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Sample records for inflammatory root resorptions

  1. Nonsurgical management of horizontal root fracture associated external root resorption and internal root resorption

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    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal root fractures, which frequently affect the upper incisors, usually result from a frontal impact. As a result, combined injuries occur in dental tissues such as the pulp, dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Internal root canal inflammatory resorption involves a progressive loss of intraradicular dentin without adjunctive deposition of hard tissues adjacent to the resorptive sites. It is frequently associated with chronic pulpal inflammation, and bacteria might be identified from the granulation tissues when the lesion is progressive to the extent that it is identifiable with routine radiographs. With the advancement in technology, it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as cone beam computed tomography and radiovisuography to diagnose and confirm the presence and extent of resorptions and fractures and their exact location. This case report presents a rare case having internal root resorption and horizontal root fracture with external inflammatory root resorption both which were treated successfully following guidelines by International Association of Dental Traumatology by nonsurgical treatment with 1 year follow-up.

  2. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  3. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

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    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  4. Root resorption: Focus on signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Inger Kjaer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost - an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium, a middle layer - composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal dysplasia and hypophosphatasia.

  5. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

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    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®. PMID:25685742

  6. Effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite socket preservation on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption.

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    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®.

  7. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

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    Inger Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  8. Clinical Management of Two Root Resorption Cases in Endodontic Practice

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    Jozef Mincik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment.

  9. The Effect of Root Coating with Titanium on Prevention of Root Resorption in Avulsed Teeth: An Animal Study

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    Heydari, Azar; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Badiee, Mohammadreza; Izadi, SeyedSadra; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tooth avulsion is a real dental emergency. If immediate replantation is not performed, the avulsed tooth may be lost due to inflammatory or replacement resorption. This animal study aimed to evaluate the bone response to the titanium coating of the root surface as an artificial barrier, and prevention of resorption of avulsed teeth. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups for assessment at two and eight weeks. Four teeth were extracted in each animal. The root surfaces of the test group were coated with a titanium layer using the Electron Beam Deposition system. After 24 h, replantation of the teeth was performed. Two animals were sacrificed after two weeks and the remaining dogs were killed after eight weeks. The presence of inflammation, inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, periodontal regeneration, periapical granuloma and ankylosis were evaluated through histological analyses. Results: Inflammatory root resorption was not present in any tooth except one tooth in the coated group after eight weeks. Replacement resorption was noted just in three of the non-coated teeth after two weeks and two teeth after eight weeks. The McNemar's test revealed that the frequency of replacement resorption in the non-coated group was significantly higher than the coated group (P=0.031). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that coating the root surfaces of avulsed teeth with titanium may control the replacement root resorption. PMID:27790261

  10. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

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    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  11. [Root resorption and orthodontic treatment].

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    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.

  12. Cellular and Molecular Pathways Leading to External Root Resorption

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    Iglesias-Linares, A.; Hartsfield, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    External apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment implicates specific molecular pathways that orchestrate nonphysiologic cellular activation. To date, a substantial number of in vitro and in vivo molecular, genomic, and proteomic studies have supplied data that provide new insights into root resorption. Recent mechanisms and developments reviewed here include the role of the cellular component—specifically, the balance of CD68+, iNOS+ M1- and CD68+, CD163+ M2-like macrophages associated with root resorption and root surface repair processes linked to the expression of the M1-associated proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, the M1 activator interferon γ, the M2 activator interleukin 4, and M2-associated anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 and arginase I. Insights into the role of mesenchymal dental pulp cells in attenuating dentin resorption in homeostasis are also reviewed. Data on recently deciphered molecular pathways are reviewed at the level of (1) clastic cell adhesion in the external apical root resorption process and the specific role of α/β integrins, osteopontin, and related extracellular matrix proteins; (2) clastic cell fusion and activation by the RANKL/RANK/OPG and ATP-P2RX7-IL1 pathways; and (3) regulatory mechanisms of root resorption repair by cementum at the proteomic and transcriptomic levels. PMID:27811065

  13. The Effect of An Angiogenic Cytokine on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

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    Seifi, Massoud; Lotfi, Ali; Badiee, Mohammad Reza; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Amdjadi, Parisa; Bargrizan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is an undesirable sequel of tooth movement after sterile necrosis that takes place in periodontal ligament due to blockage of blood vessels following exertion of orthodontic force. This study sought to assess the effect of an angiogenic cytokine on OIIRR in rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental animal study, 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 each: E10, E100 and E1000 receiving an injection of 10, 100 and 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), respectively, positive control group (CP) receiving an orthodontic appliance and injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the negative control group (CN) receiving only the anesthetic agent. A nickel titanium coil spring was placed between the first molar and the incisor on the right side of maxilla. Twenty-one days later, the rats were sacrificed. Histopathological sections were made to assess the number and area of resorption lacunae, number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test. Results Number of resorption lacunae and area of resorption lacunae in E1000 (0.97 ± 0.80 and 1. 27 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively) were significantly lower than in CP (4.17 ± 0.90 and 2.77 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively, P=0.000). Number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae were significantly higher in E1000 compared to CP (Proot resorption by providing more oxygen and angiogenesis. PMID:27551674

  14. Effects of pulpectomy on the amount of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

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    Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Shikata, Hanaka; Kojima, Shunichi; Motokawa, Masahide; Fujita, Tadashi; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Tanne, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed that orthodontic force affects dental pulp via the rupture of blood vessels and vacuolization of pulp tissues. We hypothesized that pulp tissues express inflammatory cytokines and regulators of odontoclast differentiation after excess orthodontic force. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tensile force in human pulp cells and to measure inflammatory root resorption during tooth movement in pulpless rat teeth. After cyclic tensile force application in human pulp cells, gene expression and protein concentration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Moreover, the role of the stretch-activated channel was evaluated by gadolinium (Gd(3+)) treatment. The upper right first molars of 7-week Wistar rats were subjected to pulpectomy and root canal filling followed by mesial movement for 6 months. The expression of cytokine messenger RNAs and proteins in the experimental group peaked with loading at 10-kPa tensile force after 48 hours (P root resorption was significantly larger in the control teeth than the pulpectomized teeth (P root resorption during tooth movement. It also suggests that root canal treatment is effective for progressive severe inflammatory root resorption during tooth movement. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered be...

  16. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia.

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    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-07-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered before treatment begins. This case report describes the incidence of root resorption following orthodontic treatment and the teeth affected in the patient with multiple aplasia.

  17. Physical properties of root cementum: part 20. Effect of fluoride on orthodontically induced root resorption with light and heavy orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study.

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    Karadeniz, Ersan Ilsay; Gonzales, Carmen; Nebioglu-Dalci, Oyku; Dwarte, Dennis; Turk, Tamer; Isci, Devrim; Sahin-Saglam, Aynur M; Alkis, Huseyin; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-11-01

    The major side effect of orthodontic treatment is orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Fluoride was previously shown to reduce the volume of the root resorption craters in rats. However, the effect of fluoride on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in humans has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high and low amounts of fluoride intake from birth on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption under light (25 g) and heavy (225 g) force applications. Forty-eight patients who required maxillary premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment were selected from 2 cities in Turkey with high and low fluoride concentrations in the public water of ≥ 2 and ≤ 0.05 ppm, respectively. The patients were randomly separated into 4 groups of 12 each: group 1, high fluoride intake and heavy force; group 2, low fluoride intake and heavy force; group 3, high fluoride intake and light force; and group 4, low fluoride intake and light force. Light or heavy buccal tipping orthodontic forces were applied on the maxillary first premolars for 28 days. At day 28, the teeth were extracted, and the samples were analyzed with microcomputed tomography. Fluoride reduced the volume of root resorption craters in all groups; however, this effect was significantly different with high force application (P = 0.015). It was also found that light forces caused less root resorption than heavy forces. There was no statistical difference in the amount of root resorption observed on root surfaces (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) in all groups. However, the middle third of the roots showed the least root resorption. With high fluoride intake and heavy force application, less root resorption was found in all root surfaces and root thirds. Fluoride may reduce the volume of root resorption craters. This effect is significant with heavy force applications (P root showed significantly greater root

  18. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A prospective study using cone beam CT.

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    Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the incidence and severity of root resorption during orthodontic treatment by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore factors affecting orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). CBCT examinations were performed on 152 patients with Class I malocclusion. All roots from incisors to first molars were assessed on two or three occasions. At treatment end, 94% of patients had ≥1 root with shortening >1 mm, and 6.6% had ≥1 tooth where it exceeded 4 mm. Among teeth, 56.3% of upper lateral incisors had root shortening >1 mm. Of upper incisors and the palatal root of upper premolars, 2.6% showed root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted surface resorptions of buccal and palatal surfaces were found in 15.1% of upper central and 11.5% of lateral incisors. Monthly root shortening was greater after 6-month control than before. Upper jaw teeth and anterior teeth were significantly associated with the degree of root shortening. Gender, root length at baseline, and treatment duration were not. Practically all patients and up to 91% of all teeth showed some degree of root shortening, but few patients and teeth had root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted root resorption was found on root surfaces that could be evaluated only by a tomographic technique. A CBCT technique can provide more valid and accurate information about root resorption.

  19. Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a review.

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    Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B M; Kiran, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Root resorption that occurs in permanent teeth is an unwanted process and is considered pathologic. Although apical root resorption occurs in individuals who have never experienced orthodontic tooth movement, the incidence among treated individuals is seen to be significantly higher. Some resorption occurs in most orthodontic patients, but because of repair the changes are difficult to detect with radiographic examination and therefore are clinically insignificant. This article gives a review of the various types of root resorption, the etiological factors, the biology and the identification of root resorption.

  20. Markers in blood and saliva for prediction of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: a retrospective case controlled-study

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    Dilara Yashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormonal and enzymatic factors may render certain individuals more susceptible to orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR. The objectives of this study are (1 to identify biochemical key markers in blood and saliva that may be correlated to the trend of extensive OIIRR and (2 to utilise these markers to predict a susceptible patient-receiving orthodontic treatment. Methods Nine patients (mean age 23 + 2.9 years who had moderate to severe OIIRR that assessed via orthopantomograms and met the inclusion criteria were classified as the root resorption group (RRG. Blood chemistry was evaluated using the collection of fasting blood and unstimulated saliva samples. Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA arrays were used to screen blood and saliva samples for human cytokines, chemokines and several key enzymes that may play a role in root resorption following orthodontic force application. Biochemical findings from 16 matching subjects were used as the control (CG for comparative measurements. Results Patients with moderate to severe OIIRR showed a significant increase in salivary cytokines including interleukin (IL 7, IL-10, IL-12p70 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level as well as a significant decrease in IL-4 level. Osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal peptide (P1NP appeared to be the only blood factors that showed a significant difference, more in the CG than the RRG. Conclusions Saliva might be a more valuable way of measuring changes in cytokine expression than blood secondary to orthodontic treatment. Although the increased expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may be determinants in the development of moderate to severe OIIRR, cytokine expression may be affected by several potential inflammations in another part of the body. Future research could investigate the cause/effect relationship of different cytokines, in a larger group of patients and at different

  1. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Effect of piezocision on root resorption associated with orthodontic force: A microcomputed tomography study.

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    Patterson, Braydon M; Dalci, Oyku; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Madukuri, Suman; Mahon, Jonathan; Petocz, Peter; Spahr, Axel; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of piezocision on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Fourteen patients were included in this split-mouth study; 1 side was assigned to piezocision, and the other side served as the control. Vertical corticotomy cuts of 4 to 5 mm in length were performed on either side of each piezocision premolar, and 150-g buccal tipping forces were applied to the premolars. After 4 weeks, the maxillary first premolars were extracted and scanned with microcomputed tomography. There was a significantly greater total amount of root resorption seen on the piezocision sides when compared with the control sides (P = 0.029). The piezocision procedure resulted in a 44% average increase in root resorption. In 5 patients, there was noticeable piezocision-related iatrogenic root damage. When that was combined with the orthodontic root resorption found on the piezocision-treated teeth, there was a statistically significant 110% average increase in volumetric root loss when compared with the control side (P = 0.005). The piezocision procedure that initiates the regional acceleratory phenomenon may increase the iatrogenic root resorption when used in conjunction with orthodontic forces. Piezocision applied close to the roots may cause iatrogenic damage to the neighboring roots and should be used carefully. Copyright © 2017.

  3. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

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    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  4. Regional Aggressive Root Resorption Caused by Neuronal Virus Infection

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    Inger Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

  5. An evaluation of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

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    Thomas, E; Evans, W G; Becker, P

    2012-08-01

    Root resorption is commonly seen, albeit in varying degrees, in cases that have been treated orthodontically. In this retrospective study the objective was to compare the amount of root resorption observed after active orthodontic treatment had been completed with one of three different appliance systems, namely, Tip Edge, Modified Edgewise and Damon. The sample consisted of pre and post-treatment cephalograms of sixty eight orthodontic cases. Root resorption of the maxillary central incisor was assessed from pre- and post- treatment lateral ce phalograms using two methods. In the first, overall tooth length from the incisal edge to the apex was measured on both pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and root resorption was recorded as an actual millimetre loss of tooth length. There was a significant upward linear trend (p = 0.052) for root resorption from the Tip Edge Group to the Damon Group. In the second method root resorption was visually evaluated by using the five grade ordinal scale of Levander and Malmgren (1988). It was found that the majorty of cases in the sample came under Grade 1 and Grade 2 category of root resorption. Statistical evaluation tested the extent of agree ment in this study between visual measurements and actual measurements and demonstrated a significant association (p = 0.018) between the methods.

  6. Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

  7. Dental root periapical resorption caused by orthodontic treatment

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    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental root resorption especially in maxillary incisive region almost always happens simultaneously with orthodontic treatment, and it gained researchers attention, in particular after the use of periapical radiography. However, the fundamental etiology of dental root resorption is still dubious. Multifactoral causes are mentioned, among others are hormonal, nutritition, trauma, dental root form and dental root structure anomalies, genetic, while from treatment side are duration, types, strength scale and dental movement types. Based on these findings, orthodontic treatment was proven to cause dental root resorption in maxillary incisive teeth.

  8. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption...... occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  9. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, J C; van Leeuwen, E J; Dijkman, G E H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2004-05-01

    To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. An experimental animal study. Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young adult beagle dogs. Mandibular premolars were bodily moved with continuous or intermittent controlled orthodontic forces of 10, 25, 50, 100, or 200 cN according to standardized protocols. At different points in time histomorphometry was performed to determine the severity of root resorption. Prevalence of root resorptions, defined as microscopically visible resorption lacunae in the dentin. Severity of resorption was defined by the length, relative length, depth, and surface area of each resorption area. The incidence of root resorption increased with the duration of force application. After 14-17 weeks of force application root resorption was found at 94% of the root surfaces at pressure sides. The effect of force magnitude on the severity of root resorption was not statistically significant. The severity of root resorption was highly related to the force regimen. Continuous forces caused significantly more severe root resorption than intermittent forces. A strong correlation (0.60 < r < 0.68) was found between the amount of tooth movement and the severity of root resorption. Root resorption increases with the duration of force application. The more teeth are displaced, the more root resorption will occur. Intermittent forces cause less severe root resorption than continuous forces, and force magnitude is probably not decisive for root resorption.

  10. Orthodontic aligners and root resorption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Qoraich, Halima Saadia; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2017-03-01

    Root resorption is one of the leading problems in orthodontic treatment. Most earlier studies have assessed the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances as well as associated factors. However, few studies have assessed these parameters in the context of orthodontic treatment using thermoplastic splints or aligners. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners and associated factors. A comparative analysis was also made with fixed multi-bracket treatments. The data bases consulted were: Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Our search included meta-analyses, randomized and non-randomized controled trials, cohort studies and descriptive studies published before December 2015 and evidencing a connection with the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners alone or compared with fixed multi-bracket treatments. Among the 93 selected references, only 3 studies met our selection criteria. The incidence of root resorption ranged between 0 and 46%, of which 6% were severe cases. Relative to fixed multi-bracket non-extraction treatments to correct the same malocclusions, the incidence of resorption ranged between 2% and 50%, of which 22% were severe cases. In both techniques, the incidence of resorption was higher for the maxillary incisors and was not influenced by either age or sex. In malocclusion cases not requiring extractions, orthodontic aligner treatment is possibly associated with a lower incidence of resorption than fixed multi-bracket treatment. Further research encompassing extraction cases is needed to better assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following the use of these removable appliances. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abuabara, Allan

    2007-01-01

    External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force a...

  12. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

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    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  13. Open bite as a risk factor for orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Terao, Akiko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Gonzales, Carmen; Darendeliler, M Ali; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in patients with and without open bite. One hundred and eleven patients treated with multibracket appliances were retrospectively selected from the patients and divided into non-open bite (NOB) and open bite (OB) groups. The severity of root resorption and the root shape were classified into five groups on periapical radiographs before and after treatment. Moreover, only in the OB group, all teeth were sub-divided into functional and hypofunctional ones that are occluding and non-occluding. As the results of multiple linear regression analysis of patient characteristics and clinical variables with the number of overall root resorption, the independent variables that were found to contribute significantly to root resorption were bite and abnormal root shape. The prevalences of root resorption evaluated in the number of patients were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, and those in the number of teeth were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, in particular anterior and premolar teeth. The prevalence of resorbed teeth with abnormal root shapes was also significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group. On the other hand, in OB group, the prevalences of root resorption and teeth with abnormal root shape were significantly greater in hypofunctional teeth than in normal functional teeth. There are more teeth with root resorption and abnormal root shape in open bite cases than in normal bite cases, and more teeth with abnormal root shapes and root resorption in hypofunctional teeth than in functional teeth.

  14. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 26. Effects of micro-osteoperforations on orthodontic root resorption: A microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emmanuel; Dalci, Oyku; Petocz, Peter; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2018-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of micro-osteoperforations in accelerating tooth movement by amplifying the expression of inflammatory markers. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of micro-osteoperforations on orthodontic root resorption with microcomputed tomography. This prospective controlled clinical trial involved 20 subjects requiring extraction of the maxillary first premolars as part of their orthodontic treatment. A buccal tipping force of 150 g was applied to both premolars. Using the Propel appliance (Propel Orthodontics, San Jose, Calif), micro-osteoperforations were applied at a depth of 5 mm on the mesial and distal aspects in the midroot region of the experimental side of the first premolar root; the contralateral side served as the control. After 28 days, both premolars were extracted. The teeth were scanned under microcomputed tomography, and the volumes of root resorption craters were calculated and compared. Premolars treated with micro-osteoperforation exhibited significantly greater average total amounts of root resorption than did the control teeth (0.576 vs 0.406 mm 3 ). The total average volumetric root loss of premolars treated with micro-osteoperforation was 42% greater than that of the control teeth. This 28-day trial showed that micro-osteoperforations resulted in greater orthodontic root resorption. However, these results should be verified in patients who are undergoing full-length orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Katrien; Aartman, Irene H A; Kuitert, Reinder; Zentner, Andrej

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88 subjects, 27 males and 61 females, mean age 28.4 (SD = 11.3 years), selected from orthodontic patients on the basis of the following exclusion criteria: previous fixed appliance treatment, bad quality of the DPTs and no visibility of the periodontal ligament of every tooth, and younger than 15 years of age at the onset of treatment with fixed edgewise appliance lasting at least 18 months. A pipette-shaped root was identified as defined by a drawing. Tooth agenesis was assessed on DPTs and from subjects' dental history. Root resorption was calculated as the difference between the root length before and after treatment, with and without a correction factor (crown length post-treatment/crown length pre-treatment). If one of the four upper incisors showed root resorption of ≥2.3 mm with both formulas, the patient was scored as having root resorption. Chi-square tests indicated that there was no relationship between orthodontic root resorption and agenesis (P = 0.885) nor between orthodontic root resorption and pipette-shaped roots (P = 0.800). There was no relationship between having one of the anomalies and root resorption either (P = 0.750). In the present study, it was not possible to confirm on DPTs a relationship between orthodontic root resorption and dental anomalies, such as agenesis and pipette-shaped roots.

  16. The effect of budesonide on orthodontic induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Ardekani, Mohammed Danesh; Bemanianashkezari, Mohammad Hassan; Modaresi, Jalil; Masomi, Yousef; Moghadam, Mahdjoube Goldani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that budesonide increases the susceptibility of teeth to root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. A randomized controlled trial design (animal study) was employed. Budesonide was administered in test group for 14 days during which orthodontic force was applied to upper right molar. Afterwards, root resorption was measured on mesio-cervical and disto-apical parts of the mesial root on transverse histological sections. ANOVA and Bonfferoni tests were used. Statistical significance was considered to be P ≤ 0.05. In general, the subgroups in which the force was applied showed significantly greater root resorption. Where force was applied there was no significant difference, whether budesonide was administered or not. While where there was no force, a group who received budesonide showed significantly greater root resorption than the other, unless at the coronal level where the difference was not significant. Within the limitations of this study, it seems budesonide could increase root resorption, but in the presence of orthodontic force this effect is negligible.

  17. Anti-dentine antibodies with root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Solange de Paula; Ortolan, Geórgia Oliveira; Dos Santos, Lívia Marques; Tobouti, Priscila Lie; Hidalgo, Miriam Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6 months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption. Fifty orthodontic patients were selected, 19 males (15.6 ± 8.5 years) and 31 females (21.4 ± 11.2 years), 19 in the mixed dentition (10.3 ± 1.9 years) and 31 in the permanent dentition (24.6 ± 9.9 years). Fifty individuals not undergoing orthodontic treatment matched by gender and age were selected as the controls. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors and saliva sampling were obtained of all patients at T0 and T6. Serum samples were collected from the permanent dentition patients (n = 31). Antibody levels were determined by means of immunoenzyme assay. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Differences between antibody levels at T0 and T6 and among different grades of resorption were determined by paired t- and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to detect correlation between sIgA and IgG levels, and logistic regression to determine the association of root resorption grade and the studied variables. Differences were considered significant at P root resorption patients during treatment and was not correlated to salivary sIgA levels or other variables. Patients who had grade 2 root resorption at T6 showed higher levels of anti-HDE sIgA (P root shape were the main factors associated with the degree of root resorption. The results suggest that variations to systemic and local humoural immune response to dentine antigens may occur during orthodontic treatment. High levels of salivary sIgA before treatment were associated with more advanced lesions after 6 months of treatment.

  18. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: A case report

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    Diego Rey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  19. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Smit, Rosana Martínez; Gamboa, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  20. Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço, Gracemia Vasconcelos; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabricio Pinelli; Picanço, Paulo Roberto Barroso; Feijão, Camila Pontes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.

  1. Root resorption following periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics

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    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature evidence suggests that root resorption, an adverse side effect of orthodontic therapy, may be decreased under conditions of alveolar osteopenia, a condition characterized by diminished bone density and created secondary to alveolar corticotomy (Cort surgery. Purpose: To compare root resorption of the maxillary central incisors following nonextraction orthodontic therapy with and without Cort surgery. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised two groups, with and without Cort and was matched by age and gender: Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 53 central incisors of mean age 24.8 ± 10.2 years, and conventional (Conv nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 54 incisors with mean age of 19.6 ± 8.8 years. All periapical radiographs were taken with the paralleling technique; total tooth lengths of the right and left central incisors were measured by projecting and enlarging the periapical radiographs exactly 8 times. Results: t-tests revealed a significant decrease in treatment time in the Cort group (6.3 ± 8.0 vs. 17.4 ± 20.2 months, P = 0.000. Pretreatment root lengths were not significantly different (P = 0.11, but Conv had significantly shorter roots at posttreatment when compared with Cort (P = 0.03. Significant root resorption (P < 0.01 occurred in both Cort (0.3 mm and Conv (0.7 mm, but the increment of change was significantly greater in Conv (P < 0.03. The variable SNA increased significantly in the Cort (P = 0.001 group and decreased significantly in the Conv group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Based on the conditions of this study, it may be concluded that Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontic therapy results in less root resorption and enhanced alveolar support within a significantly reduced clinical service delivery time frame. Rapid orthodontic treatment and reduced apical root resorption are probably due to the transient osteopenia induced by the Cort surgery and inspired by

  2. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Ardekani, Mohammad Danesh; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Modaresi, Jalil; Mansouri, Reza; Momeni, Ehsan

    2013-09-01

    This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. In general, the differences were insignificant (P root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P > 0.001). Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  3. Revascularization procedure in an open apex tooth with external root resorption: A case report

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    Mahsa Dastpak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available External inflammatory root resorption (EIR represents a challenge in endodontic practice. EIR commonly occurs after dental trauma that results in periodontal ligament injury, pulp necrosis and subsequent infection.  Treatment of EIR is based on disinfecting the root canal system through chemomechanical procedures and then filling it with calcium hydroxide or triple antibiotic paste. Dental trauma commonly occurs in young patients whose teeth are not fully formed and have thin dentinal walls and open apices. Revascularization therapy has proven to be suitable for treatment of root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and open apices. This case report presents successful revascularization treatment of a permanent immature tooth with external root resorption and chronic apical periodontitis. The tooth was treated by the protocol suggested by the American Association of Endodontics (AAE, consisted of disinfecting the root canal system, filling it with blood clot and sealing the root canal with mineral trioxide aggregate followed by bonded resin restoration. The symptoms disappeared, the size of the periapical lesion reduced and the tooth was asymptomatic during the 12 month follow up period.

  4. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  5. Root Resorption with Orthodontic Mechanics: Pertinent Areas Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V

    2017-03-01

    Root resorption can occur at any time during orthodontic treatment and lead to a compromise in the prognosis of the tooth and the stability of the treatment results. Recent research has focused more on the cause and effect relationship as well as preventive or treatment options to combat this unwelcome event. Investigations have highlighted the genetic as well as molecular aspects of the process and enabled clinicians to determine which patients might be susceptible. A proper medical history, an assessment of predisposing factors, a radiographic evaluation for alterations in root morphology and careful planning and execution of orthodontic mechanics may reduce the incidence of root resorption. The current review is aimed at providing clinicians and academics with an insight into the process of root resorption, the methods of identification during its early stages and intervention at the right time to reduce its severity. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Joana; Day, Peter; Duggal, Monty; Morgan, Claire; Rodd, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to determine whether any changes occur in the pulpal structure of human primary teeth in association with physiological root resorption. The experimental material comprised 64 sound primary molars, obtained from children requiring routine dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence using combinations of: (i) protein gene product 9.5 (a general neuronal marker); (ii) leucocyte common antigen CD45 (a general immune cell marker); and (iii) Ulex europaeus I lectin (a marker of vascular endothelium). Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of staining for each label within both the pulp horn and mid-coronal region. Following measurement of the greatest degree of root resorption in each sample, teeth were subdivided into three groups: those with physiological resorption involving less than one-third, one-third to two-thirds, and more than two-thirds of their root length. Wide variation was evident between different tooth samples with some resorbed teeth showing marked changes in pulpal histology. Decreased innervation density, increased immune cell accumulation, and increased vascularity were evident in some teeth with advanced root resorption. Analysis of pooled data, however, did not reveal any significant differences in mean percentage area of staining for any of these variables according to the three root resorption subgroups (P > 0.05, analysis of variance on transformed data). This investigation has revealed some changes in pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption. These were not, however, as profound as one may have anticipated. It is therefore speculated that teeth could retain the potential for sensation, healing, and repair until advanced stages of root resorption.

  7. Lateral incisor root resorption and active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlani, M S; Inocencio, F; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the presence of root resorption in the lateral incisor after active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition. Twenty-six children treated at the Children's Clinic of the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Western Ontario were examined radiographically for lateral incisors root resorption before and after early active treatment to align upper incisors (2 x 4 appliance). In addition, canine inclinations to the midline and to the long axis of the lateral incisor as well as the most medial position of the canine crown were measured as potential risk factors for root resorption. 8% (4) of the lateral incisors exhibited root resorption and the mean crown-to-root ratio of these teeth was significantly higher than that for lateral incisors not exhibiting root resorption. Similarly, mean canine inclinations to the midline and to the long axis of the lateral incisor were also significantly higher for the root resorption group. No association could be found between the most medial position of the canine crown and root resorption in the lateral incisor. This study showed that active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition does not increase the risk for root resorption in the lateral incisors as long as the clinician takes into consideration canine inclinations and their potential effect on root resorption. Limitations inherent to radiographic assessment are acknowledged.

  8. Special considerations for orthodontic treatment in patients with root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haru S. Anggani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment needs good consideration especially when there are unfavorable conditions for orthodontic treatment, such as periodontal diseases or tooth with root resorption. Root resorption should not become worse due to orthodontic treatment., All risk factors should be eliminated before orthodontic treatment is started. Otherwise, the goal of orthodontic treatment could be difficult to achieve because of poor dental and or oral health. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to learn more about mechanical factors that could worsen the root resorption that has already been there or even provoke root resorption to develop during orthodontic treatment. Reviews: Resorption of dental root surface is the condition in which cementum is depraved and the damage could also include dentin of dental root. It can occur either physiologically or pathologically due to some causes. The occurrence of the root resorption is suspected because of the biological factor, the tooth condition, the supportive tissue and the mechanical factors. Panoramic x-ray which routinely used to support diagnose in orthodontic cases, can detect root resorption in general, although sometimes periapical x-ray with parallel technique is needed to enhance the diagnosis. Before starting a treatment, the risk factors that suspected as the causes of root resorption should be eliminated, thus the mechanical treatment can be calculated. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment in patient with root resorption should not escalate the root resorption which already occurs. The treatment should be done effectively by using optimal forces. Giving discontinued forces and avoiding intrusion and torque movements could reduce the risk factors of root resorption.Latar belakang: Keadaan gigi dan jaringan pendukung yang kurang menguntungkan bagi perawatan ortodontik hendaknya membutuhkan perhatian ekstra para klinisi. Kondisi tersebut misalnya adanya penyakit periodontal ataupun adanya

  9. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A G; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  10. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  11. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  12. Association between root resorption incident to orthodontic treatment and treatment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Sasamoto, Tomoko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Matsuda, Yayoi; Terao, Akiko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in association with treatment factors. The files of 243 patients (72 males and 171 females) aged 9-51 years were randomly selected from subjects treated with multi-bracket appliances. The severity of root resorption was classified into five categories on radiographs taken before and after treatment. The subjects were divided into extraction (n = 113 patients, 2805 teeth) and non-extraction (n = 130 patients, 3616 teeth) groups and surgical (n = 56 patients, 1503 teeth) and non-surgical treatment (n = 187 patients, 4918 teeth) groups. These subjects were also divided into two or three groups based on the duration of multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) treatment, elastic use, and total treatment time: 0 month (T1; n = 184 patients, 4831 teeth), range 1-6 months (T2; n = 37 patients, 994 teeth), more than 6 months (T3; n = 22 patients, 596 teeth); range 0-6 months (n = 114 patients, 3016 teeth) more than 6 months (n = 129 patients, 3405 teeth); range 1-30 months (n = 148 patients, 3913 teeth) and more than 30 months (n = 95 patients, 2508 teeth). The prevalence of overall and severe root resorption evaluated by the number of subjects and teeth was compared with a chi-square test. A Student's t-test for unpaired data was used to determine any statistically significant differences. The prevalence of severe root resorption based on the number of teeth was significantly higher in the group with extractions (P root resorption (P root resorption was not significantly different between the subjects treated with or without surgery, but there was a significant increase when treatment time was prolonged (P root movement of the upper central incisors and the distance from their root apices to the cortical bone surface (P root resorption. These results indicate that orthodontic treatment with extractions, long-term use of a MEAW appliance and elastics, treatment

  13. [Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houb-Dine, Afaf; Rerhrhaye, Mariam; Ismaili, Zouheir; Rerhrhaye, Wiam

    2011-12-01

    Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment is of multiple etiologies and a non intentional iatrogenic side effect which exists in almost all the orthodontic treatment. This clinical case of an apparently healthy patient illustrates the occurrence during the orthodontic treatment of a root resorption interesting the left central incisor, victims of previous traumatism and presenting a moderate periodontal attachment loss. The orthodontic treatment was carried out with light and continuous forces and a per-orthodontic periodontal maintenance in respect of periodontal requirements. As soon as the root resorption on the left central incisive was diagnosed, the active orthodontic treatment was interrupted in order to stabilize the lesion and a regular clinical and radiological monitoring was established.

  14. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption

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    Hosseinagha Aghili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: In general, the differences were insignificant (P > 0.05. As the only exception, the group in which both ovalbumin and force were applied had significantly more root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  15. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Parys, K.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Kuitert, R.; Zentner, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88

  16. [Comparison of root resorption between self-ligating and conventional brackets using cone-beam CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Guo, Hong-ming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the differences of root resorption between passive self-ligating and conventional brackets, and to determine the relationship between passive self-ligating brackets and root resorption. Fifty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups using passive self-ligating brackets or conventional straight wire brackets (0.022 system), respectively. Cone-beam CT was taken before and after treatment. The amount of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors was measured on CBCT images. Student's t test was performed to analyze the differences of root apical resorption between the 2 groups with SPSS17.0 software package. No significant difference(P> 0.05) in root resorption of maxillary incisors was found between passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. Passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets can cause root resorption, but the difference was not significant. Passive self-ligating brackets do not induce more root resorption.

  17. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimeri G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. Keywords: photobiomodulation, root resorption, accelerate tooth movement, orthodontics, cone beam computed tomography

  18. Effects of loxoprofen on the apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Taeko; Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Yashima, Yuka; Izumino, Jin; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that severe apical root resorption during tooth movement is caused by the noninfective inflammatory reaction of apical root tissues. We hypothesized that loxoprofen can suppress apical root resorption during tooth movement. Cyclic tensile force (CTF) of 10 kPa was applied to the human pulp cells for 48 hours by the Flexcell Strain Unit. Loxoprofen (10 and 100 μM) was added to the culture cells, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were examined. To determine the effects of loxoprofen sodium on apical root reabsorption during tooth movement, the upper first molars of 7-week-old rats were subjected to mesial movement by 10g force for 30 days with or without the oral administration of loxoprofen. Gene expression and protein concentration of COX-1, COX-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF were significantly higher in the CTF group than in the control group. However, these levels were decreased by loxoprofen administration. After orthodontic tooth movement, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF decreased in the loxoprofen group than in the control group by immunohistochemical staining. In comparison to control group, less number of odontoclasts and a decrease in the amount of apical root resorption was observed in the loxoprofen group. Many osteoclasts became visible on the pressure side of the alveolar bone in the both groups, and the amount of tooth movement did not show a significant difference. These findings demonstrate that severe apical root resorption may be suppressed by loxoprofen administration, without a disturbance of tooth movement.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Haghanifar; Valiollah Arash; Farhad Soboti; Nasim Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption...

  20. Treatment of root fracture with accompanying resorption using cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, J L

    1992-02-01

    A method of treating an apical root fracture with accompanying resorption at the junction of the fracture fragments using glass-cermet cement is described. Endodontically, the material had previously been used for repair of lateral resorptive root defects and retrograde root fillings. Complete bone regeneration was observed three years post-operatively following treatment of the root fracture in the conventional manner. The various advantages of glass-cermet cement as a root filling material used in the technique described are discussed.

  1. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  2. Multidimensional Scaling for Orthodontic Root Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the risk factors for the severity of orthodontic root resorption. The multidimensional scaling (MDS visualization method is used to investigate the experimental data from patients who received orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Dentistry, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, during a period of 4 years. The clusters emerging in the MDS plots reveal features and properties not easily captured by classical statistical tools. The results support the adoption of MDS for tackling the dentistry information and overcoming noise embedded into the data. The method introduced in this paper is rapid, efficient, and very useful for treating the risk factors for the severity of orthodontic root resorption.

  3. A cone-beam computed tomography study of orthodontic apical root resorption

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    Jian-Hong Yu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Results show that larger tooth movement after orthodontic treatment may be associated with increased severity of root resorption. This study has demonstrated that CBCT is a useful approach for evaluating apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  4. Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Shang; Jiang, Huan; Lin, Peng; Bao, Xingfu; Zhang, Zhimin; Hu, Min

    2014-02-01

    Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (Porthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant.

  5. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahhas, Feras Y; El-Bialy, Tarek; Afify, Ahmed R; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  7. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  8. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

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    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  9. [Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of age factor and prevalence in anterior teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-lou; Wang, Kun; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Piao, Mei-ling

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of age factor on root resorption and the prevalence in anterior teeth during orthodontic treatment. Sixty extraction cases treated with straight wire appliance were divided into adult group and child group, with 30 cases in each group.The panoramic radiographs pre-treatment and post-treatment were examined to measure the degrees of root resorption. A total of 360 anterior teeth in each group were evaluated. SPSS 13.0 software package was applied to perform statistical analysis. There was significant difference in root resorption index before and after treatment(Proot resorption increased remarkably after orthodontic treatment. There was significant difference in the degree of root resorption in two groups (Proot resorption in anterior teeth was: upper central incisors, upper lateral incisors, lower central incisors, lower lateral incisors, upper canines and lower canines. The root resorption in adult patients are more obvious than child patients. The prevalence of root resorption in anterior teeth is different. Moderate or severe root resorption is prone to happen in upper central incisors or lateral incisors in adult patients.

  10. Root resorption of permanent incisors during three months of active orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Iffat; Abbas, Hasnain; Abbas, Assad; Abbas, Iram

    2010-01-01

    Root resorption is one of the most common and undesirable sequelea of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of root resorption in permanent incisors during 3 month active period of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy using periapical radiographs. Periapical radiographs of a total of 138 permanent teeth (n = 138, mandibular n1 = 52, maxillary n2 = 86) were evaluated for root resorption. All patients were treated with 3M MBT multi-bonded, pre-adjusted appliances with 0.022 inch slots. Initial levelling and alignment was achieved with 0.0175 inch co-axial wires. All four incisors (maxillary and mandibular) were measured for any change in root length. The change in root length between T0 (pre-treatment) and T1 (post-treatment) was measured in millimetres and expressed in terms of percentage of original root length. The mean pre treatment (T0) root length for the maxillary teeth (n1 = 62) was 19.27 +/- 2.86 mm and 20.01 +/- 2.57 mm for the mandibular teeth (n2 = 31). The post-treatment (T1) root length for the maxillary teeth was 18.96 +/- 2.85 mm and 19.49 +/- 2.4 mm for the mandibular teeth showing a mean resorption of 0.31 mm and 0.52 mm for the maxillary and mandibular teeth respectively. Root resorption was strongly correlated with active orthodontic appliance therapy with maxillary and mandibular incisors being most susceptible. It was found that root resorption can be detected even in the early levelling and alignment stages of orthodontic treatment.

  11. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm(2) continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected.

  12. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexton Antony Johns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment′ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF, hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR.

  13. Comparison of Australian and American orthodontic clinical approaches towards root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Elaine; Sameshima, Glenn; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, Ali

    2012-11-01

    As part of The Rocky Mountain Travelling Fellowship, a pilot survey was conducted to assess current diagnostic and clinical approaches to the management of orthodontic patients in relation to root resorption. Groups comprising Australians (Sydney, New South Wales) and North Americans (Los Angeles, California), in two stages of their orthodontic careers (post-graduate orthodontic students from the University of Sydney and University of Southern California and qualified practising orthodontists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions examined diagnosis and management approaches related to root resorption used in their clinical practice. Replies demonstrated that there were differences in management depending on operator experience and the country of clinical practice. However, a summarised common approach to orthodontic root resorption comprised (1) the use of an orthopantomogram as a screening diagnostic tool, followed by periapical radiographs for those perceived as 'higher risk' patients, particularly individuals with a history of root resorption; (2) a six monthly radiographic review during treatment; (3) the use of light forces and/or rest periods (discontinuous forces) every two to three months; (4) the extraction of deciduous teeth if permanent successors were erupting ectopically and causing damage to adjacent root structures; and (5) the use of fixed retention after treatment. This project was intended to initiate discussion and form a basis for further investigation into the clinical management of orthodontic root resorption.

  14. Cervical external root resorption: 3-year follow-up of a case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolidakis, D.; Nikou, G.; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical external root resorption can be present in natural teeth, involving one or more teeth in the same patient. The incidence of these lesions appears random and the etiology remains unclear. Cervical external root resorption has been considered a difficult clinical situation, and its diagnosis

  15. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  16. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  17. Varicella Zoster Virus and Internal Root Resorption: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, Bita; Rahimi, Saeed; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Nouroloyuni, Ahmad; Asghari, Vahide

    2015-08-01

    Herpes zoster is a viral infection caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. One of the less well-recognized maxillofacial complications is tooth root resorption. To our knowledge, this is the first case report about internal resorption associated with varicella zoster virus involving different dental quadrants. A 38-year-old woman presented with internal resorption of maxillary canine and first premolar tooth roots on the right quadrant and generalized internal resorption of second molars of both mandibular quadrants. The patient's medical history showed mild oral lichen planus and infection with varicella zoster virus (chickenpox) with severe clinical manifestations 5 years previously. The patient developed diabetes mellitus type I and hypothyroidism a short time after varicella zoster virus infection, and by the time of infection with this virus, oral lichen planus had progressed from the reticular pattern to the generalized severe erosive form. Viral etiology could also be considered in these diseases. The root canals of the affected teeth were debrided, irrigated, and dried, and calcium hydroxide paste was placed in the root canals for a week during the first treatment session. The root canals were obturated during the second session. Six-month follow-up showed improvement of oral lichen planus and resolution of widening of periodontal ligament of the affected teeth, with follow-up radiographs revealing no periapical problems. It appears some cases of internal root resorption classified as idiopathic might have viral etiology. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be questioned about a history of chickenpox and herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. External apical root resorption concurrent with orthodontic forces: the genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Nieto, Nuria; Solano, Jose Enrique; Yañez-Vico, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Root resorption is a pathological process of multifactorial origin related to the permanent loss of dental root structure in response to a mechanical, inflammatory, autoimmune or infectious stimulus. External apical root resorption (EARR) is a frequent clinical complication secondary to orthodontic tooth movement; apart from variables related to treatment, environmental factors and/or interindividual genetic variations can confer susceptibility or resistance to its occurrence. In this context, genetic predisposition has been described as an etiological factor, together with mechanical factors derived from orthodontic treatment. In recent years, international research groups have determined the degree of influence of some genetic biomarkers in defining increased/reduced susceptibility to postorthodontic EARR. The influences of the IL1 gene cluster (IL1B, IL1A, IL1RN, IL6), P2RX7, CASP1, OPG (TNFRSF11B), RANK (TNFRSF11A), Osteopontin (OPN), TNFα, the vitamin D receptor (TaqI), TNSALP and IRAK1 have been analyzed. The objective of the present review study was to compile and analyze the latest information about the genetic background predisposing to EARR during orthodontic treatment. Genetics-based studies along with other basic science research in the field might help to clarify the exact nature of EARR, the influence of genetic inheritance and possibly lead to the prevention or even eradication of this phenomenon during orthodontic treatment.

  19. External apical root resorption in maxillary root-filled incisors after orthodontic treatment: a split-mouth design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, José María; Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; López-Frías, Francisco Javier

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the root resortion and the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the endodontically treated incisor and that in its contralateral incisor with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between EARR in vital teeth (1.1 ± 1.0 mm) and endodontically treated incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 mm). Twenty-six patients (68.4%) showed greater resorption of the endodontically treated incisor than its homolog vital tooth (p > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation of PPR were 1.0 ± 0.2. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that PRR does not correlate with any of the variables analyzed. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root-filled incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  20. A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions

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    Ravindran Sreeja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 20x to 1000x. Group I: 10 primary molars exfoliated due to physiologic root resorption; Group II: 10 permanent teeth with periapical granulomas showing signs of resorption; Group III:10 permanent teeth therapeutically extracted during the course of orthodontic therapy with evidence of resorption, and Group IV: 10 permanent teeth associated with odontogenic tumors that showed evidence of resorption. RESULTS: In Group I, the primary teeth undergoing resorption showed smooth extensive and predominantly regular areas reflecting the slow ongoing physiologic process. In Group II, the teeth with periapical granulomas showed the resorption was localized to apex with a funnel shaped appearance in most cases. Teeth in Group III, which had been subjected to a short period of light orthodontic force, showed the presence of numerous resorption craters with adjoining areas of cemental repair in some cases. Teeth associated with odontogenic tumors in Group IV showed many variations in the patterns of resorption with extensive loss of root length and a sharp cut appearance of the root in most cases. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the patterns of external root resorption among the studied groups of primary and permanent teeth under physiologic and pathological conditions.

  1. Age and timing of pulp extirpation as major factors associated with inflammatory root resorption in replanted permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Juliana Vilela; Ilma de Souza Côrtes, Maria; Andrade Goulart, Eugenio Marcos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas

    2014-03-01

    External root resorption (ERR) is a serious complication after replantation, and its progressive inflammatory and replacement forms are significant causes of tooth loss. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the factors related to the occurrence of inflammatory ERR (IERR) and replacement ERR (RERR) shortly after permanent tooth replantation in patients treated at the Dental Trauma Clinic at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Case records and radiographs of 165 patients were evaluated for the presence, type, and extension of ERR and its association with age and factors related to the management and acute treatment of the avulsed tooth by using the logistic regression model. The patient's age at the moment of trauma had a marked effect on the ERR prevalence and extension. The patients older than 16 years at the moment of trauma had less chance of developing IERR and RERR (77% and 87%, respectively) before the pulp extirpation, regardless of the extension of the resorption. The patients older than 11 years of age at the moment of trauma showed the lowest indices of IERR (P = .02). Each day that elapsed between the replantation and the pulp extirpation increased the risk of developing IERR and RERR by 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively, and also raised the risk of severe IERR by 0.5% per day. The risk of mature teeth developing severe IERR before the onset of endodontic therapy was directly affected by the timing of the pulpectomy and was inversely proportional to age. Systemic antibiotic therapy use had no effect on the occurrence and severity of IERR in mature teeth. The occurrence of RERR before the onset of endodontic treatment stimulates further investigations of the early human host response to trauma and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  3. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

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    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  4. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  5. Effect of interleukin-4 on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Sugisawa, Haruki; Ida, Hiroto; Jafari, Saeed; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a recognized immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates bone homeostasis. However, the influence of IL-4 on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and subsequent root resorption is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-4 on tooth movement and its associated root resorption in a mouse model. The maxillary first molars of four male mice for each experimental group were subjected to mesial force by a nickel titanium coil spring for 12 days. Control mice were not given appliances and injections. Varying doses of IL-4 were injected locally, adjacent to the first molar. Two sets of experiments were designed. The first set was composed of three groups: the control, treatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or 1.5 µg/day of IL-4. The second set was composed of five groups: the control, treatment with 0 (PBS only), 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5 µg/day of IL-4. The distance of OTM was measured and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cells along the loaded alveolar bone and root surface were identified. The root resorption associated with OTM was evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The amount of OTM and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased in the IL-4-treated mice. Moreover, IL-4 significantly suppressed force-induced odontoclasts and root resorption. IL-4 inhibits tooth movement and prevents root resorption in the mouse model. These results suggest that IL-4 could be used as a useful adjunct to regulate the extent of OTM and also to control root resorption. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison between Two Radiological Methods for Assessment of Tooth Root Resorption: An In Vitro Study

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    Sabina Saccomanno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to verify the validity of the radiographic image and the most effective radiological techniques for the diagnosis of root resorption to prevent, cure, and reduce it and to verify if radiological images can be helpful in medical and legal situations. Methods. 19 dental elements without root resorption extracted from several patients were examined: endooral and panoramic radiographs were performed, with traditional and digital methods. Then the root of each tooth was dipped into 3-4 mm of 10% nitric acid for 24 hours to simulate the resorption of the root and later submitted again to radiological examinations and measurements using the same criteria and methods. Results. For teeth with root resorption the real measurements and the values obtained with endooral techniques and digital sensors are almost the same, while image values obtained by panoramic radiographs are more distorted than the real ones. Conclusions. Panoramic radiographs are not useful for the diagnosis of root resorption. The endooral examination is, in medical and legal fields, the most valid and objective instrument to detect root resorption. Although the literature suggests that CBCT is a reliable tool in detecting root resorption defects, the increased radiation dosage and expense and the limited availability of CBCT in most clinical settings accentuate the outcome of this study.

  7. Regular nicotine intake increased tooth movement velocity, osteoclastogenesis and orthodontically induced dental root resorptions in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Maurer, Michael; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Orthodontic forces have been reported to significantly increase nicotine-induced periodontal bone loss. At present, however, it is unknown, which further (side) effects can be expected during orthodontic treatment at a nicotine exposure corresponding to that of an average European smoker. 63 male Fischer344 rats were randomized in three consecutive experiments of 21 animals each (A/B/C) to 3 experimental groups (7 rats, 1/2/3): (A) cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT); (B) histology/serology; (C) reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)/cotinine serology—(1) control; (2) orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) of the first and second upper left molar (NiTi closed coil spring, 0.25 N); (3) OTM with 1.89 mg·kg−1 per day s.c. of L(−)-nicotine. After 14 days of OTM, serum cotinine and IL-6 concentration as well as orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR), osteoclast activity (histology), orthodontic tooth movement velocity (CBCT, within 14 and 28 days of OTM) and relative gene expression of known inflammatory and osteoclast markers were quantified in the dental-periodontal tissue (RT–qPCR). Animals exposed to nicotine showed significantly heightened serum cotinine and IL-6 levels corresponding to those of regular European smokers. Both the extent of root resorption, osteoclast activity, orthodontic tooth movement and gene expression of inflammatory and osteoclast markers were significantly increased compared to controls with and without OTM under the influence of nicotine. We conclude that apart from increased periodontal bone loss, a progression of dental root resorption and accelerated orthodontic tooth movement are to be anticipated during orthodontic therapy, if nicotine consumption is present. Thus patients should be informed about these risks and the necessity of nicotine abstinence during treatment. PMID:28960194

  8. Correlation of Vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Azita; Sadighnia, Azin; Younessian, Farnaz; Abdi, Amir H; Shirvani, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Adequate Vitamin D is essential for dental and skeletal health in children and adult. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of serum Vitamin D level with external-induced apical root resorption (EARR) following fixed orthodontic treatment. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (defined by25-hydroxyvitamin-D) was determined in 34 patients (23.5% male; age range 12-23 years; mean age 16.63 ± 2.84) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Root resorption of four maxillary incisors was measured using before and after periapical radiographs (136 measured teeth) by means of a design-to-purpose software to optimize data collection. Teeth with a maximum percentage of root resorption (%EARR) were indicated as representative root resorption for each patient. A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the association of Vitamin D status and observed EARR. P 0.05). This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  9. The effect of mechanical vibration on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on orthodontically induced root resorption. Forty male CD1, 12-week-old mice were used for the study. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (baseline)-no spring and no mechanical vibration, group 2-orthodontic spring but no vibration, group 3-orthodontic spring and 5 Hz of vibration applied to the maxillary first molar, group 4-orthodontic spring and 10 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar, and group 5-orthodontic spring and 20 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar. In the different experimental groups, the first molar was moved mesially for 2 weeks using a nickel-titanium coil spring delivering 10 g of force. LFMVs were applied at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography imaging was used to analyze root resorption. Additionally, to understand the mechanism, we applied LFMV to MC3T3 cells, and gene expression analyses were done for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Orthodontic tooth movement leads to decreased root volume (increased root resorption craters). Our in vivo experiments showed a trend toward increase in root volume with different frequencies of mechanical vibration. In vitro gene expression analyses showed that with 20 Hz of mechanical vibration, there was a significant decrease in RANKL and a significant increase in OPG expression. There was a trend toward decreased root resorption with different LFMVs (5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz); however, it was not more statistically significant than the orthodontic-spring-only group.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF ROOT RESORPTION DEGREE OF INCISORS AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN ADULTS

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    I. Luchian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main iatrogenic effects associated with orthodontic treatment refer to: influence of orthodontic rings on the periodontal tissue; gum retractions; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on dental root (root resorption; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone height; mobility and pain associated with orthodontic treatment. AIM of the study: To assess the degree of root resorption of incisors, after orthodontic treatment, on a group of 48 adults with dental-maxillary abnormalities. Materials and method: The study included 48 young adult patients, 35 women and 13 men aged 18 to 30 years, who had received fixed orthodontic treatment. To assess the degree of root resorption (changes at root level and apical contour length, apical radiographies were taken in the maxillary incisors and jaw both at the beginning and end of the orthodontic treatment. Results: Out of the 239 incisors examined at the beginning of orthodontic treatment, 163 showed code 0, meaning 88.1%, and 50 showed a slight squash apex (code 1, respectively 10.9%. Only 1% of all incisors assessed presented mild and severe root resorption. Conclusions: The results of the study show that, generally, an adult orthodontic treatment, applied for functional and aesthetic objectives, may have clinically acceptable iatrogenic effects.

  11. Inhibition of Apical Root Resorption by Calcium Hydroxide During Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da Fonseca; Pacheco, Daniela da Fonseca; Motta, Patrícia Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Apical root resorption is a common outcome of orthodontic treatment. The present article reports a case of absence of apical root resorption in a left maxillary lateral incisor filled with calcium hydroxide paste throughout orthodontic movement. After orthodontic treatment was completed the tooth was subsequently obturatedwith gutta-percha and the patient followed for 18 months. The presence of a periapical lesion and the properties of calcium hydroxide as a root resorption inhibitor were dec...

  12. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system—a retrospective study

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    Roberta Heiffig Handem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Conclusions Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  13. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system-a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handem, Roberta Heiffig; Janson, Guilherme; Matias, Murilo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Lima, Darwin Vaz; Garib, Daniela Gamba; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  14. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, J M; Amarilla, A; Solano, E; Velasco-Ortega, E; Rodríguez-Varo, L; Segura-Egea, J J

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 77 patients, with a mean age of 32.7 +/- 10.7 years, who had one root filled tooth before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the root filled tooth and that in its contralateral tooth with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, anova and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. The mean PRR was 1.00 +/- 0.13, indicating that, in the total sample, there were no significant differences in root resorption in the root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that PRR was significantly greater in incisors (P = 0.0014; odds ratio = 6.2885, C.I. 95% = 2.0-19.4), compared to other teeth, and in women (P = 0.0255; odds ratio = 4.2, C.I. 95% = 1.2-14.6), compared to men. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  15. Association of orthodontic force system and root resorption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Marina G; Meira, Josete B C; Cattaneo, Paolo M

    2015-05-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed the literature to determine which evidence level supports the association of orthodontic force system and root resorption. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched with no restrictions on year, publication status, or language. Selection criteria included human studies conducted with fixed orthodontic appliances or aligners, with at least 10 patients and the force system well described. A total of 259 articles were retrieved in the initial search. After the review process, 21 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 10 to 73 patients. Most articles were classified as having high evidence levels and low risks of bias. Although a meta-analysis was not performed, from the available literature, it seems that positive correlations exist between increased force levels and increased root resorption, as well as between increased treatment time and increased root resorption. Moreover, a pause in tooth movement seems to be beneficial in reducing root resorption because it allows the resorbed cementum to heal. The absence of a control group, selection criteria of patients, and adequate examinations before and after treatment are the most common methodology flaws. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption lacunas based on cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; He, S; Guo, Y; Wang, S; Chen, S

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption cavities based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in comparison with that of Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) which served as the reference. The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases at Sichuan University. Thirty-two bovine teeth were included for standardized CBCT scanning and Micro-CT scanning before and after the simulation of different degrees of root resorption. The teeth were divided into three groups according to the depths of the root resorption cavity (group 1: 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 mm; group 2: 0.6, 1.0 mm; group 3: 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Each depth included four specimens. Differences in tooth volume before and after simulated root resorption were then calculated from CBCT and Micro-CT scans, respectively. The overall between-method agreement of the measurements was evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). For the first group, the average volume of resorption cavity was 1.07 mm(3) , and the between-method agreement of measurement for the volume changes was low (CCC = 0.098). For the second and third groups, the average volumes of resorption cavities were 3.47 and 6.73 mm(3) respectively, and the between-method agreements were good (CCC = 0.828 and 0.895, respectively). The accuracy of 3-D quantitative volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption based on CBCT was fairly good in detecting simulated resorption cavities larger than 3.47 mm(3), while it was not sufficient for measuring resorption cavities smaller than 1.07 mm(3) . This method could be applied in future studies of root resorption although further studies are required to improve its accuracy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianmin; Baumrind, S

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects. 58 growing subjects were collected randomly into the study sample and another 40 non-treated cases were used as control. The apical resoption of the upper central incisors was measured on periapical film and the incisor displacement was measured on lateral cephalogram. Using multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between root resoption and the displacement of the upper incisor apex in each of four direction (retraction, advancement, intrusion and extrusion). The statistically significant negative association were found between resorption and both intrusion (P < 0.001) and extrusion (P < 0.05), but no significant association was found between resorption and both retraction and advancement. The regression analysis implied an average of 2.29 mm resorption in the absence of apical displacement. The likelihood that the magnitude of displacement of the incisor root is positively associated with root resoption in the population of treated growing subjects is very small.

  18. Radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment between the bidimensional and the Roth straight-wire techniques. Another objective was to compare the amount of root resorption in the whole sample studied and record the prevalence of root resorption. The sample consisted of 40 patients (age ranged between 11 and 18 years) with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions, treated nonextraction. Twenty patients were treated with bidimensional technique and 20 with a 0.018-inch Roth straight-wire technique. Root lengths of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. The results demonstrated that the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups showed significant root resorption after treatment, 1.11 (0.17) and 0.86 (0.05), respectively, P root shortening between the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups, there was no significant difference between the mean change from pre- to post-treatment between bidimensional group (mean = 1.00 ± 1.34) and Roth straight-wire group (mean = 0.88 ± 0.86), P = 0.63. Considering the whole sample, there was no root resoprtion in 32.5% of the analysed teeth. There was only mild resorption in 56.2%, moderate in 8.8% and severe in only 2.5% of the teeth. Treatment with the bidimensional technique did not produce an increase in the amount of root resorption. The prevalence and amount of root resorption was similar between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

  19. Identification of orthodontic patients at risk of severe apical root resorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artun, J.; Hullenaar, R. Van 't; Doppel, D.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current information suggests that the major variation in orthodontic root resorption can be explained by differences in individual predisposition. Our aim was therefore to test the predictive value of the amount of maxillary incisor resorption about 6 and 12 months after bracket

  20. Correlation Between Orthodontic Forces and Root Resorption – a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasa Alexandru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR is a major concern regarding periodontal status after nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess this sequel by a systematic review of published data. For assessment, we performed an electronic search of one database for comprehensive data, using keywords in different combinations: “root resorption”, “periodontics” and “nonsurgical orthodontic treatment”. We supplemented the results searching by hand in published journals and we cross-referenced with the accessed articles. Patients included in the results presented a good general health status, with no previous history of OIEARR and no other associated pathologies. Finally, twenty-three studies were selected and included in this review. A high prevalence (69–98% and moderate severity of OIEARR (<5 mm and <1/3 from original root length were reported. No difference in root resorption was found regarding the sex of the patients. A moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption was found. Also, a mild correlation regarding antero-posterior apical displacement and root resorption was found.

  1. Apical root resorption of incisors after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusveen, Elin Marie Gravdal; Brudvik, Pongsri; Bøe, Olav Egil; Mavragani, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impacted maxillary canines as risk factor for orthodontic apical root resorption. The sample comprised 66 patients treated with fixed appliances. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral impacted maxillary canine, which was distanced from the roots of the incisors at a preliminary phase of treatment before bonding, formed the impaction group, and 34 patients without impactions served as the controls. Root shortening was calculated by using pretreatment and posttreatment intraoral radiographs. Inclination of the eruption path of the impacted canine relative to the midline, axis of the lateral incisor, and nasal line, root development, and the medial and vertical positions of the impacted tooth were recorded on orthopantomograms and lateral cephalometric films. The follicle/tooth ratio was evaluated by using periapical radiographs. No significant difference in apical resorption of the maxillary incisors was detected between the impaction and control groups, or between the incisors of the impacted and contralateral sides in the same subject. Likewise, no difference in the severity of root resorption was found between the incisors of impacted side alone and the incisors of the control group. Mesial and vertical inclinations of the impacted canines were negatively related to a lateral incisor's root resorption. No correlations were found between resorption and medial or vertical position of the crown of the canine. The follicle/tooth ratio was significantly related to the mesial inclination of the impacted canine, but not to root resorption. An impacted maxillary canine, after being distanced from the incisor roots, does not seem to be a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight

  3. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 16. Comparisons of root resorption and resorption craters after the application of light and heavy continuous and controlled orthodontic forces for 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetyangkul, Anchalee; Türk, Tamer; Elekdağ-Türk, Selma; Jones, Allan S; Petocz, Peter; Cheng, Lam L; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-03-01

    Orthodontic force duration can affect the severity of root resorption. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the amounts of root resorption volumetrically after the application of controlled light and heavy forces in the buccal direction for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The sample consisted of 54 maxillary first premolars in 36 patients (mean age, 14.9 years; 21 girls, 15 boys) who required first premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment. The teeth were allocated into 3 groups that varied in the duration of force application: 4, 8, or 12 weeks. The right or left first premolars were randomly selected to receive 2 levels of forces. A light buccally directed orthodontic force of 25 g was applied to the experimental tooth on 1 side, while a heavy orthodontic force of 225 g was applied on the contralateral premolar. At the end of the experimental period, the teeth were extracted and scanned with the microcomputed-tomography x-ray system. Resorption crater analysis was performed with specially designed software for direct volumetric measurements. Significant differences in the extent of root resorption were found between 4, 8, and 12 weeks of force application (P resorption in the longer force duration groups. The light force produced significantly less root resorption than did the heavy force. After 4, 8, or 12 weeks of buccally directed orthodontic forces applied on the maxillary first premolars, the volumes of root resorption craters were found to be related to the duration and the magnitude of the forces. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of the association of cortical plate proximity and apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tomoo; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Horinuki, Eri; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of proximity of the root apex to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate on apical root resorption. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to measure the amount of root resorption and root apex movement around maxillary right and left central incisors in 30 adults who underwent four-bicuspid extraction followed by treatment with multibracket appliances. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the direction of root apex movement, after which the correlation between the amount of root resorption and root apex movement was determined. Mean apical root resorption was 1.80 ± 0.82 mm (range, 0.18-3.96 mm). The amount of root apex movement was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption on the side of pressure. Root apex proximity to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate was associated with apical root resorption. Orthodontic treatment plans should carefully consider root proximity to the maxillary cortical plate. (J Oral Sci 58, 231-236, 2016).

  5. Orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in ovariectomized rats treated by systemic administration of zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontorn, Irin; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Gonzales, Carmen; Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Darendeliler, M Ali; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-05-01

    The effect of zoledronic acid, a potent and novel bisphosphonate, on tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in osteoporotic animals systemically treated with zoledronic acid as similarly used in postmenopausal patients has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was undertaken. Fifteen 10-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: ovariectomy, ovariectomy + zoledronic acid, and control. Only the ovariectomy and ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups underwent ovariectomies. Two weeks after the ovariectomy, zoledronic acid was administered only to the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group. Four weeks after the ovariectomy, 25-g nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were applied to observe tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. There were significant differences in the amounts of tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy and the control groups, and also between the ovariectomy and the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups. There was no statistically significant difference in tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid and the control groups. Zoledronic acid inhibited significantly more tooth movement and significantly reduced the severity of orthodontically induced root resorption in the ovariectomized rats. The ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group showed almost the same results as did the control group in both tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. Zoledronic acid inhibits excessive orthodontic tooth movement and also reduces the risk of severe orthodontically induced root resorption in ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of cone beam computed tomography and conventional radiography in diagnosing the extent of root resorptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Alamadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root resorptions are assessed and diagnosed using different radiographical techniques. A comparison of the ability to assess resorptions on two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D radiographs is, hitherto, lacking. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of 2D (periapical radiographs, PA and panoramic radiograph, PAN and 3D (cone beam computed tomography, CBCT radiographic techniques in measuring slanted root resorptions compared to the true resorptions, a histological gold standard, in addition to a comparison of all the radiographic techniques to each other. Methods Radiographs (CBCT, PA, and PAN, in addition to histological sections, of extracted deciduous canines from thirty-four patients were analyzed. Linear measurements of the most and least resorbed side of the root, i.e., “slanted” resorptions, were measured using an analyzing software (Facad ®. For classification of slanted root resorptions, a modified Malmgren index was used. Results PAN underestimated the root length on both the least and most resorbed side. Small resorptions, i.e., low modified Malmgren scores, were more difficult to record and were only assessed accurately using CBCT. The root resorption scores were underestimated using PA and PAN. In assessment of linear measures, PAN differed significantly from both CBCT and PA. Conclusions CBCT is the most accurate technique when measuring and scoring slanted root resorptions.

  7. Etiology and sequelae of root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews the current status of investigation into apical root resorption within the context of orthodontic treatment. Treatment and patient factors that have traditionally been investigated are discussed, along with the results of current research in this area. The need for rethinking traditional research strategies in the quest for identifying both control and causative mechanisms is explored. Finally, proposals for key areas of future interest are highlighted.

  8. In vivo microcomputed tomography evaluation of rat alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Zhuang, Li; Li, Song; Bai, Yuxing

    2013-05-01

    To observe the real-time microarchitecture changes of the alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A 10 g force was delivered to move the maxillary left first molars mesially in twenty 10-week-old rats for 14 days. The first molar and adjacent alveolar bone were scanned using in vivo microcomputed tomography at the following time points: days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Microarchitecture parameters, including bone volume fraction, structure model index, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular separation of alveolar bone, were measured on the compression and tension side. The total root volume was measured, and the resorption crater volume at each time point was calculated. Univariate repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections were performed to compare the differences in each parameter between time points with significance level at P Root resorption volume of the mesial root increased significantly on day 7 of orthodontic loading. Real-time root and bone resorption during orthodontic movement can be observed in 3 dimensions using in vivo micro-CT. Alveolar bone resorption and root resorption were observed mostly in the apical third on day 7 on the compression side; bone formation was observed on day 14 on the tension side during orthodontic tooth movement.

  9. Effect of gingival fibroblasts and ultrasound on dogs' root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jacqueline; Hassan, Ali H; Saleem, Ali; Felemban, Nayef; Aldaghreer, Saleh; Fawzi, Elham; Farid, Mamdouh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled; Gargoum, Ausama; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of using osteogenic induced gingival fibroblasts (OIGFs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption lacunae volume and cementum thickness in beagle dogs that received orthodontic tooth movement. Seven beagle dogs were used, from which gingival cells (GCs) were obtained and were induced osteogenically to produce OIGFs. Each third and fourth premolar was randomly assigned to one of the five groups, namely, LIPUS, OIGFs, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), OIGFs + LIPUS, and control. All groups received 4 weeks of bodily tooth movement, then LIPUS-treated groups received LIPUS for 20 min/day for 4 weeks, and OIGFs groups received an injection of OIGFs near the root apex. Microcomputed tomography analysis was used to calculate root resorption lacunae volume and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the cementum thickness of each root at 3 root levels on compression and tension sides. There was no significant difference in resorption volume between the treatment groups. OIGFs + LIPUS increased cementum thickness ( P > 0.05) in third premolars near the apex, and LIPUS increased cementum thickness ( P > 0.05) in fourth premolars near the apex. Furthermore, BMP2 increased cementum thickness at the coronal third at the compression side. OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities.

  10. Effect of LED-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Akkuş, Derya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of light-emitting diode-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy (LPT), on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (TM) and orthodontically induced root resorption, in rats. Twenty male 12-week-old Wistar rats were separated into two groups (control and LPT) and 50 cN of force was applied between maxillary left molar and incisor with a coil spring. In the treatment group, LPT was applied with an energy density of 20 mW/cm(2) over a period of 10 consecutive days directly over the movement of the first molar teeth area. The distance between the teeth was measured with a digital caliper on days 0 (T0), 10 (T1), and 21 (T2) on dental cast models. The surface area of root resorption lacunae was measured histomorphometrically using digital photomicrographs. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical evaluation at p root resorption, expressed as a percentage, showed that the average relative root resorption affecting the maxillary molars on the TM side was 0.098 ± 0.066 in the LPT group and 0.494 ± 0.224 in the control group. Statistically significant inhibition of root resorption with LPT was determined (p orthodontic tooth movement and inhibitory effects on orthodontically induced resorptive activity.

  11. Resorption of Lateral Incisors during Canine Eruption: Two Clinical Cases with Focus on Root Lengths and Heredity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Zargham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth. This is a pilot study aimed to improve diagnostics for avoiding the resorption of lateral maxillary incisors by pressure from erupting canines. Case Report: The first reported case is of a girl who was 11 years and 7 months old when radiographs showed severe resorption of the lateral incisors, along with malformed central incisors and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated several short roots. The second reported case is of a girl who was 9 years and 5 months old when radiographs demonstrated nearly complete resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general could be a phenotypic trait, which should be diagnosed early for preventing severe resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption.

  12. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  13. Increasing the amount of corticotomy does not affect orthodontic tooth movement or root resorption, but accelerates alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurohama, Takeshi; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Tajima, Takako; Arita, Kotaro; Kondo, Takanobu; Ino, Airi; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships among the volume of bone cut during corticotomy, amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of the resultant alveolar bone resorption after tooth movement. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were distributed into the corticotomy groups and a control group that underwent sham corticotomy. Two experiments employing two different orthodontic forces (10 or 25g) and experimental periods (14 or 21 days) were performed. The volumes of the bone cut by corticotomy were 0.1, 1.0, and 1.7mm3 in the 25g groups, and 1.0 and 1.7mm3 in the 10g groups. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were set on the maxillary left first molars to induce mesial movement. After orthodontic tooth movement, the amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of alveolar bone resorption were measured. Despite differences in the volume of bone cut among the different corticotomy groups, there were not significant differences in the amount of tooth movement and volume of root resorption between the control group and any of the corticotomy groups. However, higher volume of bone cut during corticotomy was significantly related to the decreased alveolar bone volume-in particular, to the reduced height of the alveolar bone crest after tooth movement. The volume of the alveolar bone cut during corticotomy does not affect tooth movement or root resorption in 10-week-old female Wistar rats; however, it may increase alveolar bone loss after tooth movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months and at the end of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonas, Dimitrios; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Ken

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of orthodontically induced root resorption after treatment and the correlation with resorption found after 6 months of treatment. One hundred fifty-six patients (11-18 years) treated with fixed appliances and extraction of four premolars were examined with cone beam computed tomography before treatment, after 6 months of treatment (n  =  97), and at the end of active treatment. The Malmgren Index was used to describe the degree of root resorption. Severe root resorption (>2 mm, score 3) was found in 25.6% of the patients at the end of treatment. Extreme root resorption was found in one patient. Root resorption was seen more frequently in the maxillary incisor region. There was no correlation between the severity of root resorption after 6 months and the amount observed at the end of treatment. Furthermore, no correlation was seen between treatment duration and the severity of root resorption. Clinically significant resorption was diagnosed in 25.6% of the patients, but no correlations, either with the resorption seen after 6 months or with the length of treatment, were found. Radiographic examination after 3 to 6 months of orthodontic treatment is too early and will not reduce the number of patients who will have teeth with severe root resorption.

  15. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Liem, Robert S. B.; Stokroos, Ietse; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  16. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Liem, R.S.; Stokroos, I.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  17. Identification of A Novel Root Resorptive Function of Osteopontin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osteopontin (OPN has been proposed to play a role in bone resorption. With regard to bone and cementum/dentin structural and histological similarities, it was hy-pothesized that expression of this gene might be increased in resorptive lacunae during orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: Fixed Nickel-Titanium closed coil springs (Dentaurum® capa-ble of delivering approximately 60 gf were applied for mesial movement of maxillary left first molars in 26 male 8-week-old Wistar rats. The right maxillary molar served as inter-nal control for each subject. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed. Tissues from 13 rats were examined by histomorphometric analysis and the scratched material from resorptive lacunae on mesial sides of the roots was used for extracting messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA in RT-PCR reactions. T-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test served for statistical analyses.Results: Histomorphometric analysis of histologic sections revealed an increased resorbed area in test group compared to control animals (P<0.001. The integrity of mRNA con-firmed by RT-PCR for housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Densitometric analysis of OPN mRNA on electrophoresis gel showed an in-crease in background levels of OPN in resorptive lacunae of test group (P<0.001.Conclusion: Data indicates that in the controlled environment of this study, an increase in OPN expression is associated with root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth move-ment.

  18. Resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption: two clinical cases with focus on root length and heredity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargham, Mostafa; Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth...... resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short...... root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general...

  19. Association analysis of clinical aspects and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Maria Luiza S Simas Netta; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Bernardino, José Fabio; Hoette, Felix; Hoette, Maura Levi; Thum, Lotario; Ozawa, Terumi O; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Olandoski, Marcia; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of certain genes at the transcription level, via interaction with the vitamin D receptor, and influences host immune responses and aspects of bone development, growth, and homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the association of TaqI vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Our subjects were 377 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, divided into 3 groups: (1) 160 with external apical root resorption ≤1.43 mm, (2) 179 with external apical root resorption >1.43 mm), and (3) 38 untreated subjects. External apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors was evaluated on periapical radiographs taken before and after 6 months of treatment. After DNA collection and purification, vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to verify the association of clinical and genetic variables with external apical root resorption (P root resorption in orthodontically treated patients compared with the untreated subjects. In patients orthodontically treated, age higher than 14 years old, initial size of the maxillary incisor root superior to 30 mm, and premolar extraction were associated with increased external apical root resorption. Genotypes containing the C allele were weakly associated with protection against external apical root resorption (CC + CT × TT [odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-1.23; P = 0.091]) when treated orthodontic patients were compared to untreated individuals. Clinical factors and vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism were associated with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Root resorption of endodontically treated teeth following orthodontic treatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ioulia; Zafeiriadis, Anastasios A; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on root resorption of endodontically treated teeth compared to vital teeth. A literature search was conducted in 18 electronic databases. Review articles and relevant articles were searched for cross-references. Two independent reviewers screened all articles according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted the corresponding data. The pooled estimate of mean difference of root resorption weighted by the fixed-effect model and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to construct a forest plot by implementing the "RevMan 5.1" software. Quality and heterogeneity assessments as well as publication bias evaluation and sensitivity analyses were performed. Inter-reviewer agreement for data selection, data extraction and quality analysis was evaluated by Cohen's kappa. Six out of 1,942 original papers met the inclusion criteria. Four out of six studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Root resorption was less in endodontically treated teeth than in vital teeth (MD = -0.48 mm; 95 % CI = -0.81 to -0.14 mm). The funnel plot indicated no evidence of publication bias, while no data heterogeneity was present (I(2) = 0 %). However, the overall quality of the included studies was considered as "low." Following orthodontic treatment, endodontically treated teeth exhibit relatively less root resorption than teeth with vital pulps. Clinicians should consider orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth as a relatively safe clinical procedure.

  1. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed Zahedani, Sm; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, Smm

    2013-09-01

    One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (proot resorption,statistically significant (proot resorption in this study. Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

  2. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology(®); Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR.

  3. Th17-cells in atopic dermatitis stimulate orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Yamaguchi, M; Asano, M; Fujita, S; Kobayashi, R; Kasai, K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how atopic dermatitis (AD) contributes to root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Atopic dermatitis model mice and wild-type mice were subjected to an excessive orthodontic force (OF) to induce movement of the upper first molars. The expression levels of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL proteins were determined in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by an immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the compression force on co-cultures of CD4(+) cells from AD patients or healthy individuals and human PDL cells were investigated with regard to the levels of secretion and mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-6, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. The immunoreactivities for TRAP, IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL in the AD group were found to be significantly increased. The double immunofluorescence analysis for IL-17/CD4 detected immunoreaction. The secretion of IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL, and the mRNA levels of IL-6 and RANKL in the AD patients were increased compared with those in healthy individuals. Th17 cells may therefore be associated with the deterioration of root resorption of AD mice, and may explain why AD patients are more susceptible to root resorption than healthy individuals when an excessive OF is applied. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of calcitonin on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Lin, Suai; Yan, Weijun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Our main aim was to evaluate the effects of calcitonin (CT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats in the negative control group were not given any appliances or injections. All the remaining rats were used to establish a model of OTM. The positive control group were then injected with normal saline, while rats in the three experimental groups were injected with 0.2 IU, 1 IU or 5 IU/kg/day CT. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were used to deliver an initial 50 g mesial force to the left maxillary first molar for 14 days in rats in the positive control group and the experimental groups. Each group was randomly subdivided into two groups, one for analysis of tooth movement, tissue changes and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in alveolar bone, the other to examine root resorption by scanning electron microscopy. The OTM distance, the number of force-induced osteoclasts and root resorption areas were significantly decreased in CT-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of CT reduces the root resorption area and may therefore be effective as a novel adjunctive orthodontic approach to diminish undesired tooth movement via enhancing anchorage or preventing relapse after OTM.

  5. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resor...

  6. Technological advances in endodontics: treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption using a reciprocating single-file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Samir Noronha; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado-Júnior, EmÍlio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Márcio Acris

    2017-01-01

    The field of endodontics has become increasingly successful due to technological advances that allow clinicians to solve clinical cases that would have been problematic a few years ago. Despite such advances, endodontic treatment of teeth with internal root resorption remains challenging. This article presents a clinical case in which a reciprocating single-file system was used for endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of internal root resorption in the distobuccal root canal of the mandibular right first molar. A reciprocating single-file system was used for root canal instrumentation and final preparation, and filling was obtained through a thermal compaction technique. No painful symptoms or periapical lesions were observed in 12 months of follow-up. The results indicate that a reciprocating single-file system is an adequate alternative for root canal instrumentation, particularly in teeth with internal root resorption.

  7. Apical root resorption due to orthodontic treatment detected by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iury O; Alencar, Ana H G; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    To determine the frequency of apical root resorption (ARR) due to orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a sample of 1256 roots from 30 patients. All patients had Class I malocclusion with crowding. Of the 30 patients evaluated, 11 were boys and 19 were girls; their mean age was 13 years (11 to 16 years). Orthodontic treatment followed the nonextraction treatment. CBCT images were obtained before and after orthodontic treatment, and ARR was determined using Axial Guided Navigation of CBCT images. All patients had ARR. No statistically significant association was found between resorption frequency, gender, and age. ARR was detected using CBCT in 46% of all roots that underwent orthodontic treatment. CBCT was effective for detecting in vivo even minimal degrees of ARR due to orthodontic treatment and allowed three-dimensional evaluation of dental roots and visualization of palatine roots of maxillary molars. The highest frequencies and the most significant ARR occurred in incisors and distal roots of first maxillary and mandibular molars.

  8. The application of X-ray microtomography for the assessement of root resorption caused by the orthodontic treatment of premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Monika; Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Pameijer, Cornelis Hans; Kmiec, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate potential application of micro-computed tomography in the morphometric analysis of the root resorption in extracted human first premolars subjected to the orthodontic force. In one patient treated in the orthodontic clinic two mandibular first premolars subjected to orthodontic force for 4 weeks and one control tooth were selected for micro-computed tomographic analysis. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072). The morphology of root's surfaces was assessed by TView and Computer Tomography Analyzer (CTAn) softwares (SkyScan, bvba) which allowed analysis of all microscans, identification of root resorption craters and measurement of their length, width and volume. Microscans showed in details the surface morphology of the investigated teeth. The analysis of microscans allowed to detect 3 root resorption cavities in each of the orthodontically moved tooth and only one resorption crater in the control tooth. The volumes of the resorption craters in orthodontically-treated teeth were much larger than in a control tooth. Micro-computed tomography is a reproducible technique for the three-dimensional non-invasive assessment of root's morphology ex vivo. TView and CTan softwares are useful in accurate morphometric measurements of root's resorption.

  9. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance and the relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonas, Dimitrios; Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken

    2012-03-01

    To investigate root resorption after 6 months of active orthodontic treatment and its relation to possible risk factors. Ninety-seven patients (10-18 years) with a Class I malocclusion and crowding treated with fixed appliance and premolar extractions were examined with cone beam computed tomography before and after 6 months of active treatment. The exposure covered all teeth from first molar to first molar in both jaws. The Malmgren index was used to evaluate the degree of root resorption. Irregular root contour (score 1) was seen in most teeth already before active treatment, and therefore resorptions were registered only as score 2 (resorption) or higher. Minor root resorption was noted in 10% of the patients and severe root resorption, >2 mm (score 3) was found in four patients. Root resorption was more frequently seen in the upper jaw, especially the incisors. There was no statistically significant correlation of root resorption with any of the selected risk factors. After 6 months of treatment, clinically significant resorption was diagnosed in 4% of the patients, ie, in 96% of the patients the radiographic examination did not reveal any significant information. The selected risk factors did not have any impact on the amount of resorption after 6 months of active treatment.

  10. A preliminary investigation of short-term cytokine  expression in gingival crevicular fluid secondary to high-level orthodontic forces and the associated root resorption: case series analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajiv; Almuzian, Moahmmed; Khan, Alamgir; Pascovici, Dana; Dalci, Oyku; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-12-01

    Orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR) is an unavoidable inflammatory process. Several factors claimed to be related to the severity of OIIRR. Orthodontic forces cause micro-trauma to the periodontal ligament and activate a cascade of cellular events associated with local periodontal inflammation. The purpose of this split-mouth study were (1) to investigate the changes in cytokine profile in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) secondary to heavy orthodontic forces and (2) to compare the cytokine expression between participants showing high and low root resorption. Eight participants requiring maxillary first premolar extractions involved in this study. The teeth on the tested side (TS) received 225 g of controlled buccal tipping force for 28 days, while the contralateral teeth act as a control (CS). GCF was collected from both TS and CS teeth at 0 h (prior to application of force) and 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the application of force, and analysed with multiplex bead immunoassay to determine the cytokine levels. Statistically significant temporal increase was found in the TS teeth for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at 3 h and 28 days (p = 0.01). Interleukin 7 (IL-7) significantly peaked at the 28th day. Comparing cytokine profile for participants with high and low root resorption (>0.35 and root resorption cases (p root resorption which craters on mesial, distal surfaces and middle third region were significant in the TS teeth (p resorptive cytokine) increased significantly secondary to a high-level of orthodontic force application. Significantly high levels of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (anti-resorptive cytokine) were detected in mild root resorption cases secondary to high-level orthodontic force application. A future long-term randomised clinical trial with larger sample taking in consideration gender, age and growth pattern distribution would be recommended.

  11. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggling) in vivo. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, heavy force (HF), optimal force (OF), and jiggling force (JF) groups. The expression levels of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1; an IL-8-related protein in rodents), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin protein in the dental root were determined using immunohistochemistry. On day 21, a greater number of root resorption lacunae, which contained multinucleated odontoclasts, were observed in the palatal roots of rats in the JF group than in rats from other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the numbers of cathepsin K-positive and MMP-9-positive odontoclasts in the JF group on day 21. Immunoreactivities for IL-6, CINC-1, and RANKL were stronger in resorbed roots exposed to jiggling than in the other groups on day 21. Negative reactivity was observed in the controls. These results suggest that jiggling may induce ORR via inflammatory cytokine production during orthodontic tooth movement, and that jiggling may be a risk factor for ORR.

  12. The relationships between the arrangement of teeth, root resorption, and dental maturity in bovine mandibular incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin-kyu; Ono, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the eruption pattern and root resorption of the bovine anterior dentition in relation to growth-related parameters based on dental maturity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 bovine anterior mandibles by using standard radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and actual measurements. We determined the relationships between the stages of dental maturity by using a modification of Demirjian's method and various growth-related parameters, such as the activity of the root-resorbing tissue and mobility of the deciduous teeth. The correlation of growth-related parameters with interdental spacing and distal unusual root resorption (DRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was assessed. The cause of mesial unusual root resorption (MRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was determined on the basis of the arrangement of the permanent third incisor. Results An independent t-test and chi-square test indicated significant differences in growth-related parameters associated with dental arch length discrepancy and factors related to the shedding of deciduous teeth between the low and high dental maturity groups. The samples with interdental spacing and DRR showed a larger sum of mesiodistal permanent crown widths and higher dental maturity than did the respective controls. Samples with MRR tended to show a lingually rotated distal tip of the adjacent tooth crown. Conclusions Dental maturity has relevance to the interdental spaces and unusual root resorption of mixed dentition. The position of the adjacent tooth crown on CBCT may be correlated with the occurrence of unusual root resorption of the incisor. PMID:29090124

  13. Three-dimensional quantification of orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed imaging of micro-computed tomography in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongshi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Despite various X-ray approaches have been widely used to monitor root resorption after orthodontic treatment, a non-invasive and accurate method is highly desirable for long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to build a non-invasive method to quantify longitudinal orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed images of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in a rodent model. Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g) were used in this study. A 25 g orthodontic force generated by nickel-titanium coil spring was applied to the right maxillary first molar for each rat, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. Micro-CT scan was performed at day 0 (before orthodontic load) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after orthodontic load. Resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molars at bilateral sides was calculated from micro-CT images with registration algorithm via reconstruction, superimposition and partition operations. Obvious resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molar can be detected at day 14 and day 28 at orthodontic side. Most of the resorption occurred in the apical region at distal side and cervical region at mesiolingual side. Desirable development of molar root of rats was identified from day 0 to day 28 at control side. The development of root concentrated on apical region. This non-invasive 3D quantification method with registration algorithm can be used in longitudinal study of root resorption. Obvious root resorption in rat molar can be observed three-dimensionally at day 14 and day 28 after orthodontic load. This indicates that registration algorithm combined with time-lapsed images provides clinic potential application in detection and quantification of root contour.

  14. Effects of diabetes on tooth movement and root resorption after orthodontic force application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, K; Hotokezaka, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakano-Tajima, T; Kurohama, T; Kondo, T; Darendeliler, M A; Yoshida, N

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of diabetes on orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. Twenty-three 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control (n = 7), diabetes (n = 9), and diabetes + insulin (n = 7) groups. Diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats with a blood glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were assigned to the diabetes group. Insulin was administered daily to the diabetes + insulin group. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring of 10 g was applied for 2 weeks to the maxillary left first molar in all rats to induce mesial tooth movement. Tooth movement was measured using microcomputed tomography images. To determine the quantity of root resorption, the mesial surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of the first molar were analyzed using both scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser microscopy. After 2 weeks, the amount of tooth movement in the diabetic rats was lower than that in the control rats. Root resorption was also significantly lower in the diabetic rats. These responses of the rats caused by diabetes were mostly diminished by insulin administration. Diabetes significantly reduced orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. The regulation of blood glucose level through insulin administration largely reduced these abnormal responses to orthodontic force application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Management of an internal root resorption on a permanent tooth. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Maldonado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal root resorption (IRR is a rare pulp disease. Its etiology involves late pulpal inflammations and trauma, among others. IRR may also show some symptoms, and is usually detected by X-rays. However, its diagnosis is significantly improved by the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. The objective of this case report was to account for the diagnosis and management of an internal root resorption without perforation. The patient, a 26-year-old male, went to the School of Dentistry at Universidad Andres Bello, Concepción, without having symptoms in the tooth 1.1. Anamnesis revealed the presence of previous symptoms. CBCT examination showed absence of bowl-shaped calcified dentin tissue on the inner walls of the root canal with apical lesion but without perforation of surrounding tissues. Endodontic treatment was performed using the following methods: irrigation of the root canal with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX using a Max-i-probe cannula and simultaneous cavitation of the irrigant Then calcium hydroxide (CH was applied as intracanal medication for a week and Schilder’s technique for vertical compaction was used. The patient was checked after one week and then after six months. He did not have any symptoms. Early diagnosis using modern imaging equipment, appropriate use of ultrasound for chemomechanical debridement and thermoplastic filling techniques contribute to a more favorable prognosis of patients with internal root resorption.

  16. Genetic and clinical risk factors of root resorption associated with orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujiao; He, Shushu; Gu, Tian; Liu, Yi; Chen, Song

    2016-08-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a common complication in orthodontic treatment. Despite many studies on EARR, great controversies remain with regard to its risk factors. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship among sex, root movement, IL-1RN single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs419598, IL-6 SNP rs1800796, and EARR associated with orthodontic treatment. Altogether 174 patients (with 174 maxillary left central incisors) were selected for this study. Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before the start of the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography data were used to reconstruct a 3-dimensional image of each tooth; the volume and the root resorption volume of each tooth were calculated. Three-dimensional matching was used to measure the amount of movement of each root. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs, and genotypes of SNP rs419598 and SNP rs1800796 of each subject were determined using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction genotyping (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif). The data were analyzed with multiple linear regression analysis. The statistical analysis indicated no relationship between sex, tooth movement amount, and IL-1RN SNP rs419598 with EARR. The IL-6 SNP rs1800796 GC was associated with EARR, and root resorption differed significantly between SNP rs1800796 GC and CC. IL-6 SNP rs1800796 GC is a risk factor for EARR. The amount of root movement, IL-1RN SNP rs419598, and sex as risk factors for EARR need further study. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. External apical root resorption in non-extraction cases after clear aligner therapy or fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The application of removable aligner in orthodontic treatment has increased rapidly in recent years, while its effects on root resorption remains unclear. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR in non-extraction patients receiving clear aligner therapy (CAT or fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT. Materials and methods: Eighty non-extraction patients treated with CAT or FOT exclusively were evaluated retrospectively. Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the length of crowns and roots of the incisors before and after treatment. The amount of EARR was determined by the relative change of root-crown ratio and compared between the two groups. The potential predictive factors of EARR were investigated using spearman correlation analysis. Results: The overall EARR in the CAT patients was significantly less than the FOT. Similar results were observed in maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. The duration of treatment positively correlated with the amount of EARR in both modalities. Gender, age, skeletal pattern or degree of malocclusion did not affect the occurrence of EARR. Conclusion: Clear aligner therapy may have a superiority of reducing external apical root resorption compared to fixed orthodontic treatment in non-extraction patients. Keywords: Clear aligner, Fixed orthodontics, Root resorption

  18. Internal and external resorption in a lower molar with an associated endodontic-periodontic lesion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a unique case in which both internal and external inflammatory resorption and endodontic-periodontic lesions were present at the same time in the patient's left mandibular first molar. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, it was determined that the nature of this case was a pulpal infection-induced inflammatory resorption and furcation lesion. After root canal therapy, the furcation lesion and external inflammatory resorption were completely resolved. This case indicates that the correct diagnosis of the stimulating factor for tooth resorption and determination of the primary origin of endodontic-periodontic lesions are critical for clinical management and success. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. BoneCeramic graft regenerates alveolar defects but slows orthodontic tooth movement with less root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song; Liu, Yunfeng; Wei, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    BoneCeramic (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) can regenerate bone in alveolar defects after tooth extraction, but it is unknown whether it is feasible to move a tooth through BoneCeramic grafting sites. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-dimensional real-time root resorption and bone responses in grafted sites during orthodontic tooth movement. Sixty 5-week-old rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive BoneCeramic, natural bovine cancellous bone particles (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland), or no graft, after the extraction of the maxillary left first molar. After 4 weeks, the maxillary left second molar was moved into the extraction site for 28 days. Dynamic bone microstructures and root resorption were evaluated using in-vivo microcomputed tomography. Stress distribution and corresponding tissue responses were examined by the finite element method and histology. Mixed model analysis of variance was performed to compare the differences among time points with Bonferroni post-hoc tests at the significance level of P root resorption volumes and craters, and the highest bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and mean trabecular thickness, followed by the Bio-Oss and the control groups. The highest stress accumulated in the cervical region of the mesial roots. BoneCeramic has better osteoconductive potential and induces less root resorption compared with Bio-Oss grafting and naturally recovered extraction sites. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of clodronate on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic forces: a histomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Josefina; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Il; Chang, Young-Il

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of clodronate, a first-generation bisphosphonate, on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement. The samples consisted of 54 sex-matched Wistar rats (weight, 180-230 g) allocated to the 2.5 mmol/L clodronate, 10 mmol/L clodronate, and control groups (n = 18 for each group). After application of a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring (force, 60 g) between the maxillary central incisor and first molar, 2.5 mmol/L of clodronate, 10 mmol/L of clodronate, or saline solution was injected into the subperiosteum adjacent to the maxillary first molar every third day. All animals received tetracycline, calcein, and alizarin red by intraperitoneal injection at 1, 6, and 14 days, respectively. The amounts of tooth movement were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. The animals were killed at 4, 7, and 17 days. Histomorphometric analyses of bone mineral appositional rate, labeled surface, percentage of root resorption area, and number of root resorption lacunae of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar at 4, 7, and 17 days were done. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc test were done for statistical analyses. Rats in the 10 mmol/L clodronate group had significant decreases of tooth movement (12 and 15 days, P root resorption area and numbers of root resorption lacunae (7 day, P root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement, patients should be informed about a possible decrease in the amount of tooth movement and a prolonged period of orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacted maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent teeth: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, R; Cavallini, C; Vernucci, R; Vichi, M; Leonardi, R; Barbato, E

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of impacted maxillary canine is reported to be between 1% and 3%. The lack of monitoring and the delay in the treatment of the impacted canine can cause different complications such as: displacement of adjacent teeth, loss of vitality of neighbouring teeth, shortening of the dental arch, follicular cysts, canine ankylosis, recurrent infections, recurrent pain, internal resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, external resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, combination of these factors. An appropriate diagnosis, accurate predictive analysis and early intervention are likely to prevent such undesirable effects. The objective is to evaluate, by means of a retrospective observational study, the possibility of carrying out a predictive analysis of root resorption adjacent to the impacted canines by means of orthopantomographs, so as to limit the prescription of additional 3D radiography. 120 subjects with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canine were examined and 50 patients with 69 impacted maxillary canine (22 male, 28 female; mean age: 11.7 years) satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. These patients were subjected to a basic clinical and radiographic investigation (orthopantomographs and computerized tomography). All panoramic films were viewed under standardized conditions for the evaluation of two main variables: maxillary canine angulations (a, b, g angles) and the overlapping between the impacted teeth and the lateral incisor (Analysis of Lindauer). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of resorbed lateral incisors depending on sector location and angle measurements. Results indicated that b angle has the greatest influence on the prediction of root resorption (predictive value of b angle = 76%). If β angle <18° and Lindauer = I, the probability of resorption is 0.06. Evaluation of b angle and superimposition lateral incisor/impacted canine analysed on orthopantomographs could be one of

  2. A preliminary investigation of short-term cytokine  expression in gingival crevicular fluid secondary to high-level orthodontic forces and the associated root resorption: case series analytical study

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    Rajiv Ahuja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR is an unavoidable inflammatory process. Several factors claimed to be related to the severity of OIIRR. Orthodontic forces cause micro-trauma to the periodontal ligament and activate a cascade of cellular events associated with local periodontal inflammation. The purpose of this split-mouth study were (1 to investigate the changes in cytokine profile in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF secondary to heavy orthodontic forces and (2 to compare the cytokine expression between participants showing high and low root resorption. Methods Eight participants requiring maxillary first premolar extractions involved in this study. The teeth on the tested side (TS received 225 g of controlled buccal tipping force for 28 days, while the contralateral teeth act as a control (CS. GCF was collected from both TS and CS teeth at 0 h (prior to application of force and 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the application of force, and analysed with multiplex bead immunoassay to determine the cytokine levels. Results Statistically significant temporal increase was found in the TS teeth for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α at 3 h and 28 days (p = 0.01. Interleukin 7 (IL-7 significantly peaked at the 28th day. Comparing cytokine profile for participants with high and low root resorption (>0.35 and <0.15 mm3, respectively, the levels of GM-CSF was significantly greater in low root resorption cases (p < 0.05. The amounts of root resorption which craters on mesial, distal surfaces and middle third region were significant in the TS teeth (p < 0.05. Conclusions IL-7 and TNF-α (pro-resorptive cytokine increased significantly secondary to a high-level of orthodontic force application. Significantly high levels of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (anti-resorptive cytokine were detected in mild root resorption cases secondary to high

  3. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalent of root resorption of second molar adjustment the impacted third molar in prepiacal and panoramic radiographs

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    Mohammad Ebrahimi Saravi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Impacted third molar reduces the bone level in the distal aspect of second molar, and sometimes it can lead to root resorption of the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to determine this resorption using panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 54 patient (28 men, 26 women above 15 years old with the average of 22 years in Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Tehran University were studied. A periapical radiography from the third molar and a panoramic radiograph were taken from each patient (Because of their routine use and evaluation of accuracy of panoramic compared with periapical, and the magnitude of the root resorption for the second molar was determined by 2 observers and written in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher test.   Results: The prevalence of the root resorption of the second molar adjacent to the impacted third molar in the panoramic and the periapical radiographies, with respect to the limitation of the sample size were 46.3% and 31.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence(P>0.05. Most of these resorptions were in the cervical third of the second molar roots and in cases in which the third molars were mesially oriented or horizontal. There was also no significant difference between panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Conclusion: Due to the increased risk of the resorption of the second molar adjacent to the third molar, extraction of the impacted third molars, especiall y mesially oriented or horizontal ones are recommended.

  5. Why not to treat the tooth canal to solve external root resorptions? Here are the principles!

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    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims at exposing the foundations or reasons why, in cases of external tooth resorption, including those of orthodontic origin, one should not perform a root canal to treat it. That should be done only to teeth with contamination or pulp necrosis, to remove the periapical inflammation induced by microbial products. When facing cases of external tooth resorption, one's conduct must always respect the following sequence of steps: first of all, identifying the cause accurately; then, planning the therapeutic approach and, finally, adopting the conducts in a very well-founded way. The situations in which endodontic treatment is recommended for tooth resorptions are those when there are: a pulp necrosis with microbial contamination, b aseptic pulp necrosis, c developing calcific metamorphosis of the pulp and d diagnosis of internal resorption. It is not possible, through the pulp, to control the resorption process that is taking place in the external part, after all, the causes are acting in the periodontal ligament. There is no evidence that justifies applying endodontic treatment, by means of root canal, to control external resorption processes, when the pulp shows vitality.

  6. Comparison between anterior segmental osteotomy versus conventional orthodontic treatment in root resorption: a radiographic study using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo-Yeon; Choi, Byung-Joon; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Lee, Jung-Woo; Jung, Junho; Ohe, Joo-Young

    2017-12-01

    Patients who received orthodontic treatment are likely to have apical root shortening. It appears that external apical root resorption results from a combination of patient-related risk factors such as genetic influences, systemic factors, and orthodontic treatment-related factors. Regarding the fact that the anterior segmental osteotomy (ASO) has been known for its possibility of complementing external apical root resorption and of buffering periodontal problems, it has been the preferred treatment. However, the studies on the efficacy of ASO in preserving the root are not sufficient. In this study, we compared the amount of root resorption between the patients who only received orthodontic treatment and the patients who received orthodontic treatment with ASO. This study included 28 patients (the number of incisor = 198) who received orthodontic treatment with or without ASO. We categorize them into groups A and B by the type of orthodontic treatment (group A: conventional orthodontic treatment; group B: orthodontic treatment with ASO). Cone-beam computed tomographic and cephalometric evaluations were retrospectively performed on the radiographs taken for the diagnosis of the treatment before treatment and at the end of active treatment. In group B, root resorption itself and its rate both turned out to have significantly lower than those in group A. Also, the change of incisal angle is significantly smaller in group B than in group A. On the other hand, in group A, the change of incisal angle was positively correlated with the change of AP (anteroposterior) position. In group B, the change of incisal angle was negatively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. In group B, amount of root resorption (mm) was positively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. The results show lesser root resorption and shorter treatment duration with ASO than with conventional orthodontic treatment. Therefore, if the indications are accurately

  7. Three-dimensional localization of impacted canines and root resorption assessment using cone beam computed tomography.

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    Almuhtaseb, Eyad; Mao, Jing; Mahony, Derek; Bader, Rawan; Zhang, Zhi-xing

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new way to localize the impacted canines from three dimensions and to investigate the root resorption of the adjacent teeth by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Forty-six patients undergoing orthodontic treatments and having impacted canines in Tongji Hospital were examined. The images of CBCT scans were obtained from KaVo 3D exam vision. Angular and linear measurements of the cusp tip and root apex according to the three planes (mid-sagittal, occlusal and frontal) have been taken using the cephalometric tool of the InVivo Dental Anatomage Version 5.1.10. The measurements of the angular and linear coordinates of the maxillary and mandibular canines were obtained. Using this technique the operators could envision the location of the impacted canine according to the three clinical planes. Adjacent teeth root resorption of 28.26 % was in the upper lateral incisors while 17.39% in upper central incisors, but no lower root resorption was found in our samples. Accurate and reliable localization of the impacted canines could be obtained from the novel analysis system, which offers a better surgical and orthodontic treatment for the patients with impacted canines.

  8. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltha, J.C.; Leeuwen, E.J. van; Dijkman, G.E.H.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. DESIGN: An experimental animal study. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young

  9. Effect of gingival fibroblasts and ultrasound on dogs′ root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Jacqueline Crossman

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities.

  10. [Effect of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-ya; Wang, Xu-xia; Liu, Wan-xin; Dong, Rui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effects of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption. Seventy-two 6-week-old female specific pathogen free (SPF) Wistar rats were selected to establish models for orthodontic tooth movement. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (C group), pamidronate group (Pm group) and ibandronate group (Ib group). 0.9% normal saline,0.5 mmol/L pamidronate and 0.5 mmol/L ibandronate were injected every 3 days. The rats were executed in batch on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day to make tissue sections. All statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18 software package. On the 7th and 14th day, the amount of cementoclast, the expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) and root resorption index were significantly lower in Pm group [the 7th day: (2.675 ± 0.002), (0.1683 ± 0.0007), (0.103 ± 0.003); the 14th day: (3.886 ± 0.048), (0.1873 ± 0.0014), (0.283 ± 0.001)] and Ib groups[the 7th day: (2.601 ± 0.001), (0.1634 ± 0.0010), (0.099 ± 0.002); the 14th day: (3.754 ± 0.019), (0.1818 ± 0.0016), (0.281 ± 0.001)] than in C group[the 7th day: (2.810 ± 0.001), (0.1792 ± 0.0008), (0.120 ± 0.001); the 14th day: (4.800 ± 0.001), (0.2060 ± 0.0007), (0.401 ± 0.001)] (P 0.05). Both pamidronate and ibandronate could inhibit orthodontic root resorption.

  11. Morphometric evaluation of external root resorption of mandibular second molar teeth adjacent to the impacted third molars in CBCT imaging of Tehran\\'s population between 2011-2014

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    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of external root resorption in second molars associated with impacted mandibular third molars was not rare. The neglect of this issue may leads to penetration of the pulp and loss of the second molars. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors affecting the external root resorption in second molars associated with mandibular impacted third molars were inclined mesially and horizontally by Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT images. Methods: In this cross sectional study the samples consisted of 231 scans with mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars. Incidence of external root resorption of second molars and the effects of age, gender and clinical parameters such as location and intensity of external root resorption were considered. Moreover, depth and inclination of impacted mandibular third molar were evaluated by CBCT. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: The overall incidence of external root resorption in the second molars was 22.08%. Incidence of external root resorption in second molars was significantly related to gender and inclination of third molar. The relations between external root resorption and impaction depth of third molar or the patient's age was not statistically significant. However, the relationship between external root resorption and the intensity or depth of impacted third molar and location of root resorption was statistically meaningful. Conclusion: Patient’s gender and horizontal inclination of third molars are the most important factors affecting the presence of external root resorption in the second molars associated with mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars.

  12. Effect of topical alendronate on root resorption of dried replanted dog teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L; Bryson, E C; Caplan, D; Trope, M

    2001-06-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a third generation bisphosphonate with demonstrated osteoclast inhibitory activity that may slow down the resorptive process after severe traumatic injuries. Eighty-two premolar roots of five mongrel dogs were endodontically treated and restored, extracted and treated as follows: 70 roots were bench dried for either 40 or 60 min. Thirty-eight of these roots were then soaked for 5 min in a 1 mM solution of ALN in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and replanted. Thirty-two roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. In the remaining 12 roots which were not exposed to the bench drying procedure, a 0.5 mM deep lingual mid-root cemental defect was made. Six of these roots were soaked in a 1 mM solution of ALN in HBSS for 5 min and replanted. The other six roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. Historical negative and positive controls were used from similarly treated teeth in our previous studies. After 4 months the dogs were killed and the roots prepared for histological evaluation. Five-microm-thick cross-sections of the root and surrounding tissue taken every 70 microm were evaluated for healing according to the criteria of Andreasen. In the 12 roots with cemental defects, healing with cementum of the damaged root surface was evaluated. In addition, residual root mass was also measured to determine the extent of root structure loss for each soaking method. Cemental healing took place in all 12 artificially damaged roots, indicating that these soaking media did not inhibit cementogenesis. The alendronate-soaked roots had statistically significantly more healing than the roots soaked in HBSS without alendronate. This improvement in healing was seen in all dogs except one and in all teeth except the first premolar. Soaking in alendronate also resulted in significantly less loss in root mass due to resorption compared to those teeth soaked in HBSS without alendronate.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Charge-coupled Device Sensor and Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Receptor in the Detection of External Root Resorption In Vitro

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    Shirin Sakhdari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Early diagnosis of external root resorption is important for accurate treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a charge-coupled device (CCD sensor and a photostimulable phosphor (PSP plate receptor in the diagnosis of artificial external root resorption. Materials and methods. In this diagnostic in-vitro study, 40 maxillary incisors were mounted in a segment of dry bone and preliminary radiographs were obtained using CCD and PSP sensors. Artificial resorption cavities were produced on the middle-third in half of the samples and on the cervical-third in the other half on the buccal root surfaces. Radiographs were repeated and images were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and diagnostic tests. Results. There were no significant differences between the two sensors in the sensitivity (p=0.08 and 0.06 and specificity (p=0.13 for the diagnosis of resorption in both root areas. The overall accuracy of CCD was higher than PSP sensor; how-ever, the difference was not statistically significance (p>0.05. Conclusion. CCD and PSP sensors chosen for the present study produced similar results in diagnosing simulated external root resorption.

  14. Using Micro-Computed Tomography to Evaluate the Dynamics of Orthodontically Induced Root Resorption Repair in a Rat Model.

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    Xiaolin Xu

    Full Text Available To observe dynamic changes in root resorption repair, tooth movement relapse and alveolar bone microstructure following the application of orthodontic force.Forces of 20 g, 50 g or 100 g were delivered to the left maxillary first molars of fifteen 10-week-old rats for 14 days. Each rat was subjected to micro-computed tomography scanning at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 28 and 42 days after force removal. The root resorption crater volume, tooth movement relapse and alveolar bone microarchitecture were measured at each time point.From day 3 to day 14, the root resorption volume decreased significantly in each group. In the 20-g force group, the root resorption volume gradually stabilized after 14 days, whereas in the 50-g and 100-g force groups, it stabilized after 28 days. In all groups, tooth movement relapsed significantly from day 0 to day 14 and then remained stable. From day 3 to day 10, the 20-g group exhibited faster relapse than the 50-g and 100-g groups. In all groups, the structure model index and trabecular separation decreased slowly from day 0 to day 10 and eventually stabilized. Trabecular number increased slowly from day 0 to day 7 and then stabilized.The initial stage of root resorption repair did not change significantly and was followed by a dramatic repair period before stabilizing. The most serious tooth movement relapse occurred immediately after the appliance was removed, and then the tooth completely returned to the original position.

  15. Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: A comparative study

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    C J Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes. Methods : Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film (Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor (Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0.7mm and 1.0mm deep cavities prepared on their vestibular, mesial and distal surfaces at the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval. Results : No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation (P< 0.001 for both the methods. Conclusion : Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method (F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system. Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion.

  16. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 18. The extent of root resorption after the application of light and heavy controlled rotational orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andy T J; Turk, Tamer; Colak, Canan; Elekdağ-Turk, Selma; Jones, Allan S; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to quantitatively measure and compare the locations, dimensions, and volume of root resorption craters in human premolars after the application of controlled light and heavy rotational orthodontic forces over a 28-day (4-week) period. Fifteen patients requiring bilateral extraction of maxillary first premolars as part of their orthodontic treatment were recruited for this study. Each patient received a heavy (225 g) rotational force on 1 premolar and a light (25 g) rotational force on the contralateral premolar. Orthodontic rotational forces were applied over 28 days with buccal and palatal cantilever springs; 0.016-inch beta-titanium molybdenum alloys were used to apply the light force and 0.018-inch stainless steel was used for the heavy force. After the 28-day experimental period, the upper first premolars were extracted under stringent protocols to prevent root surface damage. The samples were then scanned using a microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scan x-ray system (SkyScan 1072, Skyscan, Aartselaar, Belgium), and analyzed using convex hull algorithm (CHULL2D; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia) software to obtain direct volumetric measurements. The mean volume of resorption craters was 0.42 in the light force group and 0.51 in the heavy force group (P = 0.013). When separated at the root level, the difference in volume of root resorption craters between the 2 groups was significantly different only at the midlevel (P = 0.001). Root resorption craters were consistently detected at the boundaries between the buccal and distal surfaces and the mesial and lingual surfaces. The result supports our hypothesis that positive areas develop significantly more root resorption craters at all 3 levels, as compared with minimal areas (paired t test root resorption than light rotational forces and compression areas (buccal-distal and lingual-mesial surfaces in this study) showed significantly higher root

  17. The application of X-ray microtomography for the assessement of root resorption caused by the orthodontic treatment of premolars

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    Monika Sawicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate potential application of micro-computed tomography in the morphometric analysis of the root resorption in extracted human first premolars subjected to the orthodontic force. In one patient treated in the orthodontic clinic two mandibular first premolars subjected to orthodontic force for 4 weeks and one control tooth were selected for micro-computed tomographic analysis. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072. The morphology of root’s surfaces was assessed by TView and Computer Tomography Analyzer (CTAn softwares (SkyScan, bvba which allowed analysis of all microscans, identification of root resorption craters and measurement of their length, width and volume. Microscans showed in details the surface morphology of the investigated teeth. The analysis of microscans allowed to detect 3 root resorption cavities in each of the orthodontically moved tooth and only one resorption crater in the control tooth. The volumes of the resorption craters in orthodontically-treated teeth were much larger than in a control tooth. Micro-computed tomography is a reproducible technique for the three-dimensional non-invasive assessment of root’s morphology ex vivo. TView and CTan softwares are useful in accurate morphometric measurements of root’s resorption.

  18. Polyethylene and methyl methacrylate particle-stimulated inflammatory tissue and macrophages up-regulate bone resorption in a murine neonatal calvaria in vitro organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiping; Wu, Bin; Mayton, Lois; Wooley, Paul H

    2002-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. This study examined the effect of inflammatory membranes stimulated with methyl methacrylate and polyethylene on bone resorption, using the murine air pouch model. The capacity of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages exposed to polymer particles to produce factors affecting bone metabolism was also studied. Neonatal calvaria bones were co-cultured with either pouch membranes or conditioned media from activated macrophages. Bone resorption was measured by the release of calcium from cultured bones, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in both bone sections and culture medium was also assayed. Results showed that inflammatory pouch membrane activated by methyl methacrylate and polyethylene enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Conditioned media from particles stimulated mouse macrophages also stimulated bone resorption, although this effect was weaker than resorption induced by inflammatory pouch membranes. The addition of the particles directly into the medium of cultured calvaria bones had little effect on bone resorption. Our observations indicate that both inflammatory tissue and macrophages provoked by particles can stimulate bone resorption in cultured mouse neonatal calvaria bones. This simple in vitro bone resorption system allows us to investigate the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanism of wear debris induced bone resorption and to screen potential therapeutic approaches for aseptic loosening.

  19. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  20. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17?75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign?, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengt...

  1. Analysis of Transforming Growth Factor- β1 Expression in Resorptive Lacunae following Orthodontic Tooth Movement in An Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Kazemi, Bahram; Kabiri, Sattar; Badiee, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective Root resorption is a complication of orthodontic treatment and till date, there is a dearth of information regarding this issue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, an inflammatory cytokine) is related to orthodontic force. Moreover, if associated, the expression level may be helpful in differential diagnosis, control and ultimate treatment of the disease. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a total of 24 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were selected randomly. On day 0, an orthodontic appliance, which consisted of a closed coil spring, was ligated to the upper right first molar and incisor. The upper left first molar in these animals was not placed under orthodontic force, thus serving as the control group. On day 21, after anesthesia, the animals were sacrificed. The rats were then divided into two equal groups where the first group was subjected to histological evaluation and the second group to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Orthodontic tooth movement was measured in both groups to determine the influence of the applied force. Results Statistical analysis of data showed a significant root resorption between the experimental group and control group (Porthodontic force and orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption. In addition, no relationship is likely to exist between root resorption and TGF-β1 expression in the resorptive lacunae. PMID:28670520

  2. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-03-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  3. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

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    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura [School of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar [Dept. of Dental Radiology, School of Dentistry, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  4. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura; De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment

  5. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: A review with associated case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Walia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH 2 containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  6. Intrinsic Hormone-Like Molecules and External Root Resorption During Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Preclinical in-Vivo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Andreas; Koletsi, Despina; Eliades, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    Background: External root resorption constitutes an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify the effect of induced intrinsic/ hormone-like molecules such as prostaglandins, interleukins and others on external root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement in experimental animals Methods: An electronic database search of the literature was performed (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Open Gray). Search terms included root resorption, tooth movement and animal type. Risk of bias assessment was made using the SYRCLE guidelines for animal studies and reporting quality was assessed through ARRIVE. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement. Results: Of the 124 articles initially retrieved, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, while only 2 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Five studies investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E2, four studies the effect of Thyroxine, two the effect of Calcium ions (Ca++), while the rest investigated Misoprostol, Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-4. Risk of Bias in all studies was judged to be high overall, while reporting quality was suboptimal. According to the quantitative synthesis, there was no difference in root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement when Prostaglandin E2 coupled with Ca++ was administered in comparison to no substance administration (SMD: 0.48 mm 2 ; 95% CI: -0.22, 1.19; p = 0.18). Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence to suggest a variation in root resorption when Prostaglandin E2 and Ca++ were administered, while there is an overriding need for further high quality experimental studies to inform available evidence on the effect of intrinsic substances on external root resorption.

  7. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Pmicro-implant group resulted in significantly more apical root resorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  8. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  9. A radiologic study of the teeth resorption in the area of a ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Choon Aei; Park, Tae Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    An ameloblastoma produces more extensive resorption of the teeth on which it encroaches than do most of the other lesions. In this study, intraoral and extraoral radiographs of 78 cases of ameloblastoma were observed and the root resorption associated with ameloblastoma was classified into four types of resorption. With these, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The root resorption was observed in 72 cases of ameloblastoma. (92.3%) 2. In the aspect of resorptive changes of 424 roots observed, 342 roots showed smooth resorption. (80.6%) 3. The 424 roots associated with ameloblastoma revealed the following radiographic features. a) Root apex resorption in contact with the lesion appeared in 189 roots. (44.5%) b) The resorption of roots projected into the lesion appeared in 147 roots. (34.5%) c) Slight resorption of root surface in contact with the lesion was observed in 56 roots. (13.2%) d) Loss of lamina dura and periodontal space without root resorption were observed in 32 roots. (7.7%)

  10. Intrinsic Hormone-Like Molecules and External Root Resorption During Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Preclinical in-Vivo Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spoerri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: External root resorption constitutes an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify the effect of induced intrinsic/ hormone-like molecules such as prostaglandins, interleukins and others on external root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement in experimental animalsMethods: An electronic database search of the literature was performed (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Open Gray. Search terms included root resorption, tooth movement and animal type. Risk of bias assessment was made using the SYRCLE guidelines for animal studies and reporting quality was assessed through ARRIVE. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement.Results: Of the 124 articles initially retrieved, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, while only 2 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Five studies investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E2, four studies the effect of Thyroxine, two the effect of Calcium ions (Ca++, while the rest investigated Misoprostol, Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-4. Risk of Bias in all studies was judged to be high overall, while reporting quality was suboptimal. According to the quantitative synthesis, there was no difference in root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement when Prostaglandin E2 coupled with Ca++ was administered in comparison to no substance administration (SMD: 0.48 mm2; 95% CI: −0.22, 1.19; p = 0.18.Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence to suggest a variation in root resorption when Prostaglandin E2 and Ca++ were administered, while there is an overriding need for further high quality experimental studies to inform available evidence on the effect of intrinsic substances on external root resorption.

  11. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrovola, J.B.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Makou, M.; Perrea, D.; Dontas, I.; Vlachos, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-(KB) ligand (RANKL) in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (author)

  12. Three consecutive days of application of LED therapy is necessary to inhibit experimentally induced root resorption in rats: a microtomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Dayla Thyeme; Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo; de Oliveira Toginho Filho, Dari; de Paula Ramos, Solange

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that phototherapy may modulate orthodontic tooth movement and the incidence of root resorption. We aimed to identify a minimal dose-response relationship to LED therapy with regard to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and root resorption in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups with equal and random distribution: control (C) no intervention; three daily LED irradiation (CLED); submitted only to OTM (RR); OTM and LED irradiation on the first day (LED1); OTM and two LED irradiation on the first and second days (LED2); and OTM and three LED irradiation on the first, second, and third days (LED3). Orthodontic appliance was installed in groups RR, LED1, LED2, and LED3 to promote OTM. Animals from groups CLED, LED1, LED2, and LED3 received LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J, 4 J/cm2) according to each group of treatment. After 7 days, all the animals were sacrificed. The jaws were fixed and scanned with microtomography (micro-CT). The micro-CT images were reconstructed on 2D and 3D models. These models were used to identify and measure root resorption number and dimensions (diameter, depth, and volume). The distance between the first and second molars was used to verify tooth displacement. The results showed that LED3 group had significantly lower number of root resorption. The root resorption dimensions (diameter and depth) had no significant differences among the experimental groups. LED3 group had significant tooth displacement in relation to C and CLED groups. In conclusion, three daily LED therapy doses are required to inhibit root resorption after appliance of orthodontic forces.

  13. Orthodontic Treatment of Maxillary Incisors with Severe Root Resorption Caused by Bilateral Canine Impaction in a Class II Division 1 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Na-Young; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; An, Ki-Yong; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This case report shows the successful alignment of bilateral impacted maxillary canines. A 12-year-old male with the chief complaint of the protrusion of his maxillary anterior teeth happened to have bilateral maxillary canine impaction on the labial side of his maxillary incisors. Four maxillary incisors showed severe root resorption because of the impacted canines. The patient was diagnosed as skeletal Class II malocclusion with proclined maxillary incisors. The impacted canine was carefully retracted using sectional buccal arch wires to avoid further root resorption of the maxillary incisors. To distalize the maxillary dentition, two palatal miniscrews were used. After 25 months of treatment, the maxillary canines were well aligned without any additional root resorption of the maxillary incisors.

  14. Quantitative digital subtraction radiography in the assessment of external apical root resorption induced by orthodontic therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunku, Raghavendra; Roopesh, R; Kancherla, Pavan; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Yudhistar, Palla Venkata; Reddy, V Sridhar

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate density changes around the apices of teeth during orthodontic treatment by using digital subtraction radiography to measure the densities around six teeth (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) before and after orthodontic treatment in 36 patients and also assess treatment variables and their coorelation with root resorption. A total of 36 consecutive patient files were selected initially. The selected patients presented with a class I or II relationship and were treated with or without premolar extractions and fixed appliances. Some class II patients were treated additionally with extraoral forces or functional appliances. External apical root resorption (EARR) per tooth in millimeters was calculated and was also expressed as a percentage of the original root length. Image reconstruction and subtraction were performed using the software Regeemy Image Registration and Mosaicing (version 0.2.43-RCB, DPI-INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil) by a single operator. A region of interest (ROI) was defined in the apical third of the root and density calibration was made in Image J® using enamel (gray value = 255) as reference in the same image. The mean gray values in the ROIs were reflective of the change in the density values between the two images. The root resorption of the tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. An independent t-test was performed to compare the mean amount of resorption between male and female, between extraction and nonextraction cases. The density changes after orthodontic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signedrank test. In addition, the density changes in different teeth were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The cut-off for statistical significance was a p-value of 0.05. All the statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS (version 13.0 for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA). Gender, the age at which treatment was started and

  15. Interrupted orthodontic force results in less root resorption than continuous force in human premolars as measured by microcomputed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Monika; Bedini, Rossella; Wierzbicki, Piotr M; Pameijer, Cornelis H

    2014-01-01

    Root resorption is an undesirable but very frequently occurring sequel of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare root resorption caused by either continuous (CF) or interrupted (IF) orthodontic force. The study was performed on human subjects on 30 first upper and lower premolars scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons. During four weeks before extraction 12 teeth were subjected to either CF or IF. The force was generated by a segmental titanium-molybdenum alloy cantilever spring that was activated in buccal direction. Initially a force of 60 CentiNewton was used in both CF and IF groups, the force in the former, however, was reactivated every week for 4 weeks. There was no reactivation of force in the IF group after initial application. A morphometric analysis of root resorption was performed by microcomputed tomography and the extent of tooth movement was measured on stone casts. Furthermore, a Tartarate-Resistant Acidic Phosphatase activity (TRAP), the marker enzyme of osteoclasts and cementoclasts, was determined by histochemical method. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in measured parameters between treatment and control tooth groups. The number of resorption craters was significantly higher and their average volume almost twice as large in the CF compared to the IF group (p root structure as opposed to continuous force while the same tooth movement was achieved.

  16. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  17. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  18. Evaluating the Amount of Tooth Movement and Root Resorption during Canine Retraction with Friction versus Frictionless Mechanics Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Mohamed; Aboul-Ezz, Amr; Fayed, Mona Salah; Hafez, Hend

    2018-02-15

    The current study was carried out to compare the amount of tooth movement during canine retraction comparing two different retraction mechanics; friction mechanics represented by a NiTi closed coil spring versus frictionless mechanics represented by T - loop, and their effect on root resorption using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Ten patients were selected in a split-mouth study design that had a malocclusion that necessitates the extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary canines. The right maxillary canines were retracted using T - loops fabricated from 0.017 X 0.025 TMA wires. The left maxillary canines received NiTi coil spring with 150 gm of retraction force. Pre retraction and post retraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography were taken to evaluate the amount of tooth movement and root resorption using three-dimensional planes. T - loop side showed statistically significant higher mean anteroposterior measurement than NiTi coil spring side, indicating a lower amount of canine movement pre and post a canine retraction. Concerning the root resorption, there was no statistically significant change in the mean measurements of canine root length post retraction. The NiTi coil spring side showed more distal movement more than the T-loop side. Both retraction mechanics with controlled retraction force, do not cause root resorption.

  19. Correlation of vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Tehranchi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  20. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Atri, Faezeh; Yazdani, Mohammad Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm(2). Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student's t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The mean OTM were 5.68 ± 1.21 mm in the control

  1. Intracanal management of a post traumatic perforative invasive cervical root resorption using calcium enriched matrix cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR is a consequence of a resorptive soft-tissue penetrating into dentin that starts below the gingival attachment and tends to be asymptomatic unless dental pulp involvement. Prompt diagnosis is the key to retention of the involved tooth. Treatment procedure includes non-surgical elimination of the resorptive soft-tissues and restoration of the cavity. In case of pulp involvement, endodontic treatment is indicated. This is a report of a non-surgical intra canal treatment case in a maxillary central incisor, which involved the pulp and was successfully treated with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Based on favorable long-term treatment outcomes, CEM cement may be a promising biomaterial in treatment of ICR cases.

  2. Evaluation of apical root resorption in orthodontic patients with maxillary anterior intrusion using utility arches and mini screws: A comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraleedhara Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of apical root resorption in orthodontic patients undergoing maxillary anterior intrusion using utility arches and mini screws; and to compare the efficacy of mini screws and utility arches in reducing over bite. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 20 patients, divided in two groups. Group A consisted of ten patients in whom titanium mini-screws were used Group B consisted of 10 patients in whom utility arches made of 0.017 × 0.25" TMA were used. Diagnostic records (study models and radiovisiography [RVG] were taken at 2 time intervals, T1 (just before implant/utility arch placement and T2 (at the end of intrusion 6 months later. The pre and post radiographic images were measured from incisal tip to the root apex with the help of intrascan DC software. Root resorption was computed as the difference between the pre-treatment total tooth length and the post treatment total tooth length. These values were subjected to statistical analyses using SPSS 16.00 statistical software. (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM Corporation, December 2007 Results: The results showed that root resorption was seen in both groups. Amount of resorption seen was higher in mini implant group than utility arch group. Mini implants were more efficient in reducing the overbite when compared to utility arches. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that intrusion using mini implant resulted in more root resorption than utility arch; and mini implant was more effective in intruding the incisors than utility arch.

  3. Incisal Apical Root Resorption Evaluation after Low-Friction Orthodontic Treatment Using Two-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging and Trigonometric Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Fabio; Bonetti, Stefano; Dalessandri, Domenico; Mandelli, Gualtiero; Paganelli, Corrado

    2015-11-01

    Root resorption shall be taken into consideration during every orthodontic treatment, and it can be effected by the use of different techniques, such as the application of low friction mechanics. However, its routinely assessment on orthopantomography has limitations related to distortions and changes in dental inclination. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the severity of apical root resorption of maxillary and mandibular incisors after low-friction orthodontic treatment, using the combination of panoramic and lateral radiographs, and applying a trigonometric correction. A hospital based Retrospective study at the orthodontic Department (Dental School, University of Brescia, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy). Ninety-three subjects (53 females and 40 males; mean age, 14 years) with mild teeth crowding were treated without extractions by the same operator using a low-friction fixed appliance following an integrated straight wire (ISW) protocol. The pre- and post-treatment tooth lengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were measured on panoramic radiographs. A trigonometric factor of correction for the pre-treatment length was calculated based on the difference between the pre and post-treatment incisal inclination on lateral cephalograms. The changes in lengths were investigated using the Student's t-test for paired values (proot development in younger patients, mandibular central and lateral incisors underwent slight resorption (-3.1%, -3.4%). A statistically significant difference was found for the mandibular incisors but not for the maxillary ones. In patients with mild crowding and consequent low amount of root movement, a low-friction orthodontic treatment can lead to slight apical root resorption, mainly involving lower incisors. The use of a trigonometric correction in the panoramic radiograph analysis may reduce the limitations of this 2D evaluation.

  4. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  5. Effect of local injection of Zolena, zoledronic acid made in Iran, on orthodontic tooth movement and root and bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Asefi, Sohrab; Hatamifard, Ghazal; Lotfi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background. Anchorage control is an essential part of orthodontic treatment planning, especially in adult patients who demand a more convenient treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an effective choice to address this problem. It is the most potent member of the bisphosphonates family that has an inhibitory effect on bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast function. Therefore, ZA might be a good option for orthodontic anchorage control. The current study evaluated the effect of local administration of Zolena (ZA made in Iran) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and root and bone resorption. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 30 rats in 3 subgroups (n=10). Anesthesia was induced, and one closed NiTi coil spring was installed between the first molar and central incisor unilaterally, except for the negative control group. The positive control group received vestibular injection of 0.01 mL of saline next to the maxillary first molar, and 0.01 mL of the solution was injected at the same site in the ZA group. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and the distance between the first and second molars was measured with a leaf gauge. Histological analysis was conducted by a blind pathologist for the number of Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells and root resorption lacunae. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey test and t-test. Results. There were no significant differences in OTM between the force-applied groups. ZA significantly inhibited bone/root resorption and angiogenesis compared to the positive control group. Conclusion. Zolena did not decrease OTM but significantly inhibited bone and root resorption. Zolena might be less potent than its foreign counterparts.

  6. One-visit endodontic retreatment of combined external/internal root resorption using a calcium-enriched mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Combined external and internal root resorption (ERR/IRR) is a rare endodontic disease that leads to alteration of the root canal anatomy. This report describes the management of an endodontically failed molar that was severely affected by ERR/IRR. Radiographic examination demonstrated inadequate obturation of the root canals associated with ERR/IRR and a large periradicular lesion. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root canals were subjected to conventional chemomechanical debridement. In the same session, the entire distal root canal was obturated using a calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and the mesial canals were obturated with gutta-percha/sealer. The clinical findings and follow-up radiographs indicated favorable treatment outcomes after 12 months. One-visit application of CEM cement could be a successful approach for the management of combined ERR/IRR.

  7. Effect of fluoride on root resorption following heavy and light orthodontic force application for 4 weeks and 12 weeks of retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ersan I; Gonzales, Carmen; Turk, Tamer; Isci, Devrim; Sahin-Saglam, Aynur M; Alkis, Huseyin; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the null hypothesis that fluoride intake via drinking water has no effect on orthodontic root resorption in humans after orthodontic force application for 4 weeks and 12 weeks of retention. Forty-eight patients who required maxillary premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment were selected from two cities in Turkey. These cities had a high and low fluoride concentration in public water of ≥2 pm and ≤0.05 pm, respectively. The patients were randomly separated into four groups of 12 each: group 1HH, high fluoride (≥2 ppm) and heavy force (225 g); group 2LH, low fluoride (≤0.05 ppm) and heavy force; group 3HL, high fluoride and light force (25 g); and group 4LL, low fluoride and light force. Light or heavy buccal tipping force was applied on the upper first premolars for 28 days. At day 28, the left premolars were extracted (positive control side); the right premolars (experimental side) were extracted after 12 weeks of retention. The samples were analyzed with microcomputed tomography. On the positive control side, under heavy force application, the high fluoride groups exhibited less root resorption (P  =  .015). On the experimental side, it was found that fluoride reduced the total volume of root resorption craters; however, this effect was not statistically significant (P  =  .237). Moreover, the results revealed that under heavy force application experimental teeth exhibited more root resorption than positive control groups. The null hypothesis could not be rejected. High fluoride intake from public water did not have a beneficial effect on the severity of root resorption after a 4-week orthodontic force application and 12 weeks of passive retention.

  8. Effect of periodontal ligament removal with gauze prior to delayed replantation in rabbit incisors on rate of replacement resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslamani, Manal; Joseph, Bobby; Gabato, Severino; Andersson, Lars

    2018-03-23

    Delayed (dry storage > 60 minutes) replantation results in ankylosis and replacement resorption. It has been suggested to remove the non-viable periodontal ligament before replantation to possibly reduce the rate of replacement resorption. However there has been no study on the rate of replacement resorption after such measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any difference in the rate of replacement resorption by either removing the periodontal ligament (PDL) with gauze or not removing PDL in teeth subjected to delayed replantation followed by healing for 2 or 6 weeks. Maxillary central incisors were extracted in 8 rabbits. In the right central incisors, the necrotic PDL was removed by dry gauze over the root surface. In the left eight extracted teeth PDL was left on the root surface. All extracted teeth were left to dry for 60 minutes. Extra-oral root canal treatment was performed before replantation. The rabbits were sacrificed after 2 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Histologic processing and evaluation was done. In the 2 weeks group, all teeth showed ankylosis. The cementum was intact, and fusion of the bone and root was generally seen without resorption of the root, whereas in the 6 weeks group regardless of whether PDL had been kept or not, ankylosis and osseous replacement of the dentin was seen. There was no evidence of inflammatory infiltrate in the sections examined. Removal of PDL prior to delayed replantation may result in some initial protection of the cementum during the first few weeks. However, over longer times there seems to be neither protection of the dentin from ankylosis and osseous replacement, nor any influence on the rate of replacement resorption. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Accuracy of digital peripical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, Adriana Gabriela [Division of Dental Diagnostic Science, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark (United States); Geha, Hassem; Sankar, Vidya; Mcmahan, Clyde Alex; Noujeim, Marcel [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Teixeira, Fabrico B. [Dept. of Endodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption.

  10. The Effects of Orthodontic Forces during Canine Retraction Using Self-ligating Brackets on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Enzyme Activity, Canine Movement and Root Resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab; Albira Sintian; Zaidah Zainal Arifin; Zaidah Zainal Ariffin; Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were studied as bio markers of canine movement. Root resorption was also evaluated in canines subjected to the orthodontic forces. Nineteen subjects randomly received 100 and 150 g force using self-ligating brackets (SLB) either on the right or left site of maxillary arch. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected at distal sites of canines for five consecutive weeks. The activities of ALP, TRAP and AST were assayed and measured spectrophotometrically. Canine movement was measured for five consecutive weeks while root resorption was monitored at baseline, week 0 and week 5 using periapical radiographs. In 100 g group, TRAP activity significantly increased in week 3-5 when compared to TRAP baseline activity. However, ALP and AST activities slightly increased. In 150 g group, ALP and TRAP activities slightly increased when compared with their baseline activities. However, AST significantly increased in week 5. Canine movement and root resorption were not significantly different (p<0.05) in both groups. A force of 100 and 150 g slightly increased the bone modeling process and resulted in similar canine movement and root resorption. Therefore, 100 g force could be an optimum force for canine retraction and is preferable (compared with 150 g force) in canine retraction using SLB. (author)

  11. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  12. Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Schawalder, P.; Stich, H.

    2011-01-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

  13. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA. The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm. The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode. Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm 2 . Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student′s t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant

  14. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann

    2016-01-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as is observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR). PMID:27766484

  15. Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root resorption (RR is described as a permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. Many reports in the literature indicate that orthodontically treated patients are more likely to have severe apical root shortening, interesting mostly maxillary, followed by mandibular incisors. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and severity of RR in adult patients treated with aligners. The study group consisted of 71 class I adult healthy patients (mean age 32.8 ± 12.7 treated with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA. All incisors, canines, upper first premolars, and first molars were assessed. Root and crown lengths of 1083 teeth were measured in panoramic radiographs at the beginning (T0 and at the end (T1 of clear aligner therapy. Individual root-crown ratio (RCR of each tooth and therefore the relative changes of RCR (rRCR were determined. A decrease of rRCR was assessed as a reduction of the root length during treatment. Results All patients had a minimum of one teeth affected with a reduction of root length, on average 6.38 ± 2.28 teeth per patient. Forty one, 81% of the 1083, measured teeth presented a reduction of the pre-treatment root length. A reduction in percentage of >0% up to 10% was found in 25.94% (n = 281, a distinct reduction of >10% up to 20% in 12.18% (n = 132 of the sample. 3.69% (n = 40 of the teeth were affected with a considerable reduction (>20%. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment with Invisalign® aligners could lead to RR. However, its incidence resulted to be very similar to that described for orthodontic light forces, with an average percentage of RR < 10% of the original root length.

  16. Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Giulia; Ravera, Serena; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Garino, Francesco; Rossini, Gabriele; Parrini, Simone; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Root resorption (RR) is described as a permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. Many reports in the literature indicate that orthodontically treated patients are more likely to have severe apical root shortening, interesting mostly maxillary, followed by mandibular incisors. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and severity of RR in adult patients treated with aligners. The study group consisted of 71 class I adult healthy patients (mean age 32.8 ± 12.7) treated with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). All incisors, canines, upper first premolars, and first molars were assessed. Root and crown lengths of 1083 teeth were measured in panoramic radiographs at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of clear aligner therapy. Individual root-crown ratio (RCR) of each tooth and therefore the relative changes of RCR (rRCR) were determined. A decrease of rRCR was assessed as a reduction of the root length during treatment. All patients had a minimum of one teeth affected with a reduction of root length, on average 6.38 ± 2.28 teeth per patient. Forty one, 81% of the 1083, measured teeth presented a reduction of the pre-treatment root length. A reduction in percentage of >0% up to 10% was found in 25.94% (n = 281), a distinct reduction of >10% up to 20% in 12.18% (n = 132) of the sample. 3.69% (n = 40) of the teeth were affected with a considerable reduction (>20%). Orthodontic treatment with Invisalign® aligners could lead to RR. However, its incidence resulted to be very similar to that described for orthodontic light forces, with an average percentage of RR root length.

  17. Risk variables of external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Maria Carolina Feio Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: External apical root resorption (EARR is an adverse outcome of the orthodontic treatment. So far, no single or associated factor has been identified as responsible for EARR due to tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of risk variables (age, gender, extraction for orthodontic treatment and Angle classification with EARR and orthodontic treatment. METHOD: The sample (n=72 was divided into two groups according to presence (n=32 or absence (n=40 of EARR in maxillary central and lateral incisors after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in EARR according to age, gender, extraction or type of malocclusion (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The risk variables examined were not associated with EARR in the study population.

  18. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  19. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  20. An unusual case of idiopathic multiple invasive cervical resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Prakash Reddy Kesary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a rare form of root resorption, characterized by destruction of the cervical region of teeth resulting from the action of tooth resorbing cells. Being an asymptomatic condition, it is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. This multifactorial disease process can most commonly occur as a sequel to orthodontic treatment, dental trauma, bleaching procedures, and less commonly, as an outcome of segmental orthognathic surgery, periodontal root planning, tetracycline conditioning of the root canal, bruxism, transplantation of tooth, guided tissue regeneration, cementoenamel disjunction. In the absence of these predisposing factors, it can be labeled as ′idiopathic multiple cervical resorption′. This article describes the case of a medically fit Indian male, who displayed idiopathic invasive cervical resorption in multiple teeth.

  1. Contribution of cone beam computed tomography to the detection of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment in root-filled and vital teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iury; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether root-filled teeth are similar to vital pulp teeth in terms of apical root resorption (ARR) after orthodontic treatment. An original sample of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 1256 roots from 30 orthodontic patients were analyzed. The inclusion criteria demanded root-filled teeth and their contralateral vital teeth, while teeth with history of trauma had to be excluded to comply with exclusion criteria. CBCT images of root-filled teeth were compared before and after orthodontic treatment in a split-mouth design study. Tooth measurements were made with multiplanar reconstruction using axial-guided navigation. The statistical difference between the treatment effects was compared using the paired t-test. Twenty posterior root-filled teeth and their contralaterals with vital pulp were selected before orthodontic treatment from six adolescents (two boys and four girls; mean [SD] age 12.8 [1.8] years). No differences were detected between filled and vital root lengths before treatment (P  =  .4364). The mean differences in root length between preorthodontic and postorthodontic treatment in filled- and vital roots were -0.30 mm and -0.16 mm, respectively, without any statistical difference (P  =  .4197) between them. There appears to be no increase in ARR after orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth with no earlier ARR.

  2. Management of A Rare Case of Communicating Internal-External Inflammatory Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suraj; Gill, Gurdeep Singh; Saluja, Priyanka; Setia, Vikas

    2015-05-01

    The present case describes the successful management of a rare case of communicating internal-external resorption in which both internal and external resorption seem to develop independent of each other. The case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and need of revision of classification system of resorptive defects.

  3. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-08-14

    Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. The sample comprised 100 patients (17-75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth

  4. Does systemic administration of casein phosphopeptides affect orthodontic movement and root resorption in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Lachlan; Shen, Gang; Almuzian, Mohammed; Jones, Allan; Walsh, William; Oliver, Rema; Petocz, Peter; Tarraf, Nour E; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-10-01

    To assess the potential effects of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) on orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR) and orthodontic teeth movement. Forty Wistar rats (aged 11 weeks) were randomly divided into experimental group (EG; n = 20) that received a diet supplemented with CPP and control group (CG; n = 20) devoid of diet supplement. A 150 g force was applied using nickel titanium (NiTi) coil that was bonded on maxillary incisors and extended unilaterally to a maxillary first molar. At Day 28, animals in both groups were euthanized. Volumetric assessment of root resorption craters and linear measurement of maxillary first molars movement were blindly examined using a micro-computed tomography scan. Nine rats were excluded from the experiment due to loss during general anesthesia or appliances' failure. Intra-operator reproducibility was high in both volumetric and linear measurements, 92.8 per cent and 98.5-97.6 per cent, respectively. The results reveal that dietary CPP has statistically insignificant effect on the overall OIIRR and orthodontic movement. CPP seems to have statistically insignificant effect on the volume of OIIRR and orthodontic movement in rats. A long-term study with larger sample size using a different concentration of CPP is required to clarify the dentoalveolar effect of CPP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Effects of corticopuncture (CP) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption in rats using micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Selly Sayuri; Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Reese, Patricia Oblitas; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Moon, Won

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of tooth displacement, quantity of root resorption, and alveolar bone changes in five groups: corticopuncture (CP), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), CP combined with LLLT (CP + LLLT), control (C), and negative control (NC). A total of 60 half-maxilla from 30 male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: three (CP, LLLT, and CP + LLLT) test groups with different stimulation for accelerated-tooth-movement (ATM), one control (C) group, and one negative control (NC) group with no tooth movement. Nickel-titanium coil springs with 50 g of force were tied from the upper left and right first molars to micro-implants placed behind the maxillary incisors. For the CP and CP + LLLT groups, two perforations in the palate and one mesially to the molars were performed. For the LLLT and CP + LLLT groups, GaAlAs diode laser was applied every other day for 14 days (810 nm, 100 mW, 15 s). The tooth displacements were measured directly from the rat's mouth and indirectly from microcomputer (micro-CT) tomographic images. Bone responses at the tension and compression sites and root resorption were analyzed from micro-CT images. The resulting alveolar bone responses were evaluated by measuring bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and trabecular thickness (TbTh). Root resorption crater volumes were measured on both compression and tension sides of mesial and distal buccal roots. The tooth displacement in the CP + LLLT group was the greatest when measured clinically, followed by the CP, LLLT, and control groups (C and NC), respectively (p CP and CP + LLLT groups compared to the LLLT and control groups. The BMD, BV/TV, and TbTh values were lower at the compression side and higher at the tension side for all three test groups compared to the control group. The root resorption crater volume of the distal buccal root was higher in the control group, followed by CP, LLLT

  6. The role of lipopolysaccharide in infectious bone resorption of periapical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Sze-Kwan; Kok, Sang-Heng; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Chen, Chuan-Shuo; Lin, Li-Deh; Wang, Juo-Song

    2004-03-01

    The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in periapical lesion-induced bone resorption was investigated. Polymyxin B (PMB), a specific inhibitor of LPS, was evaluated to treat the apical lesion. Lipopolysaccharide isolated from two common endodontic pathogens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas endodontalis, stimulated mouse macrophage (J774) to release interleukin-1alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a time-dependent manner. Combination of LPS further enhanced the stimulation. PMB inhibited these effects significantly. LPS also stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene expression in J774, whereas anti-IL-1 alpha and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies, as well as PMB, diminished this effect. A disease model of periapical lesion was established in Wistar rat. Administration of PMB reduced the extent of lesion-associated bone resorption by 76% to approximately 80%, and simultaneously reduced the numbers of MMP-1-producing macrophages. It is suggested that LPS released from the infected root canal triggers the synthesis of IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha from macrophages. These pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the production of MMP-1 by macrophages to promote periapical bone resorption.

  7. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Hamedi, Roya; Khavandegar, Zohre

    2015-03-01

    A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance.  2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  3- 10% (200 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was injected.  4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally.  5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine.  8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly connected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglandin E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm) that was significantly different (proot resorption was observed between the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm(2)) and the other groups. It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  8. Apical root resorption caused by orthodontic forces: A brief review and a long-term observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkara, Ahu; Karaman, Ali I; Kau, Chung H

    2012-10-01

    External apical root resorption (ARR) is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. One of the aims of this article is to present a brief overview of the literature, including; diagnosis and etiology, with emphasis on orthodontic forces to facilitate an understand of the prevention or management of ARR in orthodontic patients. We also present a long-term follow-up observation of severe ARR, including the last obtained cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records, to demonstrate the effect of orthodontic forces on ARR.

  9. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  10. Root resorption due to orthodontic treatment using self-ligating and conventional brackets : A cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Isil; Unal, Idil; Huniler, Gencer; Aras, Aynur

    2018-05-01

    Purpose of the present study was to compare external root resorption (ERR) volumetrically in maxillary incisors induced by orthodontic treatment using self-ligating brackets (Damon Q, DQ) or conventional brackets (Titanium Orthos, TO) with the help of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A sample of 32 subjects, with Angle Class I malocclusion and anterior crowding of 4-10 mm, was divided randomly into two groups: a DQ group, in which self-ligating DQ brackets with Damon archwires were used; and a TO group, in which conventional TO brackets with large Orthos archwires were applied. The study was conducted using CBCT scans taken before (T1), and near the end (9 months after the initiation of treatment; T2) of the orthodontic treatment. The extent of ERR was determined volumetrically using Mimics software. Changes in root volume were evaluated by repeated-measures analysis of variance as well as by paired and independent t-tests. While significant differences were found between T1 and T2 for root volume in both groups (p  0.05). Maxillary central and lateral incisors showed similar volume loss (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the TO group showed a higher prevalence of palatinal and proximal slanted RR compared with the DQ group (p bracket system over the other only considering root resorption pattern or amount. Higher incidence of slanted RR found in patients treated with the TO system warrants further research to identify possible specific causes.

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  12. Orthodontic-surgical retreatment of facial asymmetry with occlusal cant and severe root resorption: A 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Cinthia de Oliveira; Borges, Marlon Sampaio; Medeiros, Paulo José D'Albuquerque; Motta, Alexandre Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to report the orthodontic and surgical retreatment of a patient who had undergone a prolonged orthodontic treatment with extractions, but who had unsatisfactory results and persistent side effects. The man, aged 25 years 3 months, sought treatment with major complaints of facial and smile asymmetries. The clinical examination showed a mandibular deviation to the right and a maxillary occlusal cant. A Class II Division 1 subdivision right was observed. Radiographic examination showed extensive root resorptions in the maxillary second premolars and absence of the 4 first premolars. The maxillary midline was deflected 2 mm to the left, and the mandibular midline was shifted 5 mm to the right. Aligning and leveling were performed with orthodontic fixed appliances, with a standard edgewise system (0.022 × 0.028 in), followed by LeFort I maxillary impaction and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with asymmetrical advancement. Retreatment showed outstanding results that remained stable after 3 years of follow-up. Root resorption in the second premolars did not seem to increase. Orthodontic-surgical intervention is the main choice for correcting esthetic and functional problems in facial asymmetry, particularly in cases of retreatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Root canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics.

  14. External root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth and contralateral teeth with vital pulp: A clinical study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Ju; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research to support the belief that root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing external apical root resorption (EARR). There is conflicting evidence as to whether root-filled teeth are more or less likely to experience EARR after orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of EARR of root-filled teeth with that of contralateral teeth with vital pulp after fixed orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 35 patients aged 25.23 ± 4.92 years who had at least 1 root-filled tooth before orthodontic treatment. Digital panoramic radiographs of each patient taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to measure the EARR. The Student t test for matched pairs and the Pearson correlation analysis were applied. The mean EARR values were 0.22 (0.14, 0.35) for root-filled teeth and 0.87 (0.59, 1.31) for contralateral teeth with vital pulp, indicating significantly less EARR for root-filled teeth compared with the contralateral teeth with vital pulp after orthodontic treatment. EARR was influenced by the patient's age, treatment duration, treatment type, and periapical pathosis, but not by tooth type and sex. Root-filled teeth appear to be associated with significantly less EARR than are contralateral teeth with vital pulp. This study suggests that the possible complication of EARR in root-filled teeth may not be an important consideration in orthodontic treatment planning, and root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing EARR when severe EARR occurs during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hienz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways.

  16. Health of periodontal tissues and resorption status after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, A Z; Ciger, S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of incisor root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines and health of periodontal tissues around maxillary canines erupted with orthodontic treatment. Twenty patients with a unilateral palatally impacted maxillary canine were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after orthodontic treatment were compared with the contralateral canines serving as control teeth. Root resorption was present in 10% of central and 40% of lateral incisors before treatment. After treatment, the incidence of resorption decreased. The thickness of the buccal bone surrounding the impacted canines was similar to that surrounding the contralateral canines, except in the apical area. Periodontal pocket depth and alveolar bone loss were greater for the impacted canine teeth than for the contralateral canines. Incisor root resorption associated with impacted canine teeth showed signs of repair after orthodontic treatment. Slight differences related to periodontal health were found between the previously impacted teeth and contralateral canine teeth.

  17. A pilot study of the metabolomic profiles of saliva from female orthodontic patients with external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglin; Hu, Huimin; Huang, Renhuan

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) is one of the most severe complications of orthodontic treatment, which is hard to diagnose at early stage by merely radiographic examination. This study aimed to identify salivary metabolic products using unbiased metabolic profiling in order to discover biomarkers that may indicate OIEARR. Unstimulated saliva samples were analyzed from 19 healthy orthodontic patients with EARR (n=8) and non-EARR (n=11). Metabolite profiling was performed using 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 187 metabolites were found in saliva samples. With supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis and regression analysis, samples from 2 groups were well separated, attributed by a series of metabolites of interest, including butyrate, propane-1,2-diol, α-linolenic acid (Ala), α-glucose, urea, fumarate, formate, guanosine, purine, etc. Indicating the increased inflammatory responses in the periodontal tissues possibly associated with energy metabolism and oxidative stress. The effective separation capacity of 1 H NMR based metabolomics suggested potential feasibility of clinical application in monitoring periodontal and apical condition in orthodontic patients during treatment and make early diagnosis of OIEARR. Metabolites detected in this study need further validation to identify exact biomarkers of OIEARR. Saliva biomarkers may assist in diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    apical resorption in the primary dentition. Panoramic radiographs of 12 children (7 boys and 5 girls) aged 6 years 4 months to 8 years 9 months with unexpected early apical resorption of primary teeth were identified from a dental archive of 588 patients. After written request, follow-up radiographs were......The hypothesis of this study is that children with unexpected early apical resorption of the primary teeth are also predisposed to resorption in the permanent dentition. Accordingly, the aim was to perform a longitudinal study focussing on the permanent teeth in children with unexpected early...... obtained (2-15 year interval between early and follow-up radiographs). The radiographs were examined in order to verify the abnormal resorption pattern of the primary teeth and dental deviations in the permanent teeth, known to predispose for root resorption (i.e. invaginations, narrow crowns, abrupt root...

  19. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  20. A comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment with surgical exposure and traction of maxillary impacted canines versus that without impactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempesi, Evangelia; Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Mavragani, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Orthodontic management of maxillary canine impaction (MCI), including forced eruption, may result in significant root resorption; however, the association between MCI and orthodontically induced root resorption (OIRR) is not yet sufficiently established. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to comparatively evaluate the severity of OIRR of maxillary incisors in orthodontically treated patients with MCI. Additionally, impaction characteristics were associated with OIRR severity. The sample comprised 48 patients undergoing fixed-appliance treatment-24 with unilateral/bilateral MCI and 24 matched controls without impaction. OIRR was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic tomograms. The orientation of eruption path, height, sector location, and follicle/tooth ratio of the impacted canine were also recorded. Mann-Whitney U-test and univariate and multivariate linear mixed models were used to test for the associations of interest. Maxillary central left incisor underwent more OIRR in the impaction group (mean difference = 0.58mm, P = 0.04). Overall, the impaction group had 0.38mm more OIRR compared to the control (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03, 0.74; P = 0.04). However, multivariate analysis demonstrated no difference in the amount of OIRR between impaction and non-impaction groups overall. A positive association between OIRR and initial root length was observed (95% CI: 0.08, 0.27; P Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Polymorphisms of genes encoding P2X7R, IL-1B, OPG and RANK in orthodontic-induced apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Lavado, N; Nogueira, L; Lopez, M; Abreu, J; Silva, H

    2014-10-01

    Orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption (EARR) is a complex phenotype determined by poorly defined mechanical and patient intrinsic factors. The aim of this work was to construct a multifactorial integrative model, including clinical and genetic susceptibility factors, to analyze the risk of developing this common orthodontic complication. This retrospective study included 195 orthodontic patients. Using a multiple-linear regression model, where the dependent variable was the maximum% of root resorption (%EARRmax) for each patient, we assessed the contribution of nine clinical variables and four polymorphisms of genes involved in bone and tooth root remodeling (rs1718119 from P2RX7, rs1143634 from IL1B, rs3102735 from TNFRSF11B, encoding OPG, and rs1805034 from TNFRSF11A, encoding RANK). Clinical and genetic variables explained 30% of%EARRmax variability. The variables with the most significant unique contribution to the model were: gender (P < 0.05), treatment duration (P < 0.001), premolar extractions (P < 0.01), Hyrax appliance (P < 0.001) and GG genotype of rs1718119 from P2RX7 gene (P < 0.01). Age, overjet, tongue thrust, skeletal class II and the other polymorphisms made minor contributions. This study highlights the P2RX7 gene as a possible factor of susceptibility to EARR. A more extensive genetic profile may improve this model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Conservative Management of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Raza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a condition that affects the root surface area below the epithelial attachment. Multiple treatment modalities are advocated, involving exposure of the invasive defect, removal of the granulation tissue and sealing with various restorative materials. This report demonstrates conservative treatment of a patient presenting with peri-apical periodontitis in upper right central and lateral incisors, along with Class II invasive resorption defect cervically on the mesial aspect of the central incisor, as a result of trauma. As the patient was not willing for any surgical intervention, only ortho-grade root canal treatment was carried out in both teeth, with Calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medicament. At three year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic demonstrating radiographic evidence of infilling of defect with bone-like tissue.Within the limitations of this report, it was seen that this conservative method for halting the progression of invasive cervical resorption could be under taken in patients who are un-willing for surgical intervention or in whom surgery is contra-indicated.

  3. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  4. External cervical resorption: an analysis using cone beam and microfocus computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, V; Mavridou, A; Huybrechts, B; Van Gorp, G; Bergmans, L; Lambrechts, P

    2013-09-01

    To provide a three-dimensional representation of external cervical resorption (ECR) with microscopy, stereo microscopy, cone beam computed tomography (CT), microfocus CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). External cervical resorption is an aggressive form of root resorption, leading to a loss of dental hard tissues. This is due to clastic action, activated by a damage of the covering cementum and stimulated probably by infection. Clinically, it is a challenging situation as it is characterized by a late symptomatology. This is due to the pericanalar protection from a resorption-resistant sheet, composed of pre-dentine and surrounding dentine. The clastic activity is often associated with an attempt to repair, seen by the formation of osteoid tissue. Cone beam CT is extremely useful in the diagnoses and treatment planning of ECR. SEM analyses provide a better insight into the activity of osteoclasts. The root canal is surrounded by a layer of dentine that is resistant to resorption. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A radiographic study of external apical root resorption in patients treated with single-phase fixed orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S S; Chopra, S S; Kumar, Prasanna; Jayan, B; Nehra, K; Sharma, Mohit

    2016-12-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the most common iatrogenic consequences of orthodontic tooth movement. Many factors like gender, duration, orthodontic force and duration of orthodontic treatment have been implicated to cause EARR. Pre- and post-treatment OPGs of 60 orthodontic patients (30 males and 30 females) who had undergone treatment with a single phase of fixed orthodontic therapy were randomly selected from institutional archives. The root apices were evaluated for EARR by a single operator on an radiograph viewing box at a standardized source of light using a four-grade ordinal scale. Anterior EARR was measured on the maxillary and mandibular canines. Posterior EARR was measured on premolars, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots of maxillary first molars and mesial and distal roots of mandibular first molars. The results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. The cases in which the patients underwent therapeutic extraction had a relatively higher amount of EARR compared to the cases in which the patients were treated by non-extraction therapy ( P  orthodontic treatment ( P  > 0.05). Therapeutic extraction is an important determinant of post-treatment EARR. Gender and duration of orthodontic treatment may not be important variables in the causation of EARR according to the findings of this study. However, longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to validate the results of this study.

  6. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of internal root resorption associated with chronic apical periodontitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlea, Paula; Nistor, Cristina Coralia; Iliescu, Mihaela Georgiana; Iliescu, Alexandru Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Internal root resorption is a consequence of chronic pulp inflammation. Later on, the pulp necrosis followed by a chronic apical periodontitis is installed. Hence, usually, in clinical practice, both lesions have to be simultaneously managed. Conventional periapical radiograph is mandatory in diagnosis. Improving the diagnosis and management of both lesions, cone beam computed tomography proves to be more reliable than conventional radiography.

  7. Root resection under the surgical field employed for extraction of impacted tooth and management of external resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Ar Vivekananda; Khosla, Manak

    2012-07-01

    This case report illustrates determination of prognosis and immediate resection carried out, before completing the endodontic therapy, during the surgery employed for managing a nonperiodontal problem. This case showed external pressure resorption in the distobuccal root of maxillary second molar caused by the impingement of impacted third molar. Extraction of third molar was decided when healing was not seen, despite initiating endodontic therapy in second molar. Following elevation of flap and extraction of third molar, the poor prognosis due to severe bone loss around the resorbed root was evident. But due to strategic value of second molar, it was found beneficial to employ resection. Therefore, immediate resection was carried out in the same surgical field before the completion of endodontic therapy. This prevented the need for another surgical entry with its associated trauma to carry out resection separately later. Resection followed by the completion of endodontic therapy and full crown assisted in salvaging the remaining functional portion of the tooth and prevented the occurrence of distal extension with its potential drawbacks.

  8. Efficacy of XP-endo Finisher File in Removing Calcium Hydroxide from Simulated Internal Resorption Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Sariyilmaz, Evren; Sariyilmaz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementary use of XP-endo Finisher file, passive ultrasonic activation (PUI), EndoActivator (EA), and CanalBrush (CB) on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) paste from simulated internal resorption cavities. The root canals of 110 extracted single-rooted teeth with straight canals were prepared up to size 50. The specimens were split longitudinally, and standardized internal resorption cavities were prepared with burs. The cavities and root canals were filled with CH paste. The specimens were divided into 5 groups as follows: XP-endo Finisher, EA, PUI, CB, and syringe irrigation (SI). The root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes, respectively. Apart from the SI group, both solutions were activated by using tested techniques for 1 minute. The quantity of CH remnants on resorption cavities was scored. Data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. XP-endo Finisher and PUI removed significantly more CH than SI, EA, and CB (P  .05). Differences among SI, EA, and CB were also non-significant (P > .05). None of the tested techniques render the simulated internal resorption cavities free of CH debris. XP-endo Finisher and PUI were superior to SI, CB, and EA. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M; Thenmozhi, S; Balakrishnan, B R

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  10. Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

  11. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement.

  12. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  13. Interactive effects of periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement on dental root resorption, tooth movement velocity and alveolar bone loss in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Fanghänel, Jochen; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Michael; Roldán, J Camilo; Proff, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Many adult orthodontic patients suffer from chronic periodontitis with recurrent episodes of active periodontal inflammation. As their number is steadily increasing, orthodontists are more and more frequently challenged by respective treatment considerations. However, little is currently known regarding interactive effects on undesired dental root resorption (DRR), tooth movement velocity, periodontal bone loss and the underlying cellular and tissue reactions. A total of 63 male Fischer344 rats were used in three consecutive experiments employing 21 animals each (A/B/C), randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n=7, 1/2/3), respectively: (A) CBCT; (B) histology/serology; (C) RT-qPCR-(1) control; (2) orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) of the first/second upper left molars (NiTi coil spring, 0.25N); (3) OTM with experimentally induced periodontitis (cervical silk ligature). After 14days of OTM, we quantified blood leukocyte level, DRR, osteoclast activity and relative gene expression of inflammatory and osteoclast marker genes within the dental-periodontal tissue as well as tooth movement velocity and periodontal bone loss after 14 and 28 days. The experimentally induced periodontal bone loss was significantly increased by concurrent orthodontic force application. Periodontal inflammation during OTM on the other hand significantly augmented the extent of DRR, relative expression of inflammatory/osteoclast marker genes, blood leukocyte level and periodontal osteoclast activity. In addition, contrary to previous studies, we observed a significant increase in tooth movement velocity. Although accelerated tooth movement would be favourable for orthodontic treatment, our results suggest that orthodontic interventions should only be performed after successful systematic periodontal therapy and paused in case of recurrent active inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The management trauma of permanent teeth to prevent resorption: Experience in seven cases

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    Syamsiah Syam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is one of the complications that often occur as a result of trauma in the permanent dentition. Resorption may be frequently observed unexpectedly because asymptomatic. The anterior teeth are more affected by root resorption and therefore it is very important for patients in social economic and psychological life, the different ways to do so that the teeth remain intact from damage. The objective of this case reports is to know the management trauma of the permanent teeth so as to prevent the occurrence of resorption. Case reports: Case 1 is a case that has been done replanted avulsed; Case 2 is a case that has been done replanted avulsed and fixed with orthodontic appliance; case 3 and 4 is a case of post-trauma has done an inadequate endodontic treatment; 5 case is a case of post-traumatic avulsion and luxation without a crown fracture that has been by interdental wiring IDW and endodontict; case 6 is a case of post-trauma simphisis fracture, condylus bilateral fractures, and 2/3 crown fracture that has been treatment by Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF, IDW, endodontics, and restoration of the crown; 7 case is a case of post-trauma with fracture of the crown that has been treatment by endodontic and restoration of the crown, however resorption is remaining after the treatment  done. Treatment is based on removal or reduction of the source of infection.

  15. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) genetic variations condition post-orthodontic external root resorption in endodontically-treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yañez-Vico, Rosa Ma; Ballesta-Mudarra, Sofía; Ortiz-Ariza, Estefanía; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Perea-Pérez, Evelio; Moreno-Fernández, Ana Ma; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2013-06-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a frequent iatrogenic problem following orthodontic treatment in endodontically-treated teeth, about which the literature reports substantial variability in post-orthodontic treatment EARR responses. The main focus of the present study is to clarify whether variants in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene coding for the IL-1ra protein have a positive/negative influence on EARR of endodontically-treated teeth. Ninety-three orthodontic patients were genetically screened for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP:rs419598) in the IL1 cluster. The sample was classified into 2 groups: group 1 (affected-group) showed radiographic EARR of more than 2mm; group 2 (control-group), had no EARR or EARR ≤ to 2mm following orthodontic treatment on root-filled teeth. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain an adjusted estimate between the SNPs studied and EARR. Genotype distributions, allelic frequencies, adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. We found that subjects homozygous [1/1(TT)] for the IL1RN gene [OR:10.85; p=0.001;CI:95%] were at risk of EARR in root-filled teeth. Genetic variants in the antagonist axis balance of the IL1RN (rs419598) have a direct repercussion on the predisposition to post-orthodontic EARR in root-filled teeth. Variants in allele 1 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene(rs419598) are associated(p=0.001**) with an increased risk of suffering post-orthodontic EARR in root-filled teeth.

  16. Immunolocalization of bone-resorptive cytokines in rat pulp and periapical lesions following surgical pulp exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani-Ishii, N; Wang, C Y; Stashenko, P

    1995-08-01

    The bone-resorptive cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including pulpitis and apical periodontitis.To further elucidate their role in these disorders, we have identified cells that express IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha in infected pulps and in developing rat periapical lesions after surgical pulp exposure. As detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-1 alpha- and TNF alpha-positive cells were present as early as 2 days after pulp exposure in both the pulp and periapical region. The numbers of cytokine-expressing cells increased up to day 4 in the pulp and up to day 30 in the periapex. In contrast, cells expressing IL-1 beta and TNF beta, the homologous forms of these mediators, were not found in pulp or periapical lesions during this period. Cells expressing IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were identified primarily as macrophages and fibroblasts, with occasional staining of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also positive, whereas lymphocytes were negative. In general, cytokine-expressing cells were located proximal to abscesses and the root apex. These findings demonstrate that cells that express bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha are present immediately after pulp exposure in this model, which supports the hypothesis that these mediators play a key role in pulpal and periapical pathogenesis, including the concomitant bone destruction. They also indicate that both resident connective tissue cells as well as infiltrating cells express bone-resorptive cytokines in response to infection in these lesions.

  17. Estudo comparativo da reabsorção radicular apical em pacientes bruxônomos e pacientes sem sinais clínicos de desgaste dentário Comparative study of apical root resorption in patients whith bruxism and without clinical signs of dental wearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Odebrech

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A reabsorção radicular, assim como o bruxismo, são temas amplamente abordados na literatura, contudo, a associação dos mesmos ainda permanece pouco documentada. Desse modo, esta pesquisa objetiva comparar pacientes portadores de bruxismo e pacientes sem sinais clínicos de desgaste dentário em relação à quantidade de reabsorção radicular apical nos incisivos superiores. Para tanto foram avaliados clínica e radiograficamente 64 pacientes, perfazendo um total de 256 incisivos acompanhados. Os resultados demonstram que há uma correlação positiva entre bruxismo e reabsorção radicular.Root resorption and bruxism are largely study in literature. However their association still remains few documented. The aim of this study is compare the quantity of apical root resorption in upper permanent incisors in patients with bruxism and without clinical signs of dental wearing. 64 patients (256 incisors were evaluated clinical and radiografically. The results shows the correlation between bruxism and root resorption.

  18. IRAK1 variant is protective for orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Nogueira, L; Canova, F; Lopez, M; Silva, H C

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) pathway is a key player in orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption (EARR). The aim of this work was to identify the genes related to the IL1 pathway as possible candidate genes for EARR, which might be included in an integrative predictive model of this complex phenotype. Using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, 195 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment were assessed for clinical and genetic factors associated with %EARRmax (maximum %EARR value obtained for each patient). The four maxillary incisors and the two maxillary canines were assessed. Three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped: rs1143634 in IL1B gene, rs315952 in IL1RN gene, and rs1059703 in X-linked IRAK1 gene. The model showed that four of the nine clinical variables and one SNP explained 30% of the %EARRmax variability. The most significant unique contributions to the model were gender (P = 0.001), treatment duration (P < 0.001), premolar extractions (P = 0.003), Hyrax appliance (P < 0.001), and homozygosity/hemizygosity for variant C from IRAK1 gene (P = 0.018), which proved to be a protective factor. IRAK1 polymorphism is proposed as a protective variant for EARR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

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    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  1. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2011-10-01

    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of phosphor plate systems and conventional radiography in the detection of simulated internal root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; Rovaris, Karla; Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Távora, Débora de Melo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of conventional radiography and photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate in the detection of simulated internal root resorption (IRR) lesions in early stages. Twenty single-rooted teeth were X-rayed before and after having a simulated IRR early lesion. Three imaging systems were used: Kodak InSight dental film and two PSPs digital systems, Digora Optime and VistaScan. The digital images were displayed on a 20.1″ LCD monitor using the native software of each system, and the conventional radiographs were evaluated on a masked light box. Two radiologists were asked to indicate the presence or absence of IRR and, after two weeks, all images were re-evaluated. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. The three imaging systems were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For interexaminer agreement, overall kappa values were 0.70, 0.65 and 0.70 for conventional film, Digora Optima and VistaScan, respectively. Both the conventional and digital radiography presented low sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values with no significant difference between imaging systems (p = .0725). The performance of conventional and PSP was similar in the detection of simulated IRR lesions in early stages with low accuracy.

  3. Systemic effects of fluoxetine on the amount of tooth movement, root resorption, and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic force application in rat

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    Mehdi Rafiei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are of the most commonly used drugs among the public. These drugs may impact the regulation of bone cell functioning, and thus affect orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fluoxetine on tooth movements during orthodontic treatment in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male rats were randomly assigned into two groups and injected with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg (experimental group and normal saline (control group for a period of 1-month intraperitoneally 5 times/week. Then, the rats were anesthetized and a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was placed between the left maxillary first molar and left maxillary central incisors of all samples, and then fluoxetine (experimental group and normal saline (control group were injected for another 3 weeks by the same method. After measuring tooth movements, rats were sacrificed, and histomorphometric analyses were conducted and the obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: Following the fluoxetine injection, the mean amount of tooth movements in the experimental group was reduced compared to the control group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding bone apposition rate (P = 0.83, external root resorption rate (P = 0.1, and mean number of root resorption lacunae (P = 0.16. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, systemic use of fluoxetine may cause insignificant reduction of tooth movement rate in rats; however, this subject needs more evaluations.

  4. Resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment--clinical study of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Benyahia, Hicham; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima; Razine, Rachid; Bahije, Loubna

    2016-03-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the major problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Such lesions represent an iatrogenic risk that must be detected as early as possible, with regular radiological follow-up and appropriate therapeutic precautions. The causes and mechanisms leading to susceptibility to root resorption following the application of an orthodontic force are often not clear and are generally said to be of multifactorial origin. The aim of this clinical study was to analyze the factors linked to the occurrence of moderate to severe resorption (MSR) of upper incisors during orthodontic treatment in a group of Moroccan patients treated in the Dento-Facial Orthopedic Department of the Dental Consultation and Treatment Center (Centre de consultation et de traitements dentaires [CCTD]) in Rabat. A total of 82 patients (28% males, 72% females) aged between 12 and 27, with various malocclusions, who had been treated with fixed appliances for at least 1 year and for whom panoramic X-rays at the start, during and at the end of treatment were available, were selected randomly. The reduction in maxillary incisor root length was evaluated using resorption scores. The factors studied in relation to the risk of occurrence of MSR were: age, sex, treatment duration, extraction or non-extraction, type of malocclusion (Class I arch-length discrepancy, Class II, Class III), the vertical diagnosis (normal, supraocclusion, open bite), presence of dysfunction, impacted canines and root morphology. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Statistical tests used were: Kaplan-Meier analysis and the univariate and multivariate Cox models for the study of factors associated with MSR. The threshold of significance adopted was 0.05. The factors that were significantly associated with the occurrence of MSR at the level of the upper incisors were: tooth type, with a greater risk for the lateral incisor (HR=3.2 95% CI [2.3-4.5] Proot

  5. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  6. Occurrence of cervical invasive root resorption in first and second molar teeth of orthodontic patients eight years after bracket removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thönen, Andrea; Peltomäki, Timo; Patcas, Raphael; Zehnder, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and potential orthodontic causes of cervical invasive root resorption (CIRR) are unknown. We aimed to identify the occurrence of CIRR in molar teeth of orthodontic patients treated with fixed appliances. All patients invited for final orthodontic recall between November 2009 and March 2011 were included. From 175 patients, 108 (46 men/62 women; mean age, 25 ± 5 years; mean time after bracket removal, 8 ± 2 years) were available. The first and second molar teeth (N = 858) of these patients were investigated for clinical and radiographic signs of CIRR. Patients identified with such signs were asked to have limited-volume cone-beam computed tomography scans performed. No clinical signs of CIRR were detected. CIRR could not be ruled out on bite-wing radiographs in 18 patients. CIRR was thus identified in 1 patient in whom a second maxillary molar was affected. All first molars had been extracted in this patient, and the second molars had been moved mesially over a long distance. The 3 other second molars showed surface resorption. CIRR in molar teeth of orthodontic patients have a low mid-term occurrence (0.9%; 95% confidence interval, 0.2%-5.2%). Long movement distances and/or long treatment duration may be related to the development of these lesions. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elucidation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds isolated from Jatropha curcas L. plant root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmad Razi; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi

    2015-02-05

    The Jatropha curcas plant or locally known as "Pokok Jarak" has been widely used in traditional medical applications. This plant is used to treat various conditions such as arthritis, gout, jaundice, wound and inflammation. However, the nature of compounds involved has not been well documented. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of different parts of J. curcas plant and to identify the active compounds involved. In this study, methanol (80%) extraction of four different parts (leaves, fruits, stem and root) of J. curcas plant was carried out. Phenolic content of each part was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as the phenol standard. Each plant part was screened for anti-inflammatory activity using cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The active plant part was then partitioned with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Each partition was again screened for anti-inflammatory activity. The active partition was then fractionated using an open column chromatography system. Single spots isolated from column chromatography were assayed for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Spots that showed activity were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis for identification of active metabolites. The hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, it also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/mL. Fractionation process using column chromatography showed five spots. Two spots labeled as H-4 and H-5 possessed anti-inflammatory activity, without cytotoxicity activity. Analysis of both spots by GC-MS showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid. This finding suggests that hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the J. curcas root extract.

  8. One-session root canal treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT): an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsatto, M C; Correa-Afonso, A M; Lucisano, M P; Bezerra da Silva, R A; Paula-Silva, F W G; Nelson-Filho, P; Bezerra da Silva, L A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the response of the apical and periapical tissues of dog teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session root canal treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) compared with the use of an intracanal dressing. Sixty root canals with an induced periapical lesion were instrumented and assigned to three groups: I, two-session root canal treatment using antibacterial dressing with calcium hydroxide-based paste; II, one-session root canal treatment using aPDT; and III, one-session root canal treatment in which the root canals were filled immediately after biomechanical preparation. The animals were euthanized after a 90-day experimental period. The maxillas and mandibles with teeth were submitted to histotechnical processing and haematoxylin-eosin staining. Descriptive microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical region characteristics was performed, as well as morphometric assessment of the periapical lesion areas in fluorescence microscopy. Quantitative data were analysed statistically by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's post-test (α = 0.05). Group I was characterized by progressive repair, with the presence of fibres, cells and blood vessels. Group II had periodontal ligaments with the presence of collagen fibres and residual inflammatory cells. Group III had a dense inflammatory infiltrate with extensive oedematous areas and fibrillar dissociation, suggesting a persistent inflammatory and resorptive condition. Regarding periapical lesion size, group I had significantly smaller lesions (P session root canal treatment using a calcium hydroxide-based dressing was associated with significantly smaller periapical lesions at 90 days and characterized by progressive repair. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  10. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  11. Diagnostic value of two modes of cone-beam computed tomography in evaluation of simulated external root resorption: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalili, Zahra; Taramsari, Mehran; Mehr, Seyed Zoheir Mousavi; Salamat, Fatemeh [Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Field of view and voxel resolution of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) might affect the diagnostic capability. This study was performed to compare between the standard and HiRes zoom modes in the diagnosis of external root resorption (ERR) using CBCT. Sixty three small cavities (0.25 mm depth and 0.5 mm diameter) were simulated on the buccal, lingual, and proximal surfaces at three different levels of 16 roots of teeth. After covering the root with nail varnish, the roots were inserted in the sockets and the model was placed in a water-containing lacuna. CBCT scans were taken in both standard and HiRes zoom modes using NewTom VG (QR srl Company, Verona, Italy). Then, an observer assessed the images to determine the presence or absence of the cavities. This process was repeated by increasing the size and depth of cavities to 0.5 mm depth and 1 mm diameter. Data were analyzed by McNemar test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio in evaluation of the simulated cavities were calculated. There was a significant difference between the two imaging modes in diagnosing the shallow cavities (p=0.02). The sensitivity of the standard zoom in detecting the shallow cavities was lower than that of the HiRes zoom. The likelihood ratio of the HiRes zoom was higher in the diagnosis of both cavity types. This study suggested that a smaller voxel size in the HiRes zoom mode of CBCT is preferred for diagnosis of ERR.

  12. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  13. Spiral computed tomography in the evaluation of relations of the impacted maxillary canines and the adjacent incisor roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.; Stos, W.; Dyras, M.; Urbanik, A.; Wojciechowski, W.; Sztuk, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relations of the crowns of impacted maxillary canines and the roots of adjacent incisors are difficult to evaluate on conventional radiographs due to superimposition of shadows of these structures. The aim of this study was to analyse the relations between the crowns of impacted canines and the roots of adjacent incisors with the use of computed tomography. Material/Methods: The study involved a group of 65 patients suspicious for an impacted maxillary permanent canine. All the patients underwent pantomography. In 44 individuals in the age of 13-31 years (mean age 17.1 ± 4.5) the examination revealed shadows of the impacted crowns superimposed on the roots of incisors. These patients were subjected to CT. On the basis of those CT examinations (including multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions) we defined the location of the impacted canines as buccal, palatal and horizontal. Likewise, the relations between the crowns of impacted canines and the roots of lateral or/and central incisors were studied. Results: From among 54 impacted maxillary canines, 41 (75.9%) were located palatally, 10 (18.5%) buccally, and 3 (5.6%) horizontally. In 14 cases (29.5%), the impacted canine remained in various kind of contact with both adjacent incisors. In addition to those aforementioned 14 cases, the impacted maxillary canine remained in contact with adjacent root of the lateral incisor in 34 cases (in total: 48 cases of contact). We found 17 cases (35.4%) of adherence without features of root resorption and 31 cases (64.4%) of resorption. Among the cases of resorption, there were 18 instances of deep resorption (58.1%) and 13 instances of light resorption (41.9%). There were also 18 cases (33.3%) of contact between the impacted canine and the root of the central incisor, including 10 instances (55.6%) of adjacency without root resorption and 8 cases (44.4%) of resorption. Conclusions: Computed tomography allows for a precise localisation of the impacted

  14. Changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during orthodontic retention period

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    Ravanmehr H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: External apical root resorption is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. Much controversy exists in the literature about changes in root lengths at post treatment periods. Although many practitioners believe that resorption becomes stable after active treatment, quantitative data are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine quantitative changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during fixed orthodontic post treatment period, and to assess if it is influenced by gender and factors related to active treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a case cross over study, performed on 80 patients (52 females and 28 males aged between 13 and 22 years. At debonding stage and beginning of retention phase of fixed orthodontic treatment, Hawley type retainer was fabricated for maxillary arch. Periapical radiographs of maxillary incisors using standard parallel technique were obtained immediately after debonding, and 3 and 7 months later. Crown and root lengths of maxillary incisors were measured using computer program. Changes in root lengths were calculated considering correction factors. Also associations between some factors and the change in root lengths during post treatment periods were assessed. These included gender, type of treatment plan (non extraction/extraction, technique (standard edgewise/straight-wire edgewise and duration of active treatment (less than 2 years/2 years and more. T-test and 4-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis with P0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: No significant relation was found between apical root resorption of maxillary central incisors and time elapsed after treatment. Significant relation was observed between apical root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors and the length of post treatment period. No significant relation was found between root length changes of maxillary incisors during post treatment period and gender, type of treatment

  15. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

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    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  16. Inflammatory lesions of the spinal cord and the nerve roots in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoretti-Schefer, S.; Wichmann, W.; Valavanis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The MRI examinations of 52 patients with proven inflammatory lesions (39 patients) or tumorous/postactinic lesions of the spinal cord (6 patients) and vasuclar malformations of the spinal cord (7 patients) were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T MR unit, using bi- or triplanar T1-w pre- and postcontrast as well as T2-w SE sequences. Clinical and radiological examinations allow a subdivision of inflammations of the spinal cord and the nerve roots into (mening-oradiculo) myelitis and meningoradiculo (myelitis). The MRI patterns of these two inflammatory subtypes vary: Meningoradiculitis presents with an enhancement of the nerve roots and the leptomeninges; myelitis itself is characterized by single or multiple, diffuse or multifocal, with or without nodular, patchy or diffusely enhancing intramedullary lessions, with or without thickening of the cord and leptomeningeal inflammation. The immunologically suppressed patient suffers from viral infections (especially herpes simplex, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus), bacterial infections (tuberculosis), but rarely viral infections, sarcoidosis and demyelinating diseases. Idiopathic myelitis is also common. Secondary ischemic and demyelinating processes result in a complex morphology of inflammatory lesions on MRI, and therefore the whole spectrum of demyelinating, ischemic and inflammatory lesions has to be included in the differential diagnosis. Even tumors may imitate inflammatory myelitis and radiculitis. Most commonly, meningoradiculitis can be separated from myelitis. A reliable diagnosis of a specific inflammatory lesion is difficult and is mostly achieved in patients with multiple sclerosis and in patients with HIV-associated cytomegalovirus infection. (orig.) [de

  17. Interleukin 1 gene cluster SNPs (rs1800587, rs1143634) influences post-orthodontic root resorption in endodontic and their contralateral vital control teeth differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, A; Yañez-Vico, R M; Ballesta, S; Ortiz-Ariza, E; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Perea, E; Solano-Reina, E

    2012-11-01

    To investigate whether the genetic variants of the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1) are associated with a possible genetically induced variability in post-orthodontic external apical root resorption (EARR) in root filled teeth and their control counterparts with vital pulps. One hundred and forty-six maxillary premolars were evaluated radiographically following orthodontic treatment. Genetic screening was performed on orthodontic patients for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs1800587 and rs1143634) in the IL1 gene cluster. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of radiographic post-orthodontic EARR (>2 mm) in root filled teeth and their controls with vital pulps. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain an adjusted estimation between EARR and IL1 polymorphisms. Allelic frequencies, genotype distributions, and adjusted odds ratio (OR), at 95% confidence interval, were also calculated. Whilst no clear statistical association was found for gene variations in IL1A, a sound association was found in the comparative analysis of subjects homozygous [2/2(TT)] for the IL1B gene, which resulted in a two times increased risk of suffering post-orthodontic EARR in root filled teeth [OR, 2.032 (P = 0.031); CI,1.99-14.77] when compared with their controls with vital pulps. There was, however, a shared predisposition to EARR in controls with vital pulps and root filled teeth of subjects homozygous for allele 1 [OR, 5.05 (P = 0.002)] and [OR, 2.77 (P = 0.037)], respectively. Genetic variations in the interleukin-1β gene (rs1143634) predispose root filled teeth to EARR for matched pairs secondary to orthodontic treatment in a different way from their control teeth with vital pulps in subjects homozygous for allele 2 [2/2(TT)]. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  18. Root resorption, treatment time and extraction rate during orthodontic treatment with self-ligating and conventional brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study determined the amount and severity of EARR (external apical root resorption) after orthodontic treatment with self-ligating (SL) and conventional (Non-SL) brackets. Differences regarding rate of extraction cases, appointments and treatment time were evaluated. Material and methods 213 patients with a mean age of 12.4 ± 2.2 years were evaluated retrospectively. The treatments were performed with SL brackets (n = 139, Smartclip, 3 M Unitek, USA) or Non-SL brackets (n = 74, Victory Series, 3 M Unitek, USA). Measurements of the crown and root length of the incisors were taken using panoramic radiographs. Three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for an appliance effect. Results There was no difference between patients treated with Non-SL or SL brackets regarding the amount (in percentage) of EARR (Non-SL: 4.5 ± 6.6 vs. SL: 3.0 ± 5.6). Occurrence of severe EARR (sEARR) did also not differ between the two groups (Non-SL 0.5 vs. SL: 0.3). The percentage of patients with need of tooth extraction for treatment (Non SL: 8.1 vs. SL: 6.9) and the number of appointments (Non-SL: 12.4 ± 3.4 vs. SL: 13.9 ± 3.3) did not show any differences. The treatment time was shorter with Non-SL brackets (Non-SL: 18.1 ± 5.3 vs. SL: 20.7 ± 4.9 months). Conclusions This is the largest study showing that there is no difference in the amount of EARR, number of appointments and extraction rate between conventional and self-ligating brackets. For the first time we could demonstrate that occurrence of sEARR does not differ between the two types of brackets. PMID:24456620

  19. The Effect of Celecoxib on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rat

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    Ahmad Sodagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inhibition of prostaglandin (PGs production leads to decrease in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. It is not known whether inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the key mechanism for this effect. In this study, the effect of celecoxib, a highly-selective COX-2 inhibitor, was investigated on OTM in rats.Materials and Methods: Four groups of male rats (seven animals in each goup were used in the study. A 5mm-long nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was ligated between the right maxillary incisor and the first molar of each rat to deliver an initial force of 60g. All four groups recieved orthodontic appliances, group 1 received no injections, group 2 received celecoxib injections (0.3 mg in 0.1 ml saline solution, group 3 recieved normal saline injections (0.1 ml saline solution, and group 4 recieved needle penetration without injecting any solution. The local injections were carried out every 3 days for 18 days. All injections were subperiosteal and given in the upper right first molar mucosa. The animals were sacrificed 21 days after appliance insertion and OTM was measured.Results: In the animals treated with celecoxib a statistically significant decrease in OTM was observed compared with the other groups. Histological findings revealed that osteoclast count was significantly lower in group 2 compared with the other groups (P<0.05. The amount of root resorption showed a slight, but nonsignificant decrease in group 3.Conclusion: This study suggests that celecoxib decreases OTM and osteoclast count. This might be the result of COX-2 enzyme inhibition and subsequent decrease in prostaglandin production.

  20. Large Reactional Osteogenesis in Maxillary Sinus Associated with Secondary Root Canal Infection Detected Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Costa, Nádia Lago; Garrote, Marcel da Silva; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida; Bueno, Mike R; Silva, Brunno Santos de Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory injuries in the maxillary sinus may originate from root canal infections and lead to bone resorption or regeneration. This report describes the radiographic findings of 4 asymptomatic clinical cases of large reactional osteogenesis in the maxillary sinus (MS) associated with secondary root canal infection detected using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Apical periodontitis, a consequence of root canal infection, may lead to a periosteal reaction in the MS and osteogenesis seen as a radiopaque structure on imaging scans. The use of a map-reading strategy for the longitudinal and sequential slices of CBCT images may contribute to the definition of diagnoses and treatment plans. Root canal infections may lead to reactional osteogenesis in the MS. High-resolution CBCT images may reveal changes that go unnoticed when using conventional imaging. Findings may help define initial diagnoses and therapeutic plans, but only histopathology provides a definitive diagnosis. Surgical enucleation of the periapical lesion is recommended if nonsurgical root canal treatment fails to control apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S

    2012-10-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  2. Endodontic Treatment in Submerged Roots: A Case Report

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    Hemalatha Pameshwar Hiremath

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. While the extent and pattern of resorption is variable among individuals, there is a progressive loss of ridge contour as a result of physiologic bone remodeling. Even today, with best modalities of tooth preservation, there is a group of elderly individuals who do not benefit from modern preventive practices and who now present a dilemma in terms of maintaining the masticatory apparatus necessary for nutrition. Even with excellent dental care, such patients experience abrasion of the natural tooth crowns with age, and embedded roots are left within the alveolar bone. According to old concepts of dental care, extraction of these roots would have been recommended, but today’s goal of excellence in endodontics dictates otherwise. We report a case in which vital and non-vital root submergence was carried out to prevent alveolar ridge reduction.

  3. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  4. A Comparison of Mandibular Transverse Dimensions of a Class I Normal and Class II Patient Population using Anterior to Posterior Measurement Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Volume 136, Issue 1, July 2009, Pages 17.e1-17.e9. 5. Bernardes RA, de Paulo RS, Pereira LO, Duarte MA...simulated external root resorptions . Dent Traumatol. 2012 11: doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01113.x. [Epub ahead of print] 6. Bjerin, R. A comparison...small volume cone beam computed tomography and intraoral periapical radiography for the detection of simulated external inflammatory root resorption

  5. Studies on analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities of stem and roots of Inula cuspidata C.B Clarke

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    Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal

    2017-10-01

    Stem and roots were extracted with chloroform (ICSCE, ICRCE and methanol (ICSME, ICRME. Acute oral toxicity of all extracts was determined by OECD guidelines 425. Analgesic activity was investigated by using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing models. Anti-inflammatory activity (acute of all extracts was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema model. In addition, root and stem powder was screened for heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg estimation using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In acute toxicity study no mortality was observed when each extract was orally administered with 2.0 g/kg. At the doses (100 and 200 mg/kg ICRME followed by ICSME showed significant and dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects compared with chloroform extracts. The heavy metals concentration in stem and root powders was found to be within the permissible limits as recommended by WHO for herbal raw materials. The findings of the present study validated the folkloric use of Inula cuspidata as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. In addition, the results intimate that heavy metals present in raw material were found to be within the defined limits, and it exhibits that the therapeutic efficacy of plant may not be effected, which can be otherwise possibly effected if the plant sequester high concentration of heavy metals from the polluted environment as well as from the soil rich in pesticides and sewage sludge etc.

  6. Fifteen-year Clinical Follow-up of Restoration of Extensive Cervical Resorption in a Maxillary Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, E G; Bueno, Rpr; Closs, L Q; Zettermann, J

    Internal bleaching in endodontically treated teeth requires care and protection to prevent harm to the periodontal ligament due to peroxide and may result in external root resorption. There is a myriad of treatment options when this occurs, such as monitoring, extraction, and subsequent rehabilitation with implants or fixed prosthodontics. In some cases, such as the one described here, a conservative attempt to maintain the tooth as a single structure can be made by sealing the resorptive defect. In the present case, we show a multidisciplinary approach where orthodontics, periodontics, and restorative dentistry were involved in treating the maxillary right central incisor (#8) of a 65-year-old patient with extensive cervical resorption, whose chief complaint was esthetics. The proposed treatment was extrusion of the tooth followed by curettage and restoration of the defect with glass ionomer cement. The patient has been followed for 15 years with no signs of recurrence, maintenance of periodontal health, and patient satisfaction with the esthetic outcome.

  7. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  8. Effect of concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration on cell proliferation and bone resorption in patients with severe periodontitis

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    Qiang Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of concentrated growth factor (CGF combined with guided bone regeneration on cell proliferation and bone resorption in patients with severe periodontitis. Methods: Patients with severe periodontitis who were treated in Stomatology Department of Shenmu Hospital between May 2014 and February 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, surgery + CGF group received concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration, and pure surgery group received guided bone regeneration. The contents of inflammatory response, cell proliferation and bone resorption markers in gingival crevicular fluid were determined 1 week after treatment. Results: 1 week after treatment, HMGB1, ICAM1, E-selectin, Smac, FasL, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, RANKL and NTX contents in gingival crevicular fluid of surgery + CGF group were significantly lower than those of pure surgery group while PD-L1, hBD-3, Wnt3a, BGP and OPG contents were significantly higher than those of pure surgery group. Conclusion: Concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration for severe periodontitis can inhibit inflammatory response, apoptosis and bone resorption, which is beneficial to the reconstruction of periodontal tissue.

  9. Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with self-ligating or conventional brackets: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianru; Li, Meile; Li, Yu; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Zhihe

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to compare the external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment with self-ligating or conventional brackets. Studies comparing the EARR between orthodontic patients using self-ligating or conventional brackets were identified through electronic search in databases including CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and SIGLE, and manual search in relevant journals and reference lists of the included studies until Apr 2016. The extraction of data and risk of bias evaluation were conducted by two investigators independently. The original outcome underwent statistical pooling by using Review Manager 5. Seven studies were included in the systematic review, out of which, five studies were statistically pooled in meta-analysis. The value of EARR of maxillary central incisors in the self-ligating bracket group was significantly lower than that in the conventional bracket group (SMD -0.31; 95% CI: -0.60--0.01). No significant differences in other incisors were observed between self-ligating and conventional brackets. Current evidences suggest self-ligating brackets do not outperform conventional brackets in reducing the EARR in maxillary lateral incisors, mandible central incisors and mandible lateral incisors. However, self-ligating brackets appear to have an advantage in protecting maxillary central incisor from EARR, which still needs to be confirmed by more high-quality studies.

  10. Orthodontic movement of teeth with short root anomaly: should it be avoided, faced or ignored?

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    Jose Valladares Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Short Root Anomaly (SRA is an uncommon disease and a challenge for orthodontic treatment as it tends to increase the risk of root resorption. OBJECTIVE: Assess the current status of the diagnosis, etiology and orthodontic management of teeth with SRA, and present case reports. METHOD: A literature review was carried out in PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science databases. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis of SRA should be conducted for teeth with incomplete root formation, external apical root resorption, dentin dysplasia type I and post dental trauma root hypoplasia. SRA is genetically determined and orthodontic movement requires changes in clinical and radiographic management in order to restrict damage. CONCLUSION: Orthodontic movement of teeth with SRA is contraindicated in extreme cases, only. Caution at all stages could minimize attachment loss and lead to long-term stability.

  11. A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

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    Norma Elizabeth Moreno-Anzúrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetically transformed hairy root line LRT 7.31 obtained by infecting leaf explants of Lopezia racemosa Cav with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834/pTDT, was evaluated to identify the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic compounds reported previously for the wild plant. After several subcultures of the LRT 7.31 line, the bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane–methanol (1:1 extract obtained from dry biomass afforded a fraction that showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory, and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Chemical separation of the active fraction allowed us to identify the triterpenes ursolic (1 and oleanolic (2 acids, and (23R-2α,3β,23,28-tetrahydroxy-14,15-dehydrocampesterol (3 as the anti-inflammatory principles of the active fraction. A new molecule 3 was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of its tetraacetate derivative 3a. This compound was not described in previous reports of callus cultures, in vitro germinated seedlings and wild plant extracts of whole L. racemosa plants. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities displayed by the fraction are associated to the presence of compounds 1–3. The present study reports the obtaining of the transformed hairy roots, the bioguided isolation of the new molecule 3, and its structure characterization.

  12. An Evaluation of GuttaFlow2 in Filling Artificial Internal Resorption Cavities: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yara; Alafif, Hisham; Hajeer, Mohammad; Yassin, Oula

    2016-06-01

    Obturation of root canal with internal resorption represents a major challenge in Endodontics. In spite of that, usual obturation techniques are often employed without considering the best technique to solve this problem. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of GuttaFlow2 in filling artificial internal resorption cavities. The study sample included 36 human upper central incisors that were prepared using Protaper system (F4). Internal resorption cavities were prepared by cutting each tooth at 7 mm from the apex and preparing hemispherical cavities on both the sides and then re-attaching them. The sample was randomly separated into three groups (n = 12 in each group). In the first group, thermal injection technique (Obtura II) was employed and served as the control group. In the second group, injection of cold free-flow obturation technique with a master cone (GF2-C) was employed, whereas in the third group injection of cold free-flow obturation without a master cone (GF2) was followed. The teeth were re-cut at the same level as before and examined under a stereomicroscope. Subsequently, the captured images were transferred to AutoCAD program to measure the percentage of total filling "TF," gutta-percha "G," sealer "S," and voids "V" out of the total surface of the cross sections. All materials showed high filling properties in terms of "total filling," ranging from 99.17% (for Obtura II) to 99.72% (for GF2-C). Regarding gutta-percha percentages of filling, they ranged from 83.15 to 83.93%, whereas those for the sealer ranged from 5.71 to 15.24%. GuttaFlow2 group with a master cone appeared to give the best results despite the insignificant differences among the three groups. The GuttaFlow2 with a master cone technique seemed to be a promising filling material and gave results similar to those observed with Obtura II. It is recommended for use to obturate internal resorption cavities in clinical practice due to its good adaptability to root canal

  13. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. CBCT Post-Processing Tools to Manage the Progression of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; de-Azevedo-Vaz, Sergio Lins; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This case report aimed to highlight the usefulness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and its post-processing tools for the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment planning of invasive cervical resorption (ICR). A 16-year-old female patient was referred for periapical radiographic examination, which revealed an irregular but well demarcated radiolucency in the mandibular right central incisor. In addition, CBCT scanning was performed to distinguish between ICR and internal root resorption. After the diagnosis of ICR, the patient was advised to return shortly but did so only six years later. At that time, another CBCT scan was performed and CBCT registration and subtraction were done to document lesion progress. These imaging tools were able to show lesion progress and extent clearly and were fundamental for differential diagnosis and treatment decision.

  15. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract derived from root of Apium graveolens L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Apium graveolens L. (celery has been considered as sedative, analgesic, carminative, antispasmodic and diuretic plant in traditional Iranian medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of celery root in mice. Methods: Analgesic effect of celery root was determined by two animal models of hot plate and acetic acid writhing test. Anti-inflammatory potential of the extract was also determined by formalin induced ear edema and xylene induced paw edema tests.  Results: The result showed no significant difference between the positive control group and the test group in hot plate test and the most effective dose of celery root was 200 mg/kg, while the frequency of writhings was significantly different in whole test groups in comparison with control group (p

  16. Effects of Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) root tea on inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, Leila; Alipoor, Beitollah; Abed, Reza; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Mesgari-Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Burdock root tea on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress indicators in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-six patients (10 men and 26 women) aged 50-70 years old with knee osteoarthritis referred to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Hospitals, were selected for the study and randomly divided into two groups. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured. For all individuals along the 42 days of study period, the same drug treatments, including two lots of 500 mg acetaminophen twice a day and one glucosamine 500 mg once a day,were considered. The intervention group received daily three cups of Burdock root tea (each cup containing 2 g/150 mL boiled water) half-hour after the meal. The control group received three cups containing 150 cc boiled water daily. We assessed inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and oxidative stress indicators such as total antioxidants capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before and after the intervention. The results showed that burdock root tea significantly decreased the levels of serum IL-6 (P = 0.002), hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and malondialdehyde (P Arctium lappa L. root tea improves inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Rowan; Juarez, Maria; Naylor, Amy; Tu, Jinwen; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Filer, Andrew; Stewart, Paul M; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory arthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. The Wnt antagonist dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is secreted by synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammation and this protein has been proposed to be a master regulator of bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis. Local glucocorticoid production is also significantly increased during joint inflammation. Therefore, we investigated how locally derived glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytok...

  18. An experimental study of radiation hazard to mandible at deciduous dental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Reishi

    1986-01-01

    In order to make a radiological and histopathological investigation of radiation injury to jaw bones at growth stage, the region of left mandibular third deciduous tooth of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray. In the periodontal tissue of deciduous teeth, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the periodontal membrane on 12th day after irradiation. Thereafter, with progress in bone resorption, proliferation of cementum and alveolar bone was seen at 4th month. At 8th month, prolifered alveolar bone filled the periodontal membrane space and infiltrated into the region where root dentin was resorbed. As injury to the cortical bone, resorption in moth-eaten pattern and vacuolation or enlargement of bone lacunae were observed at 2nd month. At 4th month, however, resorption and vacuolated bone lacunae decreased and new Haversian system was also seen at 8th month. As injury to the alveolar bone, radiological finding of irregular trabeculae was seen on 9th day and spotty bone resorption was seen at 2nd month. Formation of fatty marrow began on 12th day after irradiation of bone marrow. About at 2nd month, fibrous marrow was observed and inflammatory cell infiltration was seen there. Resorption of bone trabeculae was due to appearance of osteoclasts and the appearance of osteoclasts was closely related with inflammatory cell infiltration. As changes in the inferior alveolar artery, extension of elastic fibers and looseness of circular tunica media were seen between 1st and 4th month. At 8th month findings were nearly normal. As injury to tooth germ of permanent teeth, hyper-calcification image resulting from early completion of calcification of dentin at the crown portion was observed. Root formation stopped at 2nd month. The root region was obstructed by osteodentin and root formation was no longer observed thereafter. (J.P.N.)

  19. Preeruptive intracoronal resorption observed in 13 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Steiniche, Kirsten; Kortegaard, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    The literature on preeruptive intracoronal resorption is sparse, comprising mainly reports of single patients. This study includes 13 patients with preeruptive intracoronal resorption, forwarded for consultation regarding diagnostics and etiology. The purposes were to determine which teeth...

  20. Does the Use of a "Walking Bleaching" Technique Increase Bone Resorption Markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersezio, C; Vildósola, P; Sáez, M; Sánchez, F; Vernal, R; Oliveira, O B; Jorquera, G; Basualdo, J; Loguercio, A; Fernández, E

    This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide in comparison with 37% carbamide peroxide in a nonvital bleaching technique of "walking bleaching" (four sessions of treatment) on periodontal markers: nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANK-L-process of root resorption marker) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β-inflammatory response marker). Fifty volunteers presenting with discoloration of nonvital teeth and endodontic treatment in good condition participated. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into two study groups according to bleaching gel: HP = 35% hydrogen peroxide (n=25) and 37% carbamide peroxide (n=25). Nonvital bleaching was performed with a walking bleaching technique consisting of four sessions of bleach application. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were taken in order to quantify the RANK-L and IL-1β levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were obtained from six periodontal sites for each bleached tooth: three vestibular and three palatine (mesial, middle, and distal) at seven time periods: baseline, after each of the four sessions of nonvital bleaching, at one week, and at one month after nonvital bleaching. Tooth color variations were analyzed in each session by VITA Bleachedguide 3D-MASTER (ΔSGU). Significant increments in the RANK-L and IL-1β levels were detected in each evaluated time compared with baseline ( pbleaching therapies ( pbleaching induced a significant increment in the RANK-L and IL-1β levels in periodontal tissues around bleached, nonvital teeth.

  1. Coupling of Bone Resorption and Formation in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Nicolai Ernlund; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pløen, Gro Grunnet

    2017-01-01

    measurements show that the latter contribute the most to overall resorption. Of note, the density of osteoprogenitors continuously grew along the "reversal/resorption" surface, reaching at least 39 cells/mm on initiation of bone formation. This value was independent of the length of the reversal......It is well known that bone remodeling starts with a resorption event and ends with bone formation. However, what happens in between and how resorption and formation are coupled remains mostly unknown. Remodeling is achieved by so-called basic multicellular units (BMUs), which are local teams...... of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and reversal cells recently proven identical with osteoprogenitors. Their organization within a BMU cannot be appropriately analyzed in common histology. The originality of the present study is to capture the events ranging from initiation of resorption to onset of formation...

  2. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption

    OpenAIRE

    van't Hof, R. J.; Armour, K. J.; Smith, L. M.; Armour, K. E.; Wei, X. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Ralston, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study,...

  3. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  4. Immunolocalization of RANK and RANKL along the root surface and in the periodontal membrane of human primary and permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Thomsen, Bjarke; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Root resorption, impaired tooth eruption and early tooth loss have been described in relation to diseases that involve defects in the RANK-RANKL-OPG-expression. The aim of the present immunhistochemical study was to localize and compare the reactions for RANK and membrane...... in odontoblasts and in cells along denticles in one primary tooth. RANK was located in mononuclear cells in the pulp and in multinucleated odontoclasts along resorbed root surfaces and along resorbed dentin surfaces in the pulp in primary teeth and one permanent tooth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated RANK...... positivity in resorption areas in primary and permanent teeth. RANKL was positive in the pulp of one primary tooth. RANK expression in odontoclasts and RANKL expression in the pulp may indicate that RANK/RANKL play a role during resorption....

  5. Correlation of Periodontal Disease With Inflammatory Arthritis in the Time Before Modern Medical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Controversy exists regarding possible correlation of periodontal disease with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Confounding factors may relate to stringency of inflammatory disease diagnosis and the effect of therapeutic intervention for RA on periodontal disease. These factors are investigated in this study. Forty-five individuals with documented RA (n = 15), spondyloarthropathy (n = 15), and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) (n = 15), from the Hamann-Todd collection of human skeletons compiled from 1912 to 1938, and 15 individuals contemporarily incorporated in the collection were examined for tooth loss, cavity occurrence, average and maximum lingual and buccal depth of space between tooth and bone, periosteal reaction, serpentine bone resorption, abscess formation, and root penetration of the bone surface and analyzed by analysis of variance. Tooth loss was common, but actual number of teeth lost, cavity occurrence, average and maximum lingual and buccal depth of space between tooth and bone, periosteal reaction, serpentine grooving surrounding teeth (considered a sign of inflammation), abscess formation, and root exposure (penetration of bone surface) were indistinguishable among controls and individuals with RA, spondyloarthropathy, and CPPD. Although many factors can affect periodontal disease, presence of inflammatory arthritis does not appear to be one of them. The implication is that dental disease was common in the general population and not necessarily associated with arthritis, at least before the advent of modern rheumatologic medications. As specific diagnosis did not affect prevalence, perhaps current prevalence controversy may relate to current intervention, a subject for further study.

  6. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-04-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other.

  7. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  8. Three-dimensional studies on resorption spaces and developing osteons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, N C

    1977-07-01

    Resorption spaces and their continuations as developing osteons were traced in serial cross sections from decalcified long bones of dogs, baboons and a man, and from a human rib. Processes of formation of osteons and transverse (Volkmann's) canals can be inferred from three-dimensional studies. Deposits of new osseous tissue begin to line the walls of the spaces soon after termination of resorption. The first deposits are osteoid, usually stained very darkly by the silver nitrate procedure utilized, but a lighter osteoid zone adjacent to the canals occurs frequently. Osteoid linings continue to be produced as lamellar bone forms around them; the large canals of immature osteons usually narrow very gradually. Frequently they terminate both proximally and distally as resorption spaces, indicating that osteons often advance in opposite directions as they develop. Osteoclasts of resorption spaces tunnel preferentially into highly mineralized bone, and usually do not use previously existing canals as templates for their advance. Osteons evidently originate by localized resorption of one side of the wall of an existing vascular channel in bone, with subsequent orientation of the resorption front along the axis of the shaft. Advancing resorption spaces also apparently stimulate the formation of numerous additional transverse canal connections to neighboring longitudinal canals. Serial tracing and silver nitrate differential staining combine to reveal many of the processes of bone remodeling at work, and facilitate quantitative treatment of the data. Further uses in studies of bone tissue and associated cells are recommended.

  9. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  10. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Coronal Resorption: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shannu K; Hunter, M Lindsay; Ashley, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Intracoronal resorption of the permanent dentition in cases of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare finding which poses an added complication to the already complex management of this condition. This paper presents three cases of AI associated with delayed eruption of permanent teeth in which asymptomatic intracoronal resorption occurred. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This paper highlights the fact that teeth affected with amelogenesis imperfecta may undergo asymptomatic intracoronal resorption which is only identifiable radiographically.

  11. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically-administered curcumin modulates periodontal disease in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Morgana R.; Coimbra, Leila S.; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Spolidorio, Luis C.; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Junior, Carlos Rossa

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression; but no studies evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Methods Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats intragastrically daily in two doses (30 and 100 mg/Kg) during 15 days. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage and no treatment negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by microcomputer tomography and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase on the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NK-kB activation was assessed by western blot. Results Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and dose-dependently inhibited activation of NF-kB in the gingival tissues. p38 MAPK activation was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction on the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Conclusions Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. PMID:21306385

  12. Calcitonin causes a sustained inhibition of protein kinase C-stimulated bone resorption in contrast to the transient inhibition of parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransjoe, M.; Lerner, U.H.

    1990-01-01

    Calcitonin is a well known inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resortion, both in vivo and in vitro. However, it is also known that calcitonin has only a transient inhibitory effect on bone resorption. The mechanism for this so-called ''escape from inhibition'' phenomenon is not clear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of calcitonin on phorbol ester-induced bone resorption was examined in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. Bone resorption was assessed as the release of radioactivity from bones prelabelled in vivo with 45 Ca. Two proteon kinase C-activating phorbol esters, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, both stimulated 45 Ca release in 120-h cultures at a concentration of 10 nmul/l. Calcitonin (30 nmol/l) inhibited phorbol esterstimulated bone resorption without any ''escape from inhibition''. This was in contrast to the transient inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10 nmol/l), prostaglandin E 2 (2 μmol/l), and bradykinin (1 μmol/l). Our results suggest that activation of protein kinase C produces a sustained inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption. (author)

  13. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  14. The effect of Emdogain and 24% EDTA root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor

    2009-02-01

    Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.

  15. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.; Jensen, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process is ......, including carbonic anhydrase II, the NHEs, and potassium-chloride cotransporters, are all involved in resorption but do not seem to directly be involved in acidification of the lysosomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9......Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process...

  16. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hof, R J; Armour, K J; Smith, L M; Armour, K E; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Ralston, S H

    2000-07-05

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFkappaB and in NFkappaB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFkappaB in osteoclast precursors.

  17. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hof, R. J.; Armour, K. J.; Smith, L. M.; Armour, K. E.; Wei, X. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Ralston, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFκB and in NFκB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFκB in osteoclast precursors. PMID:10869429

  18. Laminar resorption in modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis procedure: a cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rachapalle, Sudhir Reddi

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the cases of lamina resorption following the modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. Retrospective case series. Case records of 18 eyes (20 laminae) of 17 patients who showed evidence of lamina resorption out of the 85 eyes (87 laminae) of 82 patients that underwent MOOKP procedure between March 2003 and March 2013 were analyzed. Of the 17 patients (20 laminae), 1 underwent MOOKP procedure following multiple graft failures, 6 (7 laminae) belonged to the chemical injury group, and 10 (12 laminae) to the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) group. Resorption was noted in 20 out of 87 laminae (22.98%). The need for removal of lamina/extrusion was noted in 3 out of the 7 laminae in the chemical injury group and 8 out of the 12 laminae in the SJS group. The mean duration to the first sign suggestive of resorption among patients of SJS was 36.7 months and among patients of chemical injury was 43 months. Vitritis was the presenting feature (7 of 20 laminae, 35%) indicative of early resorption, and the occurrence of the same in eyes with lamina resorption was noted to be statistically significant in comparison to controls (P<.001). Sixteen out of 20 laminae showed evidence of resorption superiorly. Vitritis was the most common presenting feature of lamina resorption and could be an indicator of lamina resorption. Resorption of the laminae was noted to occur along the aspect with thinner bone support in all eyes. Incidence of severe resorption with extrusion of cylinder/requiring lamina removal was noted to be higher among patients with SJS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral condylar resorption in down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippaudo, Cristina; Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Cacucci, Laura; Deli, Roberto; Pelo, Sandro

    2014-11-01

    Asymptomatic idiopathic condylar resorption is a rare disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. We review the literature about this rare condition and report a case of a patient, affected by Down syndrome, who underwent a complete untreated bilateral condylar resorption in adolescence and then developed pain on chewing only 20 years later. Despite a precise orthodontic and surgical therapeutic plan, treatment had to be discontinued because of patient lack of compliance. This case is the first of its kind to be reported and emphasizes the need for special attention in patients with disability.

  20. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered curcumin modulate periodontal disease in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M R; Coimbra, L S; de Aquino, S G; Spolidorio, L C; Kirkwood, K L; Rossa, C

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression, but no studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats by the intragastric route daily at two dosages (30 and 100 mg/kg) for 15 d. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage, and no treatment-negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography, and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. Both RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E(2) synthase in the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation were assessed by western blotting. Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-κB in the gingival tissues. Activation of p38 MAPK was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests that it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  2. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  3. Autotransplantation of third molars with completely formed roots into surgically created sockets and fresh extraction sockets: a 10-year comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H J; Jia, P; Lv, Z; Qiu, L X

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of mature third molar autotransplantation in surgically created sockets and fresh extraction sockets with regard to survival and functional success rates. A total of 65 third molars with completely formed roots were autotransplanted in 60 patients (average age 33.1 years). Thirty-six of the teeth were autotransplanted into surgically created sockets with or without guided bone regeneration (GBR; delayed autotransplantation), while 29 were autotransplanted into fresh extraction sockets (immediate autotransplantation; control group). All patients underwent annual clinical and radiographic examinations (average follow-up 9.9 years, range 7-13 years). The survival rates for the control, GBR, and no GBR groups were 93.1%, 95.2%, and 80.0%, respectively, with no significant differences among the groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups with regard to the frequency of inflammatory root resorption or root ankylosis. Age did not influence the clinical outcomes. These results suggest that the autotransplantation of third molars with completely formed roots is effective in both surgically created and fresh extraction sockets and provides a high long-term success rate if cases are selected and treated appropriately. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m−2 year−1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China. PMID:25631373

  5. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  6. Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) whole colony irradiation: Do senescent zooid resorption and immunological resorption involve similar recognition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes cyclic blastogenesis where feeding zooids are senescened and resorbed and a new generation of zooids takes over the colony. When non-identical colonies come into direct contact, they either reject each other or fuse. Fusion is usually followed by the resorption of one of the partners in the chimera (immunological resorption). The striking morphological similarities between the two resorption phenomena suggest that both may involve tissue destruction following self-nonself recognition events. Here we attempt to modify these two events by whole colony gamma irradiation assays. Three sets of experiments were performed: (1) different doses of whole colony irradiation for determination of irradiation effects (110 colonies); (2) pairs of irradiated-nonirradiated isografts of clonal replicates for the potential of reconstruction of the irradiated partners (23 pairs); (3) chimeras of irradiated-nonirradiated partners for analysis of resorption hierarchy. Mortality increased with the irradiation dose. All colonies exposed to more than 5,000 rads died within 19 days, while no colony died below 2,000 rads. The average mortality periods, in days, for doses of 6,000-8,000, 5,000, and 2,500-4,000 rads were 14.4 +/- 3.1 (n = 24), 19.8 +/- 6.0 (n = 15), and 19.6 + 5.1 (n = 22), respectively. Younger colonies (3-6 months old) may survive radiation better than older ones (more than 13 months). Many morphological alterations were recorded in irradiated colonies: ampullar contraction and/or dilation, accumulation of pigment cells within ampullae, abnormal bleeding from blood vessels, sluggish blood circulation, necrotic zones, reduction in bud number, and irregularities in zooid and system structures. With doses of 3,000-4,000 rads and above, irradiation arrested the formation of new buds and interrupted normal takeover

  7. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  8. Analysis of an optimal resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yiji; Wang, Yaodong; Bao, Huashan; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Liwei; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Resorption cogeneration for electricity and refrigeration generation. • Mass and heat recovery to further improve the performance. • The first and second law analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimised resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery to improve the performance of a novel resorption cogeneration fist proposed by Wang et al. This system combines ammonia-resorption technology and expansion machine into one loop, which is able to generate refrigeration and electricity from low-grade heat sources such as solar energy and industrial waste heat. Two sets of resorption cycle are designed to overcome the intermittent performance of the chemisorption and produce continuous/simultaneous refrigeration and electricity. In this paper, twelve resorption working pairs of salt complex candidates are analysed by the first law analysis using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The optimal resorption working pairs from the twelve candidates under the driven temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C are identified. By applying heat/mass recovery, the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is increased by 38% when the high temperature salt (HTS) is NiCl 2 and by 35% when the HTS is MnCl 2 . On the other hand, the energy efficiency of electricity has also been improved from 8% to 12% with the help of heat/mass recovery. The second law analysis has also been applied to investigate the exergy utilisation and identify the key components/processes. The highest second law efficiency is achieved as high as 41% by the resorption working pair BaCl 2 –MnCl 2 under the heat source temperature at 110 °C.

  9. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V.S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 20...

  10. Invasive cervical resorption following orthodontic treatment: Two cases involving the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshpe, Margarita; Kaufman, Arieh; Lin, Shaul; Gabay, Eran; Einy, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR), a destructive form of external root resorption, is characterized by invasion of the fibrovascular tissue. This phenomenon is very rare and appears in 0.02% of the general population where the leading factors are orthodontics in addition to trauma, restorations, and bleaching. Heavy orthodontic force may increase the incidence to 1%. One of the main concerns regarding ICR is that it is often misdiagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. In recent decades, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging technique has become more common and can lead to a more accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. This case report describes a possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR of a 14-year-old male, 18 months post orthodontic treatment. ICR in the mandibular right canine was diagnosed and verified by CBCT, and underwent combined endodontic-periodontal treatment. However, after orthodontic forced eruption was performed on this tooth to improve the bone defect, ICR was diagnosed on the mandibular right second premolar. The possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR is discussed, as ICR was noted following orthodontic treatment on both occasions. This case report stresses the importance of ICR early detection by close attention to periodic radiographic checkups during orthodontic treatment. The use of modern diagnostic tools is highly recommended in suspicious cases. A case is described in which the patient underwent two types of orthodontic treatment in the mandible at different time periods and developed ICR in two different teeth.

  11. Hydroxychloroquine affects bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Tim; Zillikens, M Carola; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Vis, Marijn; Lam, Wai-Kwan; Weel, Angelique E A M; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Hagen, P Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Daele, Paul L A

    2018-02-01

    We recently showed that patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) have significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to healthy controls. The majority of those patients (69%) was using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which may have favorable effects on BMD. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether HCQ modulates osteoclast function. Osteoclasts were cultured from PBMC-sorted monocytes for 14 days and treated with different HCQ doses (controls 1 and 5 μg/ml). TRAP staining and resorption assays were performed to evaluate osteoclast differentiation and activity, respectively. Staining with an acidification marker (acridine orange) was performed to evaluate intracellular pH at multiple timepoints. Additionally, a fluorescent cholesterol uptake assay was performed to evaluate cholesterol trafficking. Serum bone resorption marker β-CTx was evaluated in rheumatoid arthritis patients. HCQ inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts and leads to decreased bone resorption. Continuous HCQ treatment significantly decreases intracellular pH and significantly enhanced cholesterol uptake in mature osteoclasts along with increased expression of the lowdensity lipoprotein receptor. Serum β-CTx was significantly decreased after 6 months of HCQ treatment. In agreement with our clinical data, we demonstrate that HCQ suppresses bone resorption in vitro and decreases the resorption marker β-CTx in vivo. We also showed that HCQ decreases the intracellular pH in mature osteoclasts and stimulates cholesterol uptake, suggesting that HCQ induces osteoclastic lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to decreased resorption without changes in apoptosis. We hypothesize that skeletal health of patients with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures may benefit from HCQ by preventing BMD loss. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro and prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; van 't Hof, R J; Armour, K E; Torbergsen, A C; Del Soldato, P; Ralston, S H

    2001-09-01

    Inhibitors of prostaglandin production, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and pharmacologic nitric oxide (NO) donors, such as organic nitrates, have been suggested to protect against bone loss in both humans and experimental animals. Recently, a new class of nitrosylated NSAID (known as NO-NSAIDs) has been developed, which combines the properties of a NO donor with those of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. This study investigated the effects of one of these compounds, flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026), on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. The effects of HCT1026 on osteoclast formation and resorption were determined in vitro using cocultures of primary mouse osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effect of HCT1026 in vivo was assessed using a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. HCT1026 was significantly more efficacious than the parent compound, flurbiprofen, at inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro, and these effects could not be reproduced by combinations of flurbiprofen with a variety of NO donors. Studies in vivo showed that HCT1026 protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas flurbiprofen at similar concentrations was ineffective. These data indicate that HCT1026 is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by a novel mechanism that appears to be distinct from its NO donor properties and from its inhibitory effects on COX activity. We conclude that HCT1026 may be of clinical value in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, which are characterized by joint inflammation as well as periarticular and systemic bone loss.

  13. Evaluation of intracerebral hematoma resorption dynamics with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzesniewski, P.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Ksiazkiewicz, B.; Wanat-Slupska, E.

    2004-01-01

    High mortality and severe grade of disability observed in patients after intracerebral hemorrhage provide efforts to improve diagnostics and therapy of the hemorrhagic cerebral stroke. An aim of this paper was an evaluation of blood resorption dynamics in patients with intracerebral hematoma, performed with computed tomography of the head and an analysis of clinical significance of this process. An examined group included 133 patients with intracerebral hematoma proven by a CT exam. In 97 patients resorption of the hematoma was measured, based on control scans taken on 15 th and 30 th day on average. Volume of the hemorrhagic foci was measured as well as the width of ventricles and the displacement of medial structures. The mean hematoma volume reached 11,59 ml after 15 days, and 3,16 m after 30 days (average decrease of the volume 0,67 ml/day). There was a significant difference in the rate of resorption between the first (0-15 days) and the second (15-30 days) observation period - 0,78 and 0,62 ml/day respectively. The dynamics of the process was dependent on volume and localization of the hematoma and independent of the grade of displacement and compression of the ventricles. The calculated mean rate of the hematomas resorption enables to schedule control examinations precisely. The significant differences of the dynamics of blood resorption depending on hematomas size and the independence of compression and displacement of ventricular system suggest, that the most important factor in therapeutic decision-making should be a clinical status of the patient. (author)

  14. Linking Global Patterns of Nitrogen Resorption with Nitrogen Mineralization During Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is strongly influenced by resorption prior to litter fall and by mineralization after litter fall. Although both resorption and mineralization make N available to plants and are influenced by climate, their linkage in a changing environment remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, at the global scale, increasing N resorption efficiency has a negative effect on the N mineralization rate. With increasing temperature and precipitation, the increasing rate of the N cycle is closely related to the shift from the more conservative resorption pathway to an acquiring mineralization pathway. Furthermore, systems with faster N-cycle rates support plants with higher foliar N:P ratios and microbes with lower fungi:bacteria ratios. We highlight the importance of considering the geographic pattern and the dynamic interaction between N resorption and N mineralization, which should be incorporated into earth-system models to improve the simulation of nutrient constraints on ecosystem productivity.

  15. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root extracts in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocco, Stefania; Calabrone, Luana; Adesso, Simona; Larocca, Marilena; Franceschelli, Silvia; Autore, Giuseppina; Martelli, Giuseppe; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-12-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Horseradish root is used as a condiment due to its extremely pungent flavour, deriving from the high content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and other sulfur compounds. Horseradish also has a long history in ethnomedicine. In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of three accessions of Armoracia rusticana on lipopolysaccharide from E. coli treated J774A.1 murine macrophages was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Armoracia rusticana reduced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, acting on nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 activation. Moreover Armoracia rusticana reduced reactive oxygen species release and increased heme-oxygenase-1 expression, thus contributing to the cytoprotective cellular effect during inflammation.

  17. Effect of Cytokines on Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption during Mechanical Force Loading of the Periodontal Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement, TNF-α was expressed and osteoclasts appeared on the compressed side of the periodontal ligament. In TNF-receptor-deficient mice, there was less tooth movement and osteoclast numbers were lower than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-α. Several cytokines are expressed in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-γ strongly inhibit osteoclast formation and tooth movement. Blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor by using anti-c-Fms antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation and tooth movement. In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading.

  18. Análise radiográfica computadorizada da reabsorção radicular apical após a utilização de duas mecânicas ortodônticas Computer-assisted radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following orthodontic treatment with two different fixed appliance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Almada Santos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a reabsorção radicular apical é uma condição comumente observada durante e após o tratamento ortodôntico e fatores como tipo de aparelhagem ortodôntica utilizada, magnitude das forças aplicadas e duração do tratamento podem estar relacionados ao processo de arredondamento do ápice radicular. Buscou-se avaliar, por meio de imagens radiográficas computadorizadas, a quantidade de reabsorção no ápice radicular, quando da utilização de duas diferentes técnicas de mecânica ortodôntica fixa: Edgewise com acessórios padrão e Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados. METODOLOGIA: a amostra constituiu-se de 20 pacientes tratados pelo mesmo profissional na Clínica de Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (Tratados com Edgewise com acessórios padrão e fios de aço e grupo 2 (Tratados com Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados e fios de níquel-titânio. A avaliação radiográfica digital foi realizada por um único operador por meio de exposições radiográficas digitais feitas no início do tratamento ortodôntico, após retração de caninos e final de tratamento, utilizando o sistema de escores proposto por Levander e Malmgren (1988. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: a análise dos escores permitiu concluir que o tratamento ortodôntico empregando a técnica Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados e fios de níquel-titânio apresentou menores graus de reabsorção radicular apical, em comparação à técnica Edgewise com acessórios padrão e fios de aço. Observou-se que, independentemente da técnica empregada, o tratamento ortodôntico como um todo apresentou um grau moderado de reabsorção radicular apical.AIM: external apical root resorption is frequently observed during and after orthodontic treatment and can be related to factors such as mechanical factors, magnitude of forces and treatment time with fixed appliances

  19. Human teeth with periapical pathosis after overinstrumentation and overfilling of the root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J H; Brizuela, C; Villota, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether overinstrumentation followed by immediate overfilling could be a potential risk in the treatment of infected root canals. Thirty-five human teeth with infected root canals were overinstrumented and overfilled approximately 45 min after their extraction. The experimental teeth were enlarged up to size 40 and the overinstrumentation and overfilling were checked with the aid of a magnifying glass. The specimens were fixed in glutaraldehyde plus sodium cacodylate solution and prepared for scanning electron microscope examination. Bacteria were detected on the flute of the files and mostly at the root apices around the main foramen, remaining firmly attached to resorptive lacunae despite the fact that the apices had undergone great changes, including fracture or zipping. A control group consisting of 10 human teeth root canals containing vital pulps were also overinstrumented and overfilled. No bacteria were detected on the flutes of the files, at the apices or on the extruded master cone overfilling these samples. The high percentage of bacteria adhering to the resorptive lacunae or in the flutes of files used in overinstrumented human teeth with infected root canals carry a potential risk for postoperative pain, clinical discomfort and flare-ups. The hazards observed in these circumstances do not support the one-visit treatment of teeth having acute or chronic periapical abscesses.

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree's nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at 'Estaci6n de Biologia Los Tuxtlas' on the east coast of Mexico (18 degrees 34' - 18 degrees 36' N, 95 degrees 04' - 95 degrees 09' W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 microg g(-1) n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 1) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption.

  1. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.

  2. Management of complicated crown-root fracture in central incisors using intentional replantation with 180° rotation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Faghihian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complicated crown-root fractures are rare and their treatment is complex. Numerous methods such as crown lengthening and orthodontic or surgical extrusion have been described for the treatment of crown-root fracture. The aim of this study was to report managing complicated crown-root fracture using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Case report: This case report demonstrates successful management of complicated crown-root fracture in central incisor of a 10-year-old boy using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Discussion: At 18-month follow-up, the replanted tooth revealed normal function with no obvious resorption.

  3. Em busca de uma causa à parte da Ortodontia: hereditariedade e reabsorção apical em pacientes tratados ortodonticamente. Uma análise crítica do trabalho de Harris, Kineret e Tolley In search of a cause apart of Orthodontics: heredity and apical resorption in patients treated Orthodontically. A critical analysis of Harris, Kineret, Tolley’s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2004-05-01

    abordagem empregada na discussão quanto as conclusões obtidas pelos autores, sobre correlação entre genótipo, fenótipo e reabsorção dentária, parecem despropositadas, pois não houve estudos envolvendo células, nem tampouco uma metodologia de identificação de genes ou aplicação de qualquer técnica cujos resultados permitissem inferências desta natureza.Harris, Kineret, Tolley12 tried to implicate heritability to root resorption exclusively though radiographic equivalence between the pattern of resorption intensity after orthodontic treatment in 103 siblings. Neither dental nor facial morphology or any other etiopathogenic factor of root resorption was considered, whatsoever.It is clear in this study that the authors´ main goal was to attribute root resorption during orthodontic treatment to heritability in order to lighten the professional’s share of responsibility before patients and society. It seems more logic that the professional should try to predict root resorption when considering on treatment plan the root and alveolar crest morphology, the type of apex, crown-root proportion, and avoiding procedures known to cause more resorption. If a patient presents unfavorable morphology and still needs procedures associated with a higher risk of resorption, than he or she must be warned and informed that apical root resorption will be a biological cost to regain estetics and function. Considering on this paper: (1 the limitations to evaluate apical resorption in panoramic and cephalometric radiographs; (2 the absence of dental and alveolar crest morphology analysis; and (3 the lack of a control group in order to compare if the results would be equivalent in a similar population with no family ties but with same maxilofacial conditions; one can affirm that the scientific credibility of the conclusions are severely damaged. The conclusions drawn by the authors about genotype and phenotype concerning root resorption seem unfounded, since there was no cell

  4. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M.A.; Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhi...

  5. Pre-existing Periapical Inflammatory Condition Exacerbates Tooth Extraction–induced BRONJ Lesions in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Alshaikh, Abdullah; Kim, Terresa; Kim, Sol; Dang, Michelle; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Kang, Mo; Park, No-Hee; Kim, Reuben H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical interventions such as tooth extraction increase a chance of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs) for treatment of bone-related diseases. Tooth extraction is often performed to eliminate pre-existing pathological inflammatory conditions that make the tooth unsalvageable; however, the role of such conditions on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ) development following tooth extraction is not clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of periapical periodontitis on tooth extraction-induced BRONJ development in mice. Methods Periapical periodontitis was induced by exposing the pulp of the maxillary first molar for 3 weeks in C57/BL6 mice that were intravenously administered with BP. The same tooth was extracted, and after 3 additional weeks, the mice were harvested for histological, histomorphometric, and histochemical staining analyses. Results Pulp exposure induced periapical radiolucency as demonstrated by increased inflammatory cells, TRAP+ osteoclasts, and bone resorption. When BP was administered, pulp exposure did not induce apical bone resorption despite the presence of inflammatory cells and TRAP+ osteoclasts. While tooth extraction alone induced BRONJ lesions, pulp exposure further increased tooth extraction-induced BRONJ development as demonstrated by the presence of more bone necrosis. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that pre-existing pathological inflammatory condition such as periapical periodontitis is a predisposing factor that may exacerbate BRONJ development following tooth extraction. Our study further provides a clinical implication whereby periapical periodontitis should be controlled before performing tooth extraction in BP-users in order to reduce the risk of developing BRONJ. PMID:27637460

  6. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    nearly twice that of the controls. Moreover, whole blood ionized Ca measured at 3- to 6-h intervals over the first 24 h in both burn and control sheep showed a 6 % reduction versus baseline in the burned sheep with sheep model was previously used to demonstrate upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor within the timeframe of the present study. Because both early bone resorption, supported by this study, and calcium-sensing receptor upregulation, consistent with the observed reduction in blood ionized Ca, are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines that are present as part of the post-burn systemic inflammatory response, we may postulate that post-burn upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor may be an adaptive response to clear the blood of excess calcium liberated by cytokine-mediated bone resorption.

  7. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified salicylanilide and 3-phenyl-2H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3H)-dione derivatives as novel inhibitors of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Liu, Fei-Lan; Lee, Chia-Chung; Chen, Tsung-Chih; Ahmed Ali, Ahmed Atef; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chang, Deh-Ming; Huang, Hsu-Shan

    2014-10-09

    Inhibition of osteoclast formation is a potential strategy to prevent inflammatory bone resorption and to treat bone diseases. In the present work, the purpose was to discover modified salicylanilides and 3-phenyl-2H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3H)-dione derivatives as potential antiosteoclastogenic agents. Their inhibitory effects on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from RAW264.7 cells were evaluated by TRAP stain assay. The most potent compounds, 1d and 5d, suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and TRAP activity dose-dependently. The cytotoxicity assay on RAW264.7 cells suggested that the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption by these compounds did not result from their cytotoxicity. Moreover, both compounds downregulated RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1 in the nucleus, suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes during osteoclastogenesis, and prevented osteoclastic bone resorption but did not impair osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1. Therefore, these modified salicylanilides and 3-phenyl-2H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3H)-diones could be potential lead compounds for the development of a new class of antiresorptive agents.

  9. Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive, and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houria Manouze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anacyclus pyrethrum (L. is a plant widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots (AEAPR and MEAPR. The anti-inflammatory effect of AEAPR and MEAPR was determined in xylene–induced ear edema and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA-induced paw edema. The antinociceptive activity of AEAPR and MEAPR (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg administered by gavage was examined in mice by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and formalin tests, and the mechanical allodynia were assessed in CFA-induced paw edema. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay systems. AEAPR and MEAPR produced significant reductions in CFA-induced paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema. A single oral administration of these extracts at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity induced by CFA, which had begun 1 h 30 after the treatment, and was maintained till 7 h. Chronic treatment with both extracts significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in persistent pain conditions induced by CFA. Acute pretreatment with AEAPR or MEAPR at high dose caused a significant decrease in the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid injection (52.2 and 56.7%, respectively, a marked increase of the paw withdrawal latency in the hot plate test, and also a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test. This antinociceptive effect was partially reversed by naloxone pretreatment in the hot plate and formalin tests. Additionally, a significant scavenging activity in DPPH, reducing power and protection capacity of β-carotene was observed in testing antioxidant assays

  10. Management of External Invasive Cervical Resorption Tooth with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Ikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is entirely uncommon entities and the etiology is poorly understood. A 19 year old patient presented with fractured upper left central incisor and sinus tract opening on the distobuccal aspect in cervical region. Radiographic examination shows irregular radiolucency over the coronal one-third and it extended externally towards the external invasive resorption. After sectional obturation, the defect was accessed surgically. The resorption area was chemomechanically debrided using irrigant solution. Fibre post placement using flowable composite resin and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA was used to fill the resorptive defect, and the coronal access was temporarily sealed. Composite restoration was subsequently replaced with ceramic crown after 4 years. Radiographs at 1 and 4 years showed adequate repair of the resorption and endodontic success. Clinically and radiographically the tooth was asymptomatic, and no periodontal pocket was found after a 4-year followup.

  11. Anti-inflammatory potential of different extracts isolated from the roots of Ficus lacor buch. Hum and Murraya koenigii L. spreng

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    Sindhu Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Murraya koenigii root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform (MKPE, MKEA and MKCF, respectively and Ficus lacor aerial root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol (FLPE , FLET, FLCF and FLET, respectively at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w. using animal models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-, histamine- and serotonin-induced inflammation. The results of the Murraya koenigii roots chloroform extract caused 66.4% inhibition and the ethanol extract of Ficus lacor aerial roots caused 68.3% inhibition at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., MKPE and MKCF showed 55.10% and 70.10% inhibition, respectively. FLPE and FLET showed 74.50% and 75.40% inhibition, respectively, in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model. In histamine-induced inflammation, the MKCF showed 60% inhibition, and 67.01% and 68.02% inhibition with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, respectively, in Ficus lacor aerial roots at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., MKCF showed 64% inhibition. FLPE and FLET showed 70.13%and 74.01% inhibition, respectively; 62.15% and 66.10% inhibition was observed with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots at 50 mg/kg b.w. At higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., FLPE and FLET showed 69.10% and 68.72% inhibition in serotonin-induced inflammation.

  12. Resorption of radionuclides through the surface of thermal burns and problems of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Ivannikov, A.T.; Popov, B.A.; Parfenova, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Resorption of sup(137)Cs, sup(89)Sr, sup(131)I, sup(241)Am during thermal burns of 1-3 degrees and choice of a decontamination method used simultaneously for decontamination and disinfection of burn wounds were studied. It is shown that a degree of burns effects in a certain form on skin penetrability: through burns of 1-2 degrees the resorption increases 1 5-3 times, through burns of the thir degree the resorption decreases slightly as compared to the resorption through intact skin. High efficiency of 3% soap solution for removing radionuclides from burn csurfae of skin has been established. For burns accompanied with the disturbance of epidermis integrality, when considerable absorption of radionuclides is possible, decontamination must be accomplished as soon and complete as possible [ru

  13. Influence of diphenylhydantoin on lysosomal enzyme release during bone resorption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, U.; Haenstroem, L.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) on the release of lysosomal enzymes during resorption of cultured mouse calvarial bone was studied. The enzyme activities of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase in the culture medium was taken as indicators for lysosomal enzyme release. In concentrations 50 μg/ml or higher, DPH inhibited the release of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase in parallel with bone resorption as indicated by reduced release of 4 Ca, Ca 2 , Psub(i) and hydroxyproline. The release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was not influenced by concentrations of DPH up to 50 μg/ml but higher concentrations caused an increased release indicating cell injury. When bone resorption was stimulated by prostaglandin E 2 , DPH(50 μg/ml) also reduced the mobilization of bone mineral and the release of β- glucuronidase without influencing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. It is suggested that DPH by interfering with cellular release processes reduces the resorption on bone. (author)

  14. Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

  15. Systemic factors effects on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Linn; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Vandevska-Radunovich, Vaska

    systemic effect on OIIRR in human or animal subjects. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was performed for all major electronic databases. Two reviewers independently selected studies, undertook data extraction, and assessed risk of bias for all included studies according to a pre-specific protocol...

  16. A comparative histologic study on furcal perforation repair with Root MTA and Pro Root MTA in fully developed teeth in dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The goal of endodontics is to seal the root canal system from the orifice to apical constriction completely and tridimensionally.Hence perforations during root canal therapy, because of caries or resorptions must be sealed and obturated with ideal materials. The aim of this study was to histologically compare two kinds of mineral trioxide aggregate Root MTA and Pro Root MTA for furcal perforation repair in developed teeth in dog. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty teeth consisting of second, third and fourth mandibular premolars of five German shepherd dogs were selected. Twenty-four teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (6 teeth each. One pair of Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups studied in one month and the other in three months intervals. Positive and negative control groups was each contained three teeth. In positive control group, perforations were not treated and negative control group contained intact teeth. In experimental groups perforations repaired after one week exposure to oral cavity with Root MTA or Pro Root MTA. After time intervals animals were subjected to vital perfusion and 6 m histologic sections were prepared. Inflammation and hard tissue formation were ranked by Cox criteria. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square statistical tests with P0.05. Conclusion: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate is an adequate material for furcal perforation repair in dog’s teeth. Root MTA could be a good substitute for Pro Root MTA considering the lower cost and similar characteristics.

  17. [Alveolar bone thickness and root length changes in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients facilitated by improved corticotomy: a cone-beam CT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiuhui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Li, Cuiying; Xu, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the alveolar bone thickness and root length changes of anterior teeth with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans were taken for 12 skeletal Class III patients who accepted the improved corticotomy (IC) procedures during pre-surgical orthodontics. The CBCT data in T1 (the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled) and T2 (extraction space closure) were superimposed and the alveolar bone thickness at root apex level and root length measurements were done. From T1 to T2, the buccal alveolar bone thickness for the upper lateral incisors increased from (1.89±0.83) to (2.47±1.02) mm (P<0.05), and for central incisors and for canines from (2.32±0.71) to (2.68±1.48) mm and from (2.28±1.08) to (2.41±1.40) mm, respectively. According to Sharpe Grading System, the root resorption grade for 69 teeth of 72 was located in Grade 1, two teeth in Grade 2, one tooth in Grade 3. The improved corticotomy had the potential to increase the buccal alveolar bone thickness and the root resorption in most teeth was in Grade 1 according to Sharpe grading system.

  18. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations bel...

  19. The clinical study of the early soft tissue healing and marginal bone resorption after non-submerged implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anchen; Yang Desheng; Hu Bei; Leng Bin; Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first three months after non-submerged implants and to explore the relationship between the amount of early marginal bone resorption and the soft tissue healing in the first month. Method: ITI with non-submerged implants were implanted in 33 patients. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken during the operation, one month and three months later. The amount of marginal bone resorption was measured in the first, second and the third month after implant operation. The soft tissue healing was observed after 10 days. Results: There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the amount of early marginal bone resorption between one month and three months later. The early marginal bone resorption in the first month after implantation kept correlation with the soft tissue healing on 10th day(r=0.794, P<0.01). Conclusion: The amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month exceeds that in the second and the third months after implant operation, and the soft tissue healing affects the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month. Biological seal is the critical factor influencing the early marginal bone resorption. (authors)

  20. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

  1. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  2. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis E; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Kühl, Anja A; Drews, Barbara

    2014-05-10

    Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9-11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart

  3. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Two new triterpene saponins from the anti-inflammatory saponin fraction of Ilex pubescens root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Liang

    2008-07-01

    The saponin fraction from the ethanolic extracts of the root of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Arn. (Ilexaceae) was found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Two novel triterpene saponins, pubescenosides C and D (1 and 2, resp.), together with five known saponins were isolated from this saponin fraction. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated as (20beta)-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and (20beta)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa- 12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. Five known saponins isolated from the saponin fraction were identified as ilexsaponin B(1), B(2), B(3), A(1), and chikusetsusaponin IV(a).

  5. The mode of progression of subperiosteal resorption in the hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, H.E.; Oreopoulos, D.G.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1983-01-01

    Subperiosteal resorption in finger phalanges is usually thought to be the result of osteoclastic bone resorption on the periosteal surface of bone, progressive centripetally with creation of the serrated appearances and ''lace-like'' patterns in periosteal cortical bone. Our longitudinal microradioscopic observations in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure have revealed evidence of another pathogenetic mechanism: by the enlargement of intracortical juxtaperiosteal resorption spaces, the remaining thin layer of bone is broken down from inside the bone, i.e., a centrifugal rather then centripetal process. (orig.)

  6. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations below 0.1 mM did not affect calvarial cyclic AMP. 0.5 microM indomethacin inhibited milrinone effects in calvaria but usually not in limb bones. 3 nM calcitonin inhibited milrinone-stimulated resorption and there was no escape from this inhibition. Structural homology between milrinone and thyroxine has been reported. We find similarities between milrinone and thyroxine actions on bone, because prostaglandin production was crucial for the effects of both agents in calvaria but not in limb bones, and neither agent exhibited escape from calcitonin inhibition. PMID:3027124

  7. Bone resorption is decreased postprandially by intestinal factors and glucagon-like peptide-2 is a possible candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Gottschalck, Ida B

    2007-01-01

    -bowel syndrome (SBS) or total gastrectomy in order to elucidate whether the signal for the meal-induced reduction of bone resorption is initiated from the stomach or the intestine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone resorption was assessed from the serum concentration of collagen type I C-telopeptide cross-links (s......OBJECTIVE: Food intake inhibits bone resorption by a mechanism thought to involve gut hormones, and the intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a candidate because exogenous GLP-2 inhibits bone resorption in humans. The purpose of the study was to investigate patients with short...

  8. Use of UHPLC-TripleQ with synthetic standards to profile anti-inflammatory hydroxycinnamic acid amides in root barks and leaves of Lycium barbarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA are the secondary metabolites ubiquitously exist in flowering plants, formed by condensation between hydroxycinnamates and mono or polyamines. HCAA species not only serve multiple functions in plant growth and development, but also exert significant positive effects on human health. In this study, we combined organic synthesis and UPHLC-TripleQ-MS/MS specifically targeting at HCAA species. The method was fully validated with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, recovery, and reproducibility. We applied this method to identify and quantify HCAAs from the root barks and leaves of Lycium barbarum. HCAA species were reported in leaves for the first time, and 10 new HCAA species were further identified in root barks in addition to the ones reported in the literature. We also examine anti-inflammatory properties of identified HCAAs species. Seven HCAA compounds had a potent NO inhibitory effect with IC50 as low as 2.381 μM (trans-N-caffeoyl phenethylamine. Our developed method largely improved analytical sensitivity of HCAAs species that potentially contributes to plant metabolomics studies. Keywords: Hydroxycinnamic acid amide, Lycium barbarum, UHPLC-MS/MS, Quantification, Anti-inflammatory

  9. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O; Feidt, M; Benelmir, R [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  10. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  11. Design and implementation of therapeutic ultrasound generating circuit for dental tissue formation and tooth-root healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon Tiong Ang; Scurtescu, C; Wing Hoy; El-Bialy, T; Ying Yin Tsui; Jie Chen

    2010-02-01

    Biological tissue healing has recently attracted a great deal of research interest in various medical fields. Trauma to teeth, deep and root caries, and orthodontic treatment can all lead to various degrees of root resorption. In our previous study, we showed that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) enhances the growth of lower incisor apices and accelerates their rate of eruption in rabbits by inducing dental tissue growth. We also performed clinical studies and demonstrated that LIPUS facilitates the healing of orthodontically induced teeth-root resorption in humans. However, the available LIPUS devices are too large to be used comfortably inside the mouth. In this paper, the design and implementation of a low-power LIPUS generator is presented. The generator is the core of the final intraoral device for preventing tooth root loss and enhancing tooth root tissue healing. The generator consists of a power-supply subsystem, an ultrasonic transducer, an impedance-matching circuit, and an integrated circuit composed of a digital controller circuitry and the associated driver circuit. Most of our efforts focus on the design of the impedance-matching circuit and the integrated system-on-chip circuit. The chip was designed and fabricated using 0.8- ¿m high-voltage technology from Dalsa Semiconductor, Inc. The power supply subsystem and its impedance-matching network are implemented using discrete components. The LIPUS generator was tested and verified to function as designed and is capable of producing ultrasound power up to 100 mW in the vicinity of the transducer's resonance frequency at 1.5 MHz. The power efficiency of the circuitry, excluding the power supply subsystem, is estimated at 70%. The final products will be tailored to the exact size of teeth or biological tissue, which is needed to be used for stimulating dental tissue (dentine and cementum) healing.

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and haematological effects of aethiopinone, an o-naphthoquinone diterpenoid from Salvia aethiopis roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, M; Rabanal, R M; de la Torre, M C; Rodríguez, B

    1995-12-01

    Aethiopinone (1), an o-naphthoquinone diterpene from Salvia aethiopis L. roots and two hemisynthetic derivatives 2 and 3 have been evaluated for toxicity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and haemostatic activities. The compounds tested showed low toxicity and a pharmacological profile similar to other NSAI substances on reducing the edema induced by carrageenan and contractions induced by phenyl-p-quinone; the most active compounds were 1 and 2. In the same way and as expected with these types of substances, the bleeding time increased. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the three compounds showed a moderate reduction of edema, and 1 produced a significant increase in the reaction time against thermal painful stimuli in the tail immersion test. The results demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory, peripheral and central analgesic properties for 1, as well as antiedematose topical action and peripheral analgesic properties for 2 and 3.

  13. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patters, M.R.; Landsberg, R.L.; Johansson, L.-A.; Trummel, C.L.; Robertson, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated 45 Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. (author)

  14. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patters, M R; Landsberg, R L; Johansson, L A; Trummel, C L; Robertson, P R [Department of Periodontology, University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated /sup 45/Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis.

  15. On the local applications of antibiotics and antibiotic-based agents in endodontics and dental traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Z; Abbott, P V

    2009-07-01

    Antibiotics are a valuable adjunctive to the armamentarium available to health professionals for the management of bacterial infections. During endodontic treatment and when managing trauma to the teeth, antibiotics may be applied systemically (orally and/or parenterally) or locally (i.e. intra-dentally via irrigants and medicaments). Due to the potential risk of adverse effects following systemic application, and the ineffectiveness of systemic antibiotics in necrotic pulpless teeth and the periradicular tissues, the local application of antibiotics may be a more effective mode for delivery in endodontics. The aim of this article was to review the history, rationale and applications of antibiotic-containing irrigants and medicaments in endodontics and dental traumatology. The search was performed from 1981 to 2008 and was limited to English-language papers. The keywords searched on Medline were 'Antibiotics AND endodontics', 'Antibiotics AND root canal irrigation', 'Antibiotics AND intra-canal medicament', 'Antibiotics AND Dental trauma' and 'Antibiotics AND root resorption'. The reference section of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information. It seems that local routes of antibiotic administration are a more effective mode than systemic applications. Various antibiotics have been tested in numerous studies and each has some advantages. Tetracyclines are a group of bacteriostatic antibiotics with antibacterial substantivity for up to 12 weeks. They are typically used in conjunction with corticosteroids and these combinations have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-resorptive properties, all of which help to reduce the periapical inflammatory reaction including clastic-cell mediated resorption. Tetracyclines have also been used as part of irrigating solutions but the substantivity is only for 4 weeks. Clindamycin and a combination of three antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline) have also been

  16. Insufficient irrigation induces peri-implant bone resorption: an in vivo histologic analysis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardini, Marco; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Perfetti, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    To measure in vivo impact of dense bone overheating on implant osseointegration and peri-implant bone resorption comparing different bur irrigation methods vs. no irrigation. Twenty TI-bone implants were inserted in the inferior edge of mandibles of sheep. Different cooling procedures were used in each group: no irrigation (group A), only internal bur irrigation (group B), both internal and external irrigation (group C), and external irrigation (group D). The histomorphometric parameters calculated for each implant were as follows: %cortical bone-implant contact (%CBIC) and %cortical bone volume (%CBV). Friedman's test was applied to test the statistical differences. In group A, we found a huge resorption of cortical bone with %CBIC and %CBV values extremely low. Groups B and C showed mean %CBIC and %BV values higher than other groups The mean %CBV value was significantly different when comparing group B and group C vs. group A (P bone caused massive resorption of the cortical bone and implant failure. Drilling procedures on hard bone need an adequate cooling supply because the bone matrix overheating may induce complete resorption of dense bone around implants. Internal-external irrigation and only internal irrigation showed to be more efficient than other types of cooling methods in preventing bone resorption around implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Inflammatory lesions of the spinal cord and the nerve roots in magnetic resonance imaging; Entzuendliche Erkrankungen des Rueckenmarks und der Nervenwurzeln in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoretti-Schefer, S. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland); Wichmann, W. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland); Valavanis, A. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The MRI examinations of 52 patients with proven inflammatory lesions (39 patients) or tumorous/postactinic lesions of the spinal cord (6 patients) and vasuclar malformations of the spinal cord (7 patients) were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T MR unit, using bi- or triplanar T1-w pre- and postcontrast as well as T2-w SE sequences. Clinical and radiological examinations allow a subdivision of inflammations of the spinal cord and the nerve roots into (mening-oradiculo) myelitis and meningoradiculo (myelitis). The MRI patterns of these two inflammatory subtypes vary: Meningoradiculitis presents with an enhancement of the nerve roots and the leptomeninges; myelitis itself is characterized by single or multiple, diffuse or multifocal, with or without nodular, patchy or diffusely enhancing intramedullary lessions, with or without thickening of the cord and leptomeningeal inflammation. The immunologically suppressed patient suffers from viral infections (especially herpes simplex, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus), bacterial infections (tuberculosis), but rarely viral infections, sarcoidosis and demyelinating diseases. Idiopathic myelitis is also common. Secondary ischemic and demyelinating processes result in a complex morphology of inflammatory lesions on MRI, and therefore the whole spectrum of demyelinating, ischemic and inflammatory lesions has to be included in the differential diagnosis. Even tumors may imitate inflammatory myelitis and radiculitis. Most commonly, meningoradiculitis can be separated from myelitis. A reliable diagnosis of a specific inflammatory lesion is difficult and is mostly achieved in patients with multiple sclerosis and in patients with HIV-associated cytomegalovirus infection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Entzuendliche Erkrankungen des Rueckenmarks und der Nervenwurzeln werden aus klinischer und radiologischer Sicht in eine (Meningo)-Myeloradikulitis und eine Meningoradikulo-(Myelitis) beim immunsupprimierten

  18. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and aloe vera solutions as root canal irrigants in human extracted teeth contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (pvera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  19. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  20. D-xylose test of resorption as a method to determine radiation side effects in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koest, S.; Keinert, K.; Glaser, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The D-xylose test is the most important method to determine a disorder of carbohydrates resorption in proximal small intestine. The application is based on an impaired resorption due to pathological change of small intestine surface, leading to a decreased blood level or decreased excretion in urine. Patients and Method: D-xylose test was applied in 91 patients before, shortly after, 1/2 and 1 year after radiotherapy. All patients received an abdominal radiotherapy. We determined the blood level of D-xylose by a capillary blood sample 1 hour after oral D-xylose administration. Results: A significant decrease of the mean blood level of D-xylose to 1.88 mmol/l was determined after radiotherapy in comparison with 2.17 mmol/l before radiotherapy. Half a year after radiotherapy the mean blood level of D-xylose returned to normal. Regarding a threshold value of D-xylose blood level of 1.70 mmol/l 29 patients (32%) showed a pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption after radiotherapy. Twenty out of the 29 patients already showed a normal resorption half a year after the determination of the resorption disorder, 5 patients after 1 year and 4 patients after 1 1/2 years. There was no correlation between the detection of a disorder of D-xylose resorption and of a loss of body weight. The acute clinical side effects seemed to be more marked in connection with a disorder of D-xylose resorption, but this correlation is not significant. Eleven or 14 of the 29 patients, respectively, with pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption only had complaints of lower or upper gastrointestinal tract, respectively, and 10 patients did not have abdominal complaints at all. Conclusions: The D-xylose test is an important and simple method for determination of radiogen induced carbohydrate malabsorption in proximal small intestine. By means of its radiation side effects on small intestine can also be determined in patients who are otherwise free of complaints. (orig.) [de

  1. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  2. Effect of calvarial burring on resorption of onlay cranial bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Clune, James E; Mulliken, John B; Arany, Praveen R; Rogers, Gary F; Kulungowski, Ann M; Greene, Arin K

    2012-09-01

    Variable resorption occurs whenever calvarial bone graft is used for onlay cranioplasty. The recipient ectocortex may be burred to expose vessels and osteocytes to maximize healing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether abrading the recipient site improves the volume of onlay graft. The parietal bones of 17 rabbits were sectioned into split-thickness and full-thickness grafts. The right frontal cortex was abraded with a bur to punctate bleeding. Pairs of split-thickness (n = 48) or full-thickness (n = 20) grafts were onlayed to the burred right frontal bone and to the nonburred left frontal bone. Micro-computed tomography was used to determine graft volume immediately postoperatively and 16 weeks later. Histology, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, was performed to quantify vascular channels and osteoclasts per high-power field 10 days postoperatively. Split-thickness graft volume decreased 58.0% when placed on the burred calvarial site, compared with grafts on the nonburred cortex (28.4%) (P = 0.01). Full-thickness grafts showed a similar trend: greater resorption (39.1%) when onlayed onto abraded calvaria compared with nonburred ectocortex (26.0%) (P = 0.11). Split-thickness graft orientation (cortical vs cancellous side in contact with the recipient site) did not affect resorption (P = 0.67). Onlay grafts placed on the burred recipient site had more vascular channels (11.8) and osteoclasts (5.7), compared with grafts over nonabraded cortex (3.4 and 4.2, respectively) (P cranial bone grafting promotes resorption, possibly by increasing vascularization and osteoclastic activity. This technique cannot be recommended.

  3. The cell biology and role of resorptive cells in diseases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Devanna, Raghu; Jagtap, Kiran; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Jerry, Jeethu John; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar; Duhan, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Resorptive cells are responsible for the resorption of mineralized matrix of hard tissues. Bone-resorbing cells are called osteoclasts; however, they can resorb mineralized dental tissues or calcified cartilage and then they are called odontoclasts and chondroclasts, respectively. Resorptive cells form when mononuclear precursors derived from a monocyte-macrophage cell lineage are attracted to certain mineralized surfaces and subsequently fuse and adhere onto them for exerting their resorbing activity. These cells are responsible for degradation of calcified extracellular matrix composed of organic molecules and hydroxyapatite. The activity of these cells can be observed in both physiological and pathological processes throughout life and their activity is mainly required in bone turnover and growth, spontaneous and induced (orthodontic) tooth movement, tooth eruption, and bone fracture healing, as well as in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone metastasis. In addition, they are responsible for daily control of calcium homeostasis. Clastic cells also resorb the primary teeth for shedding before the permanent teeth erupt into the oral cavity.

  4. Healing process of incisor teeth of diabetic rats replanted after storage in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricieri, Camila Benez; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2009-06-01

    Several local factors that influence the healing process of replanted teeth have been investigated. However, it remains unclear how systemic alterations, such as diabetes mellitus, affect the prognosis of these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing process of incisors of non-controlled diabetic rats replanted after storage in bovine long shelf-life (UHT) whole milk. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection of either citrate buffer solution (group I - control; n = 16) or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution to induce diabetes (group II; n = 16). After confirmation of the diabetic status by analysis of the glycemic levels, the maxillary right incisor of each animal was extracted and immersed in milk for 60 min. The root canals of teeth were then instrumented, and were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based dressing and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic and were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The specimens containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The results showed that the connective tissue adjacent to the root surface was less organized in the diabetic animals than in the control animals in both periods; the root dentin was less severely affected by root resorption in the diabetic rats; there were no significant differences between the control and diabetic groups regarding the occurrence of replacement resorption and inflammatory resorption.

  5. Tooth replantation after use of Euro-Collins solution or bovine milk as storage medium: a histomorphometric analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sottovia Filho, Dagoberto; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Luize, Danielle Shima; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

    2010-01-01

    Euro-Collins solution was developed for the preservation of organs for transplantation, whose characteristics have raised interest for its use as a storage medium for avulsed teeth before replantation. This study evaluated histologically and morphometrically the healing process of dog teeth replanted after storage in Euro-Collins solution or bovine milk. Eighty roots of 4 young adult mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20) and the root canals were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and a calcium hydroxide-based sealer. After 2 weeks, the teeth were extracted and subjected to the following protocols: GI (negative control), replantation immediately after extraction; GII (positive control), bench-drying for 2 hours before replantation; GIII and GIV, immersion in 10 mL of whole bovine milk and Euro-Collins solution at 4 degrees C, respectively, for 8 hours before replantation. The animals were sacrificed 90 days postoperatively. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were subjected to routine processing for histologic and histometric analyses under light microscopy and polarized light microscopy. Root resorption was observed in all groups. GII exhibited the greatest loss of dental structure (P < .01), and inflammatory resorption was predominant in this group. Storage in milk showed poorer results than immediate replantation and storage in Euro-Collins solution (P < .01). The teeth stored in Euro-Collins solution presented similar extension of root resorption and periodontal ligament reorganization to those of immediately replanted teeth. The findings of this study suggest that the Euro-Collins solution is an adequate storage medium for keeping avulsed teeth for up to 8 hours before replantation.

  6. Evaluation of orthodontically induced external root resorption following orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandara, Aikaterini; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ioulia; Kavvadia-Tsatala, Smaragda; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2018-05-15

    Orthodontically induced external root resorption (OIRR) is a pathologic consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. However, the limitations of two-dimensional radiography suggest that cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with its three-dimensional capabilities might be more suitable to assess OIRR. The aim of this study was to assess in an evidence-based manner data on linear or volumetric OIRR measurements of permanent teeth by means of CBCT, during and/or after the end of orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and hand searches were performed up to January 2017 in 15 databases. Randomized clinical trials, prospective, and retrospective non-randomized studies assessing OIRR during and/or after orthodontic treatment using CBCT in human patients were included. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk-of-bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed in order to evaluate factors that affect OIRR. A total of 33 studies (30 datasets) were included in the qualitative analysis while data from 27 of them were included in the quantitative analysis. Direct comparisons from randomized trials found little to no influence of appliance-related factors on OIRR. Explorative analyses including non-randomized studies found a pooled OIRR of 0.79 mm based on all included studies and 0.86 mm when OIRR was assessed at the end of orthodontic treatment. Statistically significant differences in OIRR were found according to tooth type or jaw, inclusion of extractions, treatment duration, and diagnostic accuracy of the CBCT. Based on the results of this study, CBCT seems to be a reliable tool to examine OIRR during or at the end of orthodontic treatment. Although the average OIRR measured with CBCT seems to lack clinical relevance, there are certain factors that may affect OIRR following orthodontic treatment. Nevertheless, due to data

  7. Mechanisms of tail resorption during anuran metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuya; Nakajima, Keisuke; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2017-09-26

    Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.

  8. Effects of Vietnamese Sophora root on growth, adhesion, invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and ...

  9. A Comprehensive Review of New Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    277. Steadman, S. R.: Resum4 of the literature on root resorption . Angle Orthodont 12: 28, 1942. 278. Held, A-J.: Cementogenesis and the normal and...maintain the attachment in health. 26 9-2 7 3 Sometimes part of the epithelial network of the former root sheath may be seen. 274 Resorptions of the root ...cells produce resorption and ankylosis of the root . 296 ,304- 3 08 Cementogenesis When new cementum forms following surgical detachment, it can form

  10. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiency, and N : P ratios in natural populations of Typha domingensis Pers. in a coastal tropical lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We studied nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P resorption patterns in Typha domingensis Pers. in a tropical coastal lagoon during different seasons of throughout one year. METHODS: Resorption of N and P is uttered as resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively, which may be used as an indicator of a nutrient limitation. Higher resorption efficiency values might indicate limitation of a certain element for the growth of aquatic macrophytes. RESULTS: N was inferred to be less limiting than P for the growth of T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon, since N content varied less than P content and resorption efficiency of N was lower than that of P and, concomitantly, low resorption efficiency of this element. However, T. domingensis of Campelo Lagoon frequently utilized P that was already present in its tissues, contributing to the longer residence time of this element in system. Green leaves of T. domingensis showed N : P ratio, ranging 49-96, corroborating the inference of P limitation. CONCLUSIONS: N : P ratio and resorption efficiency indicate P limitation by T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon.

  12. Management of traumatically intruded permanent maxillary lateral incisor - Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary etiologic factors of trauma in the permanent dentition are bicycle accidents, sports accidents, falls, and fights. From the standpoint of therapy, anatomy, and prognosis, five different types of luxation lesions are recognized: Concussion, subluxation, extrusive luxation, lateral luxation, and intrusive luxation. Intrusive luxation is apical displacement of tooth into the alveolar bone. The tooth is driven into the socket, compressing the periodontal ligament, and commonly causes a crushing fracture of the alveolar socket. It is considered one of the most severe luxation injuries to affect permanent teeth. Intrusion injuries are often associated with severe damage to the tooth, periodontium, and pulpal tissue. The rare occurrence of this injury, 0.3–1.9% in the permanent dentition, has resulted in limited studies to support suggested treatment regimens. Clinical treatment for intrusion is especially difficult because of the severe complications accompanying it. These complications include pulp necrosis or obliteration, inflammatory root resorption, ankylosis, replacement root resorption, and loss of marginal bone support. Hence, the aim of presenting this case report of intrusive luxation is to highlight the importance of prompt care and root canal dressing and discuss the several treatments proposed to reposition the intruded teeth.

  13. The Etiology Behind a Complicated Case With Arrested Root Formation: More Questions Than Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Havsed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case focuses on dental deviations in a girl now 14 years of age. It is questioned in the article if an accident caused by the girl’s fall into a cactus at the age 1 year and 2 months could possibly result in local dental disorders in the permanent dentition. The disorders were the short roots and small crowns. It is discussed in this paper if it is the pins from the cactus or the many medical and operative procedures for the removal of the pins that caused the disorders. Nine questions concerning etiology are raised and discussed and only partly answered. This case gives new information concerning the normal eruption and resorption processes. It demonstrates how the teeth without roots or with short roots can erupt normally and even earlier than the contralateral teeth. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a second premolar with short root is able to resorb the overlying primary molar. In this dentition with severely malformed teeth, the treatment plan scheduled for the girl still takes into account these normal developmental conditions.

  14. Bis-enoxacin Inhibits Bone Resorption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, E.J.; Zuo, J.; Guiterrez, A.; La Rosa, R.L.; Gawron, A.J.; Bradaschia-Correa, V.; Arana-Chavez, V.; Dolce, C.; Rivera, M.F.; Kesavalu, L.; Bhattacharyya, I.; Neubert, J.K.; Holliday, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Enoxacin inhibits binding between the B-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments, and also between osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. We hypothesized that a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin, bis-enoxacin (BE), which was previously studied as a bone-directed antibiotic, might have similar activities. BE shared a number of characteristics with enoxacin: It blocked binding between the recombinant B-subunit and microfilaments and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in cell culture with IC50s of about 10 µM in each case. BE did not alter the relative expression levels of various osteoclast-specific proteins. Even though tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b was expressed, proteolytic activation of the latent pro-enzyme was inhibited. However, unlike enoxacin, BE stimulated caspase-3 activity. BE bound to bone slices and inhibited bone resorption by osteoclasts on BE-coated bone slices in cell culture. BE reduced the amount of orthodontic tooth movement achieved in rats after 28 days. Analysis of these data suggests that BE is a novel anti-resorptive molecule that is active both in vitro and in vivo and may have clinical uses. Abbreviations: BE, bis-enoxacin; V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-ATPase; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; αMEM D10, minimal essential media, alpha modification with 10% fetal bovine serum; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand; NFATc1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; ADAM, a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain; OTM, orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:23958763

  15. Anti-resorptive effect of pamidronate on extraction socket wall in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Kook; Sun, Yoo-Kyung; Kim, Myong Ji; Sanz, Mariano; Jung, Ui-Won

    2018-05-12

    The aim of this experimental in vivo investigation was to assess the anti-resorptive effect of low concentration pamidronate on the buccal plate in fresh extraction sockets. The distal roots of the third premolars were extracted bilaterally in six dogs. A collagen matrix loaded with either pamidronate (test group) or saline (control group) was positioned on the outer surface of buccal bone immediately after tooth extraction and subsequently covered with a coronally advanced flap. Histological and histomorphometric outcomes were evaluated 12 weeks later. The mean vertical distance between the buccal and lingual bone crest differed significantly between the test and control groups (0.52 ± 0.43 and 2.21 ± 1.15 mm, respectively; p = .037). The width of the buccal bone 1 mm below the crest was significantly wider in the test group than the control group (4.68 ± 0.68 vs. 3.44 ± 0.60 mm, p < .001). Local application of pamidronate onto a collagen matrix may reduce the dimensional changes of the buccal bone plate both vertically and horizontally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  17. Force distribution is more important than its intensity!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A common question about root resorption is raised in orthodontic practice: What is more important, the intensity of force or its distribution along the root, periodontal and alveolar structures? Diffuse distribution of forces applied to periodontal tissues during tooth movement tends not to promote neither extensive areas of cell matrix hyalinization nor significant death of cementoblasts that lead to root resorption. However, focal distribution or concentration of forces within a restricted area - as it occurs in tipping movements, even with forces of lower intensity - tend to induce extensive areas of hyalinization and focal death of cementoblasts, which is commonly associated with root resorption. In tipping movements, the apical regions tend to concentrate more forces in addition to wounding the cementoblasts due to the smaller dimension of their root structure as well as their cone shape. For this reason, there is an increase in root resorption. In the cervical region, on the other hand, the large area resulting from a large diameter and bone crown deflection tends to reduce the effects of forces, even when they are more concentrated, thus rarely inducing death of cementoblasts and root resorption.

  18. L’ectoderme, le mésoderme et le neurectoderme sont des types tissulaires importants pour la compréhension et la prévention des résorptions radiculaires. Recommandations cliniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This three-part article summarizes ideas already described elsewhere by the author. Part 1. New way of diagnosing the dentition. For diagnostic purposes origin and appearance of the three tissue types - ectoderm, mesoderm (ectomesenchyme) and peripheral nerves - are depicted...... on orthopantomograms. Same tissue types are marked on the root surface (peri-root sheet). Part 2. Factors provoking root resorption. Resorption can be explained from the composition of the peri-root sheet. Deviations (inborn or acquired) in each of the three tissue layers can provoke inflammation, resulting...... for root resorption (ectoderm and mesoderm), so are local or general virus attacks (neuroectoderm). Resorption often occurs in dentitions never treated orthodontically. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The author performed a review of the literature in order to present a new diagnostic approach incorporating...

  19. [In vitro study on bone resorption of odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Li, Tie-jun

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effect of bone resorption by odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas in vitro. Fragments of odontogenic cysts (14 odontogenic keratocysts, 6 inflamed odontogenic keratocysts, 5 dentigerous cysts) and ameloblastomas (n = 7) were incubated in vitro for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed into the culture system of SD rat calvaria. After incubation (48 h), the calcium contents of the media were measured by atom spectrophotometer. The supernatant of odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas was measured for the bone resorption related factors such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, PGE(2), bone Gla-containing protein (BGP) and calcitonin (CT) by a radioimmunoassay system. The calcium released in the calvaria culture media by all the odontogenic lesions was significantly higher than that in the blank controls (P keratocyst group had a significantly higher calcium concentration than odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma groups (P keratocyst groups were significantly higher than that of ameloblastoma group (P keratocyst was significantly higher than those of odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst groups (P < 0.05). Correlation and regression analysis showed that IL-6 was significantly correlated with the calcium content (P < 0.01). The odontogenic lesions could promote bone resorption in vitro and it is likely to be related to some of the cytokines secreted by the lesions.

  20. Assessment of micro-leakage for light-cure glass ionomer and pro-root mineral trioxide aggregate as coronal barriers in intracoronal bleaching of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare Jahromi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical root resorption is one of the most important complications of intra coronal bleaching. A way of preventing this type of resorption is using a coronal barrier under the bleaching materials. The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of glass ionomer cement and Pro Root Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA as a coronal barrier in intra coronal bleaching. Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 single-root maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically prepared and divided into two experimental groups (n= 15 and two positive and negative control groups (n=5. In the experimental groups, gutta percha was removed up to 3 mm below the cemento enamel junction (CEJ.RMGI and MTA were placed over gutta percha up to the level of CEJ. After a 24-hour incubation period, the bleaching agent (a mixture of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide was placed in the access cavities. The bleaching agents were replaced every 3 days over 9 days. Then, the access cavity was filled with 2% methylene blue for 48 hours. All samples were longitudinally sectioned and the dye penetration range was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests (α=0.05. Results: Leakage mean indicated that there was a significant difference between these two groups and leakage was less in ProRoot than glass ionomer. Conclusion: It seems that the MTA can provide a better coronal seal during the bleaching.

  1. Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Opoku, A R; Geheeb-Keller, M; Hutchings, A D; Terblanche, S E; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    1999-12-15

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The extracts of R. digitata-leaf and of R. rhomboidea-root exhibited the highest inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with 53 and 56%, respectively. The results suggest that Rhoicissus digitata leaves and of Rhoicissus rhomboidea roots may have the potential to be used as anti-inflammatory agents. All the screened plant extracts showed some degrees of anti-microbial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The methanolic extracts of C. natalitium-stem and root, R. rhomboidea-root, and R. tomentosa-leaf/stem, showed different anti-microbial activities against almost all micro-organisms tested. Generally, these plant extracts inhibited the gram-positive micro-organisms more than the gram-negative ones. Several plant extracts inhibited the growth of Candida albicans while only one plant extract showed inhibitory activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All the plant extracts which demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activities also showed better inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.

  2. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-01-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41 Ca and measuring urinary 41 Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41 Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3 H-tetracycline ( 3 H-TC) as a proxy for 41 Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3 H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  3. O primeiro estudo sobre hereditariedade relacionada com as reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia: uma análise crítica do trabalho de Newman The first study about heredity related to dental resorptions in Orthodontics: a critical analysis of Newman´s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura pertinente à relação entre reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia e hereditariedade destacam-se quatro artigos: Newman21, Harris, Kineret, Tolley16, Al-Qawasmi et al.¹ e de Al-Qawasmi et al². O trabalho de Newman21 possui o mérito do pioneirismo, mas apesar disto não conseguiu provar ou mostrar fortes evidências da relação entre reabsorções dentárias e hereditariedade. As falhas metodológicas e o pequeno número de gerações e famílias pesquisadas não permitiram afirmações conclusivas, como reconhece explicitamente o próprio autor. A principal falha está na amostra, constituída por raízes curtas sem preocupar-se com a causa das mesmas, incluindo-se raízes curtas próprias do desenvolvimento dentário. Também não houve critério definido para diagnosticar o que é uma raiz curta, foi um critério muito subjetivo. No final nota-se um pequeno número de famílias e gerações, pois foram analisados pais e filhos em apenas 17 heredogramas. Durante o trabalho não houve preocupação com a padronização do tipo de discrepâncias faciais e dentárias, do tipo de má oclusão, da morfologia radicular ou da crista óssea, do tipo de diagnóstico e plano de tratamento, nem tampouco da técnica e dos operadores dos tratamentos ortodônticos. No final considerou-se como causa de maior reabsorção de dentes com raízes curtas, após o tratamento ortodôntico, um potencial de reabsorção ao qual atribui-se um caráter genético, mas sem qualquer fundamentação nos resultados. Hoje, sabe-se que as raízes curtas quando movimentadas apresentam maior índice de reabsorção, pois concentram mais forças no ligamento periodontal, com maior possibilidade lesão na camada cementoblástica e conseqüente reabsorção radicular8, 9, 14,15, 23.Four articles stand out when analyzing literature concerning root resorption in Orthodontics and heritability: Newman21, Harris, Kineret, Tolley16 and Al-Qawasmi et al.¹ e Al

  4. Heterotopic new bone formation causes resorption of the inductive bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, O.S.; Persson, P.E.; Ekelund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The bone matrix of growing rats was labeled by multiple injections of 3H-proline, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was prepared. The DBM was allotransplanted heterotopically into growing rats. New bone formation was induced in and around the implants. The new bone formation was accompanied by a decrease in the content of 3H; 20 and 30 days after implantation, 72% and 46%, respectively, of the activity remained in the implants. Daily injections of indomethacin (2 mg/kg) inhibited calcium uptake by about 20% at 20 and 30 days and inhibited the release of 3H from the DBM to a similar degree. Heterotopic bone induction by DBM is accompanied by matrix resorption, and inhibition of the new bone formation decreases the resorption of DBM

  5. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sojod

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases.

  6. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signalization Implication in Periodontitis: New Evidence from a RANK Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojod, Bouchra; Chateau, Danielle; Mueller, Christopher G.; Babajko, Sylvie; Berdal, Ariane; Lézot, Frédéric; Castaneda, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is based on a complex inflammatory over-response combined with possible genetic predisposition factors. The RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway is implicated in bone resorption through its key function in osteoclast differentiation and activation, as well as in the inflammatory response. This central element of osteo-immunology has been suggested to be perturbed in several diseases, including periodontitis, as it is a predisposing factor for this disease. The aim of the present study was to validate this hypothesis using a transgenic mouse line, which over-expresses RANK (RTg) and develops a periodontitis-like phenotype at 5 months of age. RTg mice exhibited severe alveolar bone loss, an increased number of TRAP positive cells, and disorganization of periodontal ligaments. This phenotype was more pronounced in females. We also observed dental root resorption lacunas. Hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium, including Malassez epithelial rests, was visible as early as 25 days, preceding any other symptoms. These results demonstrate that perturbations of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system constitute a core element of periodontitis, and more globally, osteo-immune diseases. PMID:28596739

  7. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  8. Estudo da reabsorção radicular apical após o uso de aparelho extrabucal no tratamento da má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária Study of apical root resorption after occipital headgear wear on the treatment of dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Célia Vieira de Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    apical root resorption of the upper first permanent molars submitted to the action of the appliance. METHODS: Were evaluated periapical X-rays of 19 leucoderms young female - with ages between 8 and 10 years, with dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion, before and after orthodontic treatment, using high-pull headgear. The 76 X-rays were divided into two groups according to their root formation. Group A consisted of 18 X-rays with incomplete root formation, except for the palatine root, before treatment and 18 after treatment. Group B consisted of 20 X-rays where root formation was completed before treatment and 20 after treatment. The root lengths were measured with digital caliper and the registered measures were submitted to the error of the method and statistical analysis, Student t test, to verify the differences regarding the root length before and after the treatment with occipital headgear. RESULTS: In group A, there was a significant increase of the root lengths, while in the group B the differences were not significant. Posttreatment Group A showed no significant differences with the mean root lengths of pretreatment group B, in other words, teeth with incomplete root formation at onset of orthodontic treatment presented normal root growth during the active treatment. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it was concluded that high-pull headgear didn't influence negatively in the root formation and it didn't provoke apical resorption of the molars submitted to the action of the appliance, suggesting that occipital headgear doesn't present risks to the root structure and formation when correctly indicated and applied.

  9. Comprehensive dental management in a Hallermann–Streiff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... During the follow‑up period, rapidly progressive root resorption was ... progressive root resorption was detected in the primary maxillary anterior ... dental literature shows that orthodontic/orthognathic, surgical, prosthetic ...

  10. Investigation on non-equilibrium performance of composite adsorbent for resorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Zhou, Z.S.; Zhu, F.Q.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of resorption refrigeration is analyzed based on non-equilibrium reaction process. • The porous matrix improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The actual desorption process has the significant hysteresis phenomenon. • The highest energy efficiency of Manganese and Calcium chloride working pair is 0.272. - Abstract: The aims of this paper is to indicate that the non-equilibrium adsorption testing results is more suitable for prediction of real refrigeration performance than equilibrium data. Therefore, a test unit is constructed to test the non-equilibrium performance of different composite adsorbents. The adsorption and desorption quantity are measured and calculated by smart differential pressure transmitter. The non-equilibrium adsorption performances of working pair of Manganese chloride–ammonia, Calcium chloride–ammonia and Ammonium chloride–ammonia are investigated respectively. Results show that hysteresis phenomena happens obviously in non-equilibrium desorption process, which is related with dual variables rather than single variable. Based on the testing results, resorption refrigeration performance is analyzed, in which Manganese chloride is used as high temperature salt (HTS), and Calcium chloride, Ammonium chloride are selected as low temperature salt (LTS) for comparison. Results show that the highest COP and SCP for resorption refrigeration are about 0.272 and 45.6 W/kg, respectively. Performance of Manganese chloride–Calcium chloride and Manganese chloride–Ammonium chloride working pairs are much lower when compared with theoretical data.

  11. Glucocorticoids maintain human osteoclasts in the active mode of their resorption cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    that glucocorticoids deeply modify this resorptive behavior. First, glucocorticoids gradually induce excavations with a trenchlike morphology while reducing the time-dependent increase in excavation numbers. This indicates that glucocorticoids make osteoclasts elongate the excavations they initiated rather than...... migrating to a new resorption site, as in control conditions. Second, the round excavations in control conditions contain undegraded demineralized collagen as repeatedly reported earlier, whereas the excavations with a trenchlike morphology generated under glucocorticoid exposure appear devoid of leftovers...... of demineralized collagen. This indicates that collagenolysis proceeds generally at a lower rate than demineralization under control conditions, whereas collagenolysis rates are increased up to the level of demineralization rates in the presence of glucocorticoids. Taking these observations together leads...

  12. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  13. Invasive cervical resorption and the oro-facial cleft patient: a review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, A; McNamara, C; Ireland, A; Sandy, J; Puryer, J

    2017-05-12

    Introduction Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) has an unknown aetiology, yet it exhibits very aggressive behaviour compared with typical external root resorption, posing a high risk of tooth loss.Aim To investigate the number of patients at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department with an oro-facial cleft who experienced ICR and to identify any possible aetiological factors.Materials and method A retrospective investigation of all oro-facial cleft patients treated at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department, St James's Hospital, Dublin. All patients' clinical and radiological records were reviewed. Patients where tooth loss became inevitable due to Class 4 ICR were analysed.Results From 588 oro-facial cleft patients, 14 (2.38%) patients with ICR were identified. Of these eight (57%) were female and six (43%) were male. Mean age at diagnosis was 28 years (range = 16-49 years). Cleft type: six (42.1%) unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight (57.9%) bilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventeen ICR affected teeth in total, with eleven (65%) maxillary central incisors, two (12%) maxillary lateral incisors, four (23%) maxillary canines, and one (7%) central, lateral and canine affected. Some, (N = 10, 71.4%) presented with ICR resulting in immediate tooth loss. Other patients (N = 4, 28.6%) developed ICR during or following prosthodontic treatment at the Cleft Centre. Tooth loss for this cohort, though not immediate, was inevitable. All had undergone fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and twelve had received dento-alveolar bone grafts. A number (N = 7, 50%) had undergone osteotomy, two (14%) had received night guard vital dental whitening and one had a history of trauma.Conclusions ICR, given its aggressive nature and ill-understood aetiology, poses significant treatment challenges. The most severe form of ICR (Class 4) leads inevitably to tooth loss. The slow-moderate progression of ICR may explain the late presentation found in this study, reinforcing the importance

  14. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Jeppesen, Palle B; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    In healthy subjects, subcutaneous injections of GLP-2 have been shown to elicit dose-related decrease in the bone resorption marker, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and have been proposed for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the relation between GLP-2...

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm of three undisturbed forest plots at ‘Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas’ on the east coast of Mexico (18°34’ - 18°36’ N, 95°04’ - 95°09’ W. N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30. As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11 and P (0.11%, n = 11 resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de

  16. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  17. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  18. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.

  19. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  20. dated 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-11-02

    Nov 2, 2002 ... Root resorption has long been identified in the dental literature and was first ... of this paper is to review root resorption with emphasis on the :aetiology ..... endodontically treated incisors after orthodontic movement: report of ...

  1. Odontoclastic resorption in two dogs - Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Basilio de Oliveira Gneidin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Gneiding J.E.B. de O., Gneiding B., Lucioli J., Pimpão C.T. & Prado A.M. do R.B. [Odontoclastic resorption in two dogs - Case report.] Reabsorção odontoclástica em dois cães - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:281-286, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, BR 376 Km 14, São José dos Pinhais, PR 83010-500, Brasil. E-mail: joseeduardo@veterinario.med.br Most often the lesions by odontoclastic resorption (LRO, have been observed in dogs around the globe. Despite being a relatively common disease in cats, it is rarely reported in dogs. Perhaps the lack of reports is related to the non realization of intraoral radiographs for dental treatments in veterinary clinics and hospitals. The LRO is characterized by presenting symptoms such as halitosis, dysphagia, ptyalism, anorexia, dehydration, weight loss, lethargy, head shaking, sneezing and mandibular trismus. These symptoms can often be confused with severe periodontal disease, since in both situations, often makes this a massive amount of dental calculus, which usually complicates the diagnosis by physical examination only. This article describes two cases of LRO in dogs treated at the Hospital Unit of Companion Animals (UHAC, the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUC-PR Sant Joseph of Pinhais campus, which showed satisfactory results after extraction treatment.

  2. Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.

  3. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, R A B; Pegoraro, D H; Woisky, R; Penna, S C; Sertié, J A A

    2002-04-01

    Petiveria alliacea L (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely in Brazil. The roots and leaves of P. alliacea have been used in folk medicine for their antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic and antihelminthic actions. We recently described the anti-inflammatory properties of P. alliacea administered topically and orally in different animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of a crude lyophilized extract of P. alliacea roots administered to rats with pleurisy. The oral administration of P. alliacea root extract did not significantly reduce the total number of leukocytes at the doses tested. By contrast, the highest dose of extract tested (43.9 mg/kg body wt.) significantly reduced the number of migrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils; the dose of 31.4 mg/kg body wt. also reduced mononuclear cell migration. The P. alliacea root extract also showed a significant analgesic effect in the experimental model used. The results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. alliacea extracts in popular folk medicine, but further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions.

  4. Facilitation of bone resorption activities in synovial lavage fluid patients with mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, H; Takahashi, T; Nakata, A; Nogami, S; Yusa, K; Kuwajima, S; Yamazaki, M; Fukuda, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bone resorption effect of the mediators delivered in joint cavity of patients with mandibular condyle fractures by detecting osteoclast markers using cellular biochemistry methods, and by analysing bone resorption activities via inducing osteoclast differentiation of the infiltrated cells from arthrocentesis. Sixteen joints in 10 patients with mandibular condyle fractures were evaluated. The control group consisted of synovial fluid (SF) samples from seven joints of four volunteers who had no clinical signs or symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or disc displacement. We collected SF cells from all patients during therapeutic arthrocentesis. The infiltrating cells from TMJ SF were cultured, differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and examined bone resorption activities. We also investigated factors related to osteoclast induction of SF, using ELISA procedures. Osteoclast-like cells were induced from the SF cells obtained from all patients with condylar fractures. These multinucleated giant cells were positive for TRAP and actin, and had the ability to absorb dentin slices. The levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), soluble form of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in SF samples from the patients, were significantly higher than in the controls. These findings indicate that bone resorption activities in SF from patients with mandibular condyle fractures were upregulated and may participate in the pathogenesis and wound healing. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical attachment level gain and bone regeneration around a glass ionomer restoration on root surface wall of periodontal pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniraj, K. R.; Sagir, Mohammed; Sunil, M. M.; Janardhanan, Mahija

    2012-01-01

    A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures. PMID:23162344

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities and potential mechanisms of phenolic acids isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba roots in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haimei; Ma, Shuli; Xia, Hongrui; Lou, Hongxiang; Zhu, Faliang; Sun, Longru

    2018-05-08

    The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Lamiaceae) (RSMA) are used as the Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine, to treat the vascular diseases at local clinics, especially for the remedy of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) more than 100 years. Phenolic acids are one of the major effective constituents of RSMA, and some studies have linked phenolic acids with anti-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this research was to isolate phenolic acids from RSMA and investigate their anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms. Nine already known compounds were obtained from RSMA. Their structures were elucidated through the spectroscopic analysis and comparing the reported data. The anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanisms were investigated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, using salvianolic acid B (SalB) as the positive control. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine the secretory protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). And quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA levels of these inflammatory cytokines. The expression of TLR4, p65, p-p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα were measured using western blot. All these compounds, except for rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for IL-6 protein levels, rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) for IL-6 mRNA, and rosmarinic acid-o-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), rosmarinic acid (5) and isosalvianolic acid (6) for TNF-α mRNA levels, remarkably inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the concentration of 5 and 25μM in the mRNA and protein levels. Lithospermic acid (7) showed the strongest inhibitory effect among them and was similar to that of SalB. In particular, lithospermic acid (7) and SalB markedly downregulated the expressions of TLR4, p-p65, and p-IκBα induced by LPS in THP-1 macrophages. All the phenolic acids displayed anti-inflammatory properties

  7. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F.

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  8. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  9. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota; Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Oliveira Santos, Christiano; Neves, Frederico Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  10. Is comfrey root more than toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids? Salvianolic acids among antioxidant polyphenols in comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Adriana; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Josuran, Roland; Grubelnik, Andreas; Esslinger, Nils; Peter, Samuel; Bräm, Sarah; Meier, Nadja; Wolfram, Evelyn

    2018-02-01

    Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7.55 mg/g extract). Moreover, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid (isomers of salvianolic acid A, B and C) were identified and quantified for the first time in comfrey root. In addition, pyrrolizidine alkaloids were evaluated by HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS and acetylintermedine, acetyllycopsamine and their N-oxides were determined as major pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the comfrey root sample. Lastly, the antioxidant activity was determined using four assays: DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, reducing power assay and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Comfrey root extract exhibited significant antioxidant activities when compared to known antioxidants. Thus, comfrey root is an important source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity which may contribute to the overall bioactivity of Symphytum preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone augmentation of the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina in MOOKP--will it delay laminar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Shanmugasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to describe a new technique and analyse the early outcomes of augmenting the canine tooth using a mandibular bone graft in an attempt to delay or retard the process of laminar resorption following the modified osteo odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. This was a retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent the bone augmentation procedure between December 2012 and February 2014 were retrospectively analysed. The procedure, performed by the oromaxillofacial surgeon, involved securing a mandibular bone graft beneath the periosteum on the labial aspect of the canine tooth chosen to be harvested for the MOOKP procedure. This procedure was performed simultaneously with the Stage 1 A of the MOOKP. Three months later, the tooth was harvested and fashioned into the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina similar to the method described in the Rome-Vienna Protocol. The bone augmentation procedure was performed in 11 eyes (five SJS/ six chemical injuries). The mean follow-up after Stage 2 of MOOKP procedure in these eyes was 7.45 months (2 to 20 months). Complications noted were peripheral laminar exposure (three eyes-SJS) and bone graft exposure and necrosis in the mouth (nine-SJS). No evidence of clinical laminar resorption was noted in any of the eyes. Laminar resorption in MOOKP can lead to vision and globe threatening complications due to the consequent cylinder instability and chances of extrusion. Augmenting the bone on the labial aspect of the canine tooth might have a role to play in delaying or preventing laminar resorption.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of nerve root inflammation in the Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.R.; Fung, A.; Poon, P.; Bayer, N.

    1994-01-01

    We report gadolinium-enhancing nerve root lesions in a 52-year-old man with typical Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). This enhancement correlates well with the perineurial inflammatory and demyelinating processes known to characterize GBS and other inflammatory neuropathies. MRI should enable further exploration of patterns of disease in GBS and, with further study, perhaps assist in evaluating therapy. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of nerve root inflammation in the Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, J.R. [St. Michael`s Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurology; Fung, A. [St. Michael`s Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Div. of Radiology; Poon, P. [St. Michael`s Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Div. of Radiology; Bayer, N. [St. Michael`s Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurology

    1994-02-01

    We report gadolinium-enhancing nerve root lesions in a 52-year-old man with typical Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). This enhancement correlates well with the perineurial inflammatory and demyelinating processes known to characterize GBS and other inflammatory neuropathies. MRI should enable further exploration of patterns of disease in GBS and, with further study, perhaps assist in evaluating therapy. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of technical quality and periapical health of root-filled teeth by using cone-beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gülsüm NUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to assess the quality of root fillings, coronal restorations, complications of all root-filled teeth and their association with apical periodontitis (AP detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images from an adult Turkish subpopulation. Material and Methods The sample for this study consisted of 242 patients (aging from 15 to 72 years with 522 endodontically treated teeth that were assessed for technical quality of the root canal filling and periapical status of the teeth. Additionally, the apical status of each root-filled tooth was assessed according to the gender, dental arch, tooth type and age classification, undetected canals, instrument fracture, root fracture, apical resorption, apical lesion, furcation lesion and type and quality of the coronal structure. Statistical analysis was performed using percentages and chi-square test. Results The success rate of the root canal treatment was of 54.4%. The success rates of adequate and inadequate root canal treatment were not significantly different (p>0.05. Apical periodontitis was found in 228 (45.6% teeth treated for root canals. Higher prevalence of AP was found in patients aging from 20 to 29 years [64 (27% teeth] and in anterior (canines and incisors teeth [97 (41% teeth]. Conclusions The technical quality of root canal filling performed by dental practitioners in a Turkish subpopulation was consistent with a high prevalence of AP. The probable reasons for this failure are multifactorial, and there may be a need for improved undergraduate education and postgraduate courses to improve the clinical skills of dental practitioners in endodontics.

  15. Effect of laser-assisted scaling and root planing on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malignaggi, Vanessa Ros; Majoka, Hasham Abdullah; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of laser-assisted (low level laser therapy [LLLT], high intensity laser therapy [HILT], or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy [aPDT]) scaling and root planing (SRP) compared with SRP alone on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). In order to address the focused question: "What is the efficacy of SRP with and without laser and/or aPDT on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF of patients with CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to and including February 2017 in indexed databases using various key words. Twenty-two randomized control trials were included in the present systematic review. Nine studies and six studies assessed the efficacy of LLLT and HILT, as adjunct to SRP, respectively. Seven studies assessed the efficacy of aPDT as adjunct to SRP on down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF among patients with CP. The outcomes of the studies included based upon the reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were inconsistent. The role of laser-assisted SRP on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF of patients with CP remains unclear. Further long term and well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed in this regard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. All washed out? Foliar nutrient resorption and leaching in senescing switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideal bioenergy feedstocks are low in nutrients that act as anti-quality factors during conversion processes. Research has shown that delaying harvest of temperate perennial grasses until late winter reduces nutrient content, primarily due to end-season resorption, but also indicates a role for foli...

  17. Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-10

    Center Washington, D. C . 20307 If Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay 1. ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated an...Relative distribution of bacteria at clinically healthy and periodontally diseased sites in humans. J Clin Periodontal 5:115, 1978. 3. Evian, C ...applied foreign protein into rat gingiva. J Periodont Res 6:89, 1971. 21. Gaffer, A., Coleman, E.J., and Marcussen, H.W.: Penetration of dental plaque

  18. Hybrid protocols plus natural treatments for inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Hybrid protocols combine one, two, or three pharmaceutical drugs with several nutritional or immune-based therapies. These protocols are not limited solely to FDA-approved drugs or strictly to alternative therapies. The rationale for using a hybrid protocol is to find an effective antiviral regimen that also restores immune function. The goal is to obtain the benefits of protease inhibitors without viral resistance and side effects which include problems with fat metabolism and cholesterol levels. Natural treatments for inflammatory conditions are also described. Options include licorice root, ginger root, and slippery elm.

  19. Pre-Eruptive Coronal Resorption and Congenitally Missing Teeth in a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Miloglu, Ozkan; Karaalioglu, Osman Fatih; Caglayan, Fatma; Yesil, Zeynep Duymus

    2009-01-01

    This clinical report describes a male with autosomal recessive generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. This case is unusual in coronal resorptions prior to tooth eruption. This finding has been reported in some cases of autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). In reported cases, the defects were usually small and occurred in a maximum of 2 teeth per person. In our case, pre-eruptive coronal resorptions affected three second molar teeth from b...

  20. Remember the periroot sheet in orthodontic treatment of ectodermal dysplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Vest Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root resorption has various etiologies. Recent studies have demonstrated a periroot sheet covering the root. The outermost layer of this sheet is the Malassez′ epithelial layer. Tooth malformations are seen in ectodermal dysplasia and it is believed that the ectodermal layer in the periroot sheet differs in cases of ectodermal dysplasia. Case reports: Three cases of unexpected severe root resorption are demonstrated. Two cases were diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia and the third appeared with thin, curly hair and absence of eyebrows but no ectodermal diagnosis. In the ectodermal cases, there were severe orthodontically provoked resorptions on the teeth that appeared to be permanent but were possibly primary. In the third case, there was heavy resorption on permanent teeth due to orthodontic treatment. Discussion: The orthodontist should be aware that aggressive resorption can occur in cases not diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia but with signs of ectodermal deviations, and that tooth morphology, hair, and skin are important to observe before proceeding with treatment.

  1. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover in ...... experiments revealed that osteoclasts released CTXI fragments but not CTXII from bone specimens. The same was observed for cathepsin K. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that an uncoupling between bone resorption and cartilage degradation occurs in breast and lung cancer patient....

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  3. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  4. Morphological characteristics of frontal sinus and nasal bone focusing on bone resorption and apposition in hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls.......To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls....

  5. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  6. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  7. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125  µ g/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1 β , IL-6, and TNF- α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  8. Inflammatory Pseudotumor Originating from the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inflammatory pseudotumor is an uncommon entity, and its cardiac origin is exceedingly rare. Case History. A previously healthy 27-year-old man was found to have a systolic murmur during preemployment screening evaluation. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a 4 × 2.5 cm mass originating from the right ventricle (RV outflow tract extending into the aortic root. A computed tomography guided biopsy confirmed an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient was started on oral prednisone with subsequent reduction in mass size. Conclusion. Cardiac inflammatory pseudotumors are markedly rare tumors that should be considered in the differential of intracardiac tumors which otherwise includes cardiac fibromas, myxomas, and sarcomas.

  9. Stimulation of interleukin-6 production of periodontal ligament cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, N; Shibata, Y; Kamino, Y; Matsuda, U; Hayakawa, M; Oikawa, T; Takiguchi, H; Izumi, H; Abiko, Y

    1994-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is a multifunctional cytokine, has important roles in acute and chronic inflammation and may also be implicated in bone resorption. We examined the IL-6 production in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells which were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from several oral inflammatory pathogens. The LPS from Porphyromonas endodontalis, which was isolated from infected root canals and radicular cyst fluids, was more potent than the LPS from any other periodontal organisms examined. P. endodontalis LPS stimulated IL-6 release from PDL cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed that the IL-6 mRNA level in PDL cells was increased by P. endodontalis LPS. These results suggest that stimulation of the IL-6 release of PDL cells by P. endodontalis LPS may have a role in the progression of inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal and periapical diseases.

  10. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Wu, Chuanlong; Liu, Guangwang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases

  11. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha (China); Wu, Chuanlong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Guangwang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xuzhou, Affiliated Hospital of Medical Collage of Southeast University, Xuzhou (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dai, Kerong, E-mail: krdai@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  12. Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Juarez, Maria; Naylor, Amy; Tu, Jinwen; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Filer, Andrew; Stewart, Paul M; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-10-18

    Inflammatory arthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. The Wnt antagonist dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is secreted by synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammation and this protein has been proposed to be a master regulator of bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis. Local glucocorticoid production is also significantly increased during joint inflammation. Therefore, we investigated how locally derived glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytokines regulate DKK1 synthesis in synovial fibroblasts during inflammatory arthritis. We examined expression and regulation of DKK1 in primary cultures of human synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with inflammatory arthritis. The effect of TNFα, IL-1β and glucocorticoids on DKK1 mRNA and protein expression was examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. The ability of inflammatory cytokine-induced expression of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to sensitise fibroblasts to endogenous glucocorticoids was explored. Global expression of Wnt signalling and target genes in response to TNFα and glucocorticoids was assessed using a custom array. DKK1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts was directly regulated by glucocorticoids but not proinflammatory cytokines. Glucocorticoids, but not TNFα, regulated expression of multiple Wnt agonists and antagonists in favour of inhibition of Wnt signalling. However, TNFα and IL-1β indirectly stimulated DKK1 production through increased expression of 11β-HSD1. These results demonstrate that in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts, DKK1 expression is directly regulated by glucocorticoids rather than TNFα. Consequently, the links between synovial inflammation, altered Wnt signalling and bone remodelling are not direct but are dependent on local activation of endogenous glucocorticoids.

  13. Bone Resorption Increases as Early as the Second Day in Head- Down Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Kamps, N.; Mika, C.; Boese, A.; Gerzer, R.

    Long-term bed rest and space mission studies have shown that immobilization as well as microgravity induce increased bone resorption while bone formation tends to decrease. In order to analyze the kinetics of short-term changes in bone turnover we studied in a randomized, strictly controlled crossover design the effects of 6 days 6° head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) in 8 male healthy subjects (mean body weight (BW): 70.1 +/- 1.88 kg; mean age: 25.5 +/- 1.04 years) in our metabolic ward. Two days before arriving in the metabolic ward the subjects started with a diet consisting of an energy content of 10 MJ/d, 2000 mg Calcium/d, 400 i.U. Vitamin D, 200 mEq Na+ and 50 ml water/kg BW/d. The diet was continued in the metabolic ward. The metabolic ward period (11days) was divided into 3 parts: 4 ambulatory days, 6 days either HDT or control and 1 recovery day. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze calcium excretion and bone resorption markers, namely C-telopeptide (CTX) and N-telopeptide (NTX). On the 2nd ambulatory day in the metabolic ward and on the 5th day in HDT or control blood was drawn to analyze serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and bone formation markers (bone Alkaline Phosphatase (bAP), Procollagen-I-Propeptide (P-I-CP). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions, study protocol and diet. Urinary calcium excretion was as early as the first day in immobilization increased (pcontrol. But, already on the 2nd day of immobilization both bone resorption markers significantly increased. NTX-excretion was increased by 28.7 +/- 14.0% (pcontrol. In contrast to the bone resorption markers, the formation marker P-I-CP tended to decrease as early as the fifth day of immobilization (phormone-, as well as bAP concentrations were unchanged. We conclude from these results of a pronounced rise of bone resorption markers that already 24 hours of immobilization induce a significant rise in osteoclast

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 stimulate bone resorption in vivo as measured by urinary [3H]tetracycline excretion from prelabeled mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, A.M.; Muehlbauer, R.C.F.; Fleisch, H.

    1988-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been shown to stimulate bone resorption in vitro. We have now investigated whether these cytokines also cause a similar action when administered in vivo. This was made possible by the adaptation of a newly developed technique that enables the continual assessment of bone resorption in vivo in mice by measuring urinary excretion of 3 H from [ 3 H]tetracycline-prelabeled animals. Experiments using maneuvers known to influence bone resorption, such as a change in dietary calcium or administration of parathyroid hormone or dichloromethylenebisphosphonate, indicate that the technique is reliable and sensitive in mice. Daily intravenous administration of either recombinant human or recombinant murine TNF-alpha, as well as subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IL-1 alpha, were found to stimulate bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was maximal within 2 days. Thus, exogenous TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha can stimulate bone resorption in vivo, suggesting that these cytokines may also exert a systemic effect on bone

  15. A histological and micro-CT investigation in to the effect of NGF and EGF on the periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal healing of replanted molars in a rat model - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Francesco; Ang, Estabelle S M; Lareu, Ricky R; Murray, Kevin; Goonewardene, Mithran

    2014-01-06

    This study aims to investigate, utilising micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology, whether the topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat model. Twelve four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, collagen, EGF and NGF. The maxillary right first molar was elevated and replanted with or without a collagen membrane impregnated with either the growth factors EGF or NGF, or a saline solution. Four weeks after replantation, the animals were sacrificed and the posterior maxilla was assessed using histological and micro-CT analysis. The maxillary left first molar served as the control for the corresponding right first molar. Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. It appears that the use of the collagen membrane had a negative effect while no positive effect was noted with the incorporation of EGF or NGF. Histologically, the incorporation of the collagen membrane was found to negatively affect pulpal, root, periodontal and alveolar bone healing with pulpal inflammation and hard tissue formation, extensive root resorption and alveolar bone fragmentation. The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. However, EGF was found to improve pulp vascularisation while NGF-improved pulpal architecture and cell organisation, although not to the level of the control group. Results indicate a possible benefit on pulpal vascularisation and pulpal cell organisation following the incorporation of EGF and NGF, respectively, into the alveolar socket of replanted molars in the rat model. No potential benefit of EGF and NGF was detected in periodontal or root

  16. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Between Marginal Bone Resorption and High Insertion Torque of Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyan; Liang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque value (> 50 Ncm) of dental implants and to assess the significance of immediate and early/conventional loading of implants under a certain range torque value. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to retrieve eligible articles from Ovid, PubMed, and EBSCO up to December 2013. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. The results were expressed as random/fixed-effects models using weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Initially, 154 articles were selected (11 from Ovid, 112 from PubMed, and 31 from EBSCO). After exclusion of duplicate articles and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, six clinical studies were selected. Assessment of P values revealed that correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque were not statistically significant and that there was no difference between immediately versus early/conventionally loaded implants under a certain range of torque. None of the meta-analyses revealed any statistically significant differences between high insertion torque and conventional insertion torque in terms of effects on marginal bone resorption.

  17. Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masierowska, M.L.; Stpiczynska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [ 14 C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

  18. The root barks of Morus alba and the flavonoid constituents inhibit airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hun Jai; Jin, Hong-Guang; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2013-08-26

    The root barks of Morus alba have been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory drug, especially for treating lung inflammatory disorders. To find new alternative agents against airway inflammation and to establish the scientific rationale of the herbal medicine in clinical use, the root barks of Morus alba and its flavonoid constituents were examined for the first time for their pharmacological activity against lung inflammation. For in vivo evaluation, an animal model of lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation in mice was used. An inhibitory action against the production of proinflammatory molecules in lung epithelial cells and lung macrophages was examined. Against lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation, the ethanol extract of the root barks of Morus alba clearly inhibited bronchitis-like symptoms, as determined by TNF-α production, inflammatory cells infiltration and histological observation at 200-400mg/kg/day by oral administration. In addition, Morus alba and their major flavonoid constituents including kuwanone E, kuwanone G and norartocarpanone significantly inhibited IL-6 production in lung epithelial cells (A549) and NO production in lung macrophages (MH-S). Taken together, it is concluded that Morus alba and the major prenylated flavonoid constituents have a potential for new agents to control lung inflammation including bronchitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Periodontal healing complications following concussion and subluxation injuries in the permanent dentition: a longitudinal cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Lauridsen, Eva; Ahrensburg, Søren Steno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to analyze the risk of periodontal ligament (PDL) healing complications following concussion and subluxation injuries in the permanent dentition. Material and method A total 469 permanent teeth (358 patients) with concussion and 404 permanent teeth......-related resorption (ankylosis), marginal bone loss, and tooth loss were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Concussion: In teeth with immature root development, no healing complications were observed. For teeth with mature root development, the risk of repair related resorption after 3 years was 3.2% (95...... among teeth with concussion. Subluxation: In teeth with immature root development, the risk of infection-related resorption after 3 years was 1.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–3.8%]. Infection-related resorption occurred significantly more often in teeth with concomitant crown fracture (P = 0...

  20. Experimental study on a resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Liu, C.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion technologies, especially for power generation and refrigeration technologies driven by the low temperature heat, are gathering the momentum recently. This paper presents a novel resorption system for electricity and refrigeration cogeneraion. Compared with adsorption refrigeration system, resorption refrigeration is characterized as safety and simple structure since there is no ammonia liquid in the system. The cogeneration system is mainly composed of three HTS (high temperature salt) unit beds; three LTS (low temperature salts) unit beds, one expander, three ammonia valves, two oil valves, four water valves and connection pipes. Chemical working pair of MnCl 2 –CaCl 2 –NH 3 is selected. Since scroll expander is suitable for small type power generation system, it is chosen for expansion process. 4.8 kg MnCl 2 and 3.9 kg CaCl 2 impregnated in expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid (ENG-TSA) are filled in the cogeneration system. Experimental results show that maximum cooling power 2.98 kW is able to be obtained while maximum shaft power is about 253 W with 82.3 W average value. The cogeneration system can be utilized for the heat source temperature lower than 170 °C. Total energy efficiency increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407 while exergy efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.16. - Highlights: • A resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration is established and investigated. • ENG-TSA as the additive improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The highest shaft power and refrigeration power are 253 W and 2.98 kW, respectively. • Total energy efficiency of the system increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407.

  1. Inhibition of bone resorption by Tanshinone VI isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nicolin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a more detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in osteoclastogenesis has driven research efforts in the development and screening of compound libraries of several small molecules that specifically inhibit the pathway involved in the commitment of the osteoclast precursor cells. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclast differentiation may have therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or metastasis associated with bone loss. In ongoing investigation into anti-osteoporotic compounds from natural products we have analyzed the effect of Tanshinone VI on osteoclasts differentiation, using a physiologic three-dimensional osteoblast/bone marrow model of cell co-culture. Tanshinone VI is an abietane diterpene extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae, a Chinese traditional crude drug, ‘’Tan-Shen’’. Tashinone has been widely used in clinical practice for the prevention of cardiac diseases, arthritis and other inflammation-related disorders based on its pharmacological actions in multiple tissues. Although Tanshinone VI A has been used as a medicinal agent in the treatment of many diseases, its role in osteoclast-related bone diseases remains unknown. We showed previously that Tanshinone VI greatly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses bone resorption through disruption of the actin ring; subsequently, we intended to examine the precise inhibitory mechanism of Tanshinone VI on osteoclast differentiating factor. This study shows, for the first time, that Tanshinone VI prevents osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL expression and NFkB induction.

  2. Comparison of Two Base Materials Regarding Their Effect on Root Canal Treatment Success in Primary Molars with Furcation Lesions

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    Volkan Arikan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare MTA with another base material, IRM, which is generally used on pulpal floor after root canal treatment, regarding their effect on the success of root canal treatment of primary teeth with furcation lesions. Materials and Methods. Fifty primary teeth with furcation lesions were divided into 2 groups. Following root canal treatment, the pulpal floor was coated with MTA in the experimental group and with IRM in the control group. Teeth were followed up considering clinical (pain, pathological mobility, tenderness to percussion and palpation, and any soft tissue pathology and sinus tract and radiographical (pathological root resorption, reduced size or healing of existing lesion, and absence of new lesions at the interradicular or periapical area criteria for 18 months. For the statistical analysis, Fisher’s exact test and Pearson’s chi-square tests were used and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. Although there were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of treatment success, lesions healed significantly faster in the MTA group. Conclusion. In primary teeth with furcation lesions, usage of MTA on the pulpal floor following root canal treatment can be a better alternative since it induced faster healing.

  3. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo......: Transplantation of autogenous bone particles harvested with four techniques in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation and graft resorption.......BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone...... formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  4. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Christiaan M.; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, “fast” and “slow” tooth movers during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27486402

  5. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Christiaan M; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, "fast" and "slow" tooth movers during orthodontic treatment.

  6. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  7. Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats

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    Bruno B. Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

  8. Neuron-glial communication mediated by TNF-α and glial activation in dorsal root ganglia in visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan-dan; Li, Yong; Tang, Dong; Huang, Li-ya; Yuan, Yao-zong

    2014-05-01

    Communication between neurons and glia in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the central nervous system is critical for nociception. Both glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction underlie this communication. We investigated whether satellite glial cell (SGC) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activation in DRG participates in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of visceral hyperalgesia. In TNBS-treated rats, TNF-α expression increased in DRG and was colocalized to SGCs enveloping a given neuron. These SGCs were activated as visualized under electron microscopy: they had more elongated processes projecting into the connective tissue space and more gap junctions. When nerves attached to DRG (L6-S1) were stimulated with a series of electrical stimulations, TNF-α were released from DRG in TNBS-treated animals compared with controls. Using a current clamp, we noted that exogenous TNF-α (2.5 ng/ml) increased DRG neuron activity, and visceral pain behavioral responses were reversed by intrathecal administration of anti-TNF-α (10 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Based on our findings, TNF-α and SGC activation in neuron-glial communication are critical in inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia.

  9. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.