieved.

  6. Geochemical Influence on Microbial Communities at CO2-Leakage Analog Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Baknoon; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Kirk, Matthew F; Kwon, Man Jae

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO 2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO 2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO 2 levels (sample groups I and II) and one control site with low CO 2 content (group III). Samples from sites with elevated CO 2 had pH ranging from 6.2 to 4.5 and samples from the low-CO 2 control group had pH ranging from 7.3 to 6.2. Solute concentrations were relatively low for samples from the control group and group I but high for samples from group II, reflecting varying degrees of water-rock interaction. Microbial communities were analyzed through clone library and MiSeq sequencing. Each 16S rRNA analysis identified various bacteria, methane-producing archaea, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Both bacterial and archaeal diversities were low in groundwater with high CO 2 content and community compositions between the groups were also clearly different. In group II samples, sequences classified in groups capable of methanogenesis, metal reduction, and nitrate reduction had higher relative abundance in samples with relative high methane, iron, and manganese concentrations and low nitrate levels. Sequences close to Comamonadaceae were abundant in group I, while the taxa related to methanogens, Nitrospirae , and Anaerolineaceae were predominant in group II. Our findings provide insight into subsurface biogeochemical reactions that influence the carbon budget of the system including carbon fixation, carbon trapping, and CO 2 conversion to methane. The results also suggest that monitoring groundwater microbial community can be a potential tool for tracking CO 2

  7. Geochemical Influence on Microbial Communities at CO2-Leakage Analog Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baknoon Ham

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO2 levels (sample groups I and II and one control site with low CO2 content (group III. Samples from sites with elevated CO2 had pH ranging from 6.2 to 4.5 and samples from the low-CO2 control group had pH ranging from 7.3 to 6.2. Solute concentrations were relatively low for samples from the control group and group I but high for samples from group II, reflecting varying degrees of water-rock interaction. Microbial communities were analyzed through clone library and MiSeq sequencing. Each 16S rRNA analysis identified various bacteria, methane-producing archaea, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Both bacterial and archaeal diversities were low in groundwater with high CO2 content and community compositions between the groups were also clearly different. In group II samples, sequences classified in groups capable of methanogenesis, metal reduction, and nitrate reduction had higher relative abundance in samples with relative high methane, iron, and manganese concentrations and low nitrate levels. Sequences close to Comamonadaceae were abundant in group I, while the taxa related to methanogens, Nitrospirae, and Anaerolineaceae were predominant in group II. Our findings provide insight into subsurface biogeochemical reactions that influence the carbon budget of the system including carbon fixation, carbon trapping, and CO2 conversion to methane. The results also suggest that monitoring groundwater microbial community can be a potential tool for tracking

  8. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  9. Influence of European passenger cars weight to exhaust CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Lazarou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration influences climate changes. The road transport sector is one of the main anthropogenic sources of CO 2 emissions in the European Union (EU). One of the main parameters influencing CO 2 emissions from passenger cars (PCs) is their weight, which increases during last years. For the same driving distance, heavier vehicles need more work than lighter ones, because they have to move an extra weight, and thus more fuel is consumed and thus increased CO 2 emissions. The weight control of new PCs could be an efficient way to control their CO 2 emissions. After an analysis of the EU new PCs market, their segment distribution and their weight, some estimations for 2020 are presented. Based on this analysis, 13 base scenarios using several ways for the control of the weight of future European new PCs are used to estimate their CO 2 emissions and the benefit of each scenario. The results show that a significant benefit on CO 2 emissions could be achieved if the weight of each PC does not exceed an upper limit, especially if this limit is quite low. The benefit obtained by limitations of weight is higher than the benefit obtained from the expected decreased future fuel consumption. Similar results are obtained when the weight of new PCs does not exceed an upper limit within each segment, or when the weight of each new PC decreases. (author)

  10. SOIL FLUXES OF CO2, CO, NO AND N2O FROM AN OLD-PASTURE AND FROM NATIVE SAVANNA IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared fluxes of CO2, CO, NO and N2O, soil microbial biomass, and N-mineralization rates in a 20-year old Brachiaria pasture and a native cerrado area (savanna in Central Brazil). In order to assess the spatial variability of CO2 fluxes, we tested the relation between elect...

  11. Comparison of soil CO2 fluxes by eddy-covariance and chamber methods in fallow periods of a corn-soybean rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are typically measured by eddy-covariance (EC) or chamber (Ch) methods, but a long-term comparison has not been undertaken. This study was conducted to assess the agreement between EC and Ch techniques when measuring CO2 flux during fallow periods of a corn-soybean r...

  12. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. van der Laan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC, to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy covariance. For specific events, the regional (222Rn surface flux is calculated from short-term changes in ambient (222Rn activity concentration scaled by the ratio of the mean CO2 surface flux for the specific event to the change in its observed mole fraction. The resulting 222Rn surface emissions are integrated in time (between the moment of observation and the last prior background levels and space (i.e. over the footprint of the observations. The measurement uncertainty obtained is about ±15 % for diurnal events and about ±10 % for longer-term (e.g. seasonal or annual means. The method does not provide continuous observations, but reliable daily averages can be obtained. We applied our method to in situ observations from two sites in the Netherlands: Cabauw station (CBW and Lutjewad station (LUT. For LUT, which is an intensive agricultural site, we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.29 ± 0.02 atoms cm−2 s−1 with values  > 0.5 atoms cm−2 s−1 to the south and south-east. For CBW we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.63 ± 0.04 atoms cm−2 s−1. The highest values were observed to the south-west, where the soil type is mainly river clay. For both stations good agreement was found between our results and those from measurements with soil chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe. At both sites, large spatial and temporal variability of 222Rn surface fluxes were observed which would be impractical to measure with a soil chamber. SPOT-EC, therefore, offers an important new tool for estimating regional-scale 222Rn surface fluxes. Practical applications furthermore include

  13. Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Belnap, Jayne; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    1. Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome and, due to their extensive area, maintain large stocks of carbon (C). Accordingly, understanding how dryland C cycling will respond to climate change is imperative for accurately forecasting global C cycling and future climate. However, it remains difficult to predict how increased temperature will affect dryland C cycling, as substantial uncertainties surround the potential responses of the two main C fluxes: plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux. In addition to a need for an improved understanding of climate effects on individual dryland C fluxes, there is also notable uncertainty regarding how climate change may influence the relationship between these fluxes.2. To address this important knowledge gap, we measured a growing season's in situphotosynthesis, plant biomass accumulation, and soil CO2 efflux of mature Achnatherum hymenoides (a common and ecologically important C3 bunchgrass growing throughout western North America) exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (+2°C above ambient, warmed via infrared lamps) for three years.3. The 2°C increase in temperature caused a significant reduction in photosynthesis, plant growth, and soil CO2 efflux. Of important note, photosynthesis and soil respiration appeared tightly coupled and the relationship between these fluxes was not altered by the elevated temperature treatment, suggesting C fixation's strong control of both above-ground and below-ground dryland C cycling. Leaf water use efficiency was substantially increased in the elevated temperature treatment compared to the control treatment.4. Taken together, our results suggest notable declines in photosynthesis with relatively subtle warming, reveal strong coupling between above- and below-ground C fluxes in this dryland, and highlight temperature's strong effect on fundamental components of dryland C and water cycles.

  14. Seasonal Changes of Coefficient Q10 in CO2 Flux from Soil Under Spruce Stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2002), s. 43-48. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:EVK2(XE) CT-1999-00032 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce * Q10 * respiration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Reducing CO2 flux by decreasing tillage in Ohio: overcoming conjecture with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil could become an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow, but data to support this conjecture are few. Sequestering soil carbon (C) depends upon many factors including soil type, climate, crop, tillage, nitrogen fertili...

  16. Mechanisms controlling the air–sea CO2 flux in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prowe, A.E.F.; Thomas, Helmuth; Pätsch, Johannes; Kühn, Wilfried; Bozec, Yann; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie; Borges, Alberto V.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Paetsch, J; Kuehn, W

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms driving the air–sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the North Sea are investigated using the three-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOHAM (ECOlogical-model, HAMburg). We validate our simulations using field data for the years 2001–2002 and identify the controls

  17. Modelling land surface fluxes of CO2 in response to climate change and nitrogen deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Geels, Camilla

    Climate change, land use variations, and impacts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition represent uncertainties for the prediction of future greenhouse gas exchange between land surfaces and the atmosphere as the mechanisms describing nutritional effects are not well developed in climate...... climate feedback mechanisms of CO2 between changes in management, land use practise, and climate change....

  18. Effects of experimental nitrogen fertilization on planktonic metabolism and CO2 flux in a hypereutrophic hardwater lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Bogard

    Full Text Available Hardwater lakes are common in human-dominated regions of the world and often experience pollution due to agricultural and urban effluent inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N. Although these lakes are landscape hotspots for CO2 exchange and food web carbon (C cycling, the effect of N enrichment on hardwater lake food web functioning and C cycling patterns remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if different eutrophication scenarios (e.g., modest non point vs. extreme point sources yield consistent effects on auto- and heterotrophic C cycling, or how biotic responses interact with the inorganic C system to shape responses of air-water CO2 exchange. To address this uncertainty, we induced large metabolic gradients in the plankton community of a hypereutrophic hardwater Canadian prairie lake by adding N as urea (the most widely applied agricultural fertilizer at loading rates of 0, 1, 3, 8 or 18 mg N L-1 week-1 to 3240-L, in-situ mesocosms. Over three separate 21-day experiments, all treatments of N dramatically increased phytoplankton biomass and gross primary production (GPP two- to six-fold, but the effects of N on autotrophs plateaued at ~3 mg N L-1. Conversely, heterotrophic metabolism increased linearly with N fertilization over the full treatment range. In nearly all cases, N enhanced net planktonic uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, and increased the rate of CO2 influx, while planktonic heterotrophy and CO2 production only occurred in the highest N treatments late in each experiment, and even in these cases, enclosures continued to in-gas CO2. Chemical effects on CO2 through calcite precipitation were also observed, but similarly did not change the direction of net CO2 flux. Taken together, these results demonstrate that atmospheric exchange of CO2 in eutrophic hardwater lakes remains sensitive to increasing N loading and eutrophication, and that even modest levels of N pollution are capable of enhancing autotrophy and CO

  19. Chemical weathering on the North Island of New Zealand: CO2 consumption and fluxes of Sr and Os

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, Tim; Sharma, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    We present Os and Sr isotope ratios and Os, Sr and major/trace element concentrations for river waters, spring waters and rains on the North Island of New Zealand. The Os and Sr data are used to examine whether the NINZ is a significant contributor of unradiogenic Os and Sr to the oceans. Major element chemistry is used to quantify weathering and CO2 consumption rates on the island to investigate relationships between these processes and Os and Sr behavior. Chemical erosion rates and CO2 consumption rates across the island range from 44 to 555 km-2 yr-1 and 95 to 1900 × 103 mol CO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively. Strontium flux for the island range from 177 to 16,100 mol km-2 yr-1 and the rivers have an average flux normalized 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7075. In agreement with the previous studies these findings provide further evidence that weathering of arc terrains contributes a disproportionally large amount of Sr to the oceans and consumes very large amounts of CO2 annually compared to their areal extent. However, the 87Sr/86Sr from the NINZ is not particularly unradiogenic and it is likely not contributing significant amounts of unradiogenic Sr to the oceans. Repeated Os analyses and bottle leaching experiments revealed extensive and variable sample contamination by Os leaching from rigorously precleaned LDPE bottles. An upper bound on the flux of Os from NINZ can nevertheless be assessed and indicates that island arcs cannot provide significant amounts of unradiogenic Os to the oceans.

  20. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Johnson, D.A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Reed, B.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Worstell, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rn were measured with a Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996-1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996-1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday (R2 = 0.79, n = 66, P improved predictions of Fday (R2= 0.82, n = 66, P management strategies, carbon certification, and validation and calibration of carbon flux models. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush–steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Reed, Bradley C.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rnwere measured with a Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)–steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996–1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996–1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday(R2=0.79, n=66, Pimproved predictions of Fday (R2=0.82, n=66, Pmanagement strategies, carbon certification, and validation and calibration of carbon flux models.

  2. Atmospheric 14C changes resulting from fossil fuel CO2 release and cosmic ray flux variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuiver, M.; Quay, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A high-precision tree-ring record of the atmospheric 14 C levels between 1820 and 1954 is presented. Good agreement is obtained between measured and model calculated 19th and 20th century atmospheric δ 14 C levels when both fossil fuel CO 2 release and predicted natural variations in 14 C production are taken into account. The best fit is obtained by using a box-diffusion model with an oceanic eddy diffusion coefficient of 3 cm 2 /s, a CO 2 atmosphere-ocean gas exchange rate of 21 moles msup(-2) yrsup(-1) and biospheric residence time of 60 years. For trees in the state of Washington the measured 1949-1951 atmospheric δ 14 C level was 20.0 +- 1.2per mille below the 1855-1864 level. Model calculations indicate that in 1950 industrial CO 2 emissions are responsible for at least 85% of the δ 14 C decline, whereas natural variability accounts for the remaining 15%. (orig.)

  3. Data-Constrained Projections of Methane Fluxes in a Northern Minnesota Peatland in Response to Elevated CO2 and Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Jiang, Jiang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zheng; Wilson, Rachel M.; Ricciuto, Daniel; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-11-01

    Large uncertainties exist in predicting responses of wetland methane (CH4) fluxes to future climate change. However, sources of the uncertainty have not been clearly identified despite the fact that methane production and emission processes have been extensively explored. In this study, we took advantage of manual CH4 flux measurements under ambient environment from 2011 to 2014 at the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experimental site and developed a data-informed process-based methane module. The module was incorporated into the Terrestrial ECOsystem (TECO) model before its parameters were constrained with multiple years of methane flux data for forecasting CH4 emission under five warming and two elevated CO2 treatments at SPRUCE. We found that 9°C warming treatments significantly increased methane emission by approximately 400%, and elevated CO2 treatments stimulated methane emission by 10.4%-23.6% in comparison with ambient conditions. The relative contribution of plant-mediated transport to methane emission decreased from 96% at the control to 92% at the 9°C warming, largely to compensate for an increase in ebullition. The uncertainty in plant-mediated transportation and ebullition increased with warming and contributed to the overall changes of emissions uncertainties. At the same time, our modeling results indicated a significant increase in the emitted CH4:CO2 ratio. This result, together with the larger warming potential of CH4, will lead to a strong positive feedback from terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming. The model-data fusion approach used in this study enabled parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification for forecasting methane fluxes.

  4. Site-specific global warming potentials of biogenic CO2 for bioenergy: contributions from carbon fluxes and albedo dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    Production of biomass for bioenergy can alter biogeochemical and biogeophysical mechanisms, thus affecting local and global climate. Recent scientific developments have mainly embraced impacts from land use changes resulting from area-expanded biomass production, with several extensive insights available. Comparably less attention, however, has been given to the assessment of direct land surface–atmosphere climate impacts of bioenergy systems under rotation such as in plantations and forested ecosystems, whereby land use disturbances are only temporary. Here, following IPCC climate metrics, we assess bioenergy systems in light of two important dynamic land use climate factors, namely, the perturbation in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration caused by the timing of biogenic CO 2 fluxes, and temporary perturbations to surface reflectivity (albedo). Existing radiative forcing-based metrics can be adapted to include such dynamic mechanisms, but high spatial and temporal modeling resolution is required. Results show the importance of specifically addressing the climate forcings from biogenic CO 2 fluxes and changes in albedo, especially when biomass is sourced from forested areas affected by seasonal snow cover. The climate performance of bioenergy systems is highly dependent on biomass species, local climate variables, time horizons, and the climate metric considered. Bioenergy climate impact studies and accounting mechanisms should rapidly adapt to cover both biogeochemical and biogeophysical impacts, so that policy makers can rely on scientifically robust analyses and promote the most effective global climate mitigation options. (letter)

  5. Measurement and modelling of CO2 flux from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass and spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops has been suggested as a promising option for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from arable organic soils (Histosols). Here, we report the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes of CO2 as measured with a dynamic closed chamber method at a drained fen......-C m−2 in RCG and SB plots, respectively, with Rfb accounting for 32 and 22% respectively. Total estimated annual GP was −1818 ± 42 and −1329 ± 66 g CO2-C m−2 in RCG and SB plots leading to a NEE of 69 ± 36 g CO2-C m−2 yr−1 in RCG plots (i.e., a weak net source) and −41 ± 47 g CO2-C m−2 yr−1 in SB...

  6. Estimating noctural ecosystem respiration from the vertical turbulent flux and change in storange of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorsel, van E.; Delpierre, N.; Leuning, R.; Black, A.; Munger, J.W.; Wofsy, S.; Aubinet, M.; Feigenwinter, C.; Beringer, J.; Bonal, D.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.; Clement, R.; Davis, K.J.; Desai, A.R.; Dragoni, D.; Etzold, S.; Grünwald, T.; Gu, L.; Heinesch, B.; Hutyra, L.R.; Jans, W.W.P.; Kutsch, W.; Law, B.E.; Leclerc, Y.; Mammarella, I.; Montagnani, L.; Noormets, A.; Rebmann, C.; Wharton, S.

    2009-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of nighttime ecosystem respiration can be systematically biased when stable atmospheric conditions lead to drainage flows associated with decoupling of air flow above and within plant canopies. The associated horizontal and vertical advective fluxes cannot be

  7. SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect CO2, Water Vapor, and Heat Flux, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Short-term measurements of carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes were collected at four locations along a mean annual precipitation gradient in southern...

  8. SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect CO2, Water Vapor, and Heat Flux, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Short-term measurements of carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes were collected at four locations along a mean annual precipitation gradient in southern Africa...

  9. The influence of non-CO2 forcings on cumulative carbon emissions budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Arora, Vivek K.; Lee, Warren G.; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    Carbon budgets provide a useful tool for policymakers to help meet the global climate targets, as they specify total allowable carbon emissions consistent with limiting warming to a given temperature threshold. Non-CO2 forcings have a net warming effect in the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios, leading to reductions in remaining carbon budgets based on CO2 forcing alone. Carbon budgets consistent with limiting warming to below 2.0 °C, with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, were assessed in inconsistent ways by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), making the effects of non-CO2 forcings hard to identify. Here we use a consistent approach to compare 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C carbon budgets with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, using CO2-only and RCP8.5 simulations. The median allowable carbon budgets for 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warming are reduced by 257 PgC and 418 PgC, respectively, and the uncertainty ranges on the budgets are reduced by more than a factor of two when accounting for the net warming effects of non-CO2 forcings. While our overall results are consistent with IPCC, we use a more robust methodology, and explain the narrower uncertainty ranges of carbon budgets when non-CO2 forcings are included. We demonstrate that most of the reduction in carbon budgets is a result of the direct warming effect of the non-CO2 forcings, with a secondary contribution from the influence of the non-CO2 forcings on the carbon cycle. Such carbon budgets are expected to play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation, thus understanding the influence of non-CO2 forcings on these budgets and their uncertainties is critical.

  10. Contribution of tropical cyclones to the air-sea CO2 flux: A global view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levy, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Bopp, L.; Vincent, E.M.; Madec, G.; Ethe, C.; DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    .ocemod.2006.11.003.501 D’Asaro, E. (2003), The ocean boundary layer below hurricane dennis, Journal of physical502 oceanography, 33(3), 561–579.503 D’Asaro,E.,andC.McNeil(2007),Air-seagasexchangeatextremewindspeedsmeasured504 by autonomous oceanographic floats... at high wind speed [Liss and Merlivat, 1986; Wanninkhof, 1992; D’Asaro and McNeil,55 2007; McNeil and D’Asaro, 2007]. TCs also impact F CO 2 because their intense surface56 winds increase vertical entrainment of subsurface waters (hereafter referred...

  11. Water and CO2 fluxes over semiarid alpine steppe and humid alpine meadow ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Shao, Yaping; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Based on eddy covariance flux data from July 15, 2014, to December 31, 2015, the water and CO2 fluxes were compared over a semiarid alpine steppe (Bange, Tibetan Plateau) and a humid alpine meadow (Lijiang, Yunnan) on the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding region. During the wet season, the evaporative fraction (EF) was strongly and linearly correlated with the soil water content (SWC) at Bange because of its sparse green grass cover. In contrast, the correlation between the EF at Lijiang and the SWC and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was very low because the atmosphere was close to saturation and the EF was relatively constant. In the dry season, the EF at both sites decreased with the SWC. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at Bange was largely depressed at noon, while this phenomenon did not occur at Lijiang. The saturated NEE at Bange was 24% of that at Lijiang. The temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration at Bange (1.7) was also much lower than that at Lijiang (3.4). The annual total NEE in 2015 was 21.8 and -230.0 g C m-2 yr-1 at Bange and Lijiang, respectively, and the NEE was tightly controlled by the NDVI at the two sites. The distinct differences in the water and CO2 fluxes at Bange and Lijiang are attributed to the large SWC difference and its effect on vegetation growth.

  12. Modeling the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on soil CO2 fluxes from a Switchgrass stand recently converted from cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Kumar, Sandeep; Chintala, Rajesh; Owens, Vance N; Clay, David; Schumacher, Joseph; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Lee, Sang Soo; Rafique, Rashad

    2016-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass native to North America and successfully adapted to diverse environmental conditions. It offers the potential to reduce soil surface carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and mitigate climate change. However, information on how these CO2 fluxes respond to changing climate is still lacking. In this study, CO2 fluxes were monitored continuously from 2011 through 2014 using high frequency measurements from Switchgrass land seeded in 2008 on an experimental site that has been previously used for soybean (Glycine max L.) in South Dakota, USA. DAYCENT, a process-based model, was used to simulate CO2 fluxes. An improved methodology CPTE [Combining Parameter estimation (PEST) with "Trial and Error" method] was used to calibrate DAYCENT. The calibrated DAYCENT model was used for simulating future CO2 emissions based on different climate change scenarios. This study showed that: (i) the measured soil CO2 fluxes from Switchgrass land were higher for 2012 which was a drought year, and these fluxes when simulated using DAYCENT for long-term (2015-2070) provided a pattern of polynomial curve; (ii) the simulated CO2 fluxes provided different patterns with temperature and precipitation changes in a long-term, (iii) the future CO2 fluxes from Switchgrass land under different changing climate scenarios were not significantly different, therefore, it can be concluded that Switchgrass grown for longer durations could reduce changes in CO2 fluxes from soil as a result of temperature and precipitation changes to some extent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Influence of post-Tehuano oceanographic processes in the dynamics of the CO2 system in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Balcorta, Cecilia; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Durazo, Reginaldo; Beier, Emilio; Alin, Simone R.; López-Pérez, Andrés.

    2015-12-01

    This investigation reports, for the first time, results of CO2 system variables in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, located in the Mexican tropical Pacific. We quantified the post-Tehuano concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH (April 2013). These values were used to calculate pCO2, aragonite saturation (ΩAr), and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2). The intense vertical stratification was found to contribute to the biogeochemical processes in surface waters (<70 m). However, in post-Tehuano conditions, high pCO2 (˜1000 µatm) and DIC concentrations (2200 µmol kg-1), as well as low ΩAr (˜1.1) and pH (˜7.5), remain in surface waters for a few days after Tehuano winds have weakened. We identified four oceanographic areas: (a) a highly mixed region due to previous Tehuano events; (b) coastal upwelling in the western region; (c) mesoscale eddies; (d) a poleward surface coastal current. The first three promoted the influence of Subtropical Subsurface Water in the chemistry of surface waters, whereas the coastal current contributed to the horizontal advection of DIC. The calculated CO2 fluxes ranged from -2.3 mmol m-2 d-1 in areas with stratified waters to over 25 mmol m-2 d-1 for mixed areas. Positive values indicate an ocean-to-atmosphere flux. Our findings suggest that the Gulf of Tehuantepec is a major source of CO2 into the atmosphere.

  14. The Influence of Various Operation Modes on Diesel Passenger Cars CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.

  15. The influencing factors of CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xingle; Luo, Yusen; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Jijian

    2018-05-01

    In China, agriculture produces the greatest chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions in wastewater and the most methane (CH 4 ) emissions. It is imperative that agricultural pollution in China be reduced. This study investigated the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. We analyzed the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity through the first-stage least-square regression. We also analyzed determinants of innovation through the second-stage least-square regression. We found that innovation negatively affected the CO 2 emission intensity in the model of the nation. FDI positively affected innovation in China. It is important to enhance indigenous innovation for green agriculture through labor training and collaboration between agriculture and academia.

  16. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air-sea CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2011-02-01

    The spatial distribution of the air-sea flux of carbon dioxide is a poor indicator of the underlying ocean circulation and of ocean carbon storage. The weak dependence on circulation arises because mixing-driven changes in solubility-driven and biologically-driven air-sea fluxes largely cancel out. This cancellation occurs because mixing driven increases in the poleward residual mean circulation result in more transport of both remineralized nutrients and heat from low to high latitudes. By contrast, increasing vertical mixing decreases the storage associated with both the biological and solubility pumps, as it decreases remineralized carbon storage in the deep ocean and warms the ocean as a whole.

  17. The Influence of CO2 on Genioglossus Muscle After-Discharge Following Arousal From Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cori, Jennifer M; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John; Jordan, Amy S

    2017-11-01

    Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal) occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that postarousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2. Twenty-four healthy individuals (6 female) slept with a nasal mask and ventilator. Sleep (EEG, EOG, EMG), ventilation (pneumotachograph), end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and intramuscular genioglossus EMG were monitored. NREM eucapnia was determined during 5 minutes on continuous positive airway pressure (4 cmH2O). Inspiratory pressure support was increased until PETCO2 was ≥2 mm Hg below NREM eucapnia. Supplemental CO2 was added to reproduce normocapnia, without changing ventilator settings. Arousals were induced by auditory tones and genioglossus EMG compared during steady-state hypocapnia and normocapnia. Eleven participants (4 female) provided data. Prearousal PETCO2 was less (p sleep. For tonic activity, after-discharge lasted four breaths irrespective of CO2 condition. For peak activity, after-discharge lasted one breath during hypocapnia and 6 breaths during normocapnia. However, when peak activity following the return to sleep was compared between CO2 conditions no individual breath differences were observed. Postarousal genioglossal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse during sleep. Steady-state CO2 levels minimally influence postarousal genioglossus after-discharge. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High Resolution Measurement of Rhizosphere Priming Effects and Temporal Variability of CO2 Fluxes under Zea Mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstößer, T.; Pausch, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant induced increase of soil organic matter turnover rates contribute to carbon emissions in agricultural land use systems. In order to better understand these rhizosphere priming effects, we conducted an experiment, which enabled us to monitor CO2 fluxes under zea mays plants with high resolution. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber where the plants were grown in thin, tightly sealed boxes for 40 days and CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a day. 13C-CO2 was introduced to allow differentiation between plant and soil derived CO2.This enabled us to monitor root respiration and soil organic matter turnover in the early stages of plant growth and to highlight changes in soil CO2 emissions and priming effects between day and night. The measurements were conducted with a PICARRO G2131-I δ13C high-precision isotopic CO2 Analyzer (PICARRO INC.) utilizing an automated valve system governed by a CR1000 data logger (Campbell Scientific). After harvest roots and shoots were analyzed for 13C content. Microbial biomass, root length density and enzymatic activities in soil were measured and linked to soil organic matter turnover rates. In order to visualize the spatial distribution of carbon allocation to the root system a few plants were additionally labeled with 14C and 14C distribution was monitored by 14C imaging of the root systems over 4 days. Based on the 14C distribution a grid was chosen and the soil was sampled from each square of the grid to investigate the impact of carbon allocation hotspots on enzymatic activities and microbial biomass. First initial results show an increase of soil CO2 efflux in the night periods, whereby the contribution of priming is not fully analyzed yet. Additionally, root tips were identified as hotspots of short term carbon allocation via 14C imaging and an in increase in microbial biomass could be measured in this regions. The full results will be shown at AGU 2016.

  19. Analysis of the microclimate and CO2 flux characteristics in arid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Field site and methods. 2.1 Field site. The study was .... cal wind velocities were positive at the field site. (figure 2a). ..... micrometeorology: A guide for surface flux measurements; ... Zhang G S 2000 Research progress on trees and shrub.

  20. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  1. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-09-01

    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter

  2. CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir; Wylie, Bruce; Tieszen, Larry; Meyers, Tilden P.; Baron, Vern S.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Fischer, Marc L.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Hanan, Niall P.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Hollinger, Steven E.; Howard, Daniel M.; Matamala, Roser; Prueger, John H.; Tenuta, Mario; Young, David G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed net CO2 exchange data from 13 flux tower sites with 27 site-years of measurements over maize and wheat fields across midcontinent North America. A numerically robust “light-soil temperature-VPD”-based method was used to partition the data into photosynthetic assimilation and ecosystem respiration components. Year-round ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameters of apparent quantum yield, photosynthetic capacity, convexity of the light response, respiration rate parameters, ecological light-use efficiency, and the curvature of the VPD-response of photosynthesis for maize and wheat crops were numerically identified and interpolated/extrapolated. This allowed us to gap-fill CO2 exchange components and calculate annual totals and budgets. VPD-limitation of photosynthesis was systematically observed in grain crops of the region (occurring from 20 to 120 days during the growing season, depending on site and year), determined by the VPD regime and the numerical value of the curvature parameter of the photosynthesis-VPD-response, σVPD. In 78% of the 27 site-years of observations, annual gross photosynthesis in these crops significantly exceeded ecosystem respiration, resulting in a net ecosystem production of up to 2100 g CO2 m−2 year−1. The measurement-based photosynthesis, respiration, and net ecosystem production data, as well as the estimates of the ecophysiological parameters, provide an empirical basis for parameterization and validation of mechanistic models of grain crop production in this economically and ecologically important region of North America.

  3. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air-sea CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanadesikan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of the air-sea flux of carbon dioxide is a poor indicator of the underlying ocean circulation and of ocean carbon storage. The weak dependence on circulation arises because mixing-driven changes in solubility-driven and biologically-driven air-sea fluxes largely cancel out. This cancellation occurs because mixing driven increases in the poleward residual mean circulation result in more transport of both remineralized nutrients and heat from low to high latitudes. By contrast, increasing vertical mixing decreases the storage associated with both the biological and solubility pumps, as it decreases remineralized carbon storage in the deep ocean and warms the ocean as a whole.

  4. Simultaneous Measurements of Soil CO2 and CH4 Fluxes Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachhpal S. Jassal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of simultaneously measuring soil CO and CH fluxes using a laser-based cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS coupled to an automated non-steady-state chamber system. The differential equation describing the change in the greenhouse gas (GHG mixing ratio in the chamber headspace following lid closure is solved for the condition when a small flow rate of chamber headspace air is pulled through the CRDS by an external pump and exhausted to the atmosphere. The small flow rate allows calculation of fluxes assuming linear relationships between the GHG mixing ratios and chamber lid closure times of a few minutes. We also calibrated the chambers for effective volume ( and show that adsorption of the GHGs on the walls of the chamber caused to be 7% higher than the geometric volume, with the near-surface soil porosity causing another 4% increase in .

  5. Constraining Marsh Carbon Budgets Using Long-Term C Burial and Contemporary Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes are sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide that respond to environmental changes related to sea level rise and climate. Here we assess how climatic variations affect marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide in the short term and compare it to long-term burial rates based on radiometric dating. The 5 years of atmospheric measurements show a strong interannual variation in atmospheric carbon exchange, varying from -104 to -233 g C m-2 a-1 with a mean of -179 ± 32 g C m-2 a-1. Variation in these annual sums was best explained by differences in rainfall early in the growing season. In the two years with below average rainfall in June, both net uptake and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were less than in the other three years. Measurements in 2016 and 2017 suggest that the mechanism behind this variability may be rainfall decreasing soil salinity which has been shown to strongly control productivity. The net ecosystem carbon balance was determined as burial rate from four sediment cores using radiometric dating and was lower than the net uptake measured by eddy covariance (mean: 110 ± 13 g C m-2 a-1). The difference between these estimates was significant and may be because the atmospheric measurements do not capture lateral carbon fluxes due to tidal exchange. Overall, it was smaller than values reported in the literature for lateral fluxes and highlights the importance of investigating lateral C fluxes in future studies.

  6. Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Concentrations, Co-spectra and Fluxes from Latest Standardized Automated CO2/H2O Flux Systems versus Established Analyzer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Begashaw, I.; Franzen, D.; Welles, J.; McDermitt, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal flux data coverage have improved significantly in recent years, due to standardization, automation and management of data collection, and better handling of the generated data. With more stations and networks, larger data streams from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process.These tools should produce standardized verifiable datasets, and provide a way to cross-share the standardized data with external collaborators to leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. In 2015, new open-path and enclosed flux measurement systems1 were developed, based on established gas analyzer models2,3, with the goal of improving stability in the presence of contamination, refining temperature control and compensation, and providing more accurate gas concentration measurements. In 2017, the new open-path system was further refined to simplify hardware configuration, and to reduce power consumption and cost. Additionally, all new systems incorporate complete automated on-site flux calculations using EddyPro® Software4 run by a weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer to provide standardized traceable data sets for fluxes and supporting variables. This presentation will describe details and results from the field tests of the new flux systems, in comparison to older models and reference instruments. References:1 Burba G., W. Miller, I. Begashaw, G. Fratini, F. Griessbaum, J. Kathilankal, L. Xu, D. Franz, E. Joseph, E. Larmanou, S. Miller, D. Papale, S. Sabbatini, T. Sachs, R. Sakai, D. McDermitt, 2017. Comparison of CO2 Concentrations, Co-spectra and Flux Measurements between Latest Standardized Automated CO2/H2O Flux Systems and Older Gas Analysers. 10th ICDC Conference, Switzerland: 21-25/08 2 Metzger, S., G. Burba, S. Burns, P. Blanken, J. Li, H. Luo, R. Zulueta, 2016. Optimization of an enclosed gas analyzer sampling system for measuring eddy

  7. Long-term enhanced winter soil frost alters growing season CO2 fluxes through its impact on vegetation development in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B

    2017-08-01

    At high latitudes, winter climate change alters snow cover and, consequently, may cause a sustained change in soil frost dynamics. Altered winter soil conditions could influence the ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and, in turn, provide feedbacks to ongoing climate change. To investigate the mechanisms that modify the peatland CO 2 exchange in response to altered winter soil frost, we conducted a snow exclusion experiment to enhance winter soil frost and to evaluate its short-term (1-3 years) and long-term (11 years) effects on CO 2 fluxes during subsequent growing seasons in a boreal peatland. In the first 3 years after initiating the treatment, no significant effects were observed on either gross primary production (GPP) or ecosystem respiration (ER). However, after 11 years, the temperature sensitivity of ER was reduced in the treatment plots relative to the control, resulting in an overall lower ER in the former. Furthermore, early growing season GPP was also lower in the treatment plots than in the controls during periods with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) ≥800 μmol m -2  s -1 , corresponding to lower sedge leaf biomass in the treatment plots during the same period. During the peak growing season, a higher GPP was observed in the treatment plots under the low light condition (i.e. PPFD 400 μmol m -2  s -1 ) compared to the control. As Sphagnum moss maximizes photosynthesis at low light levels, this GPP difference between the plots may have been due to greater moss photosynthesis, as indicated by greater moss biomass production, in the treatment plots relative to the controls. Our study highlights the different responses to enhanced winter soil frost among plant functional types which regulate CO 2 fluxes, suggesting that winter climate change could considerably alter the growing season CO 2 exchange in boreal peatlands through its effect on vegetation development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. LBA-ECO CD-10 CO2 and H2O Eddy Flux Data at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports eddy flux measurements of CO2 and H2O exchange and associated meteorological measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-10 CO2 and H2O Eddy Fluxes at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports eddy flux measurements of CO2 and H2O exchange and associated meteorological measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67,...

  10. Subsidence in tropical peatlands: Estimating CO2 fluxes from peatlands in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, A.; Harvey, C. F.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Chaussard, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia are an important global carbon stock. However, they are being rapidly deforested and drained. Peatland drainage facilitates peat decomposition, releases sequestered peat carbon to the atmosphere as CO2, and leads to subsidence of the peat surface. As a result, subsidence measurements can be used to monitor peatland carbon loss over time. Until now, subsidence measurements have been primarily limited to ground-based point measurements using subsidence poles. Here we demonstrate a powerful method to measure peatland subsidence rates across much larger areas than ever before. Using remotely sensed InSAR data, we map subsidence rates across thousands of square kilometers in Southeast Asia and validate our results against ground-based subsidence measurements. The method allows us to monitor subsidence in remote locations, providing unprecedented spatial information, and the first comprehensive survey of land uses such as degraded peatlands, burnt and open areas, shrub lands, and smallholder farmlands. Strong spatial patterns emerged, with the highest subsidence rates occurring at the centers of peat domes, where the peat is thickest and drainage depths are likely to be largest. Peatland subsidence rates were also strongly dependent on current and historical land use, with typical subsidence rates ranging from 2-4 cm/yr. Finally, we scaled up our results to calculate total annual emissions from peat decomposition in degraded peatlands.

  11. MgO-based adsorbents for CO2 adsorption: Influence of structural and textural properties on the CO2 adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Gutiérrez-Bonilla; Francisco, Granados-Correa; Víctor, Sánchez-Mendieta; Alberto, Morales-Luckie Raúl

    2017-07-01

    A series of MgO-based adsorbents were prepared through solution-combustion synthesis and ball-milling process. The prepared MgO-based powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption measurements, and employed as potential adsorbents for CO 2 adsorption. The influence of structural and textural properties of these adsorbents over the CO 2 adsorption behaviour was also investigated. The results showed that MgO-based products prepared by solution-combustion and ball-milling processes, were highly porous, fluffy, nanocrystalline structures in nature, which are unique physico-chemical properties that significantly contribute to enhance their CO 2 adsorption. It was found that the MgO synthesized by solution combustion process, using a molar ratio of urea to magnesium nitrate (2:1), and treated by ball-milling during 2.5hr (MgO-BM2.5h), exhibited the maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity of 1.611mmol/g at 25°C and 1atm, mainly via chemisorption. The CO 2 adsorption behaviour on the MgO-based adsorbents was correlated to their improved specific surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and crystallinity. The reusability of synthesized MgO-BM2.5h was confirmed by five consecutive CO 2 adsorption-desorption times, without any significant loss of performance, that supports the potential of MgO-based adsorbent. The results confirmed that the special features of MgO prepared by solution-combustion and treated by ball-milling during 2.5hr are favorable to be used as effective MgO-based adsorbent in post-combustion CO 2 capture technologies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Seasonal variation of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Terra Nova Bay of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, based on year-round pCO2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Kwon, Y. S.; Choi, T.; Yang, E. J.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    The polar oceans are rapidly changing in response to climate variability. In particular, augmented inflow of glacial melt water and shrinking sea-ice extent impacts the polar coastal oceans, which may in turn shift the biogeochemistry into an unprecedented paradigm not experienced previously. Nonetheless, most research in the polar oceans is limited to the summer season. Here, we present the first direct observations of ocean and atmospheric pCO2 measured near the coast of Terra Nova Bay in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, ongoing since February, 2015 at Jang Bogo Station. The coastal area is covered by landfast sea-ice from spring to fall while continually exposed to the atmosphere during summer season only. The pCO2 in seawater swung from 120 matm in February to 425 matm in early October. Although sea-ice still covers the coastal area, pCO2 already started decreasing after reaching the peak in October. In November, the pCO2 suddenly dropped as much as 100 matm in a week. This decrease of pCO2 continued until late February when the sea-ice concentration was minimal. With growing sea ice, the pCO2 increased logarithmically reaching the atmospheric concentration in June/July, depending on the year, and continued to increase until October. Daily mean air-sea CO2 flux in the coastal area widely varied from -70 mmol m-2 d-1 to 20 mmol m-2 d-1. Based on these observations of pCO2 in Terra Nova Bay, the annual uptake of CO2 is 8 g C m-2, estimated using the fraction of sea-ice concentration estimated from AMSR2 microwave emission imagery. Extrapolating to all polynyas surrounding Antarctica, we expect the annual uptake of 8 Tg C in the atmosphere. This is comparable to the amount of CO2 degassed into the atmosphere south of the Antarctic Polar Front (62°S).

  13. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  14. High temporal resolution ecosystem CH4, CO2 and H2O flux data measured with a novel chamber technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Riis Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    switching automatically between transparent and darkened mode enabling for separation of light-sensitive and light-indifferent processes in chambers. In a pilot study we measured hourly fluxes of CO2, H2O and CH4 continuously for two weeks in Danish Calluna vulgaris (common heather) heathland (Larsen et al. 2011). We will present an analysis of the novel, high-frequency data of CH4 fluxes under light and dark conditions, assess the advantages and limitations of the experimental setup and recommend future improvements of the technology involved. References: Carter, M.S., Larsen, K.S., et al. 2012. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands: responses to climatic and environmental changes. Biogeosciences 3739-3755. Christiansen, J.R., Korhonen, J.F.J., et al. 2011. Assessing the effects of chamber placement, manual sampling and headspace mixing on CH4 fluxes in a laboratory experiment. Plant and Soil 343, 171-185. Christiansen, J.R., Outhwaite, J., et al. 2015. Comparison of CO2, CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange measured in static chambers with cavity ring-down spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 211-212, 48-57. Creelman, C., Nickerson, N., Risk, D., 2013. Quantifying Lateral Diffusion Error in Soil Carbon Dioxide Respiration Estimates using Numerical Modeling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77, 699-708. Larsen, K.S., Andresen, L.C., et al. 2011. Reduced N cycling in response to elevated CO2, warming, and drought in a Danish heathland: Synthesizing results of the CLIMAITE project after two years of treatments. Global Change Biology 17, 1884-1899. Pihlatie, M.K., Christiansen, J.R., et al. 2013. Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 171-172, 124-136.

  15. A Modern Automatic Chamber Technique as a Powerful Tool for CH4 and CO2 Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastepanov, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Lund, M.; Pirk, N.

    2014-12-01

    A number of similar systems were used for monitoring of CH4 and CO2 exchange by the automatic chamber method in a range of different ecosystems. The measurements were carried out in northern Sweden (mountain birch forest near Abisko, 68°N, 2004-2010), southern Sweden (forest bog near Hässleholm, 56°N, 2007-2014), northeastern Greenland (arctic fen in Zackenberg valley, 74°N, 2005-2014), southwestern Greenland (fen near Nuuk, 64°N, 2007-2014), central Svalbard (arctic fen near Longyearbyen, 78°N, 2011-2014). Those in total 37 seasons of measurements delivered not only a large amount of valuable flux data, including a few novel findings (Mastepanov et al., Nature, 2008; Mastepanov et al., Biogeosciences, 2013), but also valuable experience with implementation of the automatic chamber technique using modern analytical instruments and computer technologies. A range of high resolution CH4 analysers (DLT-100, FMA, FGGA - Los Gatos Research), CO2 analyzers (EGM-4, SBA-4 - PP Systems; Li-820 - Li-Cor Biosciences), as well as Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer (Los Gatos Research) has shown to be suitable for precise measurements of fluxes, from as low as 0.1 mg CH4 m-1 d-1 (wintertime measurements at Zackenberg, unpublished) to as high as 2.4 g CH4 m-1 d-1 (autumn burst 2007 at Zackenberg, Mastepanov et al., Nature, 2008). Some of these instruments had to be customized to accommodate 24/7 operation in harsh arctic conditions. In this presentation we will explain some of these customizations. High frequency of concentration measurements (1 Hz in most cases) provides a unique opportunity for quality control of flux calculations; on the other hand, this enormous amount of data can be analyzed only using highly automated algorithms. A specialized software package was developed and improved through the years of measurements and data processing. This software automates the data flow from raw concentration data of different instruments and sensors and various status records

  16. Estimation of CO2 flux from targeted satellite observations: a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We consider the estimation of carbon dioxide flux at the ocean–atmosphere interface, given weighted averages of the mixing ratio in a vertical atmospheric column. In particular we examine the dependence of the posterior covariance on the weighting function used in taking observations, motivated by the fact that this function is instrument-dependent, hence one needs the ability to compare different weights. The estimation problem is considered using a variational data assimilation method, which is shown to admit an equivalent infinite-dimensional Bayesian formulation. The main tool in our investigation is an explicit formula for the posterior covariance in terms of the prior covariance and observation operator. Using this formula, we compare weighting functions concentrated near the surface of the earth with those concentrated near the top of the atmosphere, in terms of the resulting covariance operators. We also consider the problem of observational targeting, and ask if it is possible to reduce the covariance in a prescribed direction through an appropriate choice of weighting function. We find that this is not the case—there exist directions in which one can never gain information, regardless of the choice of weight. (paper)

  17. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  18. Response to ''Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean CO2 fluxes: An order of magnitude conflict'' by W. Broecker et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of short-term, local air-sea exchange of CO 2 by eddy correlation in the atmosphere from surface towers have shown that the transfer (piston) velocities in coastal areas are very large in comparison to long-term oceanic estimates from radioisotope studies. The latter agree with radon evasion and laboratory investigations involving nonreactive gases. Horizontal atmospheric advection seems to be the most likely source of significant error in the eddy correlation estimates but is probably not the cause of the large transfer velocities because they were measured in a wide range of conditions by independent investigators. Furthermore, extrapolation of the large transfer velocities measured by the eddy correlation measurements to world average air-sea exchange rates does not provide a realistic basis on which to evaluate the validity of the local eddy flux measurements in coastal areas. Important chemical and physical phenomena affecting CO 2 exchange rates may be quite different in coastal as opposed to open-ocean conditions, and further research is needed in both cases

  19. Automated CO2, CH4 and N2O Fluxes from Tree Stems and Soils: Magnitudes, Temporal Patterns and Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J.; Poyatos, R.; Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    The emissions of the main greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2, CH4 and N2O) through tree stems are still an uncertain component of the total GHG balance of forests. Despite that stem CO2 emissions have been studied for several decades, it is still unclear the drivers and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O stem emissions. Additionally, it is unknown how stem emissions could be related to soil physiological processes or environmental conditions. We measured CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions hourly from April to July 2017 at two different heights (75 [LStem] and 150cm [HStem]) of bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) trees and adjacent soil locations in a forested area in the Mid Atlantic of the USA. We designed an automated system to continuously measure the three greenhouse gases (GHG) in stems and soils. Stem and soil CO2 emissions showed similar seasonal patterns with an average of 6.56±0.09 (soil), 3.72±0.05 (LStem) and 2.47±0.04 µmols m-2 s-1 (HStem) (mean±95% CI). Soil temperature controlled CO2 fluxes at both daily and seasonal scales (R2>0.5 for all cases), but there was no clear effect of soil moisture. The stems were a clear CH4 source with emissions decreasing with height (0.35±0.02 and 0.25±0.01 nmols m-2 s-1 for LStem and HStem, respectively) with no apparent seasonal pattern, and no clear relationship with environmental drivers (e.g., temperature, moisture). In contrast, soil was a CH4 sink throughout the experiment (-0.55±0.02 nmols m-2 s-1) and its seasonal pattern responded to moisture changes. Despite soil and stem N2O emissions did not show a seasonal pattern or apparent dependency on temperature or moisture, they showed net N2O emissions with a decrease in emissions with stem height (0.29±0.05 for soil, 0.38±0.06 for LStem and 0.28±0.05 nmols m-2 s-1 for HStem). The three GHG emissions decreased with stem height at similar rates (33%, 28% and 27% for CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively). These results suggest that the gases were not produced in the stem

  20. Response of CO2 and H2O fluxes in a mountainous tropical rainforest in equatorial Indonesia to El Niño events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olchev, A.; Ibrom, Andreas; Panferov, O.

    2015-01-01

    The possible impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the main components of CO2 and H2O fluxes in a pristine mountainous tropical rainforest growing in Central Sulawesi in Indonesia is described. The fluxes were continuously measured using the eddy covariance method for the period...

  1. Intermediate-scale community-level flux of CO2 and CH4 in a Minnesota peatland: putting the SPRUCE project in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Hanson; A. L. Gill; X. Xu; J. R. Phillips; D. J. Weston; Randy Kolka; J. S. Riggs; L. A. Hook

    2016-01-01

    Peatland measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux were obtained at scales appropriate to the in situ biological community below the tree layer to demonstrate representativeness of the spruce and peatland responses under climatic and environmental change (SPRUCE) experiment. Surface flux measurements were made using dual open-path...

  2. SOIL 222Rn CONCENTRATION, CO2 AND CH4 FLUX MEASUREMENTS AROUND THE JWALAMUKHI AREA OF NORTH-WEST HIMALAYAS, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Fu, Ching-Chou; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Arora, Vishal

    2016-10-01

    Soil 222 Rn concentration, CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements were conducted around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India. During this study, around 37 soil gas points and flux measurements were taken with the aim to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, RAD 7 (Durridge, USA) was used to monitor radon concentrations, whereas portable diffuse flux meter (West Systems, Italy) was used for the CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements. The recorded radon concentration varies from 6.1 to 34.5 kBq m -3 with an average value of 16.5 kBq m -3 The anomalous value of radon concentrations was recorded between Jwalamukhi thrust and Barsar thrust. The recorded average of CO 2 and CH 4 flux were 11.8 and 2.7 g m -2 day -1 , respectively. The good correlation between anomalous CO 2 flux and radon concentrations has been observed along the fault zone in the study area, suggesting that radon migration is dependent on CO 2 . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Uncertainty of long-term CO2 flux estimates due to the choice of the spectral correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Geißler, Simon; Pilegaard, Kim

    2010-05-01

    The eddy covariance system at the Danish beech forest long-term flux observation site at Sorø has been intensively examined. Here we investigate which systematic and non-systematic effects the choice of the spectral correction method has on long-term net CO2 flux estimates and their components. Ibrom et al. (2007) gave an overview over different ways to correct for low-pass filtering of the atmospheric turbulent signal by a closed path eddy covariance system. They used degraded temperature time series for spectral correction of low-pass filtered signals. In this new study, correction for high-pass filtering was also included, which made it anyway necessary to use model co-spectra. We compared different ways of adapting different kinds of model co-spectra to the wealth of 14 years high frequency raw data. As the trees grew, the distance between the sonic anemometer and the displacement height decreased over time. The study enabled us to compare the two approaches and different variants of them to give recommendations on their use. The analysis showed that model spectra should not be derived from co-spectra between the vertical wind speed (w) and the scalars measured with the closed path system, i.e. CO2 and H20 concentrations, but instead with sonic temperature (T) w cospectra, to avoid low-pass filtering effects on the estimation of the co-spectral peak frequency (fx). This concern was already expressed earlier in the above mentioned study, but here we show the quantitative effects. The wT co-spectra did not show any height effect on fx as it was suggested in generally used parameterizations. A possible reason for this difference is that measurements, like in all forest flux sites, took place in the roughness sub-layer and not in the inertial sub-layer. At the same time the shape of the relationship between fx and the stability parameter ? differed much from that of often used parameterizations (e.g. from Horst, 1997). The shift of fx towards higher frequencies at

  4. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  5. Landscape structure control on soil CO2 efflux variability in complex terrain: Scaling from point observations to watershed scale fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Brian L. McGlynn

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 efflux across 62 sites of a 393-ha complex watershed of the northern Rocky Mountains. Growing season (83 day) cumulative soil CO2 efflux varied from ~300 to ~2000 g CO2 m-2, depending upon landscape position, with a median of 879.8 g CO2 m-2. Our findings revealed that highest soil CO2 efflux rates were...

  6. New data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes in Asia using a standardized database of eddy covariance measurements, remote sensing data, and support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Kazuhito; Ueyama, Masahito; Kondo, Masayuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Kim, Joon; Alberto, Ma. Carmelita; Ardö, Jonas; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Kang, Minseok; Hirano, Takashi; Joiner, Joanna; Kobayashi, Hideki; Marchesini, Luca Belelli; Merbold, Lutz; Miyata, Akira; Saitoh, Taku M.; Takagi, Kentaro; Varlagin, Andrej; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Kitamura, Kenzo; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Kotani, Ayumi; Kumar, Kireet; Li, Sheng-Gong; Machimura, Takashi; Matsuura, Yojiro; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Ohta, Takeshi; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Yanagi, Yuji; Yasuda, Yukio; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Fenghua

    2017-04-01

    The lack of a standardized database of eddy covariance observations has been an obstacle for data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes in Asia. In this study, we developed such a standardized database using 54 sites from various databases by applying consistent postprocessing for data-driven estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Data-driven estimation was conducted by using a machine learning algorithm: support vector regression (SVR), with remote sensing data for 2000 to 2015 period. Site-level evaluation of the estimated CO2 fluxes shows that although performance varies in different vegetation and climate classifications, GPP and NEE at 8 days are reproduced (e.g., r2 = 0.73 and 0.42 for 8 day GPP and NEE). Evaluation of spatially estimated GPP with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 sensor-based Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence shows that monthly GPP variations at subcontinental scale were reproduced by SVR (r2 = 1.00, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.89 for Siberia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, respectively). Evaluation of spatially estimated NEE with net atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Level 4A product shows that monthly variations of these data were consistent in Siberia and East Asia; meanwhile, inconsistency was found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Furthermore, differences in the land CO2 fluxes from SVR-NEE and GOSAT Level 4A were partially explained by accounting for the differences in the definition of land CO2 fluxes. These data-driven estimates can provide a new opportunity to assess CO2 fluxes in Asia and evaluate and constrain terrestrial ecosystem models.

  7. Impact of hydrological variations on modeling of peatland CO2 fluxes: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Desai, Ankur R.; Schroeder, Nicole M.; Ricciuto, Dan; Barr, Alan; Richardson, Andrew D.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Grant, Robert F.; Poulter, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Ciais, Philippe; Ringeval, Bruno; Baker, Ian T.; Schaefer, Kevin; Luo, Yiqi; Weng, Ensheng

    2012-03-01

    Northern peatlands are likely to be important in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks due to their large carbon pools and vulnerability to hydrological change. Use of non-peatland-specific models could lead to bias in modeling studies of peatland-rich regions. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2fluxes at three wetland sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor,sphagnum-dominated bog, over periods between 1999 and 2007. Models consistently overestimated mean annual gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at all three sites. Monthly flux residuals (simulated - observed) were correlated with measured water table for GEP and ER at the two fen sites, but were not consistently correlated with water table at the bog site. Models that inhibited soil respiration under saturated conditions had less mean bias than models that did not. Modeled diurnal cycles agreed well with eddy covariance measurements at fen sites, but overestimated fluxes at the bog site. Eddy covariance GEP and ER at fens were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while models predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP did not depend on water table, while simulated GEP was higher during wet periods. Carbon cycle modeling in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating wetland-specific hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct plant and soil parameterizations in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  8. UU* filtering of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange flux over forest canopy under strong wind in wintertime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Junhui

    2005-01-01

    [1]Aubinet, M., Heinesch, B., Longdoz, B., Estimation of the carbon sequestration by a heterogeneous forest: night flux corrections,heterogeneity of the site and inter-annual variability, Global Change Biology, 2002, 8:1053-1071.[2]Charlotte, L.R., Nigel, T.R., Seasonal contribution of CO2 fluxes in the annual C budget of a northern bog, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2003, 171029, doi: 10.1029/20029B001889.[3]Baldocchi, D.D., Hicks, B.B., Meyers, T. P., Measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methods, Ecology, 1988, 69:1331-1340.[4]Baldocchi, D.D., Assessing ecosystem carbon balance: problems and prospects of the eddy covariance technique, Global change biology, 2003, 9: 478-492.[5]Canadell, J. G., Mooney, H. A., Baldocchi, D. D. et al., Carbon metabolism of the terrestrial biosphere: A multi technique approach for improved understanding, Ecosystems, 2000, 3:115-130.[6]Schmid, H. P., Footprint modeling for vegetation atmosphere exchange studies: a review and perspective, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2002, 113: 159-183.[7]Wofsy, S. C., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W. et al., Net exchange on CO2 in a mid-latitude forest, Science, 1993, 260: 1314-1317.[8]Massman, W. J., Lee, X. H., Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges,Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2002, 113: 121-144.[9]Baldocchi, D. D., Finnigan, J., Wilson, K. et al., On measuring net ecosystem carbon exchange over tall vegetation on complex terrain, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2000, 96: 257-291.[10]Anthoni, P. M., Unsworth, M. H., Law, B. E. et al., Seasonal differences in carbon and water vapor exchange in young and old-growth ponderosa pine ecosystems, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2002, 111: 203-222.[11]Paw U, K. T., Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P. et al., Correction of eddy-covariance measurements incorporating both advective

  9. CFD simulation of CO_2 sorption on K_2CO_3 solid sorbent in novel high flux circulating-turbulent fluidized bed riser: Parametric statistical experimental design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thummakul, Theeranan; Gidaspow, Dimitri; Piumsomboon, Pornpote; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Circulating-turbulent fluidization was proved to be advantage on CO_2 sorption. • The novel regime was proven to capture CO_2 higher than the conventional regimes. • Uniform solid particle distribution was observed in the novel fluidization regime. • The system continuity had more effect in the system than the process system mixing. • Parametric experimental design analysis was studied to evaluate significant factor. - Abstract: In this study a high flux circulating-turbulent fluidized bed (CTFB) riser was confirmed to be advantageous for carbon dioxide (CO_2) sorption on a potassium carbonate solid sorbent. The effect of various parameters on the CO_2 removal level was evaluated using a statistical experimental design. The most appropriate fluidization regime was found to occur between the turbulent and fast fluidization regimes, which was shown to capture CO_2 more efficiently than conventional fluidization regimes. The highest CO_2 sorption level was 93.4% under optimized CTFB operating conditions. The important parameters for CO_2 capture were the inlet gas velocity and the interactions between the CO_2 concentration and the inlet gas velocity and water vapor concentration. The CTFB regime had a high and uniform solid particle distribution in both the axial and radial system directions and could transport the solid sorbent to the regeneration reactor. In addition, the process system continuity had a stronger effect on the CO_2 removal level in the system than the process system mixing.

  10. SPATIOTEMPORAL VISUALIZATION OF TIME-SERIES SATELLITE-DERIVED CO2 FLUX DATA USING VOLUME RENDERING AND GPU-BASED INTERPOLATION ON A CLOUD-DRIVEN DIGITAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  11. On the influence and role of alkali metals on supported and unsupported activated hydrotalcites for CO2 sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, N.N.A.H.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    To increase the CO2 capture capacity of hydrotalcites, the influence of alkali (K, Na) metal carbonate loading of activated supported and unsupported hydrotalcites (HTact) on their CO2 capture properties was investigated. The alkali-loaded supported hydrotalcites adsorb at 523 K, depending on the

  12. Influence of * OH adsorbates on the potentiodynamics of the CO 2 generation during the electro-oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guangxing; Namin, Lida M.; Aaron Deskins, N.; Teng, Xiaowei

    2017-09-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are a promising technology for the generation of electricity via the direct conversion of ethanol into CO2, showing higher thermodynamic efficiency and volumetric energy density than hydrogen fuel cells. However, implementation of DEFCs is hampered by the low CO2 selectivity during the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). Comprehensive understanding of the electro-kinetics and reaction pathways of CO2 generation via CC bond-breaking is not only a fundamental question for electro-catalysis, but also a key technological challenge since practical implementation of DEFC technology is contingent on its ability to selectively oxidize ethanol into CO2 to achieve exceptional energy density through 12-electron transfer reaction. Here, we present comprehensive in situ potentiodynamics studies of CO2 generation during the EOR on Pt, Pt/SnO2 and Pt/Rh/SnO2 catalysts using a house-made electrochemical cell equipped with a CO2 microelectrode. Highly sensitive CO2 measurements enable the real time detection of the partial pressure of CO2 during linear sweep voltammetry measurements, through which electro-kinetics details of CO2 generation can be obtained. In situ CO2 measurements provide the mechanistic understanding of potentiodynamics of the EOR, particularly the influence of *OH adsorbates on CO2 generation rate and selectivity. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations of Pt, Pt/SnO2, and Pt/Rh/SnO2 surfaces clarify reaction details over these catalysts. Our results show that at low potentials, inadequate *OH adsorbates impair the removal of reaction intermediates, and thus Pt/Rh/SnO2 exhibited the best performance toward CO2 generation, while at high potentials, Rh sites were overwhelmingly occupied (poisoned) by *OH adsorbates, and thus Pt/SnO2 exhibited the best performance toward CO2 generation.

  13. Consistent regional fluxes of CH4 and CO2 inferred from GOSAT proxy XCH4 : XCO2 retrievals, 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Bösch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert J.; Webb, Alex J.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Emanuel; Hase, Frank; Kivi, Rigel; Liu, Yi; Miller, John B.; Morino, Isamu; Sussmann, Ralf; Strong, Kimberly; Uchino, Osamu; Wang, Jing; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4 : XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. This work builds on the previously reported theory that takes into account that (1) these ratios are less prone to systematic error than either the full-physics data products or the proxy CH4 data products; and (2) the resulting CH4 and CO2 fluxes are self-consistent. We show that a posteriori fluxes inferred from the GOSAT data generally outperform the fluxes inferred only from in situ data, as expected. GOSAT CH4 and CO2 fluxes are consistent with global growth rates for CO2 and CH4 reported by NOAA and have a range of independent data including new profile measurements (0-7 km) over the Amazon Basin that were collected specifically to help validate GOSAT over this geographical region. We find that large-scale multi-year annual a posteriori CO2 fluxes inferred from GOSAT data are similar to those inferred from the in situ surface data but with smaller uncertainties, particularly over the tropics. GOSAT data are consistent with smaller peak-to-peak seasonal amplitudes of CO2 than either the a priori or in situ inversion, particularly over the tropics and the southern extratropics. Over the northern extratropics, GOSAT data show larger uptake than the a priori but less than the in situ inversion, resulting in small net emissions over the year. We also find evidence that the carbon balance of tropical South America was perturbed following the droughts of 2010 and 2012 with net annual fluxes not returning to an approximate annual balance until 2013. In contrast, GOSAT data significantly changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emission with a 40 % increase over tropical South America and tropical Asia and a smaller decrease over Eurasia and temperate

  14. Fluid geochemistry and soil gas fluxes (CO2-CH4-H2S) at a promissory Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System: The Acoculco caldera, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Bernard-Romero, R.; Mazot, A.; Taran, Y. A.; Guevara, M.; Santoyo, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Acoculco caldera has been recognized by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (CFE) as a Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System (HDR) and could be a potential candidate for developing an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Apart from hydrothermally altered rocks, geothermal manifestations within the Acoculco caldera are scarce. Close to ambient temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing are reported inside the caldera while a few springs discharge warm water on the periphery of the caldera. In this study, we infer the origin of fluids and we characterize for the first time the soil degassing dynamic. Chemical and isotopic (δ18O-δD) analyses of spring waters indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S gases, while gas chemical and isotopic compositions (N2/He, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) reveal a magmatic contribution with both MORB- and arc-type signatures which could be explained by an extension regime created by local and regional fault systems. Gas geothermometry results are in agreement with temperature measured during well drilling (260 °C-300 °C). Absence of well-developed water reservoir at depth impedes re-equilibration of gases upon surface. A multi-gas flux survey including CO2, CH4 and H2S measurements was performed within the caldera. Using the graphical statistical analysis (GSA) approach, CO2 flux measurements were classified in two populations. Population A, representing 95% of measured fluxes is characterized by low values (mean: 18 g m- 2 day- 1) while the remaining 5% fluxes belonging to Population B are much higher (mean: 5543 g m- 2 day- 1). This low degassing rate probably reflects the low permeability of the system, a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of volcanic rocks. An attempt to interpret the origin and transport mechanism of these fluxes is proposed by means of flux ratios as well as by numerical modeling. Measurements with CO2/CH4 and CO2/H2S flux ratios similar to mass ratios

  15. Influence of the cation substitution on the magnetic properties of LiCo2O4 and Li(Me,Co2O4 spinels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier, J. L.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based cells LiCo2O4 have been characterized by magnetic techniques, looking at the influence of the partial substitution of cobalt by 3d or 4d transition metal elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo. The non-substituted compound LiCo2O4 behaves as an antiferromagnet, with a Néel temperature TN of 30 K, although antiferromagnetic interactions are much more important, as suggested by a Weiss parameter Θ of the order of ‑225 K. In the solid solution Li(NixCo2‑xO4 the Weiss parameter Θ changes with x(Ni, reaching large positive values (e.g., Θ ~ +230 K, for x = 0.5. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a canted‑antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic structures with large ferromagnetic components. Substitution of cobalt by other 3d or 4d transition metals in the LiMe0.5Co1.5O4 series shows dramatic effects with respect to the non-substituted LiCo2O4 compound : copper completely suppresses the magnetic order, while iron increases TN to almost room temperature. No modifications are observed when molybdenum substitutes cobalt, while chromium transforms the AF order in a ferromagnetic one, with Tc of about 90 K.Se ha caracterizado por técnicas magnéticas, el efecto de la sustitución parcial de Co por elementos de transición 3d o 4d (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo en celdas LiCo2O4 a base de litio. El compuesto no sustituído LiCo2O4, se comporta como un antiferromagneto de temperatura de Néel TN de 30 K, aunque existen interacciones antiferromagnéticas mucho más importantes, como lo indica un parámetro de Weiss Θ del orden de -225K. En la solución sólida Li(NixCo2‑xO4, el parámetro de Weiss Θ cambia con x(Ni, alcanzando valores positivos altos (e.g., Θ ~ +230K, para x=0.5. Este fenómeno sugiere la existencia de una estructura antiferromagnética inclinada (“AF-canted” o de una estructura ferrimagnética, donde predominan componentes ferromagnéticas importantes. La sustitución del cobalto por otros elementos de transición 3d o 4d en

  16. Long term monitoring at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy): 1998-2014, fifteen years of soil CO2 flux measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rosiello, Angelo; Bagnato, Emanuela; Avino, Rosario; Frondini, Francesco; Donnini, Marco; Caliro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    With a flux of deeply derived fluids of ~5000 t/d and an energetic release of ~100 MW Solfatara of Pozzuoli is one of the largest studied volcanic-hydrothermal system of the world. Since 1998, soil CO2 flux surveys where performed using the accumulation chamber method over a large area (1.45 km2), including the volcanic apparatus and its surroundings. The statistical elaboration of CO2 flux, also coupled with the investigation of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize both the CO2 flux connected to by biological activity in the soil and that feed to the degassing of the hydrothermal system. A geostatistical elaboration of CO2 fluxes based on sequential Gaussian simulations, allowed to define the spatial structure of the degassing area, pointing out the presence of a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS). Solfatara DDS results well correlated to volcanic and tectonic structures interesting the crater area and the eastern area of Pisciarelli. With the same approach the total amount of CO2 release was estimated to range between 754 t/d and 1530 t/d in the last fifteen year (with an error in the estimate varying between 9 and 15 %). Also the extension of the DDS experienced relevant variations varying between 4.5x105 m2 to 12.3 x105 m2. In particular two major changes occurred in the extension of the DDS, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of ~ 30% in 2011-2012, the last occurring after period of decreasing trend which interrupted 4-5 years of relative stability. These variations mainly occurred external to the crater area in correspondence of a NE-SW fault system where fluxes increased from background to values typical of the endogenous source. The first event was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway

  17. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    broader context of this paper is to use our experimentally calibrated chemical, mechanical, and transport model to illustrate when, where, and in what conditions fracture pathways seal in CO 2 storage wells, to reduce their risk to groundwater resources. We do this by defining the amount of cement and the time required to effectively seal the leakage pathways associated with peak and postinjection overpressures, within the context of oil and gas industry standards for leak detection, mitigation, and repairs. Our simulations suggest that for many damage scenarios chemical and mechanical processes lower leakage risk by reducing or sealing fracture pathways. Leakage risk would remain high in wells with a large amount of damage, modeled here as wide fracture apertures, where fast flowing fluids are too dilute for carbonate precipitation and subsurface stress does not compress the altered cement. Fracture sealing is more likely as reservoir pressures decrease during the postinjection phase where lower fluxes aid chemical alteration and mechanical deformation of cement. Our results hold promise for the development of mitigation framework to avoid impacting groundwater resources above any geologic CO 2 storage reservoir by correlating operational pressures and barrier lengths.

  18. Coccolithophore surface distributions in the North Atlantic and their modulation of the air-sea flux of CO2 from 10 years of satellite Earth observation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Shutler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores are the primary oceanic phytoplankton responsible for the production of calcium carbonate (CaCO3. These climatically important plankton play a key role in the oceanic carbon cycle as a major contributor of carbon to the open ocean carbonate pump (~50% and their calcification can affect the atmosphere-to-ocean (air-sea uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2 through increasing the seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Here we document variations in the areal extent of surface blooms of the globally important coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, in the North Atlantic over a 10-year period (1998–2007, using Earth observation data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS. We calculate the annual mean sea surface areal coverage of E. huxleyi in the North Atlantic to be 474 000 ± 104 000 km2, which results in a net CaCO3 carbon (CaCO3-C production of 0.14–1.71 Tg CaCO3-C per year. However, this surface coverage (and, thus, net production can fluctuate inter-annually by −54/+8% about the mean value and is strongly correlated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO climate oscillation index (r=0.75, pE. huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic can increase the pCO2 and, thus, decrease the localised air-sea flux of atmospheric CO2. In regions where the blooms are prevalent, the average reduction in the monthly air-sea CO2 flux can reach 55%. The maximum reduction of the monthly air-sea CO2 flux in the time series is 155%. This work suggests that the high variability, frequency and distribution of these calcifying plankton and their impact on pCO2 should be considered if we are to fully understand the variability of the North Atlantic air-to-sea flux of CO2. We estimate that these blooms can reduce the annual N. Atlantic net sink atmospheric CO2 by between 3–28%.

  19. Effects of Long-Term CO2 Enrichment on Soil-Atmosphere CH4 Fluxes and the Spatial Micro-Distribution of Methanotrophic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbin, Saeed; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia I; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2015-01-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant growth and associated C cycling have intensively been studied, but less is known about effects on the fluxes of radiatively active trace gases other than CO2. Net soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes are determined by the balance of soil microbially-driven methane (CH4) oxidation and methanogenesis, and both might change under elevated CO2. Here, we studied CH4 dynamics in a permanent grassland exposed to elevated CO2 for 14 years. Soil-atmosphere fluxes of CH4 were measured using large static chambers, over a period of four years. The ecosystem was a net sink for atmospheric CH4 for most of the time except summer to fall when net CH4 emissions occurred. We did not detect any elevated CO2 effects on CH4 fluxes, but emissions were difficult to quantify due to their discontinuous nature, most likely because of ebullition from the saturated zone. Potential methanotrophic activity, determined by incubation of fresh sieved soil under standardized conditions, also did not reveal any effect of the CO2 treatment. Finally, we determined the spatial micro-distribution of methanotrophic activity at less than 5× atmospheric (10 ppm) and elevated (10000 ppm) CH4 concentrations, using a novel auto-radiographic technique. These analyses indicated that domains of net CH4 assimilation were distributed throughout the analyzed top 15 cm of soils, with no dependence on CH4 concentration or CO2 treatment. Our investigations suggest that elevated CO2 exerts no or only minor effects on CH4 fluxes in the type of ecosystem we studied, at least as long as soil moisture differences are small or absent as was the case here. The autoradiographic analyses further indicate that the spatial niche of CH4 oxidation does not shift in response to CO2 enrichment or CH4 concentration, and that the same type of methanotrophs may oxidize CH4 from atmospheric and soil-internal sources.

  20. Influence of CO2 Laser Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Mota, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the treatment of fresh cement pastes with CO2 laser radiation (10.6μm, in order to improve its mechanical properties in addition to obtaining lower setting times than those of a natural setting (without radiation . It was observed that the CO2 laser radiation has a positive influence on the mechanical properties of cement paste, not due to the heat produced during irradiation, but due to the effect of electric field propagation on water molecules, whose are arranged around functional groups of the binder and by the effect of ration, causes a micro vibration effect, resulting in a more compact and less porous paste which has better mechanical properties compared to natural setting paste. The internal and surface temperature of the samples, the evolution of setting, Young's modulus (using ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength were registered.En este artículo se presentan los resultados correspondientes al tratamiento de pastas frescas de cemento con radiación láser de CO2 (10.6µm, con el propósito de mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas además de obtener tiempos de fraguado menores a los del fraguado en forma natural (sin radiación. Se demostró que la radiación con láser de CO2 influye positivamente en las propiedades mecánicas de la pasta de cemento, no por el calentamiento producido durante la irradiación, sino por el efecto de la propagación del campo eléctrico sobre las moléculas de agua que están dispuestas alrededor de los grupos funcionales del aglutinante y que al rotar producen un efecto equivalente a micro vibraciones, dando como resultado un material más compacto, con menos poros y mejores propiedades mecánicas respecto al fraguado natural. Se registró la temperatura interna y superficial de las muestras, la evolución del fraguado, el módulo de Young y la resistencia a compresión.

  1. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors at multiple spatial scales affects the variability of CO2 fluxes in polar environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cannone, N.; Augusti, A.; Malfasi, F.; Pallozi, E.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Brugnoli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 9 (2016), s. 1581-1596 ISSN 0722-4060 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arctic ecosystems * CO2 fluxes * Speciesspecific photosynthetic capacity * Soil temperature * Carbon isotope composition * Climate warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  2. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and H2O fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum and maize in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in...

  3. Comparison of CO2 and H2O fluxes over grassland vegetations measured by the eddy-covariance technique and by open system chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balogh, J.; Nagy, Z.; Fóti, S.; Pintér, K.; Czóbel, S.; Péli, E.; Acosta, Manuel; Marek, Michal V.; Csintalan, Z.; Tuba, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2007), s. 288-292 ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : CO2 and H2O fluxes * leaf area index * grassland * EC Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.976, year: 2007

  4. Evaluation of the influence of CO2 on hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willquist, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Niel, van E.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Stripping gas is generally used to improve hydrogen yields in fermentations. Since CO2 is relatively easy to separate from hydrogen it could be an interesting stripping gas. However, a higher partial CO2 pressure is accompanied with an increased CO2 uptake in the liquid, where it hydrolyses and

  5. A three-dimensional synthesis study of delta O-18 in atmospheric CO2 .1. Surface fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P; Denning, AS; Tans, PP; Berry, JA; Randall, DA; Collatz, GJ; Sellers, PJ; White, JWC; Trolier, M; Meijer, HAJ; Francey, RJ; Monfray, P; Heimann, M

    1997-01-01

    The isotope O-18 in CO2 is of particular interest in studying the global carbon cycle because it is sensitive to the processes by which the global land biosphere absorbs and respires CO2. Carbon dioxide and water exchange isotopically both in leaves and in soils, and the O-18 character of

  6. An analytical model for the distribution of CO2 sources and sinks, fluxes, and mean concentration within the roughness sub-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    A one-dimensional analytical model that predicts foliage CO2 uptake rates, turbulent fluxes, and mean concentration throughout the roughness sub-layer (RSL), a layer that extends from the ground surface up to 5 times the canopy height (h), is proposed. The model combines the mean continuity equation for CO2 with first-order closure principles for turbulent fluxes and simplified physiological and radiative transfer schemes for foliage uptake. This combination results in a second-order ordinary differential equation in which it is imposed soil respiration (RE) as lower and CO2 concentration well above the RSL as upper boundary conditions. An inverse version of the model was tested against data sets from two contrasting ecosystems: a tropical forest (TF, h=40 m) and a managed irrigated rice canopy (RC, h=0.7 m) - with good agreement noted between modeled and measured mean CO2 concentration profiles within the entire RSL (see figure). Sensitivity analysis on the model parameters revealed a plausible scaling regime between them and a dimensionless parameter defined by the ratio between external (RE) and internal (stomatal conductance) characteristics controlling the CO2 exchange process. The model can be used to infer the thickness of the RSL for CO2 exchange, the inequality in zero-plane displacement between CO2 and momentum, and its consequences on modeled CO2 fluxes. A simplified version of the solution is well suited for being incorporated into large-scale climate models. Furthermore, the model framework here can be used to a priori estimate relative contributions from the soil surface and the atmosphere to canopy-air CO2 concentration thereby making it synergetic to stable isotopes studies. Panels a) and c): Profiles of normalized measured leaf area density distribution (a) for TF and RC, respectively. Continuous lines are the constant a used in the model and dashed lines represent data-derived profiles. Panels b) and d) are modeled and ensemble-averaged measured

  7. Statistical partitioning of a three-year time series of direct urban net CO2 flux measurements into biogenic and anthropogenic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Olaf; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2017-12-01

    Eddy covariance flux measurements are increasingly used to quantify the net carbon dioxide exchange (FC) in urban areas. FC represents the sum of anthropogenic emissions, biogenic carbon release from plant and soil respiration, and carbon uptake by plant photosynthesis. When FC is measured in natural ecosystems, partitioning into respiration and photosynthesis is a well-established procedure. In contrast, few studies have partitioned FC at urban flux tower sites due to the difficulty of accounting for the temporal and spatial variability of the multiple sources and sinks. Here, we partitioned a three-year time series of flux measurements from a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. We segregated FC into one subset that captured fluxes from a residential neighborhood and into another subset that covered a golf course. For both land use types we modeled anthropogenic flux components based on winter data and extrapolated them to the growing season, to estimate gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at half-hourly, daily, monthly and annual scales. During the growing season, GPP had the largest magnitude (up to - 9.83 g C m-2 d-1) of any component CO2 flux, biogenic or anthropogenic, and both GPP and Reco were more dynamic seasonally than anthropogenic fluxes. Owing to the balancing of Reco against GPP, and the limitations of the growing season in a cold temperate climate zone, the net biogenic flux was only 1.5%-4.5% of the anthropogenic flux in the dominant residential land use type, and between 25%-31% of the anthropogenic flux in highly managed greenspace. Still, the vegetation sink at our site was stronger than net anthropogenic emissions on 16-20 days over the residential area and on 66-91 days over the recreational area. The reported carbon flux sums and dynamics are a critical step toward developing models of urban CO2 fluxes within and across cities that differ in vegetation cover.

  8. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  9. The 2007 and 2014 eruptions of Stromboli at match: monitoring the potential occurrence of effusion-driven basaltic paroxysmal explosions from a volcanic CO2 flux perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Marco; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; Federico, Cinzia; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The recent effusive unrests of Stromboli occurred in 2002 and 2007 were both punctuated by short-lived, violent paroxysmal explosions generated from the volcano's summit craters. When effusive activity recently resumed on Stromboli, on 6 August 2014, much concern was raised therefore on whether or not a paroxysm would have occurred again. The occurrence of these potentially hazardous events has stimulated research toward understanding the mechanisms through which effusive eruptions can perturb the volcano's plumbing system, to eventually trigger a paroxysm. The anomalously large CO2 gas emissions measured prior to the 15 March 2007 paroxysmal explosion of Stromboli [1] have first demonstrated the chance to predict days in advance the effusive-to-explosive transition. Here 2007 and 2014 volcanic CO2 flux records have been compared for exploring causes/conditions that had not triggered any paroxysm event in the 2014 case. We show that the 2007 and 2014 datasets shared both similarities and remarkable differences. The pre-eruptive trends of CO2 and SO2 flux emissions were strikingly similar in both 2007 and 2014, indicating similar conditions within the plumbing system prior to onset of both effusive crises. In both events, the CO2 flux substantially accelerated (relative to the pre-eruptive mean flux) after onset of the effusion. However, this CO2 flux acceleration was a factor 3 lower in 2014 than in 2007, and the excess CO2 flux (the fraction of CO2 not associated with the shallowly emplaced/erupted magma, and therefore contributed by the deep magmatic system) never returned to the very high levels observed prior to the 15 March 2007 paroxysm. We conclude therefore that, although similar quantities of magma were effusively erupted in 2007 and 2014, the deep magmatic system was far less perturbed in the most recent case. We speculate that the rate at which the deep magmatic system is decompressed, rather than the level of de-compression itself, determine if the deep

  10. Quantifying the influence of CO2 seasonality on future ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, T. P.; McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.

    2015-04-01

    Ocean acidification is a predictable consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and is highly likely to impact the entire marine ecosystem - from plankton at the base to fish at the top. Factors which are expected to be impacted include reproductive health, organism growth and species composition and distribution. Predicting when critical threshold values will be reached is crucial for projecting the future health of marine ecosystems and for marine resources planning and management. The impacts of ocean acidification will be first felt at the seasonal scale, however our understanding how seasonal variability will influence rates of future ocean acidification remains poorly constrained due to current model and data limitations. To address this issue, we first quantified the seasonal cycle of aragonite saturation state utilizing new data-based estimates of global ocean surface dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. This seasonality was then combined with earth system model projections under different emissions scenarios (RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to provide new insights into future aragonite under-saturation onset. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), our results suggest accounting for seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long under-saturation by 17 years compared to annual-mean estimates, with differences extending up to 35 ± 17 years in the North Pacific due to strong regional seasonality. Our results also show large-scale under-saturation once atmospheric CO2 reaches 486 ppm in the North Pacific and 511 ppm in the Southern Ocean independent of emission scenario. Our results suggest that accounting for seasonality is critical to projecting the future impacts of ocean acidification on the marine environment.

  11. Quantifying the influence of CO2 seasonality on future aragonite undersaturation onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, T. P.; McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is a predictable consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and is highly likely to impact the entire marine ecosystem - from plankton at the base of the food chain to fish at the top. Factors which are expected to be impacted include reproductive health, organism growth and species composition and distribution. Predicting when critical threshold values will be reached is crucial for projecting the future health of marine ecosystems and for marine resources planning and management. The impacts of ocean acidification will be first felt at the seasonal scale, however our understanding how seasonal variability will influence rates of future ocean acidification remains poorly constrained due to current model and data limitations. To address this issue, we first quantified the seasonal cycle of aragonite saturation state utilizing new data-based estimates of global ocean-surface dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. This seasonality was then combined with earth system model projections under different emissions scenarios (representative concentration pathways; RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to provide new insights into future aragonite undersaturation onset. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), our results suggest accounting for seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long undersaturation by 17 ± 10 years compared to annual-mean estimates, with differences extending up to 35 ± 16 years in the North Pacific due to strong regional seasonality. This earlier onset will result in large-scale undersaturation once atmospheric CO2 reaches 496 ppm in the North Pacific and 511 ppm in the Southern Ocean, independent of emission scenario. This work suggests accounting for seasonality is critical to projecting the future impacts of ocean acidification on the marine environment.

  12. A high-flux polyimide hollow fiber membrane to minimize footprint and energy penalty for CO2 recovery from flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-12-01

    Using a process-guided approach, a new 6FDA-based polyimide - 6FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1) - has been developed in the form of hollow fiber membranes for CO 2 recovery from post-combustion flue gas streams. Dense film studies on this polymer reveal a CO 2 permeability of 224 Barrers at 40°C at a CO 2 feed pressure of 10psia. The dense films exhibit an ideal CO 2/N 2 permselectivity of 20 at 40°C, which permits their use in a two-step counter-flow/sweep membrane process. Dry-jet, wet-quench, non-solvent-induced phase inversion spinning was used to create defect-free hollow fibers from 6FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1). Membranes with defect-free skin layers, approximately 415nm thick, were obtained with a pure CO 2 permeance of 520GPU at 30°C and an ideal CO 2/N 2 permselectivity of 24. Mixed gas permeation and wet gas permeation are presented for the fibers. The CO 2 permeance in the fibers was reduced by approximately a factor of 2 in feeds with 80% humidity. As a proof-of-concept path forward to increase CO 2 flux, we incorporated microporous ZIF-8 fillers into 6FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1) dense films. Our 6FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1)/ZIF-8 dense film composites (20wt% ZIF-8) had a CO 2 permeability of 550 Barrers and a CO 2/N 2 selectivity of 19 at 35°C. Good adhesion between the ZIF and the 6FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1) matrix was observed. CO 2 capture costs of $27/ton of CO 2 using the current, "non-optimized" membrane are estimated using a custom counterflow membrane model. Hollow fiber membrane modules were estimated to have order-of-magnitude reductions in system footprint relative to spiral-wound modules, thereby making them attractive in current space-constrained coal-fired power stations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. CO2 sorption on surface-modified carbonaceous support: Probing the influence of the carbon black microporosity and surface polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, Valentina; Alfè, Michela; Ammendola, Paola; Raganati, Federica; Chirone, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CO 2 -sorbent materials preparation by surface modification of CB. • CB functionalization (amino-groups), CB coating (Fe 3 O 4 ), CB impregnation (ionic liquid). • Sorbents bearing basic functionalities exhibit the higher CO 2 sorption capacity. • Microporous supporting material limits the CO 2 accessibility toward the adsorbing material. - Abstract: The use of solid sorbents is a convenient option in post-combustion CO 2 capture strategies. Sorbents selection is a key point because the materials are required to be both low-cost and versatile in typical post-combustion conditions in order to guarantee an economically advantageous overall process. This work compares strategies to tailor the chemico-physical features of carbon black (CB) by surface-modification and/or coating with a CO 2 -sorbent phase. The influence of the CB microporosity, enhanced by chemical/thermal treatments, is also taken into account. Three CB surface modifications are performed and compared: (i) oxidation and functionalization with amino-groups, (ii) coating with iron oxides and (iii) impregnation with an ionic liquid (IL). The CO 2 capture performance is evaluated on the basis of the breakthrough curves measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in a lab-scale fixed bed micro-reactor. Most of tested solids adsorb a CO 2 amount significantly higher than a 13X zeolite and DARCO FGD (Norit) activated carbon (up to 4 times more in the best case). The sorbents bearing basic functionalities (amino-groups and IL) exhibit the highest CO 2 sorption capacity. The use of a microporous carbonaceous support limits the accessibility of CO 2 toward the adsorbing phase (IL or FM) lowering the number of accessible binding sites for CO 2 .

  14. Soil-surface CO2 flux and growth in a boreal Norway spruce stand: Effects of soil warming and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemgren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to affect the carbon balance of forests. A change in the carbon balance would give a positive or negative feedback to the greenhouse effect, which would affect global warming. The effects of long-term soil warming on growth, nutrient and soil-surface CO 2 flux (R) dynamics were studied in irrigated (I) and irrigated-fertilised (IL) stands of Norway spruce in northern Sweden. Soil temperature on heated plots (Ih and ILh) was maintained 5 deg C above that on unheated plots (Ic and ILc) from May to October, by heating cables. After six years' soil warming, stemwood production increased by 100% and 50% in the I and IL treatment, respectively. The main production increase occurred at the beginning of the season, probably as an effect of the earlier increase in soil temperature. In the 1h treatment, however, the growth increase was evident during the entire season. The effect of increased nitrogen (N) mineralisation on annual growth appeared to be stronger than the direct effect of warming. From 1995-2000, the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts increased by 100 and 475 kg N/ha on Ic and ILc plots, respectively. During the same period, 450 kg N fertiliser was added to the ILc plot. Soil warming increased the total amount of N stored in aboveground tree parts by 50 kg N/ha, independently of nutrient treatment. Soil warming did not significantly increase R, except in early spring, when R was 30-50% higher on heated compared to unheated plots. The extended growing season, however, increased annual respiration (RA) by 12-30% throughout. RA losses were estimated to be 0.6-0.7 kg C/ha/year. Use of relationships between R and soil temperature, derived from unheated plots, overestimated RA on heated plots by 50-80%. These results suggest that acclimation of root or microbial respiration or both to temperature had occurred, but the exact process(es) and their relative contribution are still unclear. In conclusion, the study showed that

  15. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek

    2015-04-01

    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  16. Tool feed influence on the machinability of CO(2) laser optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J B; Steger, P J; Saito, T T

    1975-08-01

    Influence of tool feed on reflectivity of diamond-machined surfaces was evaluated using materials (gold, silver, and copper) from which CO(2) laser optics are primarily produced. Fifteen specimens were machined by holding all machining parameters constant, except tool feed. Tool feed was allowed to vary by controlled amounts from one evaluation zone (or part) to another. Past experience has verified that the quality of a diamond-machined surface is not a function of the cutting velocity; therefore, this experiment was conducted on the basis that a variation in cutting velocity was not an influencing factor on the diamondturning process. Inspection results of the specimens indicated that tool feeds significantly higher than 5.1 micro/rev (200 microin./rev) produced detrimental effects on the machined surfaces. In some cases, at feeds as high as 13 microm/rev (500 microin./rev), visible scoring was evident. Those surfaces produced with tool feeds less than 5.1 microm/rev had little difference in reflectivity. Measurements indicat d that their reflectivity existed in a range from 96.7% to 99.3% at 10.6 microm.

  17. The influence of lumping on the behavior of reservoir with light oil and CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Helena Finardi Alvares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNISIM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    Compositional simulation demands a large number of equations and functions to be solved, once fluid properties depend on reservoir pressure and temperature and also on fluid composition. As a consequence, the number of components used influences considerably in the simulation run time and accuracy: more components yield more equations to be solved with expected higher run time. Giant petroleum fields discovered recently in Brazil (pre-salt reservoirs) demand compositional simulation due to the fluid characteristics (light oil with the presence of CO2). However, the computational time can be a limitation because of the number of grid blocks that are necessary to represent the reservoir. So, reducing the number of components is an important step for the simulation models. Under this context, this paper presents a study on the influence of different lumping clusters, used to reduce the number of components in a volatile oil, on reservoir simulation. Phase diagram, saturation pressure and simulation results were used for comparison purposes. The best results were obtained for the cases with 14, 9 and 7 pseudo components, which represented correctly the original fluid, reducing till three times the simulation run time, for the same production volumes of oil and gas. (author)

  18. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  19. Genotype influences sulfur metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) under elevated CO2 and NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Climatic change predicts elevated salinity in soils as well as increased carbon dioxide dioxide [CO2] in the atmosphere. The present study aims to determine the effect of combined salinity and elevated [CO2] on sulfur (S) metabolism and S-derived phytochemicals in green and purple broccoli (cv. Naxos and cv. Viola, respectively). Elevated [CO2] involved the amelioration of salt stress, especially in cv. Viola, where a lower biomass reduction by salinity was accompanied by higher sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) compartmentation in the vacuole. Moreover, salinity and elevated [CO2] affected the mineral and glucosinolate contents and the activity of biosynthetic enzymes of S-derived compounds and the degradative enzyme of glucosinolate metabolism, myrosinase, as well as the related amino acids and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In cv. Naxos, elevated [CO2] may trigger the antioxidant response to saline stress by means of increased GSH concentration. Also, in cv. Naxos, indolic glucosinolates were more influenced by the NaCl×CO2 interaction whereas in cv. Viola the aliphatic glucosinolates were significantly increased by these conditions. Salinity and elevated [CO2] enhanced the S cellular partitioning and metabolism affecting the myrosinase-glucosinolate system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, prolonged summer drought and temperature increase on N2O and CH4 fluxes in a temperate heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, Per; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2011-01-01

    In temperate regions, climate change is predicted to increase annual mean temperature and intensify the duration and frequency of summer droughts, which together with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, may affect the exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) between...... terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. We report results from the CLIMAITE experiment, where the effects of these three climate change parameters were investigated solely and in all combinations in a temperate heathland. Field measurements of N2O and CH4 fluxes took place 1–2 years after the climate...... change manipulations were initiated. The soil was generally a net sink for atmospheric CH4. Elevated temperature (T) increased the CH4 uptake by on average 10 μg C m−2 h−1, corresponding to a rise in the uptake rate of about 20%. However, during winter elevated CO2 (CO2) reduced the CH4 uptake, which...

  1. Measuring the Effects of Disturbance & Climate on the CO2 & Energy Exchange of Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly E. Law; Larry Mahrt

    2007-01-05

    The goal is to quantify and understand the influence of climate and disturbance on ecosystem processes and thus net carbon uptake by forests. The objective is to combine tower and ground-based observations to quantify the effects of disturbance on processes controlling carbon storage and CO{sub 2} and energy exchange in varying climatic conditions. Specific objectives are: (1) Investigate the effects of logging and fire on carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in chronosequences of ponderosa pine, using consistent methodology; (2) Determine key environmental factors controlling carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in these forests through a combination of measurements and process modeling; and (3) Assess spatial variation of the concentrations and transport in complex terrain. The eddy covariance method is used for measurements of CO2, water vapor, and energy exchanges in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests (burned in 2002 wildfire, 10 year-old stand, 90 year-old mature stand). The mature stand has been an AmeriFlux site since 2000 (following previous flux sites in young and old stands initiated in 1996). In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, a large suite of biological processes and ecosystem properties are determined for the purpose of developing independent forest carbon budgets and NEP estimates; these include photosynthesis, stand respiration, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes, annual litterfall, foliar chemistry, and bole increment, and soil organic matter among other parameters. The measurements are being integrated and evaluated with two ecosystem models (BIOME-BGC and SPA). Such analyses are needed to assess regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgets. The results will contribute scientific understanding of carbon processes, and will provide comprehensive data sets for forest managers and those preparing national carbon inventories to use in assessments of carbon sequestration in relation to interannual climate

  2. Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from soil and termite mounds in south Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    The contribution of West African savanna ecosystems to global greenhouse gas budgets is highly uncertain. In this study we quantified soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes in the southwest of Burkina Faso from June to September 2005 and from April to September 2006 at four different agricultural fields planted with sorghum (n = 2), cotton, and peanut and at a natural savanna site with termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake and CH4 emission were observed in the savanna, which was on average a CH4 source of 2.79 and 2.28 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The crop sites were an average CH4 sink of -0.67 and -0.70 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in the 2 years, without significant seasonal variation. Mean annual soil respiration ranged between 3.86 and 5.82 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 in the savanna and between 2.50 and 4.51 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 at the crop sites. CH4 emission from termite mounds was 2 orders of magnitude higher than soil CH4 emissions, whereas termite CO2 emissions were of the same order of magnitude as soil CO2 emissions. Termite CH4 and CO2 release in the savanna contributed 8.8% and 0.4% to the total soil CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. At the crop sites, where termite mounds had been almost completely removed because of land use change, termite fluxes were insignificant. Mound density-based upscaling of termite CH4 fluxes resulted in a global termite CH4 source of 0.9 Tg a-1, which corresponds to 0.15% of the total global CH4 budget of 582 Tg a-1, hence significantly lower than those obtained previously by biomass-based calculations. This study emphasizes that land use change, which is of high relevance in this region, has particularly affected soil CH4 fluxes in the past and might still do so in the future.

  3. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on assimilation of more than one

  4. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Houweling, S.; Peters, W.; Butz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on the assimilation of more than

  5. The influence of using LPG device on the CO2 emissions from personal passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Carach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic, mostly the air and car traffic is the biggest producer of CO2 (51% at present. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases with more than 50 % of emissions contributing to this major global ecological problem. A rising concetration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to higher global temperatures. The main problem is the rise of CO2 emissions in most developed countries despite international undertakings accepted in 80´s. This is the main reason for finding solutions to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the traffic. One of many solutions is the use of LPG fuel. The purpose of this article is to quantify the efficiency of using LPG in personal passenger cars.

  6. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  7. Interannual variations of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux from winter to spring in the western subarctic North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Kan; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Kamiya, Hitomi; Umeda, Takafumi; Hiraishi, Naotaka; Wada, Akira; Ishii, Masao

    2003-01-01

    The role of spring biological production for the air-sea CO 2 flux was quantified in the Western Subarctic Gyre (48 deg N, 165 deg E), where the vertical profile of temperature revealed the existence of a temperature minimum (Tmin) layer in the North Pacific. The vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, in the upper water column were significantly variable year by year in spring, 1996-2000. Correspondingly, surface seawater at this site in spring was supersaturated with CO 2 in 1997, 1999 and 2000, but was undersaturated in 1996 and 1998. The concentrations of DIC and nutrients in the winter mixed layer were estimated from those in the Tmin layer in spring with a correction for particle decomposition based on the apparent oxygen utilization. The net community production (NCP) and air-sea CO 2 flux from winter to spring were calculated from the vertically integrated deficits of DIC and nutrients in the upper water column between the two seasons. The calculation of the carbon budget indicated large interannual variations of NCP (0-13 mmol/m 2 /d) and CO 2 efflux (4-16 mmol/m 2 /d) for this period. The CO 2 efflux was generally low in the year when NCP was high. The close coupling between biological production and CO 2 efflux suggested the important role of the changes in the mixed-layer depth, as a key process controlling both processes, especially of the timing, so that a decrease in the mixed-layer depth could result in the activation of biological production. The early biological consumption of the surface DIC concentration could shorten the period for acting as a source for atmospheric CO 2 and depress the CO 2 efflux in the Western Subarctic Gyre from winter to spring in 1996 and 1998. On the contrary, in 1997, persistently deep vertical mixing until late spring could suppress the biological activity and give rise to long-lasting CO 2 efflux

  8. Surface properties of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO2 and the influence of the molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Gu, Qing-Feng; Hu, Jian-Feng; Teng, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Yun-Feng

    2003-11-15

    In this paper, the surface properties, e.g., the total surface free energy and the related Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base components, of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO(2) have been characterized. Moreover, the influence of molecular weight varying has been also investigated. Results show that the surface properties of PAN resulting from supercritical CO(2) are different from those obtained by the conventional method. Of these data, one important finding is that the supercritical CO(2) PAN seems to decrease the surface free energy with the increased molecular weight. Based on previous recorded NMR spectra of this PAN and especially compared to commercial PAN, such phenomena are discussed and ascribed to an increase of the H-bonds and a reduction of the isotacticity in the supercritical CO(2) condition for PAN.

  9. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  10. Influence of laser-supported detonation waves on metal drilling with pulsed CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, E.; von Allmen, M.

    1978-01-01

    Drilling of highly reflective metals in an ambient atmosphere with single TEA-CO 2 -laser pulses of fluences between 300 and 6000 J/cm 2 is reported. The drilling process was investigated by measuring the time-resolved laser power reflected specularly from the targets during the interaction and by analyzing the craters produced. Experiments were performed in ambient air, argon, and helium. Target damage was found to be strongly influenced by a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave in the ambient gas. If the laser fluence exceeded a material-dependent damage threshold (copper: 300 J/cm 2 ), drilling occurred, but the efficiency was inversely related to the duration of the LSD wave. Efficient material removal is possible if the LSD wave can be dissipated within a small fraction of the laser pulse duration. This was achieved by small-F-number focusing of TEM 00 laser pulses of 5-μs duration. Replacing the ambient air at the target by a gas of lower density results in a further significant reduction of LSD-wave lifetime, and a correlated increase of the drilling yield. On copper targets a maximum drilling yield of 10 -5 cm 3 /J was observed in ambient helium at a laser fluence of 1 kJ/cm 2

  11. The Influence of Different Assist Gases on Ductile Cast Iron Cutting by CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the technology and principles of the laser cutting of ductile cast iron. The properties of the CO2 laser beam, input parameters of the laser cutting, assist gases, the interaction of cut material and the stability of cutting process are described. The commonly used material (nodular cast iron - share of about 25% of all castings on the market and the method of the laser cutting of that material, including the technological parameters that influence the cutting edge, are characterized. Next, the application and use of this method in mechanical engineering practice is described, focusing on fixing and renovation of mechanical components such as removing the inflow gate from castings with the desired quality of the cut, without the further using of the chip machining technology. Experimental samples from the nodular cast iron were created by using different technological parameters of laser cutting. The heat affected zone (HAZ, its width, microstructure and roughness parameter Pt was monitored on the experimental samples (of thickness t = 13 mm. The technological parameters that were varied during the experiments included the type of assist gases (N2 and O2, to be more specific the ratio of gases, and the cutting speed, which ranged from 1.6 m/min to 0.32 m/min. Both parameters were changed until the desired properties were achieved.

  12. Experimental soil warming effects on CO2 and CH4 flux from a low elevation spruce-fir forest soil in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey E. Rustad; Ivan J. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    The effect of soil warming on CO2 and CH4 flux from a spruce-fir forest soil was evaluated at the Howland Integrated Forest Study site in Maine, USA from 1993 to 1995. Elevated soil temperatures (~5 °C) were maintained during the snow-free season (May-November) in replicated 15 × 15-m plots using electric cables buried 1-2...

  13. One year of continuous measurements of soil CH4 and CO2 fluxes in a Japanese cypress forest: Temporal and spatial variations associated with Asian monsoon rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Sakabe, Ayaka; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Kenshi; Itoh, Masayuki; Kanazawa, Akito; Makita, Naoki; Ataka, Mioko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Asian monsoon rainfall on CH[4] absorption of water-unsaturated forest soil. We conducted a 1 year continuous measurement of soil CH[4] and CO[2] fluxes with automated chamber systems in three plots with different soil characteristics and water content to investigate how temporal variations in CH[4] fluxes vary with the soil environment. CH[4] absorption was reduced by the “Baiu” summer rainfall event and peaked during the subsequent hot, dry period. Although CH[4] ...

  14. Variability of Atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific: Influence of Asian outflow during March-April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Kiley, C.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Nolf, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    We report here tropospheric CO2 measurements made as part of the airborne component of NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission during March and April in 2001. CO2 mixing ratios, sampled in the subtropics (23.5-45.5° N) west of 150° E, exhibited a decreasing trend with height (0.5-12 km), were highly correlated with latitude showing a distinct north to south gradient, and peaked between 35-40° N within the planetary boundary layer. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 4 km contained up to 393.6 ppmv CO2 and were augmented with the combustion and industrial tracers CO, C2H6, C3H8, CH3Cl, C2Cl4, and C6H6. A chemically based air mass classification scheme using the combustion products CO and C2H2 as tracers of continental source emissions was employed in this analysis. Results show an excellent positive correlation for CO2 (r2=0.98) with respect to this ratio in the lower to mid free troposphere (4-8 km) providing evidence of continental outflow. South of the Tropic of Cancer, mean and median CO2 values derived from samples obtained below 8 km are less than those calculated for the subtropics. However, within the upper troposphere (UT) of both regions, similar values were determined and enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-12 km altitude range were observed. The relationship revealed between CO2 and the C2H2/CO ratio, particularly for the tropics, suggests recent inputs from the surface to the UT. In order to elucidate the processes determining the variations of CO2 in the Asian Pacific rim region during TRACE-P, a CO2 emissions data base developed for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5 day backward trajectories in an attempt to link CO2 enhancements observed in pollution plumes to source regions. From these data acquired downwind of the Asian continent when CO2 concentrations at the surface were approaching their seasonal maximum, we estimate a net export flux on the

  15. The use of fair-weather cases from the ACT-America Summer 2016 field campaign to better constrain regional biogenic CO2 surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, B. J.; Davis, K. J.; DiGangi, J. P.; Feng, S.; Hoffman, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lauvaux, T.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Richardson, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) study is a multi-year NASA-funded project designed to increase our understanding of regional-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes over North America through aircraft, satellite, and tower-based observations. This is being accomplished through a series of field campaigns that cover three focus regions (Mid-Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Midwest), and all four seasons (summer, winter, fall, and spring), as well as a variety of meteorological conditions. While constraints on GHG fluxes can be derived on the global scale (through remote-site concentration measurements and global flux inversion models) and the local scale (through eddy-covariance flux tower measurements), observational constraints on the intermediate scales are not as readily available. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are particularly challenging because of their strong seasonal and diurnal cycles and large spatial variability. During the summer 2016 ACT field campaign, fair weather days were targeted for special flight patterns designed to estimate surface fluxes at scales on the order of 105 km2 using a modified mass-balance approach. For some onshore flow cases in the Gulf Coast, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flight transects were performed both inland and offshore when it could be reasonably inferred that the homogeneous Gulf air provided the background GHG field for the inland transect. On other days, two-day flight sequences were performed, where the second-day location of the flight patterns was designed to encompass the air mass that was sampled on the first day. With these flight patterns, the average regional flux can be estimated from the ABL CO2 concentration change. Direct measurements of ABL depth from both aircraft profiles and high-resolution airborne lidar will be used, while winds and free-tropospheric CO2 can be determined from model output and in situ aircraft observations. Here we will present examples of this flux estimation for both Gulf

  16. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Yixiang; Zhang, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO 2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO 2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO 2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO 2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO 2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO 2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions.

  17. High-flux MFI-alumina hollow fibres: a membrane-based process for on-board CO2 capture from internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the conception and development of a membrane-based process for an on-board CO 2 capture/storage application. In a first part, we simulate an on-board CO 2 capture unit based on a membrane process for the case study of a heavy vehicle (≥3500 kg). This study includes an energy analysis of the impact of gas separation and compression on the required membrane surface and module volume, as well the autonomy of the storage unit and the energy overconsumption involved in the process. In a second part, we study the influence of the hollow-fibre support quality on the final intergrowth level of nano-composite MFI-alumina membranes. Special attention is devoted to the influence of the isomorphic substitution of silica by boron and germanium, and replacement of the counter-cation (proton) by other elements, on the CO 2 /N 2 separation and permeance properties. Next, a complete chapter has been devoted to the evaluation of the thermodynamic (adsorption) and kinetic (diffusion) parameters in the CO 2 /N 2 separation. Finally, we analyze the influence of standard pollutants (water, NO x , hydrocarbons) on the CO 2 separation properties of the synthesized membranes. (author)

  18. Interactive effects of fire, soil climate, and moss on CO2 fluxes in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Pruett, L.E.; Shetler, Gordon; Neff, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest region. Here, we present findings from two complementary studies that examine how fire modifies soil organic matter properties, and how these modifications influence rates of decomposition and C exchange in black spruce (Picea mariana) ecosystems of interior Alaska. First, we used laboratory incubations to explore soil temperature, moisture, and vegetation effects on CO2 and DOC production rates in burned and unburned soils from three study regions in interior Alaska. Second, at one of the study regions used in the incubation experiments, we conducted intensive field measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) across an unreplicated factorial design of burning (2 year post-fire versus unburned sites) and drainage class (upland forest versus peatland sites). Our laboratory study showed that burning reduced the sensitivity of decomposition to increased temperature, most likely by inducing moisture or substrate quality limitations on decomposition rates. Burning also reduced the decomposability of Sphagnum-derived organic matter, increased the hydrophobicity of feather moss-derived organic matter, and increased the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in both the upland and peatland sites. At the ecosystem scale, our field measurements indicate that the surface organic soil was generally wetter in burned than in unburned sites, whereas soil temperature was not different between the burned and unburned sites. Analysis of variance results showed that ER varied with soil drainage class but not by burn status, averaging 0.9 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 g C m−2 d−1 in the upland and peatland sites, respectively. However, a more complex general linear model showed that ER was controlled by an interaction between soil temperature, moisture, and burn status, and in general was less variable over time in the burned than in the

  19. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON CARBON FLUX FOR PONDEROSA PINE PLANT/LITTER/SOIL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), a main contributor to global climate change, also adds carbon to forests. In contrast, tropospheric ozone (O3) can reduce carbon uptake and increase carbon loss by forests. Thus, the net balance of carbon uptake and loss for forests can be affected by concu...

  20. Warming-related increases in soil CO2 efflux are explained by increased below-ground carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Susan E. Crow; Gregory P Asner

    2014-01-01

    The universally observed exponential increase in soil-surface CO2 effux (‘soil respiration’; FS) with increasing temperature has led to speculation that global warming will accelerate soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, reduce SOC storage, and drive a positive feedback to future warming. However, interpreting temperature–FS relationships,...

  1. Increased leaf area dominates carbon flux response to elevated CO2 in stands of Populus deltoides (Bartr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Greg Barron-Gafford; Philip M. Dougherty; Victor c. Engels; Katie Grieve; Linda Handley; Christie Klimas; Mark J. Postosnaks; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Jianwei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture stress (SMS) on leaf- and stand-level CO2 exchange in model 3-year-old coppiced cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) plantations using the large-scale, controlled environments of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory. A short-term experiment was imposed...

  2. Infiltration-driven metamorphism, New England, USA: Regional CO2 fluxes and implications for Devonian climate and extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E. M.; Ague, Jay J.

    2018-05-01

    We undertake thermodynamic pseudosection modeling of metacarbonate rocks in the Wepawaug Schist, Connecticut, USA, and examine the implications for CO2 outgassing from collisional orogenic belts. Two broad types of pseudosections are calculated: (1) a fully closed-system model with no fluid infiltration and (2) a fluid-buffered model including an H2O-CO2 fluid of a fixed composition. This fluid-buffered model is used to approximate a system open to infiltration by a water-bearing fluid. In all cases the fully closed-system model fails to reproduce the observed major mineral zones, mineral compositions, reaction temperatures, and fluid compositions. The fluid-infiltrated models, on the other hand, successfully reproduce these observations when the XCO2 of the fluid is in the range ∼0.05 to ∼0.15. Fluid-infiltrated models predict significant progressive CO2 loss, peaking at ∼50% decarbonation at amphibolite facies. The closed-system models dramatically underestimate the degree of decarbonation, predicting only ∼15% CO2 loss at peak conditions, and, remarkably, global warming, sea level rise, and, perhaps, extinction in the mid- to late-Devonian.

  3. Influence of the dissolution of increasing quantities of CO2 in the sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, J.

    2007-03-01

    By the increase of carbon dioxide quantity in the atmosphere, the acidity of the ocean, which absorbs a part of this CO 2 , will increase. This acidity level is going to modify the shells and calcareous bases formation of many sea species. The author details the principle of the acidity evolution by the CO 2 increase, the consequences on the ocean fauna and the impacts for the humans. (A.L.B.)

  4. Discussion of the influence of CO and CH4 in CO2 transport, injection, and storage for CCS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Bravo, Ramón; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2014-09-16

    This paper discusses the influence of the noncondensable impurities CO and CH4 on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. We calculated and drew conclusions about the impact of both impurities in the CO2 on selected transport, injection, and storage parameters (pipeline pressure drop, storage capacity, etc.), whose analysis is necessary for the safe construction and operation of CO2 pipelines and for the secure long-term geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. To calculate these parameters, it is necessary to acquire data on the volumetric properties and the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the fluid being subjected to CCS. In addition to literature data, we used new experimental data, which are presented here and were obtained for five mixtures of CO2+CO with compositions characteristic of the typical emissions of the E.U. and the U.S.A. Temperatures and pressures are based on relevant CO2 pipeline and geological storage site values. From our experimental results, Peng-Robinson, PC-SAFT, and GERG Equations of State for were validated CO2+CO under the conditions of CCS. We conclude that the concentration of both impurities strongly affects the studied parameters, with CO being the most influential and problematic. The overall result of these negative effects is an increase in the difficulties, risks, and overall costs of CCS.

  5. Influence of Meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a suburban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gaddamidi; Mahesh, Pathakoti; Subin, Jose; Lakshmi Kanchana, Asuri; Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamaraju; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impacts on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHGs using high-precision LGR-GGA over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the year 2014. The annual mean CO2 and CH4 over the study region are found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (μ ± 1σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 show a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during pre-monsoon (monsoon), while CH4 recorded the maximum during post-monsoon and minimum during monsoon. Irrespective of the seasons, consistent diurnal variations of these gases are observed. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) on GHGs have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 show a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon with correlation coefficients (Rs) equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61, and 0.72 respectively, indicating a common anthropogenic source for these gases. Analysis of this study reveals the major sources for CO2 are soil respiration and anthropogenic emissions while vegetation acts as a main sink, whereas the major source and sink for CH4 are vegetation and presence of hydroxyl (OH) radicals.

  6. Radon-calibrated emissions of CO2 from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, A.; Polian, G.; Ardouin, B.; Lambert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and 222 Rn have been monitored at Amsterdam Island since 1980. Data were selected in order to eliminate any local influence. Typical CO 2 concentrations of the subantarctic marine atmosphere can be determined by selecting those values for which 222 Rn radioactivity was particularly low: less than 1 pCi m -3 . 222 Rn concentrations higher than 2 pCi m -3 are mainly due to injections into the subantarctic atmosphere from the continental source of South Africa. The passage of air masses under continental influence also shows typical CO 2 variations, well correlated with 222 Rn variations. From the knowledge of the global continental fluxes of 222 Rn, it has been possible to estimate CO 2 fluxes into the atmosphere from South Africa. The mean CO 2 flux corresponding to a 6-month period from May to October is about 5 millimole m -2 h -1 . Continental CO 2 emissions reach a maximum in August. (orig.)

  7. Influence of root-bed size on the response of tobacco to elevated CO2 as mediated by cytokinins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaz, Ulrike; Düll, Barbara; Reinbothe, Christiane; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    The extent of growth stimulation of C3 plants by elevated CO2 is modulated by environmental factors. Under optimized environmental conditions (high light, continuous water and nutrient supply, and others), we analysed the effect of an elevated CO2 atmosphere (700 ppm, EC) and the importance of root-bed size on the growth of tobacco. Biomass production was consistently higher under EC. However, the stimulation was overridden by root-bed volumes that restricted root growth. Maximum growth and biomass production were obtained at a root bed of 15 L at ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Starting with seed germination, the plants were strictly maintained under ambient or elevated CO2 until flowering. Thus, the well-known acclimation effect of growth to enhanced CO2 did not occur. The relative growth rates of EC plants exceeded those of ambient-CO2 plants only during the initial phases of germination and seedling establishment. This was sufficient for a persistently higher absolute biomass production by EC plants in non-limiting root-bed volumes. Both the size of the root bed and the CO2 concentration influenced the quantitative cytokinin patterns, particularly in the meristematic tissues of shoots, but to a smaller extent in stems, leaves and roots. In spite of the generally low cytokinin concentrations in roots, the amounts of cytokinins moving from the root to the shoot were substantially higher in high-CO2 plants. Because the cytokinin patterns of the (xylem) fluid in the stems did not match those of the shoot meristems, it is assumed that cytokinins as long-distance signals from the roots stimulate meristematic activity in the shoot apex and the sink leaves. Subsequently, the meristems are able to synthesize those phytohormones that are required for the cell cycle. Root-borne cytokinins entering the shoot appear to be one of the major control points for the integration of various environmental cues into one signal for optimized growth. PMID:24790131

  8. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize

  9. Comparison of Landfill Methane Oxidation Measured Using Stable Isotope Analysis and CO2/CH4 Fluxes Measured by the Eddy Covariance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Chanton, J.; McDermitt, D. K.; Li, J.; Green, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance and chemistry of the atmosphere. Globally, landfill methane emission contributes about 10-19% of the anthropogenic methane burden into the atmosphere. In the United States, 18% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions come from landfills, which represent the third largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions, behind enteric fermentation and natural gas and oil production. One uncertainty in estimating landfill methane emissions is the fraction of methane oxidized when methane produced under anaerobic conditions passes through the cover soil. We developed a simple stoichiometric model to estimate methane oxidation fraction when the anaerobic CO2 / CH4 production ratio is known, or can be estimated. The model predicts a linear relationship between CO2 emission rates and CH4 emission rates, where the slope depends on anaerobic CO2 / CH4 production ratio and the fraction of methane oxidized, and the intercept depends on non-methane-dependent oxidation processes. The model was tested using carbon dioxide emission rates (fluxes) and methane emission rates (fluxes) measured using the eddy covariance method over a one year period at the Turkey Run landfill in Georgia, USA. The CO2 / CH4 production ratio was estimated by measuring CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air sampled under anaerobic conditions deep inside the landfill. We also used a mass balance approach to independently estimate fractional oxidation based on stable isotope measurements (δ13C of methane) of gas samples taken from deep inside the landfill and just above the landfill surface. Results from the two independent methods agree well. The model will be described and methane oxidation will be discussed in relation to wind direction, location at the landfill, and age of the deposited refuse.

  10. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  11. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  12. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016: a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1  ×  1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016 and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1 the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers; (2 the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3 the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000–2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data

  13. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil; Andres, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1 × 1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location) and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016) and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1) the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers); (2) the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a) nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b) ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3) the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000-2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data product could play an important

  14. The response of soil CO2 fluxes to progressively excluding vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores depends on ecosystem type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Alan G. Haynes; Matt D. Busse; Flurin Filli; Martin Schütz

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands support large populations of herbivores and store up to 30% of the world’s soil carbon (C). Thus, herbivores likely play an important role in the global C cycle. However, most studies on how herbivory impacts the largest source of C released from grassland soils—soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions—only considered the role of large...

  15. Use of the isotope flux ratio approach to investigate the C18O16O and 13CO2 exchange near the floor of a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartlett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopologues of CO2, such as 13CO2 and C18OO, have been used to study the CO2 exchange between land and atmosphere. The advent of new measuring techniques has allowed near-continuous measurements of stable isotopes in the air. These measurements can be used with micrometeorological techniques, providing new tools to investigate the isotope exchange in ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the isotope flux ratio method (IFR near the forest floor of a temperate deciduous forest and to study the temporal dynamics of δ18O of CO2 flux near the forest floor by comparing IFR estimates with estimates of δ18O of net soil CO2 flux provided by an analytical model. Mixing ratios of 12C16O2, 13CO2 and C16O18O were measured within and above a temperate deciduous forest, using the tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique. The half-hourly compositions of the CO2 flux near the forest floor (δ13CF and δ18OF were calculated by IFR and compared with estimates provided by a modified Keeling plot technique (mKP and by a Lagrangian dispersion analysis (WT analysis. The mKP and IFR δ18OF estimates showed good agreement (slope = 1.03 and correlation, R2 = 0.80. The δ13CF estimates from the two methods varied in a narrow range of −32.7 and −23‰; the mean (± SE mKP and IFR δ13CF values were −27.5‰ (±0.2 and −27.3‰ (±0.1, respectively, and were statistically identical (p>0.05. WT analysis and IFR δ18OF estimates showed better correlation (R2 = 0.37 when only turbulent periods (u*>0.6 m s−1 were included in the analysis. The large amount of data captured (~95 % of half-hour periods evaluated for the IFR in comparison with mKP (27 % shows that the former provides new opportunities for studying δ18OF dynamics within forest canopies. Values of δ18OF showed large temporal variation, with values ranging from −31.4‰ (DOY 208 to −11.2‰ (DOY 221. Precipitation events caused substantial variation (~8

  16. Soil CO2 CH4 and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peatbog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. L. Morison

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tree (lodgepole pine planting with and without intensive drainage on soil greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes was assessed after 45 yr at a raised peatbog in West Flanders Moss, central Scotland. Fluxes of CO2 CH4 and N2O from the soil were monitored over a 2-yr period every 2 to 4 weeks using the static opaque chamber method in a randomised experimental block trial with the following treatments: drained and planted (DP, undrained and planted (uDP, undrained and unplanted (uDuP and for reference also from an adjoining near-pristine area of bog at East Flanders Moss (n-pris. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both CO2 and CH4 effluxes which were significantly higher in late spring and summer months because of warmer temperatures. Effluxes of N2O were low and no significant differences were observed between the treatments. Annual CH4 emissions increased with the proximity of the water table to the soil surface across treatments in the order: DP 4 m−2 yr−1, respectively. For CO2, effluxes increased in the order uDP 2 m−2 yr−1, respectively. CO2 effluxes dominated the total net GHG emission, calculated using the global warming potential (GWP of the three GHGs for each treatment (76–98%, and only in the n-pris site was CH4 a substantial contribution (23%. Based on soil effluxes only, the near pristine (n-pris peatbog had 43% higher total net GHG emission compared with the DP treatment because of high CH4 effluxes and the DP treatment had 33% higher total net emission compared with the uDP because drainage increased CO2 effluxes. Restoration is likely to increase CH4 emissions, but reduce CO2 effluxes. Our study suggests that if estimates of CO2 uptake by vegetation from similar peatbog sites were included, the total net GHG emission of restored peatbog would still be higher than that of the peatbog with trees.

  17. Full GHG balance of drained fen peatland cropped to spring barley and reed canary grass using comparative assessment of CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Empirical greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from diverse peatlands are required in order to derive emission factors for managed peatlands. This study on a drained fen peatland quantified the annual GHG balance (Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and C exported in crop yield......) from spring barley (SB) and reed canary grass (RCG) using static opaque chambers for GHG flux measurements and biomass yield for indirectly estimating gross primary production (GPP). Estimates of ecosystem respiration (ER) and GPP were compared with more advanced but costly and labor-intensive dynamic...... by static chamber and dynamic chamber methods was similar, particularly when using nonlinear regression techniques for flux calculations. A comparison of GPP derived from aboveground biomass and from measuring net ecosystem exchange (NEE) showed that GPP estimation from biomass might be useful, or serve...

  18. Oxygen permeation flux through 10Sc1YSZ-MnCo2O4 asymmetric membranes prepared by two-step sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirou, Stéven; Gurauskis, Jonas; Gil, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes based on a dual phase composite consisting of (Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10(ZrO2)0.89 (10Sc1YSZ) as ionic conductor and MnCo2O4 as electronic conductor were prepared and characterized with respect to sinterability, microstructure and oxygen transport properties. The composite membranes...... were prepared by tape casting, lamination and fired in a two-step sintering process. Microstructural analysis showed that a gastight thin membrane layer with the desired ratio of ionic/electronic conducting phases could be fabricated. Oxygen permeation fluxes across the 10SclYSZ/MnCo2O4 (70/30 vol......%) composite membrane were measured from 750 to 940 degrees C using air or pure oxygen as feed gases and N2 or CO2 as sweep gases. Fluxes up to 2.3 mlN min-1 cm-2 were obtained for the 7 μm thick membrane. A degradation test over 1730 h showed an initial degradation of 21% during the first 1100 h after which...

  19. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  20. The Influence of CO2 and Exercise on Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Pulmonary Edema in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan L. Sheppard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear.Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomized to sedentary (sed-air, CO2 (sed-CO2, exercise (ex-air, or exercise + CO2 (ex-CO2 groups. CO2 (3.5% and treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 10% grade were conducted on a metabolic treadmill, 1 h/day for 4 weeks. Vascular reactivity to CO2 was assessed after the training period by rheoencephalography (REG. Following the training period, animals were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for 24 h. Pulmonary injury was assessed by wet/dry weight ratio, lung vascular permeability, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and histology.Results: HH increased lung wet/dry ratio (HH 5.51 ± 0.29 vs. sham 4.80 ± 0.11, P < 0.05, lung permeability (556 ± 84 u/L vs. 192 ± 29 u/L, P < 0.001, and BAL protein (221 ± 33 μg/ml vs. 114 ± 13 μg/ml, P < 0.001, white blood cell (1.16 ± 0.26 vs. 0.66 ± 0.06, P < 0.05, and platelet (16.4 ± 2.3, vs. 6.0 ± 0.5, P < 0.001 counts in comparison to normobaric normoxia. Vascular reactivity was suppressed by exercise (−53% vs. sham, P < 0.05 and exercise+CO2 (−71% vs. sham, P < 0.05. However, neither exercise nor intermittent hypercapnia altered HH-induced changes in lung wet/dry weight, BAL protein and cellular infiltration, or pulmonary histology.Conclusion: Exercise training attenuates vascular reactivity to CO2 in rats but neither exercise training nor chronic intermittent hypercapnia affect HH- induced

  1. Influences on target irradiation symmetry in CO2 laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of very steep density profiles and high upper shelf densities imply that the CO 2 laser deposits its energy spatially quite close to the ablation surface where calculations indicate that a high degree of symmetry must exist in order to achieve the necessary high compression ratios. Thus, energy transport provides only limited improvement in the ablative symmetry over that achieved in the irradiation symmetry. Current data suggests that a balance between radiation pressure and hydrodynamic pressure underestimates the density to which the CO 2 laser light penetrates for early times

  2. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  3. Effect of pretreatment and membrane orientation on fluxes for concentration of whey with high foulants by using NH3/CO2 in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, M; Buyuksari, E; Topcu, S; Babaoglu, D S; Celebi, D; Keskinler, B; Aydiner, C

    2017-11-01

    Usage of forward osmosis membrane in FO mode, in which active and support layers of the membrane were in contact with the feed and the draw solutions respectively, provided higher initial water flux (12L/m 2 h) than the usage of membrane in PRO mode (6L/m 2 h) having opposite orientation but fluxes approached to each other after 4h during concentration of whey with NH 3 /CO 2 as draw salt. High organic and inorganic foulants of whey was considered as reason for observed result in addition to lower solute resistivity. Initial water flux (8,5L/m 2 h) was lower when pre-treatment was applied before forward osmosis process but final flux (4L/m 2 h) was equal flux of non pre-treatment. Reduction of solute resistivity or absence of hydraulic pressure can be reasons for lower initial flux. Detection of organic carbon but absence of lactose in draw solution showed passage of molecules being different than lactose into draw solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of CO2 on ultrasound-induced polymerizations in high-pressure fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; Jacobs, L.J.M.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    A strong viscosity increase upon polymerization hinders cavitation and subsequent radical formation during an ultrasound-induced bulk polymerization. Ultrasound-induced radical polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) have been performed in CO2-expanded MMA, as well as in bulk MMA. For this

  5. Soil type influences the sensitivity of nutrient dynamics to changes in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have indicated that increases in atmospheric CO2 have the potential to decrease nitrogen availability through the process of progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL). The timing and magnitude of PNL in field experiments is varied due to numerous ecosystem processes. Here we examined ...

  6. High Resolution Atmospheric Inversion of Urban CO2 Emissions During the Dormant Season of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Deng, Aijun; Richardson, Scott J.; Cambaliza, Maria O.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Gaudet, Brian; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; O'Keefe, Darragh; hide

    2016-01-01

    Urban emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) represent more than 70% of the global fossil fuel GHG emissions. Unless mitigation strategies are successfully implemented, the increase in urban GHG emissions is almost inevitable as large metropolitan areas are projected to grow twice as fast as the world population in the coming 15 years. Monitoring these emissions becomes a critical need as their contribution to the global carbon budget increases rapidly. In this study, we developed the first comprehensive monitoring systems of CO2 emissions at high resolution using a dense network of CO2 atmospheric measurements over the city of Indianapolis. The inversion system was evaluated over a 8-month period and showed an increase compared to the Hestia CO2 emission estimate, a state-of-the-art building-level emission product, with a 20% increase in the total emissions over the area (from 4.5 to 5.7 Metric Megatons of Carbon +/- 0.23 Metric Megatons of Carbon). However, several key parameters of the inverse system need to be addressed to carefully characterize the spatial distribution of the emissions and the aggregated total emissions.We found that spatial structures in prior emission errors, mostly undetermined, affect significantly the spatial pattern in the inverse solution, as well as the carbon budget over the urban area. Several other parameters of the inversion were sufficiently constrained by additional observations such as the characterization of the GHG boundary inflow and the introduction of hourly transport model errors estimated from the meteorological assimilation system. Finally, we estimated the uncertainties associated with remaining systematic errors and undetermined parameters using an ensemble of inversions. The total CO2 emissions for the Indianapolis urban area based on the ensemble mean and quartiles are 5.26 - 5.91 Metric Megatons of Carbon, i.e. a statistically significant difference compared to the prior total emissions of 4.1 to 4.5 Metric Megatons of

  7. Improved understanding of drought controls on seasonal variation in Mediterranean forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes through combined in situ measurements and ecosystem modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabate

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a defining characteristic of Mediterranean ecosystems, and is likely to become more severe in the coming decades. Simulation models are key tools for making predictions, but our current understanding of how soil moisture controls ecosystem functioning is not sufficient to adequately constrain parameterisations. Canopy-scale flux data from four forest ecosystems with Mediterranean-type climates were used in order to analyse the physiological controls on carbon and water flues through the year. Significant non-stomatal limitations on photosynthesis were detected, along with lesser changes in the conductance-assimilation relationship. New model parameterisations were derived and implemented in two contrasting modelling approaches. The effectiveness of two models, one a dynamic global vegetation model ("ORCHIDEE", and the other a forest growth model particularly developed for Mediterranean simulations ("GOTILWA+", was assessed and modelled canopy responses to seasonal changes in soil moisture were analysed in comparison with in situ flux measurements. In contrast to commonly held assumptions, we find that changing the ratio of conductance to assimilation under natural, seasonally-developing, soil moisture stress is not sufficient to reproduce forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes. However, accurate predictions of both CO2 and water fluxes under all soil moisture levels encountered in the field are obtained if photosynthetic capacity is assumed to vary with soil moisture. This new parameterisation has important consequences for simulated responses of carbon and water fluxes to seasonal soil moisture stress, and should greatly improve our ability to anticipate future impacts of climate changes on the functioning of ecosystems in Mediterranean-type climates.

  8. Air–sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l., each from a different period during 2014–2015. At sampling heights  ≥  18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤  ±20 % in the mean agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air–sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air–sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m−2 d−1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l. than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m−2 d−1, consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater. Finally, we found the detection limit of the air–sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m−2 d−1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m−2 d−1 over 24 h.

  9. Influence of ambient temperatures on performance of a CO2 heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Shimizu, Takeshi; Ito, Koichi; Takemura, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    In residential applications, an air-to-water CO 2 heat pump is used in combination with a domestic hot water storage tank, and the performance of this system is affected significantly not only by instantaneous ambient air and city water temperatures but also by hourly changes of domestic hot water consumption and temperature distribution in the storage tank. In this paper, the performance of a CO 2 heat pump water heating system is analyzed by numerical simulation. A simulation model is created based on thermodynamic equations, and the values of model parameters are estimated based on measured data for existing devices. The calculated performance is compared with the measured one, and the simulation model is validated. The system performance is clarified in consideration of seasonal changes of ambient air and city water temperatures

  10. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cep; Sarka Malotova; Marek Pagac; Marek Sadilek; Jiri Lichovnik

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then...

  11. Environmental factors influencing the relationship between stem CO2 efflux and sap flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bužková, Romana; Acosta, Manuel; Dařenová, Eva; Pokorný, Radek; Pavelka, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 333-343 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : stem CO2 efflux * transpiration * Norway spruce * stem temperature * precipitation * volumetric soil water content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  12. Influence of CO2 and nitrogen limitation on the coccolith volume of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talec

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores, a key phytoplankton group, are one of the most studied organisms regarding their physiological response to ocean acidification/carbonation. The biogenic production of calcareous coccoliths has made coccolithophores a promising group for paleoceanographic research aiming to reconstruct past environmental conditions. Recently, geochemical and morphological analyses of fossil coccoliths have gained increased interest in regard to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm. Hay and Mohler was cultured over a range of pCO2 levels in controlled laboratory experiments under nutrient replete and nitrogen limited conditions. Measurements of photosynthesis and calcification revealed, as previously published, an increase in particulate organic carbon production and a moderate decrease in calcification from ambient to elevated pCO2. The enhancement in particulate organic carbon production was accompanied by an increase in cell diameter. Changes in coccolith volume were best correlated with the coccosphere/cell diameter and no significant correlation was found between the coccolith volume and the particulate inorganic carbon production. The conducted experiments revealed that the coccolith volume of E. huxleyi is variable with aquatic CO2 concentration but its sensitivity is rather small in comparison with its sensitivity to nitrogen limitation. Comparing coccolith morphological and geometrical parameters like volume, mass and size to physiological parameters under controlled laboratory conditions is an important step to understand variations in fossil coccolith geometry.

  13. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gazeau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain. Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on average near metabolic balance (−4.6±5.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and the benthic compartment, which was autotrophic (17.6±8.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During two cruises in March and June 2002, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production (NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and oxygen (O2 mass balance budgets. These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay (55 m. This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass-covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

  14. Variation in agricultural CO2 fluxes during the growing season, collected from more than ten eddy covariance towers in the Mississippi Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.; Novick, K. A.; White, P.; Anapalli, S.; Locke, M. A.; Rigby, J.; Bhattacharjee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is unique as an anthropogenic activity that plays both a large role in carbon and water cycling and whose management activities provide a key opportunity for responses to climate change. It is therefore especially crucial to bring field observations into the modeling community, test remote sensing products, encourage policy debate, and enable carbon offsets markets that generate revenue and fund climate-smart activities. The accurate measurement of agricultural CO2 exchange - both primary productivity and ecosystem respiration - in concert with evapotranspiration provides crucial information on agro-ecosystem functioning and improves our predictive capacity for estimating the impacts of climate change. In this study we report field measurements from more than 10 eddy covariance towers in the Lower Mississippi River Basin taken during the summer months of 2016. Many towers, some recently deployed, are being aggregated into a regional network known as Delta-Flux, which will ultimately include 15-20 towers by 2017. Set in and around the Mississippi Delta Region within Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, the network will collect flux, micrometeorological, and crop yield data in order to construct estimates of regional CO2 exchange. These time-series data are gap-filled using statistical and process-based models to generate estimates of summer CO2 flux. The tower network is comprised of sites representing widespread agriculture production, including rice, cotton, corn, soybean, and sugarcane; intensively managed pine forest; and bottomland hardwood forest. Unique experimental production practices are represented in the network and include restricted water use, bioenergy, and by-product utilization. Several towers compose multi-field sites testing innovative irrigation or management practices. Current mapping of agricultural carbon exchange - based on land cover layers and fixed crop emission factors - suggests an unconstrained carbon flux estimate in this

  15. The influence of open fracture anisotropy on CO2 movement within geological storage complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C. E.; Wightman, R.; Ringrose, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon mitigation through the geological storage of carbon dioxide is dependent on the ability of geological formations to store CO2 trapping it within a geological storage complex. Secure long-term containment needs to be demonstrated, due to both political and social drivers, meaning that this containment must be verifiable over periods of 100-105 years. The effectiveness of sub-surface geological storage systems is dependent on trapping CO2 within a volume of rock and is reliant on the integrity of the surrounding rocks, including their chemical and physical properties, to inhibit migration to the surface. Oil and gas reservoir production data, and field evidence show that fracture networks have the potential to act as focused pathways for fluid movement. Fracture networks can allow large volumes of fluid to migrate to the surface within the time scales of interest. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of predicting the effects of fracture networks in storage, using a case study from the In Salah CO2 storage site, and show how the fracture permeability is closely controlled by the stress regime that determines the open fracture network. Our workflow combines well data of imaged fractures, with a discrete fracture network (DFN) model of tectonically induced fractures, within the horizon of interest. The modelled and observed fractures have been compared and combined with present day stress data to predict the open fracture network and its implications for anisotropic movement of CO2 in the sub-surface. The created fracture network model has been used to calculate the 2D permeability tensor for the reservoir for two scenarios: 1) a model in which all fractures are permeable, based on the whole DFN model and 2) those fractures determined to be in dilatational failure under the present day stress regime, a sub-set of the DFN. The resulting permeability anisotropy tensors show distinct anisotropies for the predicted CO2 movement within the reservoir. These

  16. The Influence of Flow and Bed Slope on Gas Transfer in Steep Streams and Their Implications for Evasion of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Rawlins, B. G.; Farr, G.; Bell, R.; Gooddy, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The evasion of greenhouse gases (including CO2, CH4, and N2O) from streams and rivers to the atmosphere is an important process in global biogeochemical cycles, but our understanding of gas transfer in steep (>10%) streams, and under varying flows, is limited. We investigated gas transfer using combined tracer injections of SF6 and salt. We used a novel experimental design in which we compared four very steep (18.4-29.4%) and four moderately steep (3.7-7.6%) streams and conducted tests in each stream under low flow conditions and during a high-discharge event. Most dissolved gas evaded over short distances ( 100 and 200-400 m, respectively), so accurate estimates of evasion fluxes will require sampling of dissolved gases at these scales to account for local sources. We calculated CO2 gas transfer coefficients (KCO2) and found statistically significant differences between larger KCO2 values for steeper (mean 0.465 min-1) streams compared to those with shallower slopes (mean 0.109 min-1). Variations in flow had an even greater influence. KCO2 was substantially larger under high (mean 0.497 min-1) compared to low flow conditions (mean 0.077 min-1). We developed a statistical model to predict KCO2 using values of streambed slope × discharge which accounted for 94% of the variation. We show that two models using slope and velocity developed by Raymond et al. (2012) for streams and rivers with shallower slopes also provide reasonable estimates of our CO2 gas transfer velocities (kCO2; m d-1). We developed a robust field protocol which could be applied in future studies.

  17. Application of a terrestrial ecosystem model (ORCHIDEE-STICS) in simulating energy and CO2 fluxes in Asian rice croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.

    2012-12-01

    Process-based terrestrial ecosystem models have shown great potentials in predicting the response of managed ecosystems to environmental changes. However, the simulated water and carbon fluxes over rice ecosystems in tropical Asia are still subject to large uncertainties, partly due to poorly constrained parameters in the models. Here, a terrestrial ecosystem model incorporating a more realistic crop module (ORCHIDEE-STICS) was calibrated against in-situ flux data and observed and remotely sensed leaf area indexes over rice ecosystems in Asia. The key parameters adjusted include maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Vjmax), temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration (Q10) and a series of critical thresholds for different crop development stages. Compared with the observations, the calibrated model more realistically simulated the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the observed water and carbon fluxes with reductions in the root mean square difference and better timing in the crop development stages. Sensitivity tests further reveal that management practices like the timing of transplanting and draining could affect the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the net carbon exchange, suggesting that the absence of explicit accounting the change of management practices in the terrestrial ecosystem models may induce large uncertainties in predicting cropland ecosystem response to future climate change.

  18. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  19. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouraoui, Zeineb; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Guizani, Chamseddine; Limousy, Lionel; Dupont, Capucine; Gadiou, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO 2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO 2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO 2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO 2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  20. On the Ability of Space-Based Passive and Active Remote Sensing Observations of CO2 to Detect Flux Perturbations to the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sean M. R.; Randolph Kawa, S.; Browell, Edward V.; Hammerling, Dorit M.; Moore, Berrien; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott C.

    2018-01-01

    Space-borne observations of CO2 are vital to gaining understanding of the carbon cycle in regions of the world that are difficult to measure directly, such as the tropical terrestrial biosphere, the high northern and southern latitudes, and in developing nations such as China. Measurements from passive instruments such as GOSAT and OCO-2, however, are constrained by solar zenith angle limitations as well as sensitivity to the presence of clouds and aerosols. Active measurements such as those in development for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission show strong potential for making measurements in the high-latitude winter and in cloudy regions. In this work we examine the enhanced flux constraint provided by the improved coverage from an active measurement such as ASCENDS. The simulation studies presented here show that with sufficient precision, ASCENDS will detect permafrost thaw and fossil fuel emissions shifts at annual and seasonal time scales, even in the presence of transport errors, representativeness errors, and biogenic flux errors. While OCO-2 can detect some of these perturbations at the annual scale, the seasonal sampling provided by ASCENDS provides the stronger constraint.

  1. Full GHG balance of a drained fen peatland cropped to spring barley and reed canary grass using comparative assessment of CO2 fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka P; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-03-01

    Empirical greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from diverse peatlands are required in order to derive emission factors for managed peatlands. This study on a drained fen peatland quantified the annual GHG balance (Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and C exported in crop yield) from spring barley (SB) and reed canary grass (RCG) using static opaque chambers for GHG flux measurements and biomass yield for indirectly estimating gross primary production (GPP). Estimates of ecosystem respiration (ER) and GPP were compared with more advanced but costly and labor-intensive dynamic chamber studies. Annual GHG balance for the two cropping systems was 4.0 ± 0.7 and 8.1 ± 0.2 Mg CO2-Ceq ha(-1) from SB and RCG, respectively (mean ± standard error, n = 3). Annual CH4 emissions were negligible (peatland cropped to SB and RCG and presented a valid alternative to estimating the full GHG balance by dynamic chambers.

  2. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  3. Comparison of net CO2 fluxes measured with open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers in an urban complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Mammarella, I.; Eugster, W.

    2009-01-01

    and their suitability to accurately measure CO2 exchange in such non-ideal landscape. In addition, this study examined the effect of open-path sensor heating on measured fluxes in urban terrain, and these results were compared with similar measurements made above a temperate beech forest in Denmark. The correlation...... between the two fluxes was good (R2 = 0.93) at the urban site, but during the measurement period the open-path net surface exchange (NSE) was 17% smaller than the closed-path NSE, indicating apparent additional uptake of CO2 by open-path measurements. At both sites, sensor heating corrections evidently...... improved the performance of the open-path analyzer by reducing discrepancies in NSE at the urban site to 2% and decreasing the difference in NSE from 67% to 7% at the forest site. Overall, the site-specific approach gave the best results at both sites and, if possible, it should be preferred in the sensor...

  4. Land-use change effects on fluxes and isotopic composition of CO2 and CH4 in Panama, and possible insights into the atmospheric H2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.; Schwendenmann, L.; Potvin, C.

    2003-12-01

    Land-use changes in tropical regions are believed to release a quantity of C to the atmosphere which is similar in magnitude to the entire "missing" sink for anthropogenic CO2. Our research attempts to evaluate carbon cycling in three land-cover systems in central Panama: cow pasture, native tree plantation, and undisturbed moist forest. In this ongoing project, we are collecting samples of air from profiles in the stable, nocturnal boundary layer, which is dominated by ecosystem respiration. Samples are analyzed for CO2 and its isotopes, CH4 and its C isotopic composition, N2O, H2, CO, and SF6. We use a flux-gradient method to estimate ecosystem-scale fluxes of trace gases from soil to the atmosphere. Keeling plot intercepts reflect the respiratory contribution of C3 and C4 biomass under contrasting land cover systems, and how this varies with pronounced wet-dry seasonal cycles. C isotopes of methane and gradients of molecular hydrogen provide insight into the source of methane production from pasture and plantation soils. Rainforest soils, in contrast, are sinks for both atmospheric methane and hydrogen. The process oriented nature of this field experiment will contribute to parameterization of carbon cycle models at a variety of spatial scales.

  5. Agricultural peatland restoration: effects of land-use change on greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Sara Helen; Sturtevant, Cove; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Koteen, Laurie; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    Agricultural drainage of organic soils has resulted in vast soil subsidence and contributed to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained over a century ago for agriculture and human settlement and has since experienced subsidence rates that are among the highest in the world. It is recognized that drained agriculture in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained agricultural land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding may increase methane (CH4) emissions. We conducted a full year of simultaneous eddy covariance measurements at two conventional drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture and a corn field) and three flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and two restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the Delta. We found that the drained sites were net C and greenhouse gas (GHG) sources, releasing up to 341 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CO2 and 11.4 g C m(-2) yr(-1) as CH4. Conversely, the restored wetlands were net sinks of atmospheric CO2, sequestering up to 397 g C m(-2) yr(-1). However, they were large sources of CH4, with emissions ranging from 39 to 53 g C m(-2) yr(-1). In terms of the full GHG budget, the restored wetlands could be either GHG sources or sinks. Although the rice paddy was a small atmospheric CO2 sink, when considering harvest and CH4 emissions, it acted as both a C and GHG source. Annual photosynthesis was similar between sites, but flooding at the restored sites inhibited ecosystem respiration, making them net CO2 sinks. This study suggests that converting drained agricultural peat soils to flooded land-use types can help reduce or reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  7. Methane and CO2 fluxes from peat soil, palm stems and field drains in two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Borneo, on different tropical peat soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Frances; Lip Khoon, Kho; Hill, Tim; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm plantations have been expanding rapidly on tropical peat soils in the last 20 years, with 50 % of SE Asian peatlands now managed as industrial or small-holder plantations, up from 11% in 1990. Tropical peat soils are an important carbon (C) store, containing an estimated 17 % of total peatland C. There are large uncertainties as to the soil C dynamics in oil palm plantations on peat due to a shortage of available data. It is therefore essential to understand the soil C cycle in order to promote effective management strategies that optimise yields, whilst maintaining the high C storage capacity of the soil. Here we present CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia on peat soils. Data were collected from different surface microforms within each plantation that experienced different surface management practices. These included the area next to the palm, in bare soil harvest paths, beneath frond piles, underneath cover crops, from the surface of drains, and from palm stems. Data were collected continuously over one year and analysed with different environmental variables, including soil temperature, WTD, O2, soil moisture and weather data in order to best determine the constraints on the dataset. Total soil respiration (Rtot) varied between 0.09 and 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1. The largest fluxes (0.59 - 1.59 g C m-2 hr-1) were measured next to the palms. Larger CO2 fluxes were observed beneath the cover crops than in the bare soil. This trend was attributed to priming effects from the input of fresh plant litter and exudates. Peat soil type was shown to have significantly different fluxes. The different plantations also had different environmental drivers best explaining the variation in Rtot - with soil moisture being the most significant variable on Sabaju series soil and soil temperature being the most significant environmental variable in the plantation with the Teraja series soil. Rtot was shown to reduce significantly with increasing

  8. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  9. Mixed-Matrix Membranes containing an Azine-Linked Covalent Organic Framework: Influence of the polymeric matrix on Post-Combustion CO 2 -capture

    KAUST Repository

    Shan, Meixia

    2017-12-07

    The use of an azine-linked covalent organic framework (ACOF-1) as filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) has been studied for the separation of CO2 from N2. To better understand the mechanisms that govern separation in complex composites, MMMs were prepared with different loadings of ACOF-1 and three different polymers as continuous phase: low flux-mid selectivity Matrimid®, mid flux-high selectivity Polyactive™ and high flux-low selectivity 6FDA:DAM. The homogeneous distribution of ACOF-1 together with the good adhesion between the ACOF-1 particles and the polymer matrices were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In mixed-gas CO2/N2 separation a clear influence of the polymer used was observed on the performance of the composite membranes. While for Matrimid® and 6FDA:DAM an overall enhancement of the polymer\\'s separation properties could be achieved, in case of Polyactive™ penetration of the more flexible polymer into the COF porosity resulted in a decreased membrane permeability. The best improvement was obtained for Matrimid®-based MMMs, for which a selectivity increase from 29 to 35, together with an enhancement in permeability from 9.5 to 17.7 Barrer for 16wt% COF loading, was observed. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the filler-polymeric matrix pair chosen is crucial. For a given filler the polymer performance improvement strongly depends on the polymeric matrix selected, where a good match between the discontinuous and continuous phase, both in the terms of compatibility and gas separation properties, is necessary to optimize membrane performance.

  10. Effect of drainage on CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes from aquaculture ponds during winter in a subtropical estuary of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Lai, Derrick Y F; Huang, Jia F; Tong, Chuan

    2018-03-01

    Aquaculture ponds are dominant features of the landscape in the coastal zone of China. Generally, aquaculture ponds are drained during the non-culture period in winter. However, the effects of such drainage on the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from aquaculture ponds are largely unknown. In the present study, field-based research was performed to compare the GHG fluxes between one drained pond (DP, with a water depth of 0.05m) and one undrained pond (UDP, with a water depth of 1.16m) during one winter in the Min River estuary of southeast China. Over the entire study period, the mean CO 2 flux in the DP was (0.75±0.12) mmol/(m 2 ·hr), which was significantly higher than that in the UDP of (-0.49±0.09) mmol/(m 2 ·hr) (paquaculture ponds from a net sink to a net source of CO 2 in winter. Mean CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were significantly higher in the DP compared to those in the UDP (CH 4 =(0.66±0.31) vs. (0.07±0.06) mmol/(m 2 ·hr) and N 2 O=(19.54±2.08) vs. (0.01±0.04) µmol/(m 2 ·hr)) (paquaculture ponds can increase the emissions of potent GHGs from the coastal zone of China to the atmosphere during winter, further aggravating the problem of global warming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Experimental investigation on the influence of EEV opening on the performance of transcritical CO2 refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yu; Ma, Juanli; Liu, Changhai; Cao, Jing; Liu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of electronic expansion valve (EEV) opening on the performance of the transcritical CO 2 refrigeration system, an experimental test rig of the transcritical CO 2 system was built up. The system operation parameters such as temperature, pressure were measured with different EEV opening, when the inlet temperatures of the gas-cooler water and the evaporator water were set to 30 °C and 15 °C, respectively. The effects of EEV opening on the pressure, temperature and the performance of the system were studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the EEV opening has great effects on the discharge pressure of the compressor, gas-cooler outlet pressure, and the discharge temperature of the compressor. The compressor input power decreases with the increasing of EEV opening. The cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system peaks at the EEV opening of 40% and 60%, respectively. - Highlights: •Influence of EEV opening on transcritical CO 2 system is investigated experimentally. •EEV opening has little effect on evaporating pressure. •EEV opening has great effects on discharge pressure and temperature of compressor. •Cooling capacity peaks at the EEV opening of 40%. •COP peaks at the EEV opening of 60%

  12. Influence of Operational Parameters on the Photocatalytic Activity of Powdered TiO2 for the Reduction of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Zuas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the results from a study on the influence of operational parameters on TiO2 photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction under an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis illumination are presented. The results indicated that the TiO2 was found to be active for CO2 reduction with CH3OH as the major products, while other minor products (CO, CH4, and C2H4 were also detected. In addition, the formation of such reduction products was obviously influenced by the operational parameters. Under this study, the optimum operational parameters for CO2 reduction at 298 °K were determined to be: NaOH concentration 0.2 M, TiO2 dosage 2 g/L, volume of the reaction media 75 mL, the pressure of system 800 kPa. It was also found that the increase in UV-vis illumination time have increased the yield of product formation. A possible reaction pathway for the formation of the reduction products is also discussed.

  13. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cep

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then they was compared on the basis of the measured roughness parameters Ra a Rz by using a portable touch roughness Hommel-Etamic W5 and dates was processed according to ČSN EN ISO 4287. Cutting of samples was realized at the Department of Machining, Assembly and Engineering Metrology, VŠB-TUO.

  14. Simulating the Snowball Stratosphere and Its Influence On CO2 Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. J.; Shaw, T.; Abbot, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    According to the snowball Earth hypothesis, a large quantity of CO2 must build up during an event in order to cause eventual deglaciation. One prediction of this model is a depletion in atmospheric oxygen-17 as a result of stratospheric chemical reactions, which has been observed in preserved barite minerals. This represents one of the most dramatic and compelling pieces of evidence in support of the snowball Earth hypothesis. The inference of anomalous atmospheric oxygen-17 based on measurements of barite minerals, however, was made by assuming that the stratosphere-troposphere mass exchange rate and mixing within the stratosphere were the same as the present. In this contribution we test these assumptions with simulations of modern and snowball atmospheric conditions using the global climate model ECHAM5. Our simulations are still running, but we will have results to report by December.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous materials for CO_2 capture: influence of nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Alexsandra Rodrigues do

    2014-01-01

    Several materials are currently under study for the CO_2 capture process, like the metal oxides and mixed metal oxides, zeolites, carbonaceous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOF's) organosilica and modified silica surfaces. In this work, evaluated the adsorption capacity of CO_2 in mesoporous materials of different structures, such as MCM-48 and SBA-15 without impregnating and impregnated with nickel in the proportions 5 %, 10 % and 20 % (m/m), known as 5Ni-MCM-48, 10Ni-MCM-48, 20Ni-MCM-48 and 5Ni-SBA-15, 10Ni-SBA-15, 20Ni-SBA-15. The materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N_2 adsorption and desorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS. The adsorption process was performed varying the pressure of 100 - 4000 kPa and keeping the temperature constant and equal to 298 K. At a pressure of 100 kPa, higher concentrations of adsorption occurred for the materials 5Ni-MCM-48 (0.795 mmol g"-"1) and SBA-15 (0.914 mmol g"-"1) is not impregnated, and at a pressure of 4000 kPa for MCM-48 materials (14.89 mmol g"-"1) and SBA-15 (9.97 mmol g"-"1) not impregnated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity varies positively with the specific area, however, has a direct dependency on the type and geometry of the porous structure of channels. The data were fitted using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and were evaluated thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy and entropy of the adsorption system. (author)

  16. CO2 trading and its influence on electricity markets. Final report for DTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, M.

    2006-02-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economics has asked the Dutch energy regulator (DTe) to gather factual information about the impact of the introduction of the European CO2 emission trading scheme (EU ETS) on the functioning of the Dutch wholesale electricity market and, in particular, to estimate the extent of windfall profits that generators may have realised as a consequence of the EU ETS. DTe has in turn appointed Frontier Economics to assist in the preparation of its advice to the Ministry. Separately, but as a parallel task, DTe has also asked us to provide guidance on the way in which DTe should monitor the performance of the wholesale electricity market in an era of CO2 trading. Section 2 describes the EU ETS, as background to the study. The section describes the institutional context, the way that the emission trading system has generally been implemented at a national level, and the way that the price of European Union Allowances (EUAs or allowances) has developed historically. Section 3 describes the way in which the EU ETS has had an impact on the Dutch electricity market including: the allocation of EUAs to the power sector in the Netherlands; the (theoretical) impact of the EU ETS on electricity generators' incentives; evidence on generators' behaviour; and the empirical evidence of the relationship between EUA prices and electricity prices (or spark and dark spreads). Section 4 provides a conceptual framework for the estimation of windfall profits. Section 5 deals with detailed assumptions that we have made and data issues we have encountered in our attempts to estimate windfall profits; and Section 6 presents and discusses our estimates of windfall profits

  17. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  18. Fluxes of energy, H2O, and CO2 between the atmosphere and the monsoon tropical forest in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, Yu A; Kuricheva, O A; Avilov, V K; Dinh, Ba Duy; Kuznetsov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The 2.5-year dynamics of heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes in the tropical monsoon semi-evergreen forest in Southern Vietnam obtained by means of continuous eddy covariance observations using standard procedures of FLUXNET global network are analyzed. The features of wet seasons during the measurement period were close to long-term average ones, but dry seasons had a great heterogeneity. The maximal duration of the period with little precipitation was 4 months. The annual radiation balance in the south of Vietnam exceeded the balance at all stations of FLUXNET in tropical forests, except one. Annual evapotranspiration in monsoon forest of south of Vietnam is approximately equal to the evaporation of the rain forests of Central Amazonia. During the wet season evapotranspiration spent 80% of the radiation balance, and in the driest months this value decreased to 50%. In the dry season reduction of evapotranspiration and gross primary production was relatively small due to photosynthesizing trees of 2-4 canopy sub-layers. For the first time a large net sink of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the monsoon forest ecosystem was identified.

  19. The influence of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) processing conditions on drug loading and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Robert J; Crean, Abina M; Ryan, Katie B

    2012-12-15

    Poor water solubility of drugs can complicate their commercialisation because of reduced drug oral bioavailability. Formulation strategies such as increasing the drug surface area are frequently employed in an attempt to increase dissolution rate and hence, improve oral bioavailability. Maximising the drug surface area exposed to the dissolution medium can be achieved by loading drug onto a high surface area carrier like mesoporous silica (SBA-15). The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of altering supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) processing conditions, in an attempt to enhance drug loading onto SBA-15 and increase the drug's dissolution rate. Other formulation variables such as the mass ratio of drug to SBA-15 and the procedure for combining the drug and SBA-15 were also investigated. A model drug with poor water solubility, fenofibrate, was selected for this study. High drug loading efficiencies were obtained using SC-CO(2), which were influenced by the processing conditions employed. Fenofibrate release rate was enhanced greatly after loading onto mesoporous silica. The results highlighted the potential of this SC-CO(2) drug loading approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of daytime net ecosystem CO2 exchange over balsam fir forests in eastern Canada : combining averaged tower-based flux measurements with remotely sensed MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Q.K.; Bourque, C.P.A.; Meng, F-R.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable attention has been placed on the unprecedented increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and associated changes in global climate change. This article developed a practical approach for estimating daytime net CO 2 fluxes generated over balsam fir dominated forest ecosystems in the Atlantic Maritime ecozone of eastern Canada. The study objectives were to characterize the light use efficiency and ecosystem respiration for young to intermediate-aged balsam fir forest ecosystems in New Brunswick; relate tower-based measurements of daytime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR); use a digital elevation model of the province to enhance spatial calculations of daily photosynthetically active radiation and APAR under cloud-free conditions; and generate a spatial calculation of daytime NEE for a balsam fir dominated region in northwestern New Brunswick. The article identified the study area and presented the data requirements and methodology. It was shown that the seasonally averaged daytime NEE and APAR values are strongly correlated. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  1. A mobile automatic gas chromatograph system to measure CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvola, J.; Martikainen, P.; Nykaenen, H.

    1992-01-01

    A caravan has been converted into mobile laboratory for measuring fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from the soil in the field. The caravan was equipped with a gas chromatograph fitted with TC-, FI- and EC-detectors, and a PC controlled data logger. The gas collecting chambers can be used up to 50 m from the caravan. The closing and opening of the chambers, as well as the flows of sample gases from chambers to the gas chromatograph. is pneumatically regulated. Simultaneous recordings of temperature, light intensity and the depth of water table are made. The system has been used for two months in 1992, and some preliminary results are presented

  2. Influence of laser-target interaction on the polarization of a CO2-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, K.; Herziger, G.; Loosen, P.; Seelig, W.

    1988-01-01

    Laser materials processing shows a special peculiarity compared to other customary techniques: the generally reflecting target introduces optical feedback into the system. This feedback changes the mode properties of the laser radiation according to the targets dynamics. The authors report on one of these aspects of laser-target interaction resulting in the change of the polarization of the incident light. Based of rate equations, a theoretical model is presented in this paper that allows the calculation of this change with respect of the target properties, yielding a simple relation for the two orthogonal planes of polarization of a laser mode. This relation turns out to be linearly dependent of a function ψ (t) which describes the optical feedback. The relation holds for target reflexions of up to 10% and four times larger than τ 2 x τ 2 /τ 1 - τ 2 (where τ 1 , τ 2 are the time constants of the passive resonator for the two orthogonal planes of polarization). The model offers a method for the modulation for the modulation of laser radiation without change of frequency or intensity. It might also be of interest for high-power CO 2 laser cutting and welding of metals

  3. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic kidney transplantation: Influence of Trendelenburg position and CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, respiratory and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice since 1995. Until now, the recipient has always undergone open surgery for transplantation. In our institute, laparoscopic kidney transplantation (LKT started in 2010. To facilitate this surgery, the patient must be in steep Trendelenburg position for a long duration. Hence, we decided to study the effect of CO2 pnuemoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position in chronic renal failure (CRF patients undergoing LKT. Methods: A total of 20 adult CRF patients having mean age of 31.7±10.36 years and body mass index 19.65±3.41 kg/m 2 without significant coronary artery disease were selected for the procedure. Cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, Central venous pressure (CVP and respiratory parameters (ETCO 2 , peak airway pressure were noted at the time of induction, after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position, 15 min after decompression of pnuemoperitonuem and after extubation. Arterial blood gas analysis was carried out after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position and 15 min after clamp release. Total duration of surgery, anastomosis time, time for the establishment of urine output and total urine output were noted. Serum creatinine on the 1 st and 7 th post-operative day were recorded. Results: Significant increase in HR was observed after creation of CO 2 pneumoperitoneum and just before extubation. Significant increase in the MAP and CVP was noted after creation of pneumoperitoneum and after giving Trendelenburg position. No significant rise in the ETCO 2 and PaCO 2 was observed. Significant increase in the base deficit was observed after the clamp release, but none of the patients required correction. Conclusion: LKT performed in steep Trendelenburg position with CO 2 pneumoperitoneum significantly influenced cardiovascular and respiratory

  4. On the Ability of Space- Based Passive and Active Remote Sensing Observations of CO2 to Detect Flux Perturbations to the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sean M. R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Browell, Edward V.; Hammerling, Dorit M.; Moore, Berrien; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott C.

    2018-01-01

    Space-borne observations of CO2 are vital to gaining understanding of the carbon cycle in regions of the world that are difficult to measure directly, such as the tropical terrestrial biosphere, the high northern and southern latitudes, and in developing nations such as China. Measurements from passive instruments such as GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) and OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2), however, are constrained by solar zenith angle limitations as well as sensitivity to the presence of clouds and aerosols. Active measurements such as those in development for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission show strong potential for making measurements in the high-latitude winter and in cloudy regions. In this work we examine the enhanced flux constraint provided by the improved coverage from an active measurement such as ASCENDS. The simulation studies presented here show that with sufficient precision, ASCENDS will detect permafrost thaw and fossil fuel emissions shifts at annual and seasonal time scales, even in the presence of transport errors, representativeness errors, and biogenic flux errors. While OCO-2 can detect some of these perturbations at the annual scale, the seasonal sampling provided by ASCENDS provides the stronger constraint. Plain Language Summary: Active and passive remote sensors show the potential to provide unprecedented information on the carbon cycle. With the all-season sampling, active remote sensors are more capable of constraining high-latitude emissions. The reduced sensitivity to cloud and aerosol also makes active sensors more capable of providing information in cloudy and polluted scenes with sufficient accuracy. These experiments account for errors that are fundamental to the top-down approach for constraining emissions, and even including these sources of error, we show that satellite remote sensors are critical for understanding the carbon cycle.

  5. Determining the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMPS)'s Role in the Increased Flux of CO2 in the end-Triassic Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. S.; Bachan, A.; Stanford School of Earth Sciences Department of Paleobiology

    2011-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest flood basalt provinces known. Its empacement coincided with a period of major plant and animal extinctions-the end-Triassic mass extinction. It is postulated that the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the volcanics was one of the causes of this mass extinction. However,the magnitude of impact on ocean chemistry, and timescales involved remain unclear. To determine CAMP's role in this increased flux of CO2, we studied the geochemistry of samples of rock from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in northern Italy. Specifically, by observing the ratios of carbon isotopes 12 and 13 in the organic carbon found in these limestone sedimentary rocks, we could determine the ratio of carbonate to organic burial fluxes globally. We drilled limestone rocks from two different sections in the Southern Alps-- Pozzo Glaciale and Val Adrara. Once they were drilled to a fine powder-like form, we acidified the CaCO3 with HCl to isolate the organic carbon. Then, the organic matter was cleaned to rid the acid, and eventually was placed into tin foil to be placed into the Elemental Analyzer, which determined the percent Carbon in each sample. We tested about 200 samples, and placed them into the Mass Spectrometer machine to determine the isotopic ratios of C12 and C13. According to the data, there was a positive excursion for both sample sets, which means that there was an increase in the amount of C13 in the organic matter. The duration of this excursion was at least a few hundred thousand years. This suggests a protracted increase in the burial flux of organic carbon globally, which is consistent with the hypothesized volcanically driven increase in CO2. This further bolsters the contention that CAMP was responsible, in part, for this mass extinction. By studying the earth's recovery from increased carbon fluxes in the past, we can predict the recovery path that our anthropogenically

  6. Importance of crop varieties and management practices: evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Ceschia, E.; Jans, W.W.P.; Wattenbach, M.; Beziat, P.; Gruenwald, T.; Lehuger, S.; Bernhofer, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a modelling study of crop management impacts on carbon and water fluxes at a range of European sites. The model is a crop growth model (STICS) coupled with a process-based land surface model (ORCHIDEE). The data are online eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and H2O fluxes at five

  7. Partitioning of the net CO2 exchange using an automated chamber system reveals plant phenology as key control of production and respiration fluxes in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järveoja, Järvi; Nilsson, Mats B; Gažovič, Michal; Crill, Patrick M; Peichl, Matthias

    2018-04-30

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) drives the carbon (C) sink-source strength of northern peatlands. Since NEE represents a balance between various production and respiration fluxes, accurate predictions of its response to global changes require an in depth understanding of these underlying processes. Currently, however, detailed information of the temporal dynamics as well as the separate biotic and abiotic controls of the NEE component fluxes is lacking in peatland ecosystems. In this study, we address this knowledge gap by using an automated chamber system established across natural and trenching-/vegetation removal plots to partition NEE into its production (i.e. gross and net primary production; GPP and NPP) and respiration (i.e. ecosystem, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration; ER, Rh and Ra) fluxes in a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results showed that daily NEE patterns were driven by GPP while variations in ER were governed by Ra rather than Rh. Moreover, we observed pronounced seasonal shifts in the Ra/Rh and above-/belowground NPP ratios throughout the main phenological phases. Generalized linear model analysis revealed that the greenness index derived from digital images (as a proxy for plant phenology) was the strongest control of NEE, GPP and NPP while explaining considerable fractions also in the variations of ER and Ra. In addition, our data exposed greater temperature sensitivity of NPP compared to Rh resulting in enhanced C sequestration with increasing temperature. Overall, our study suggests that the temporal patterns in NEE and its component fluxes are tightly coupled to vegetation dynamics in boreal peatlands and thus challenges previous studies that commonly identify abiotic factors as key drivers. These findings further emphasize the need for integrating detailed information on plant phenology into process-based models to improve predictions of global change impacts on the peatland C cycle. This article is protected by

  8. Variability of 14C reservoir age and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Peru-Chile upwelling region during the past 12,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile ( 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.

  9. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596, a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Qiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP (r2 =  0.76; Nash–Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF  =  0.76 and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 =  0.78, MEF  =  0.75, with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 =  0.42, MEF  =  0.14 and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 =  0.38, MEF  =  0.26. Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57–0.86. For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1, likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature, which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  10. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunjing; Zhu, Dan; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Krinner, Gerhard; Peng, Shushi; Aurela, Mika; Bernhofer, Christian; Brümmer, Christian; Bret-Harte, Syndonia; Chu, Housen; Chen, Jiquan; Desai, Ankur R.; Dušek, Jiří; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Friborg, Thomas; Grygoruk, Mateusz; Gogo, Sébastien; Grünwald, Thomas; Hansen, Birger U.; Holl, David; Humphreys, Elyn; Hurkuck, Miriam; Kiely, Gerard; Klatt, Janina; Kutzbach, Lars; Largeron, Chloé; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Lund, Magnus; Lafleur, Peter M.; Li, Xuefei; Mammarella, Ivan; Merbold, Lutz; Nilsson, Mats B.; Olejnik, Janusz; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Oechel, Walter; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Peichl, Matthias; Pirk, Norbert; Peltola, Olli; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Rasse, Daniel; Rinne, Janne; Shaver, Gaius; Schmid, Hans Peter; Sottocornola, Matteo; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Sachs, Torsten; Urbaniak, Marek; Zona, Donatella; Ziemblinska, Klaudia

    2018-02-01

    Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) (r2 = 0.76; Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57-0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1), likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  11. Assessment of winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in boreal forest soils of central Alaska estimated by the profile method and the chamber method: a diagnosis of methane emission and implications for the regional carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongwon; Ueyama, Masahito; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 using the concentration profile method and the chamber method in black spruce forest soils in central Alaska during the winter of 2004/5. The average winter fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 by chamber and profile methods were 0.24 ± 0.06 (SE; standard error) and 0.21 ± 0.06 gCO 2 -C/m2/d, and 21.4 ± 5.6 and 21.4 ± 14 μgCH 4 -C/m2/hr. This suggests that the fluxes estimated by the two methods are not significantly different based on a one-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. The hypothesis on the processes of CH 4 transport/production/emission in underlying snow-covered boreal forest soils is proven by the pressure differences between air and in soil at 30 cm depth. The winter CO 2 emission corresponds to 23% of the annual CO 2 emitted from Alaska black spruce forest soils, which resulted in the sum of mainly root respiration and microbial respiration during the winter based on the (delta) 13 CO 2 of -2.25%. The average wintertime emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 were 49 ± 13 gCO 2 -C/m 2 /season and 0.11 ± 0.07 gCH 4 -C/m 2 /season, respectively. This implies that winter emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 are an important part of the annual carbon budget in seasonally snow-covered terrain of typical boreal forest soils

  12. Seasonal variations in CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different plant compositions of a Sphagnum-dominated Alpine peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollinger, Simon; Maier, Andreas; Karer, Jasmin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are the only type of ecosystems which have the ability to accumulate significant amounts of carbon (C) under undisturbed conditions. The amount of C sequestered in peatlands depends on the balance between gross primary production, ecosystem respiration and decomposition of plant material. Sphagnum-dominated bogs possess the greatest peat accumulation potential of all peatlands, thus in turn, feature highest C release potentials. Many studies report about the C balances of undisturbed northern peat bogs, however, little is known about the effects of peatland degradation on the C balance between different plant compositions within peat bog ecosystems. Particularly in the Alpine region, where temperature increase during the last century has been almost twice as high as the global mean. The investigated peat bog is located in the inner Alpine Enns valley in the Eastern Alps, Austria (N 47˚ 34.873' E 14˚ 20.810'). It is a pine peat bog covered by Sphagnum mosses and a present extent of about 62 ha. Due to increasing differences in surface height of the peatland compared to the surrounding areas and related lowered water retention capacity attributed to the subsidence of the adjacent intensively managed meadows on deeply drained peat soils, the function of the peatland as a carbon sink is strongly endangered. Hence, the current mean water table depth of the central peat bog area is about -12 cm. To reveal differences in peatland-atmosphere C exchanges within the peatland ecosystem, we investigated CO2 and CH4 fluxes of four different vegetation compositions (PM1-PM4) at the treeless central peat bog area. PM1 is dominated by the graminoids Rhynchospora alba and Eriophorum vaginatum. PM2 is inhabited by small individuals (< 35 cm) of the conifer Pinus mugo, whereas PM3 is dominated by the ericaceous plant Calluna vulgaris. PM4 again is populated by Pinus mugo, but higher growing (35 - 60 cm) and with corresponding higher amount of biomass. Fluxes were measured

  13. The influence of biopreparations on the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in shallow and deep soil tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokienė, Vilma; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Lekavičienė, Kristina; Adamavičienė, Aida; Buragienė, Sidona; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2018-06-01

    The application of innovation in agriculture technologies is very important for increasing the efficiency of agricultural production, ensuring the high productivity of plants, production quality, farm profitability, the positive balance of used energy, and the requirements of environmental protection. Therefore, it is a scientific problem that solid and soil surfaces covered with plant residue have a negative impact on the work, traction resistance, energy consumption, and environmental pollution of tillage machines. The objective of this work was to determine the dependence of the reduction of energy consumption and CO 2 gas emissions on different biopreparations. Experimental research was carried out in a control (SC1) and seven different biopreparations using scenarios (SC2-SC8) using bacterial and non-bacterial biopreparations in different consistencies (with essential and mineral oils, extracts of various grasses and sea algae, phosphorus, potassium, humic and gibberellic acids, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium), estimating discing and plowing as the energy consumption parameters of shallow and deep soil tillage machines, respectively. CO 2 emissions were determined by evaluating soil characteristics (such as hardness, total porosity and density). Meteorological conditions such average daily temperatures (2015-20.3 °C; 2016-16.90 °C) and precipitations (2015-6.9 mm; 2016-114.9 mm) during the month strongly influenced different results in 2015 and 2016. Substantial differences between the averages of energy consumption identified in approximately 62% of biological preparation combinations created usage scenarios. Experimental research established that crop field treatments with biological preparations at the beginning of vegetation could reduce the energy consumption of shallow tillage machines by up to approximately 23%, whereas the energy consumption of deep tillage could be reduced by up to approximately 19.2% compared with the control

  14. European land CO2 sink influenced by NAO and East-Atlantic Pattern coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Janssens, Ivan A.; Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Peñuelas, Josep; Rödenbeck, Christian; Piao, Shilong; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Running, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate patterns control variability in the global carbon sink. In Europe, the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences vegetation activity, however the East-Atlantic (EA) pattern is known to modulate NAO strength and location. Using observation-driven and modelled data sets, we show that multi-annual variability patterns of European Net Biome Productivity (NBP) are linked to anomalies in heat and water transport controlled by the NAO–EA interplay. Enhanced NBP occurs when NAO and EA are both in negative phase, associated with cool summers with wet soils which enhance photosynthesis. During anti-phase periods, NBP is reduced through distinct impacts of climate anomalies in photosynthesis and respiration. The predominance of anti-phase years in the early 2000s may explain the European-wide reduction of carbon uptake during this period, reported in previous studies. Results show that improving the capability of simulating atmospheric circulation patterns may better constrain regional carbon sink variability in coupled carbon-climate models. PMID:26777730

  15. An updated observation-based global monthly gridded sea surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux product from 1982 through 2015 and its monthly climatology (NCEI Accession 0160558)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The observation-based pCO2 fields were created using a 2-step neural network method extensively described and validated in Landschützer et al. 2013, 2014, 2016. The...

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  17. Reconciling top-down and bottom-up estimates of CO2 fluxes to understand increased seasonal exchange in Northern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Ciais, P.; Zhu, D.; Maignan, F.; Wang, X.; Chevallier, F.; Ballantyne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous atmospheric CO2 monitoring data indicate enhanced seasonal exchange in the high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (above 40oN), mainly attributed to terrestrial ecosystems. Whether this enhancement is mostly explained by increased vegetation growth due to CO2 fertilization and warming, or by changes in land-use and land-management practices is still an unsettled question (e.g. Forkel et al. (2016) and Zeng et al. (2013)). Previous studies have shown that models present variable performance in capturing trends in CO2 amplitude at CO2 monitoring sites, and that Earth System Models present large spread in their estimates of such trends. Here we integrate data of atmospheric CO2 exchange in terrestrial ecosystems by a set of atmospheric CO2 inversions and a range of land-surface models to evaluate the ability of models to reproduce changes in CO2 seasonal exchange within the observation uncertainty. We then analyze the factors that explain the model spread to understand if the trend in seasonal CO2 amplitude may indeed be a useful metric to constrain future changes in terrestrial photosynthesis (Wenzel et al., 2016). We then compare model simulations with satellite and other observation-based datasets of vegetation productivity, biomass stocks and land-cover change to test the contribution of natural (CO2 fertilization, climate) and human (land-use change) factors to the increasing trend in seasonal CO2 amplitude. Forkel, Matthias, et al. "Enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange caused by amplified plant productivity in northern ecosystems." Science 351.6274 (2016): 696-699. Wenzel, Sabrina, et al. "Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2." Nature 538, no. 7626 (2016): 499-501.Zeng, Ning, et al. "Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude." Nature 515.7527 (2014): 394.

  18. An in vitro study of urea, water, ion and CO2/HCO3- transport in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias): the influence of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    In vitro gut sac preparations made from the cardiac stomach (stomach 1), pyloric stomach (stomach 2), intestine (spiral valve) and colon were used to examine the impact of feeding on transport processes in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark. Preparations were made from animals that were euthanized after 1-2 weeks of fasting, or at 24-48 h after voluntary feeding on a 3% ration of teleost fish (hake). Sacs were incubated under initially symmetrical conditions with dogfish saline on both surfaces. In comparison to an earlier in vivo study, the results confirmed that feeding caused increases in H(+) secretion in both stomach sections, but an increase in Cl(-) secretion only in stomach 2. Na(+) absorption, rather than Na(+) secretion, occurred in both stomach sections after feeding. All sections of the tract absorbed water and the intestine strongly absorbed Na(+) and Cl(-), regardless of feeding condition. The results also confirmed that feeding increased water absorption in the intestine (but not in the colon), and had little influence on the handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), which exhibited negligible absorption across the tract. However, K(+) was secreted in the intestine in both fasted and fed preparations. Increased intestinal water absorption occurred despite net osmolyte secretion into the mucosal saline. The largest changes occurred in urea and CO2/HCO3(-) fluxes. In fasted preparations, urea was absorbed at a low rate in all sections except the intestine, where it was secreted. Instead of an increase in intestinal urea secretion predicted from in vivo data, feeding caused a marked switch to net urea absorption. This intestinal urea transport occurred at a rate comparable to urea reabsorption rates reported at gills and kidney, and was apparently active, establishing a large serosal-to-mucosal concentration gradient. Feeding also greatly increased intestinal CO2/HCO3(-) secretion; if interpreted as HCO3(-) transport, the rates were in the upper range

  19. No influence of CO2 on stable isotope analyses of soil waters with off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-03-15

    It was recently shown that the presence of CO 2 affects the stable isotope (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) analysis of water vapor via Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. Here, we test how much CO 2 is emitted from soil samples and if the CO 2 in the headspace influences the isotope analysis with the direct equilibration method by Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). The headspace above different amounts of sparkling water was sampled, and its stable isotopic composition (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) and CO 2 concentration were measured by direct equilibration and by gas chromatography, respectively. In addition, the headspace above soil samples was analyzed in the same way. Furthermore, the gravimetric water content and the loss on ignition were measured for the soil samples. The experiment with the sparkling water showed that CO 2 does not influence the stable isotope analysis by OA-ICOS. CO 2 was emitted from the soil samples and correlated with the isotopic fractionation signal, but no causal relationship between the two was determined. Instead, the fractionation signal in pore water isotopes can be explained by soil evaporation and the CO 2 can be related to soil moisture and organic matter which both enhance microbial activity. We found, despite the high CO 2 emissions from soil samples, no need for a post-correction of the pore water stable isotope analysis results, since there is no relation between CO 2 concentrations and the stable isotope results of vapor samples obtained with OA-ICOS. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A high-flux polyimide hollow fiber membrane to minimize footprint and energy penalty for CO2 recovery from flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Dose, Michelle E.; Xu, Liren; Vaughn, Justin T.; Johnson, J.R.; Thompson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Ke; Lydon, Megan E.; Lee, Jong-Suk; Liu, Lu; Hu, Zushou; Karvan, Oĝuz; Realff, Matthew J.; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    FDA-DAM:DABA(4:1) matrix was observed. CO 2 capture costs of $27/ton of CO 2 using the current, "non-optimized" membrane are estimated using a custom counterflow membrane model. Hollow fiber membrane modules were estimated to have order

  1. Spatial variability of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes in different topographic positions in a tropical montane forest in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-navarro, C.; Díaz-pinés, E.; Klatt, S.; Brandt, P.; Rufino, M.C.; Butterbach-bahl, K.; Verchot, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying and understanding the small-scale variability of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission are essential for reporting accurate ecosystem greenhouse gas budgets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of soil CO2 and N2O emissions and their relation

  2. Potential for negative emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) through coastal peatland re-establishment: Novel insights from high frequency flux data at meter and kilometer scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Bergamaschi, Brian; Anderson, Frank; Knox, Sara; Miller, Robin; Fujii, Roger

    2018-04-01

    High productivity temperate wetlands that accrete peat via belowground biomass (peatlands) may be managed for climate mitigation benefits due to their global distribution and notably negative emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through rapid storage of carbon (C) in anoxic soils. Net emissions of additional greenhouse gases (GHG)—methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)—are more difficult to predict and monitor due to fine-scale temporal and spatial variability, but can potentially reverse the climate mitigation benefits resulting from CO2 uptake. To support management decisions and modeling, we collected continuous 96 hour high frequency GHG flux data for CO2, CH4 and N2O at multiple scales—static chambers (1 Hz) and eddy covariance (10 Hz)—during peak productivity in a well-studied, impounded coastal peatland in California’s Sacramento Delta with high annual rates of C fluxes, sequestering 2065 ± 150 g CO2 m‑2 y‑1 and emitting 64.5 ± 2.4 g CH4 m‑2 y‑1. Chambers (n = 6) showed strong spatial variability along a hydrologic gradient from inlet to interior plots. Daily (24 hour) net CO2 uptake (NEE) was highest near inlet locations and fell dramatically along the flowpath (‑25 to ‑3.8 to +2.64 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, daily net CH4 flux increased along the flowpath (0.39 to 0.62 to 0.88 g CH4 m‑2 d‑1), such that sites of high daily CO2 uptake were sites of low CH4 emission. Distributed, continuous chamber data exposed five novel insights, and at least two important datagaps for wetland GHG management, including: (1) increasing dominance of CH4 ebullition fluxes (15%–32% of total) along the flowpath and (2) net negative N2O flux across all sites as measured during a 4 day period of peak biomass (‑1.7 mg N2O m‑2 d‑1 0.51 g CO2 eq m‑2 d‑1). The net negative emissions of re-established peat-accreting wetlands are notably high, but may be poorly estimated by

  3. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Respiration from above-ground woody tissue is generally responsible for 5-15% of ecosystem respiration (~ 30% of total above-ground respiration). The CO2 respired by branches comes from both the sapwood and the living layers within the bark, but because there is considerable movement of respired CO2 within woody tissues (e.g. in the transpiration stream), and because the bark can present a considerable barrier to CO2 diffusion, it can be difficult to interpret measured CO2 efflux from intact branches in relation to the respiration rates of the component tissues, and to relative mass allocation to each. In this study we investigated these issues in 15 evergreen tree and shrub species native to the Sydney area in eastern Australia. We measured CO2 efflux and light-dependent refixation of respired CO2 in photosynthetic bark from the exterior surfaces of branches (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter), and measured the tissue-specific respiration rates of the bark and wood from those same branches. We also measured the nitrogen content and tissue density of the wood and bark to determine: 1) Among species, what is the relationship between %N and tissue respiration? 2) How is photosynthetic refixation of CO2 related to respiration and %N in the bark and underlying wood? and 3) What is the relationship between branch CO2 efflux and the respiration rates of the underlying wood and bark that make up the branch? Across the 15 species %N was a better predictor of respiration in wood than in bark. CO2 efflux measured from the exterior of the stem in the dark was positively correlated with photosynthetic refixation and explained ~40% of the variation in rates of refixation. Refixation rates were not strongly related to bark or wood %N. Differences among species in CO2 efflux rates were not well explained by differences in bark or wood %N and there was a stronger relationship between bark respiration and CO2 efflux than between wood respiration and CO2 efflux. These results suggest that the

  4. CO2 Sink/Source in the Indonesian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct CO2 sink/source characteristics appeared from the compiled observed data 1984-2013 in the tropical Indonesian seas. The western part persistently emits CO2 to the atmosphere, while the eastern is rather dynamic which emits and absorbs smaller amount of CO2 to and from atmosphere, respectively. The segregation is proximal to the virtual Wallace line, where in the continental shelf is located. Lower salinity and higher silicate condition in the western part influenced the higher pCO2 condition in Java Sea. Temperature is found to have a limited influence to control different characteristic in the west and east, but SST change of 2.0 0C during La Ninã condition effectively reduced the source amount of CO2 by 50% compared to Normal year condition. Yet, during La Ninã, higher wind speed increases CO2 flux twice compared to Normal year. In the continental shelf area where CO2 sink area is found, 29 years data showed that pCO2 trend is increasing ±0.6-3.8 μatm/year. From this study, the overall areas have a significant source of CO2 of approximately 10 - 24 μatm.

  5. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen

    2017-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO 2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO 2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO 2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO 2 , ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO 2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO 2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO 2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO 2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO 2 blowouts.

  6. How does green technology influence CO2 emission in China?--An empirical research based on provincial data of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weina; Han, Botang; Zhao, Xin; Mazzanti, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the role of green innovations aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions as a factor that compensates for growth and population effects. It has been shown from tests that the positive effect of green innovations on carbon emissions exists within a STIRPAT framework from a local perspective. The panel data is derived from China Statistical Yearbook and China Intellectual Property Office covered from 1999 to 2013. In addition,the static panel model was run to estimate the diversity among three typical regions of China. The main result shows that the green technology change has not played a dominant role yet in promoting environmental protection, while a scale effect (Affluence and Population)still prevails, although green patents show positive influences on the CO2 emission reduction inthe whole country as well as the East and West regions, except the Central region. Moreover, it turns out that the classical EKC hypothesis does stand in China, referring to the three regions with the inverted "U" shape. The analysis gives suggestions to the policy makers, which would support enlarging the investment scale on green patents and encourage international corporation with environmental related innovations.

  7. Does long-term cultivation of saplings under elevated CO2 concentration influence their photosynthetic response to temperature?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šigut, Ladislav; Holišová, Petra; Klem, Karel; Šprtová, Miroslava; Calfapietra, Carlo; Marek, Michal V.; Špunda, Vladimír; Urban, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2015), s. 929-939 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA ČR GA13-28093S; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CO2 assimilation * climate change * CO2 assimilation * elevat ed CO2 * acclimation * European beech * Fagus sylvatica * Norway spruce * photorespiration * photosystem II photochemistry * thermotolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  8. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  9. Daily Course of CO2 Fluxes in the Atmosphere-Water System and Variable Fluorescence of Phytoplankton during the Open-Water Period for Lake Baikal according to Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Domysheva, V. M.; Pestunov, D. A.; Sakirko, M. V.; Panchenko, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    The process of gas exchange of CO2 in the atmosphere-water system and its relation to the daily course of variable fluorescence of phytoplankton is studied on the basis of long-term (2004-2014) measurements during the open water period for Lake Baikal. It is found that the decrease in photosynthetic activity of plankton is almost synchronous to the increase in the CO2 flux from atmosphere to water. It follows from comparison of the spring and summer data with December measurements that the daily decrease in variable fluorescence of phytoplankton is caused by the internal daily rhythm of the photosynthetic activity of plankton.

  10. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazankova, V; Torokova, L; Krcma, F; Mason, N J; Matejcik, S

    2016-11-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO 2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N 2  + CH 4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO 2 reactivity. CO 2 was introduced to the standard N 2  + CH 4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH 4 and 3 % CO 2 . The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO 2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO 2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH 3 ).

  11. Influence of Metal Transfer Stability and Shielding Gas Composition on CO and CO2 Emissions during Short-circuiting MIG/MAG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Alves de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the influence of parameters and shielding gas on metal transfer stability or on the generation of fumes in MIG/MAG welding, but little or nothing has been discussed regarding the emission of toxic and asphyxiating gases, particularly as it pertains to parameterization of the process. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the effect of manufacturing aspects of welding processes (short-circuit metal transfer stability and shielding gas composition on the gas emission levels during MIG/MAG welding (occupational health and environmental aspects. Using mixtures of Argon with CO2 and O2 and maintaining the same average current and the same weld bead volume, short-circuit welding was performed with carbon steel welding wire in open (welder’s breathing zone and confined environments. The welding voltage was adjusted to gradually vary the transfer stability. It was found that the richer the composition of the shielding gas is in CO2, the more CO and CO2 are generated by the arc. However, unlike fume emission, voltage and transfer stability had no effect on the generation of these gases. It was also found that despite the large quantity of CO and CO2 emitted by the arc, especially when using pure CO2 shielding gas, there was no high level residual concentration of CO and CO2 in or near the worker’s breathing zone, even in confined work cells.

  12. Influence of meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a sub-urban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, G.; Mahesh, P.; Subin, J.; Kanchana, A. L.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHG's using high precision Los Gatos Research's-greenhouse gas analyser (LGR-GGA) over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the period 2014. The annual mean of CO2 and CH4 over the study region is found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (mean, μ ± 1 SD, σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 showed a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during Pre-monsoon (Monsoon), while CH4 recorded maximum during post-monsoon